Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Baojie He
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
Dr. Ayyoob Sharifi
Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Higashihiroshimashi, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530, Japan
Prof. Dr. Chi Feng
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
Prof. Dr. Jun Yang
Jangho Architecture College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China

Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a call for papers for the Topic ‘Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability’, which has been devised in order to empower decision-makers and energy stakeholders to join forces and proactively address the challenges of climate change. The current global warming measure of 1.0–1.1 °C above pre-industrial level has caused various natural disasters that are significantly challenging to human living environments. In the coming decades, climate change will hit the threshold of 1.5 °C with much severer environmental, economic and social consequences. This Topic aims to set up a holistic framework to address the major challenges of climate change, whilst achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.

In this framework, climate change mitigation—decarbonization of society—is the root to address the climate change challenge. Notwithstanding, adaptation is an immediate and win–win action to increase resilience and reduce climate-related impacts and risks. The framework prioritizes sustainable urban–rural transformation and built environment decarbonization since cities and the built environment are the main settlements of human beings and the key implementer of climate resiliency, mitigation and adaptation. Moreover, this framework encourages the involvement and participation of all professions of society to accelerate climate change mitigation and adaptation progress, by developing sound climate-related governance systems in guidance, education, policy and advocacy.

The Topic ‘Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability’ welcomes high-quality works that focus on the development and implementation of systems, ideas, pathways, solutions, strategies, technologies, pilot cases and exemplars that are relevant to climate change impact measurement and assessment, mitigation and adaptation strategies and techniques, public participation and governance. Relevant themes include but are not limited to the following:

Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

  • Greenhouse gas emission and measurement;
  • Climate-related disasters and reduction;
  • Risk and vulnerability assessment and visualization;
  • Impacts of climate change on health and well-being;
  • Ecosystem services and carbon sequestration;
  • Sustainable transport and climate change mitigation and adaptation;
  • Sustainable building and construction;
  • Industry decarbonization and economic growth;
  • Renewable and clean energy potential and implementation;
  • Environmental, economic and social benefits of climate change mitigation.

Sustainable Urban–Rural Planning and Design

  • Climate change and regional economic development;
  • Territorial spatial planning and carbon neutrality;
  • Urban overheating mitigation and adaptation;
  • Water sensitive urban design;
  • Smart development for urban habitats;
  • Sustainable land use and planning;
  • Low-carbon cities and communities;
  • Wind sensitive urban planning and design;
  • Nature-based solutions;
  • Urban morphology and environmental performance;
  • Innovative technologies, models, methods and tools for spatial planning.

Decarbonization of Built Environment

  • Climate-related impacts on the built environment;
  • Health and well-being of occupants;
  • Demands on energy, materials and water;
  • Assessment methods, systems, and tools;
  • Sustainable energy, materials, and water systems;
  • Energy-efficient design technologies and appliances;
  • Smart technology and sustainable operation;
  • Uptake and integration of clean energy;
  • Innovative materials for carbon reduction and environmental regulation;
  • Building demolition and material recycling and reusing;
  • Sustainable building retrofitting and assessment.

Climate-Related Governance and Challenges

  • Targets, pathways and roadmaps towards carbon neutrality;
  • Pathways for climate resilience and future sustainability;
  • Challenges, opportunities and solutions for climate resilience;
  • Climate change governance coalitions (networks) development and challenges;
  • Co-benefits and synergies between adaptation and mitigation measures;
  • Conflicts and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation measures;
  • Mapping, accounting and trading carbon emissions;
  • Governance models, policies, regulations and programs;
  • Financing urban climate change mitigation;
  • Education, policy and advocacy of climate change mitigation and adaptation;
  • COVID-19 and alike crisis impacts and lessons.

Prof. Dr. Baojie He
Prof. Dr. Ayyoob Sharifi
Prof. Dr. Chi Feng
Prof. Dr. Jun Yang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • climate change
  • sustainable development goals
  • urban transformation
  • decarbonization
  • built environment
  • governance

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Atmosphere
atmosphere
3.110 3.7 2010 15.8 Days 2000 CHF
Buildings
buildings
3.324 3.8 2011 16.2 Days 1800 CHF
Land
land
3.905 3.2 2012 13.6 Days 2000 CHF
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.349 7.4 2009 19.9 Days 2500 CHF
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF

Preprints is a platform dedicated to making early versions of research outputs permanently available and citable. MDPI journals allow posting on preprint servers such as Preprints.org prior to publication. For more details about reprints, please visit https://www.preprints.org.

Published Papers (359 papers)

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Article
Research on Behavioral Decision-Making of Subjects on Cultivated Land Conservation under the Goal of Carbon Neutrality
Land 2022, 11(10), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101664 - 27 Sep 2022
Abstract
Protecting cultivated land is an urgent mitigation measure for China to reconcile the contradiction between food safety and carbon neutrality. In the context of carbon neutrality, this paper constructs an evolutionary game model among local governments, agricultural technology service organizations (ATSOs), and farmers [...] Read more.
Protecting cultivated land is an urgent mitigation measure for China to reconcile the contradiction between food safety and carbon neutrality. In the context of carbon neutrality, this paper constructs an evolutionary game model among local governments, agricultural technology service organizations (ATSOs), and farmers based on China’s cultivated black land, and discusses the factors influencing the strategy choice of each stakeholder group and the final form of evolutionary stabilization strategies adopted by each stakeholder from the perspective of agricultural extension. Through numerical simulations, we reveal that two stable situations exist in the current state of protection of cultivated black land in China: full subject participation and government subject participation only. In order to achieve the optimal realization of the dynamic equilibrium of the three parties, we identify the key issues of cultivated land protection (CLP) and put forward reasonable suggestions, which are summarized as follows: (1) prohibit the excessive subsidies to farmers, and keep the appropriate subsidies at 100~140 CNY/mu to help the protection of cultivated land, if more than 140 CNY/mu is not conducive to the participation of local governments in CLP (mu, a Chinese unit of land measurement that equals to 1/15 a hectare); (2) an increase in the farmers’ fines has a dampening effect on farmers digging black soil, and the game model achieves the ideal equilibrium when it reaches 10 billion CNY, which can be implemented as a long-term cultivated land protection policy; (3) maintaining the incentive fund at 5 billion CNY provides the greatest incentive for ATSOs to promote low-carbon agricultural technologies (LCAT), while the production trusteeship subsidies has no beneficial impact on ATSOs; (4) reducing production trusteeship costs and not increasing service charges is the most effective way of incentivizing ATSOs to promote LCAT. This means the service fee is maintained at 400 CNY/mu and the service cost is reduced to 308 CNY/mu. This study reveals the inner mechanism of CLP, provides a theoretical basis for the promotion of CLP technology, and proposes effective cultivated land protection suggestions, aiming to improve the overall implementation effect of CLP in China and help carbon neutrality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Investigating the Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) as a Climate-Smart Drought-Tolerant Crop under Jordanian Arid Environments
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912249 - 27 Sep 2022
Abstract
To investigate drought tolerance under arid conditions, eleven pearl millet breeds (HHVBC tall B6; IP13150; IP19586; IP19612; IP22269; IP6110; IP7704; MC94C2; P. millet icms7709; Sudan-pop I; Sudan-pop III) were tested under arid water-scarce climatic conditions. A field randomized complete block design experiment with [...] Read more.
To investigate drought tolerance under arid conditions, eleven pearl millet breeds (HHVBC tall B6; IP13150; IP19586; IP19612; IP22269; IP6110; IP7704; MC94C2; P. millet icms7709; Sudan-pop I; Sudan-pop III) were tested under arid water-scarce climatic conditions. A field randomized complete block design experiment with three replicates per year was conducted at the Deir-Alla Regional Agriculture Research center in the middle Ghor within the Jordan Valley from 2010 to 2020. The plant-deficit irrigation was maintained at 80% based on the crop water requirements using a time-domain reflectometer. The plant morphological characteristics, forage production, seed formation, and water-use efficiency (WUE) were monitored for ten years for two case scenarios: seed and forage production. The individual and combined drought indices of the precipitation, temperature, and vegetation were calculated and correlated with the millet morphological and yield parameters. Climate change analyses show significant impacts, reaching a 1 mm/year reduction in precipitation and a 0.04 mm/year increase in air temperature, which causes the study area to be more prone to drought events. Along with the proven increase in the drought intensity over time, the millet breeds showed significant drought-tolerance capacities under arid, drought-prone conditions by adjusting their system to tolerate salt, heat, and water stresses. For the seed production scenario, the WUE ranged from 27 to 57.3 kg/ha·mm, and from 7.1 to 14.9 kg/ha·mm for fresh and dry conditions, respectively. The IP13150 millet breed showed the highest capacity to tolerate the drought of Jordan’s environment, and it is thus recommended as a good substitute under water-scarcity situations, with an average production of 17.7 ton/ha. For the vegetative production scenario, the WUE ranged from 32.03 to 64.82 kg/ha·mm for the fresh biomass and from 10.8 to 24.6 kg/ha·mm for the dry biomass. Based on the WUEs and vegetative production results, the IP19586, IP22269, IP19612, IP7704, and HHVBC tall B6 millet breeds are recommended as forage support due to their phenological characteristics, which tolerate drought and heat conditions. In contrast to the vegetation drought index, both the precipitation and temperature drought indices show strong correlations (above r > 0.6) with the plant growth factors and a moderate correlation (0.3 < r < 0.6) with the yield factors. Both precipitation and temperature indices are capable of explaining the variations among millet breeds, especially as related to millets’ morpho-physiological characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Meteorological Elements in the Vertical Direction at Airports and Hourly Airport Visibility Prediction by Artificial Intelligence Methods
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912213 - 26 Sep 2022
Abstract
Based on second-level L-band sounding data, the vertical distribution and variation of meteorological elements at airports in 2010–2020 are investigated. At the same time, the relationships between airport visibility and meteorological elements at different potential heights are also investigated. Then, based on hourly [...] Read more.
Based on second-level L-band sounding data, the vertical distribution and variation of meteorological elements at airports in 2010–2020 are investigated. At the same time, the relationships between airport visibility and meteorological elements at different potential heights are also investigated. Then, based on hourly measurements of 26 meteorological elements in 2018–2020, the hourly visibility of airports is predicted by 9 artificial intelligence algorithm models. The analyses show: (1) For the vertical changes in four meteorological elements of the airports, the negative vertical trends of temperature and relative humidity increase clearly from northwestern to southeastern China. The significant negative trend of air pressure in the vertical direction in the eastern China is greater. (2) Within about 2000 geopotential metres (gpm) from the ground, the visibility has a strong correlation with the air pressure, and most of them are negative. Within 400 gpm from the ground, airport visibility is negatively correlated with the relative humidity. At 8:00 a.m., airport visibility is positively correlated with the wind speed within 2000 gpm from the ground at most airports, while at 20:00 p.m., the positive correlation mainly appears within 400 gpm from the ground. (3) The passive aggressive regression-(PAR) and isotonic regression-(IST) based models have the worst effect on airport visibility prediction. The dispersion degree of the visibility simulation results obtained by Huber regression-(HBR) and random sample consensus regression-(RANSAC) based models is relatively consistent with the observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Guizhou Karst Carbon Sink and Sustainability—An Overview
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11518; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811518 - 14 Sep 2022
Abstract
Global warming and climate change are becoming the most popular topics among scientists. In this century, the research focusing on the process and mechanism of the carbon cycle, especially the research of reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 (carbon sink and carbon [...] Read more.
Global warming and climate change are becoming the most popular topics among scientists. In this century, the research focusing on the process and mechanism of the carbon cycle, especially the research of reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 (carbon sink and carbon sequestration technology), are the core issues of global change. The karst carbon sink was neglected due to the consideration that it was a geological process with a long timescale. Recently, studies have proven that carbonate rock weathering is a rapid and sensitive process, and the Fifth Climate Change Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change confirmed this. Guizhou, as the center of karst in China, has the unique advantages of the karst carbon sink, and is the core area of the karst carbon sink. On the basis of summarizing the development and evolution trend of karst carbon sinks, through data collection and field research, the Carbon Neutralization Research Group of Guizhou Institute of Technology has conducted an exploratory investigation on karst carbon sinks in Guizhou Province, and basically identified the mechanism, influencing factors and measurement methods of karst carbon sinks in Guizhou karst areas. The results show that the potential of the karst carbon sink in Guizhou is huge. Vegetation restoration, soil improvement, irrigation with external water and the cultivation of aquatic plants are important ways to increase the karst carbon sink by artificial intervention. A series of achievements have been made in the theory, technology and platform construction of the karst carbon cycle geological survey and carbon sink effect evaluation. It is worth noting that there are still great challenges in karst carbon sink measurement and verification, and in the demonstration of artificial intervention in carbon sequestration and sink enhancement, which need to be continuously tackled and improved in the “14th Five-Year Plan” period and beyond, so as to meet the needs of the carbon neutralization target of geological carbon sink services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Long-Term Integrated Crop–Livestock System with Two Levels of P and K Fertilization
Land 2022, 11(9), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091535 - 11 Sep 2022
Abstract
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from nitrogen (N) fertilization have been documented. However, no data on the effects of other nutrients, such as phosphate (P) and potassium (K), on N2O emissions in integrated crop–livestock systems are available so far. [...] Read more.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from nitrogen (N) fertilization have been documented. However, no data on the effects of other nutrients, such as phosphate (P) and potassium (K), on N2O emissions in integrated crop–livestock systems are available so far. In the 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 growing seasons, we measured N2O emissions from a long-term system, established in 1991 in the Cerrado biome (a tropical savanna ecoregion in Brazil), fertilized with two P and K levels. The studied no-tillage farming systems consisted of continuous crops fertilized with half of the recommended P and K rates (CC-F1), continuous crops at the recommended P and K rates (CC-F2), an integrated crop–livestock system with half of the recommended P and K rates (ICL-F1), and an integrated crop–livestock at the recommended P and K rates (ICL-F2). The cumulative N2O emissions (603 days) and soil chemical properties were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (long-term agricultural systems x fertilization). The cumulative N2O emissions from CC-F2 and ICL-F1 were 2.74 and 1.12 kg N ha−1, respectively. The yield-scaled N2O emissions from soybean were 55.5% lower from ICL-F1 than from CC-F2 in the 2015/2016 growing season. For off-season sorghum, the mean yield-scaled N2O emissions were 216 mg N2O m−2 kg−1 (in a range from 79.83 to 363.52 mg N2O m−2 kg−1, for ICL-F2 and CC-F1, respectively). The absence of pasture and the presence of soybean and sorghum promoted the highest cumulative N2O emissions, favored by the recommended rate in relation to half of the P and K. In the total evaluation period (603 days), the presence of grazed land in the years prior to this study and land fertilized with half the recommended P and K rates in an integrated crop–livestock system reduced the resulting cumulative N2O emissions by 59%. Thus, we conclude that crop–livestock systems can be beneficial in reducing P and K applications and also in mitigating N2O emissions in comparison with continuous cropping systems fertilized with the full recommended P and K rates. In view of the global fertilizer crisis, this aspect is extremely relevant for agriculture in Brazil and around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Modeling Turkish Households’ Climate Change-Related Behaviors: Theory of Planned Behavior Approach
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11290; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811290 - 08 Sep 2022
Abstract
Global environmental problems are both the cause and outcome of human actions. Even though families contribute significantly to the problem, little is known about the reasons for household climate change behavior. Prior research has shown that household intentions and behavior play an essential [...] Read more.
Global environmental problems are both the cause and outcome of human actions. Even though families contribute significantly to the problem, little is known about the reasons for household climate change behavior. Prior research has shown that household intentions and behavior play an essential role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The goal of this exploratory study was to see how climate change-related factors influenced climate change-related intentions and behaviors. In terms of climate change, Turkey is a vulnerable country in Mediterranean Europe. As a result, the goal of this study is to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to simulate Turkish households’ climate change-related behavior. Using a random sampling method, an online self-reported questionnaire of 400 Turkish households assessed the impact of practices to adapt and mitigate climate change. Within the context of the Theory of Planned Behavior, Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine household attitudes and behaviors about climate change. The findings imply that household intentions are important predictors of climate change-related behavior in Turkey. In addition, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control influence the goals of Turkish households. As a result, efforts should be undertaken to provide households with the subjective and perceptual abilities and tools they need to manage their climate-related activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Oil Palm Economic Benefit Distribution to Regions for Environmental Sustainability: Indonesia’s Revenue-Sharing Scheme
Land 2022, 11(9), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091452 - 01 Sep 2022
Abstract
Palm oil is considered a key commodity in supporting the Indonesian economy, generating both domestic revenue and foreign exchange. Such revenue needs to be distributed equally for the benefit of the government and society. This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of the [...] Read more.
Palm oil is considered a key commodity in supporting the Indonesian economy, generating both domestic revenue and foreign exchange. Such revenue needs to be distributed equally for the benefit of the government and society. This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of the proposed revenue-sharing scheme, DBH Sawit, sourcing from palm oil, particularly between central and local governments. It examines how the proposed scheme can be implemented and what strategies can reward regions for moving toward environmental sustainability practices. Research methods used in this paper include a literature study, stakeholder interviews, the SWOT method and analytical hierarchy processes. Results indicate that DBH Sawit is one of several fiscal instruments that could potentially incentivize sustainability. It has both strengths and anticipated opportunities, such as increased CPO production and global demand for palm oil. It faces, however, serious weaknesses, such as unauthorized oil palm plantations and the absence of traceability systems. It is also threatened by unfair market and global policies. This paper recommends diverse strategies to increase palm oil productivity, accelerate sustainability certification and develop a tracing system. To accelerate the adoption of environmental sustainability, the paper advocates an ecological-based fiscal transfer system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Development and Application of Models for Landslide Hazards in Northern Pakistan
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610194 - 17 Aug 2022
Abstract
In this paper, new models were investigated and developed for landslide hazards in Muzaffarabad District, located in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir region of Pakistan. The influential factors used in the landslide modelling were land use/landcover (LULC), elevation, slope, slope aspect, rainfall, drainage, [...] Read more.
In this paper, new models were investigated and developed for landslide hazards in Muzaffarabad District, located in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir region of Pakistan. The influential factors used in the landslide modelling were land use/landcover (LULC), elevation, slope, slope aspect, rainfall, drainage, road, surface roughness, and topographic index. The GIS-based Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was applied by utilizing the database of 35 active landslides and their pixels present in classes of all influential factors. The mean landslide hazard values, obtained from the mean landslide hazard analysis, were used as hazard weightages in the AHP model for development of a landslide hazard zone map. The highest mean hazard values for: (i) bare soil in LULC was 14.6%; (ii) 600–800 m in elevation was 6.89%; (iii) 30°–35° in slope was 6%; (iv) S and SW in slope aspect was 9.01%; (v) 1350–1405 mm/yr in rainfall was 9.03%; (vi) 40–80 m in buffered drainage was 12.83%; (vii) 40–80 m in buffered road was 12.48%; (viii) 60–138 in surface roughness index was 10.99%; (ix) −1.74–−1.25 in topographic position index was 13.07%. The percentages of very low, low, moderate, high, and very high landslide hazard zones were 1.48%, 11.80%, 39.36%, 37.36%, and 9.57% respectively. The co-efficient of the determination (r2) value of 0.96 indicated a strong relationship between the model development and validation. Thus, landslide hazard zone map models and methodology indicated a very high accuracy. This landslide hazard zone map could be utilized for the landslide damages’ reduction and the planning and development of road and building infrastructures in the study area. Additionally, this research could be replicated in other landslide prone areas of Pakistan for the minimizing the damages of landslides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Pattern Identification and Driving Mechanism of Urban Shrinkage in the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2020
Land 2022, 11(8), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081325 - 16 Aug 2022
Abstract
The regional differences in the Yellow River Basin have increased, and the aggravation of this unbalanced state has seriously restricted the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin during the accelerated urbanisation that has taken place in recent years. In this regard, heterogeneity [...] Read more.
The regional differences in the Yellow River Basin have increased, and the aggravation of this unbalanced state has seriously restricted the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin during the accelerated urbanisation that has taken place in recent years. In this regard, heterogeneity in the trends of evolution and the causes of population shrinkage in different regions of the Yellow River Basin can be adopted as targeted countermeasures. The present study uses data from the fifth, sixth, and seventh national censuses and takes the administrative units of different levels in the Yellow River Basin as the object, considering 72 prefecture-level cities within the autonomous prefectures and 595 county-level administrative units in nine provinces (autonomous regions). The population shrinkage coefficient, night light index, bivariate spatial autocorrelation, geographic detectors, and other methods were used, with the final objective of exploring the spatial–temporal distribution pattern and impact mechanism of urban shrinkage from 2000 to 2020. The results of the study show the following: (1) The shrinkage patterns in 2000–2010 (T1) and 2010–2020 (T2) were quite different. From T1 to T2, the shrinkage situation worsened, with the number of districts experiencing population shrinkage increasing from 175 to 373 and the number of districts experiencing continuous night light and shrinkage districts increasing from 146 to 163. (2) The phenomenon of urban shrinkage is spatially scale dependent, with the shrinkage of prefecture-level cities and county-level cities being characterised by both spatial differentiation and spatial nesting relationships. (3) There is a certain inconsistency in the representation of the shrinkage patterns of the nighttime lighting and population data. The nighttime lighting dimension can reflect the structural shrinkage characteristics of the city more accurately and sensitively, and the representation of population loss is lagging. (4) The main impact factors and the intensity of urban shrinkage are the aggravated aging level, the declining level of industrial greening and intensification under market-driven economic structure adjustments, and the decreased natural growth rate in the population structure and public service facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
The Asymmetric and Long-Run Effect of Financial Stability on Environmental Degradation in Norway
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10131; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610131 - 16 Aug 2022
Abstract
Risks associated with climate change can have an injurious impact on the economy as well as the financial system as a whole. There is a possibility that certain risks, such as losses to financial intermediaries and disruptions in the functioning of financial markets, [...] Read more.
Risks associated with climate change can have an injurious impact on the economy as well as the financial system as a whole. There is a possibility that certain risks, such as losses to financial intermediaries and disruptions in the functioning of financial markets, can aggravate vulnerabilities in the financial system under certain conditions, including sudden increases in the prices of large asset classes. Using the dataset for Norway between 1995 and 2018, this study investigates how financial stability affects environmental degradation in Norway while controlling openness in trade, ecological clean energy, and economic growth. Findings from the results demonstrate that (i) financial stability causes a reduction in environmental degradation; (ii) growth causes carbon emissions to climb significantly; and (iii) renewable energy has been favorable for emissions in Norway. Lastly, surprisingly, trade openness causes a decline in carbon emissions. The study recommends that since financial stability in Norway reduces environmental degradation by incorporating climate-related risks into the financial stability monitoring framework, it can contribute to lowering carbon emissions to a greater extent. Norway’s policymakers should conduct detailed analyses of the role of global emissions in long-term petroleum policy and the economic viability of selected climate policy scenarios before implementing such a policy. Moreover, policymakers should be updated on the financial system’s vulnerabilities, considering climate-related shocks are likely to affect all financial systems. In addition, policymakers should encourage the use of sustainable energy to raise the availability of reliable, affordable, and sustainable energy to everyone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
A Factor Analysis Backpropagation Neural Network Model for Vegetation Net Primary Productivity Time Series Estimation in Western Sichuan
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 3961; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14163961 - 15 Aug 2022
Abstract
Vegetation net primary productivity (VNPP) is the main factor in ecosystem carbon sink function and regulation of environmental processes. However, NPP data products have data missing in some areas, which affects the availability and overall accuracy level of data. Therefore, we adopted the [...] Read more.
Vegetation net primary productivity (VNPP) is the main factor in ecosystem carbon sink function and regulation of environmental processes. However, NPP data products have data missing in some areas, which affects the availability and overall accuracy level of data. Therefore, we adopted the Factor Analysis Backpropagation neural network model (FA-BP model) to acquire a high-accuracy and high-reliability NPP result without missing or empty areas by using a series of easily accessible datasets, such as meteorological data and remote sensing data. We selected the western Sichuan region as the study area and carried out a VNPP time series estimation from 2000 to 2016. Comparative simulations also verify the accuracy of the time series estimation results: The Pearson correlation r of VNPP prediction results ranged from 0.807 to 0.917, the mean absolute error ranged from 29.1 to 38.9, the root mean square error was between 37.3 and 51.8, and the mean relative error varies from 0.10 to 0.14. Further analysis shows that the spatial pattern of estimated VNPP during the past 17 years in western Sichuan shows a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. Besides, the VNPP time series is generally on an upward trend in this period. The increasing and decreasing areas of VNPP values in the study area accounted for 81.42% and 18.58%, respectively. Moreover, we find that temperature dominates the change of VNPP in the whole western Sichuan region. The data processing method and experimental results presented in this paper can provide a reference for accurately acquiring VNPP and related studies on natural resources and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Ecological Responses to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Regions of Xinjiang in China
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 3911; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14163911 - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Understanding the impacts and extent of both climate change and human activities on ecosystems is crucial to sustainable development. With low anti-interference ability, arid and semi-arid ecosystems are particularly sensitive to disturbances from both climate change and human activities. We investigated how and [...] Read more.
Understanding the impacts and extent of both climate change and human activities on ecosystems is crucial to sustainable development. With low anti-interference ability, arid and semi-arid ecosystems are particularly sensitive to disturbances from both climate change and human activities. We investigated how and to what extent climate variation and human activities influenced major indicators that are related to ecosystem functions and conditions in the past decades in Xinjiang, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. We analyzed the changing trends of evapotranspiration (ET), gross primary productivity (GPP) and leaf area index (LAI) derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite product and the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS) model in Xinjiang for different climate zones. We separated and quantified the contributions of climate forcing and human activities on the trends of the studied ecosystem indicators using the residual analysis method for different climate zones in Xinjiang. The results show that GPP and LAI increased and ET decreased from 2001 to 2015 in Xinjiang. Factors that dominate the changes in ecosystem indicators vary considerably across different climate zones. Precipitation plays a positive role in impacting vegetation indicators in arid and hyper-arid zones and temperature has a negative correlation with both GPP and LAI in hyper-arid zones in Xinjiang. Results based on residual analysis indicate that human activities could account for over 72% of variation in the changes in each ecosystem indicator. Human activities have large impacts on each vegetation indicator change in hyper-arid and arid zones and their relative contribution has a mean value of 79%. This study quantifies the roles of climate forcing and human activities in the changes in ecosystem indicators across different climate zones, suggesting that human activities largely influence ecosystem processes in the arid and semi-arid regions of Xinjiang in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Comparison of Snow Indices in Assessing Snow Cover Depth in Northern Kazakhstan
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9643; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159643 - 05 Aug 2022
Abstract
This study compares the performances of four existing snow indices (Normalized-Difference Snow Index, Normalized-Difference Snow and Ice Index, Difference Snow Index, and Ratio Snow Index) in estimating snow cover depth at three agricultural enterprises in different soil zones, namely, the “North Kazakhstan Agricultural [...] Read more.
This study compares the performances of four existing snow indices (Normalized-Difference Snow Index, Normalized-Difference Snow and Ice Index, Difference Snow Index, and Ratio Snow Index) in estimating snow cover depth at three agricultural enterprises in different soil zones, namely, the “North Kazakhstan Agricultural Experimental Station”, A.I. Barayev “Research and Production Center for Grain Farming”, and “Naidorovskoe”. From 30 January to 9 February 2022, the snow cover thickness and density were measured at 410 and 285 points, respectively, throughout the agricultural enterprise territories. It was found that: (1) snow-covered territories were effectively classified using all spectral indices except both combinations of RSI; (2) the snow cover fraction maps generated from DSI most accurately classified the non-snow areas as forest plantations, settlements, and strongly blown uplands; (3) the maps generated from DSI-2 presented a clear pattern of objects in all three study areas; (4) the liquid water in snowpacks is available in excess for possible reservation and rational use in agriculture during the dry season. At the “North Kazakhstan AES”, A.I. Barayev “Research and Production Center for Grain Farming”, and “Naidorovskoe”, the RMSE varied from 5.62 (DSI-2) to 6.85 (NDSII-2), from 3.46 (DSI-2) to 4.86 (RSI-1), and from 2.86 (DSI-2) to 3.53 (NDSII-1), respectively. The DSI-2-based snow depths best matched the ground truth, with correlations of 0.78, 0.69, and 0.80, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Future Risk of Tourism Pressures under Climate Change: A Case Study in the Three-River-Source National Park
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3758; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153758 - 05 Aug 2022
Abstract
Tourism is considered one of the main sources of pressure on the global ecosystem, which is being increasingly affected by climate change. Few studies have evaluated the spatial patterns of tourism pressure that ecosystems will suffer under the changing climate in the future. [...] Read more.
Tourism is considered one of the main sources of pressure on the global ecosystem, which is being increasingly affected by climate change. Few studies have evaluated the spatial patterns of tourism pressure that ecosystems will suffer under the changing climate in the future. Considering the Three-River-Source National Park, China, as the study area, we applied statistical and remote sensing techniques to examine the spatial pattern of the risk of tourism pressure in 2070 and 2100 under two climate scenarios: the representative concentration pathway of radiative forcing levels of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5. The results indicate that regions at high risk of tourism pressure in the study area will expand in the future. Areas with a high risk of tourism pressure in 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario accounted for 6.75% of the entire study area, with the largest area under impact being in the Lancang-River-Source Park, accounting for 20.61% of the sub-park. The distribution density of areas with a high risk of tourism pressure in 2100 is also the highest under RCP8.5 (5.3 points/km2), and the average density of Lancang-River-Source Park will be the highest (16.58 points/km2) among the three sub-parks, suggesting that larger areas of the Three-River-Source National Park will face an increased risk of tourism pressure in the context of future climate change, with the greatest change poised to be in the Lancang-River-Source Park. Tourism pressure management strategies must be implemented in these areas with an increased risk of tourism pressure. This study provides useful insights for managing tourism pressures and improving adaptability under climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Effect of Rising Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on the Growth, Photophysiology, and Elemental Ratios of Marine Synechococcus: A Multistressor Approach
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9508; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159508 - 03 Aug 2022
Abstract
Marine picocyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are one of the most abundant photosynthetic organisms on Earth. They are often exposed to large fluctuations in temperature and CO2 concentrations in the ocean, which are expected to further change in the coming decades [...] Read more.
Marine picocyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are one of the most abundant photosynthetic organisms on Earth. They are often exposed to large fluctuations in temperature and CO2 concentrations in the ocean, which are expected to further change in the coming decades due to ocean acidification and warming resulting from rising atmospheric CO2 levels. To decipher the effect of changing temperature and CO2 levels on Synechococcus, six Synechococcus strains previously isolated from various coastal and open ocean sites were exposed to a matrix of three different temperatures (22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) and CO2 levels (400 ppm, 600 ppm and 800 ppm). Thereafter, the specific growth rates, photophysiological parameters (σPSII and Fv/Fm), C/N (mol/mol) ratios and the nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N (‰)) of the strains were measured. Temperature was found to be a stronger driver of the changes in specific growth rates and photophysiology in the Synechococcus strains. Carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCM) operational in these strains that shield the photosynthetic machinery from directly sensing ambient changes in CO2 possibly played a major role in causing minimal changes in the specific growth rates under the varying CO2 levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Characteristics of Soil Temperature, Humidity, and Salinity on Bird Island within Qinghai Lake Basin, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9449; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159449 - 02 Aug 2022
Abstract
The temperature, moisture, and salt content of soil in alpine regions are sensitive to changes in climatic factors and are important indicators of ecosystem functions. In this study, we collected soil moisture, temperature and electrical conductivity data at different depths at a sampling [...] Read more.
The temperature, moisture, and salt content of soil in alpine regions are sensitive to changes in climatic factors and are important indicators of ecosystem functions. In this study, we collected soil moisture, temperature and electrical conductivity data at different depths at a sampling site on Bird Island in Qinghai Lake during winter using a continuous soil temperature, moisture and salt content monitoring system and analyzed their variations and influential factors. The variation in soil moisture showed an obvious ‘V-shaped’ pattern from 00:00 to 23:00 and an upward trend with soil layer depth. From 00:00 to 23:00, the overall soil temperature data fitted a ‘unimodal’ curve and showed a clear and continuous upward trend with soil layer depth at a rate of 0.684 (p < 0.001). Soil electrical conductivity data also exhibited a distinct ‘V-shaped’ pattern from 00:00 to 23:00 and a continuous increase with increasing soil depth. The correlation between soil temperature, moisture, and conductivity and the spatial distribution of five climate factors indicated that climate factors accounted for 53.6% of the changes in soil temperature, moisture, and salinity. Climate factors showed a significant positive correlation with soil temperature, moisture, and conductivity (p < 0.001), and air temperature was the most important factor influencing soil temperature and soil moisture changes, whereas wind direction was the most important factor influencing soil conductivity. (Wind direction and wind speed affect soil evapotranspiration, and then affect soil moisture and solute transport process). The results of this preliminary study reveal the characteristics associated with soil temperature, moisture, and salinity changes in winter within the wetlands of Bird Island on Qinghai Lake in the context of climate change, and they can be used as valuable reference data in further studies investigating associated changes in ecosystem functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Fiscal Ecological Cost of Land in China: Estimation and Regional Differences
Land 2022, 11(8), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081221 - 02 Aug 2022
Abstract
This study explains the fiscal ecological costs of land in China by dividing them into three periods: early ecological cost refers to loss of ecosystem service value after the conversion of agricultural land, mid-term ecological cost refers to land development in urban built-up [...] Read more.
This study explains the fiscal ecological costs of land in China by dividing them into three periods: early ecological cost refers to loss of ecosystem service value after the conversion of agricultural land, mid-term ecological cost refers to land development in urban built-up areas, and later ecological cost refers to the investment cost of increasing the fiscal ecological service function of the land. Using data for 31 Chinese provinces from 2003 to 2017, we perform a “link between groups” cluster analysis with SPSS 22.0 statistical software. Squared Euclidean distance is used to analyze land in these provinces. Ecological cost in the early, middle, and late stages is clustered, and the provinces are divided into five areas according to the ecological cost of each stage in absolute terms and as a proportion of land fiscal revenue. The research shows that: (1) the fiscal ecological cost of land in China presents a spatial pattern of “higher in the east than in the west, higher in the south than in the north,” and (2) the cost is highest in the early stage, second highest in the late stage, and lowest in the middle stage. The findings yield differentiated policy recommendations for reducing the fiscal ecological cost of land in different areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Has Urban Construction Land Achieved Low-Carbon Sustainable Development? A Case Study of North China Plain, China
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9434; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159434 - 01 Aug 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The rapid expansion of urban construction land (UCL) provides a guarantee to support rapid economic development and meet the social needs of urban residents. However, urban construction land is also an important source of carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, it is of great research [...] Read more.
The rapid expansion of urban construction land (UCL) provides a guarantee to support rapid economic development and meet the social needs of urban residents. However, urban construction land is also an important source of carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, it is of great research value to investigate the relationship between UCL and carbon emissions in depth. Based on this, using panel data of 57 cities in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2018, the study found that there is a strong positive correlation between UCL and CO2 emissions. It can be seen that the expansion of UCL is an important source of CO2 emissions. On the basis of this research conclusion, first, this paper uses the Tapio decoupling model to analyze the decoupling relationship between UCL and carbon emissions in the North China Plain. Then, the spatial autocorrelation analysis was applied to explore the spatial correlation characteristics of the carbon emission intensity of UCL in cities in the North China Plain. Finally, using the GTWR model to analyze the influencing factors of the carbon emission intensity of UCL, the following conclusions were drawn. In 2007–2015, the decoupling relationship performed well, but it deteriorated significantly from 2015 to 2018; in addition, there was a significant positive spatial correlation of carbon emission intensity of UCL. Various influencing factors have a significant impact on the carbon emission intensity of UCL, for example, the urbanization rate, industrial structure, economic development level, and population density have a positive impact, and environmental regulations, foreign investment intensity, land use efficiency and greenery coverage have a negative impact. The research results of this paper provide a scientific basis for making decisions and optimizing pathways to achieve carbon emission reduction from UCL in the North China Plain, as well as certain reference values for other regions to achieve low-carbon development of UCL. This is significant for exploring the optimal solution of land and carbon emissions and building a harmonious human–land relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Climate Change and Human Response to Sustainable Environmental Governance Policy: Tax or Emissions Trading?
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9412; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159412 - 01 Aug 2022
Abstract
With climate change, humans are looking for effective ways to improve the ecological environment and provide comfortable survival space for sustainable development. There are two main economic methods for controlling environmental pollution: emissions fees (Pigouvian taxes) and emissions standards (emissions trading). However, the [...] Read more.
With climate change, humans are looking for effective ways to improve the ecological environment and provide comfortable survival space for sustainable development. There are two main economic methods for controlling environmental pollution: emissions fees (Pigouvian taxes) and emissions standards (emissions trading). However, the two policies have their applicable conditions in dealing with different sources of pollution and dynamic ecosystems, and many problems will arise if they are misused. This paper theoretically proves that significant (minor) pollution sources could satisfy the condition that the benefit function’s curvature is greater (less) than that of the cost function. When the speed of ecological absorption is constant, a price policy controlling significant pollution sources will generate uncertainty; the quantity policy will generate a higher total social cost of managing the minor pollution source. When the speed of ecological absorption is not constant, adjusting the number of part pollution permits will lead to two kinds of pollutant leakage. If the pollution permits can be freely circulated, it will lead to the pollution of regional b (less regulated areas) inflow into the region a (more regulated areas); if permits are not freely circulated, otherwise not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
How Can the Layout of Public Service Facilities Be Optimized to Reduce Travel-Related Carbon Emissions? Evidence from Changxing County, China
Land 2022, 11(8), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081200 - 30 Jul 2022
Abstract
With the developments in urbanization and motorization, travel-related carbon emissions are increasing rapidly. The layout of public service facilities (LPSF) has a direct impact on travel-related carbon emissions. However, existing public service facility planning methods focus on population, economy, and other aspects, ignoring [...] Read more.
With the developments in urbanization and motorization, travel-related carbon emissions are increasing rapidly. The layout of public service facilities (LPSF) has a direct impact on travel-related carbon emissions. However, existing public service facility planning methods focus on population, economy, and other aspects, ignoring the environmental impact. So, how do we optimize the LPSF to reduce carbon emissions? This paper proposed a method to optimize the LPSF under the constraint of travel carbon emissions. We selected medical facilities in Changxing County, China, and applied the method we proposed. We found that (1) the carbon reduction effect was significant—the total monthly emissions in Changxing were reduced by 26.10%, and the area covered by high emissions was reduced; (2) the medical facilities in Changxing under a low-carbon goal should be distributed in the county center and surrounding urban areas in a multi-center form; and (3) improving the accessibility of facilities can help to form a low-carbon facilities layout. This paper provides a spatial planning method to guide the specific locations of facilities under low-carbon goals. It also provides scientific suggestions for low-carbon land-use policies at the county level in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Impact of Carbon Trading System on Green Economic Growth in China
Land 2022, 11(8), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081199 - 30 Jul 2022
Abstract
Whether China’s economy can maintain sustainable growth has been debated both in China and internationally, and the most representative critique has been summarized in the “Krugman Query”. Faced with such doubts, how to achieve a “win-win” for economic growth and environmental protection has [...] Read more.
Whether China’s economy can maintain sustainable growth has been debated both in China and internationally, and the most representative critique has been summarized in the “Krugman Query”. Faced with such doubts, how to achieve a “win-win” for economic growth and environmental protection has become one of the central objectives of local government work while striving for the new vision of development. Taking China’s carbon trading pilot policy as an example, and based on panel data of 30 provincial administrative regions in China from 2001 to 2018, this paper uses the Data Envelopment Analysis-Malmquist index model and the Propensity Score Matching-Difference in Difference method to measure the level of green economic growth from two aspects: green development mode and economic growth effect, and further explore the impact of China’s carbon trading system on green economic growth. The results show that the implementation of the carbon trading system promoted both the green development level and economic growth of pilot cities, and positively affected green total factor productivity, refuting the “Krugman Query”. Finally, the study puts forward a series of recommendations in strengthening environmental regulation, improving green technology innovation, and developing low-carbon industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Prediction of China’s Economic Structural Changes under Carbon Emission Constraints: Based on the Linear Programming Input–Output (LP-IO) Model
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9336; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159336 - 29 Jul 2022
Abstract
China has established a carbon emission reduction goal for 2030. For the Chinese government, there is a dilemma between reducing carbon emissions while still striving to maintain continuous economic growth in future. To achieve these “dual goals”, it is necessary to predict the [...] Read more.
China has established a carbon emission reduction goal for 2030. For the Chinese government, there is a dilemma between reducing carbon emissions while still striving to maintain continuous economic growth in future. To achieve these “dual goals”, it is necessary to predict the optimal industrial structure under these constraints in 2030. By integrating the linear programming input–output model (LP-IO) with the RAS updating technique, this paper predicts the industrial structure in China in 2030 and compares it with the year 2018. The results show that China’s industry structure will experience major changes. In particular, most of the industries related to manufacturing, such as mining, petroleum, and metal, will lose their important positions in the economic system, while service industries such as culture, sports, and public service will take over the position as pillars of the economy. Additionally, carbon emissions in 2030 will be at least 12.8 billion tons. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the Chinese government should increase investment in service industries in advance to meet the goal of reducing carbon emissions earlier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
An Approach for Retrieving Consistent Time Series “Urban Core–Suburban-Rural” (USR) Structure Using Nighttime Light Data from DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153642 - 29 Jul 2022
Abstract
The long time series and consistent “urban core-suburban-rural” (USR) structure in a city region is essential to understanding urban–suburban–rural interaction and urbanization pathways. It is always considered to be a single land use type (e.g., impervious area) in remote sensing research. The long-term [...] Read more.
The long time series and consistent “urban core-suburban-rural” (USR) structure in a city region is essential to understanding urban–suburban–rural interaction and urbanization pathways. It is always considered to be a single land use type (e.g., impervious area) in remote sensing research. The long-term (1992–present) nighttime light (NTL) data of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) and the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) provide the potential for retrieving time series of USR structure. In this study, we propose an improved approach to mapping the USR structure of the three subcategories based on a heuristic algorithm of Mann–Kendall mutation detection on the NTL quantile curve. First, a minor adjustment of VIIRS NTL is applied for matching the value ranges of DMSP NTL data and keeping the advantage of VIIRS to generate a long-term NTL dataset. Second, the heuristic algorithm of Mann–Kendall mutation detection is processed to find two optimal thresholds in the NTL quantile curve, which is used for USR extraction. Finally, a temporal consistency check is used to post-process the initial USR area for obtaining a more consistent and reliable USR sequence. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we retrieved the USR structures of 19 typical cities in China from 1992 to 2020 based on NTL datasets. The evaluations of spatiotemporal consistency compared with the validation data indicate that the USR retrieval results show good agreement with the land use map derived from Landsat images and the time series product from MODIS. The average overall accuracy (OA) of overall urban extent is higher than 0.95 and the average kappa coefficient (KC) reaches 0.6. Moreover, we investigated the urban dynamics and USR interactions of 19 cities from 1992 to 2020. Overall, this study proposes an improved approach for long-term USR mapping from NTL images at a regional scale and it will provide a valuable method for urbanization dynamics analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Review
Personal Carbon Budgets: A Pestle Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9238; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159238 - 28 Jul 2022
Abstract
Personal Carbon Budgets (PCBs) are a radical policy innovation that seek to reduce an individual’s carbon consumption. This review identifies three archetypes of PCBs in the current literature; Personal Carbon Trading, Carbon Tax and Carbon Labelling. We theorised that carbon trading could affect [...] Read more.
Personal Carbon Budgets (PCBs) are a radical policy innovation that seek to reduce an individual’s carbon consumption. This review identifies three archetypes of PCBs in the current literature; Personal Carbon Trading, Carbon Tax and Carbon Labelling. We theorised that carbon trading could affect equity and allow quality of life and consumption to be driven by income rather than needs. We, therefore, developed a new model (Personal Carbon Allowance with no trading) to compare to existing archetypes. A PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, Environmental) framework was applied to each archetype to analyse and compare their costs and benefits and to critically evaluate and identify which model may be the most appropriate to reduce emissions severely but equitably. We conclude that the only model that can achieve this is our proposed Personal Carbon Allowance (PCA) model with no trading. PCA has a hard cap on emissions allowing for controllable severe cuts to emissions, and the lack of trading would prohibit those with wealth from continuing high-consumption lifestyles at the expense of those with lower incomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
An Assessment of the Impact of Temperature Rise Due to Climate Change on Asphalt Pavement in China
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159044 - 23 Jul 2022
Abstract
In the global warming context, understanding the impact of temperature rise on asphalt pavement is the basis for making adaptation strategies. An approach based on historical climate data and pavement performance models was employed to assess the potential impact of temperature rise on [...] Read more.
In the global warming context, understanding the impact of temperature rise on asphalt pavement is the basis for making adaptation strategies. An approach based on historical climate data and pavement performance models was employed to assess the potential impact of temperature rise on asphalt pavement in China. It is shown that permanent deformation is one sensitive aspect of asphalt pavement performance, which increased on average by 20.70% from 1992 to 2019. Another one is low-temperature cracking, which decreased by 20.99% from 1970 to 1997, but has remained almost unchanged since 1997. Global mean surface temperature anomalies of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C will increase the permanent deformation of asphalt pavement by 18.63% and 36.71%, respectively, compared to 2019. Global warming is bringing serious challenges to the structure and material design of asphalt pavement due to the increasing service temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Systematic Review
Farmers’ Demand for Climate Information Services: A Systematic Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9025; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159025 - 23 Jul 2022
Abstract
The importance of climate information services (CIS) for farm decision-making is known worldwide. Its use is widely recommended by academics, governments, and development partners, especially in Africa. However, the supply of commercial CIS in Africa remains very low. Considering that the commercial CIS [...] Read more.
The importance of climate information services (CIS) for farm decision-making is known worldwide. Its use is widely recommended by academics, governments, and development partners, especially in Africa. However, the supply of commercial CIS in Africa remains very low. Considering that the commercial CIS suppliers are business-oriented, the lack of supply is mainly due to the lack of evidence on the demand for it. The specific objectives of the review were to assess the demand for CIS, the key characteristics of the demanded CIS. and the key drivers for the demand for CIS in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Through a systematic review, 123 articles were identified on the SCOPUS and Google Scholar databases and 52 papers were included in the study. The models of assessment done by the majority of authors were a simple description based on needs assessments and econometrics modelling to identify the key drivers. The results show that 68% of the farmers in ECOWAS demanded CIS. The average willingness to pay for CIS is estimated to be USD 2.01 for daily forecasts. The usability of CIS, daily forecasts and geolocalized CIS, and customized CIS are the key characteristics farmers are looking for in the ECOWAS region. The main drivers of CIS demand are price, income, vulnerability to climate variability, beliefs and religion, complementary services, gender, type of crops, and farm size. According to the consumer theory, information such as elasticity of price and income, ranked substitutes of CIS, which are still lacking, are key for understanding the CIS demand. However, the review showed that little research work has been conducted in this area. The review also shows the importance of determining among which type of goods CIS should be classified. Knowing whether CIS is a necessity good is vital for suppliers’ decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Assessing the Effectiveness of Administrative District Realignments Based on a Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression Model
Land 2022, 11(8), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081126 - 22 Jul 2022
Abstract
The long-term effects of administrative division adjustments on economic development in Dalian City, China, is presently unclear. Therefore, we employed a geographically and temporally weighted regression model to construct an index assessment system using the annual number of newly registered enterprises as the [...] Read more.
The long-term effects of administrative division adjustments on economic development in Dalian City, China, is presently unclear. Therefore, we employed a geographically and temporally weighted regression model to construct an index assessment system using the annual number of newly registered enterprises as the dependent variable. We empirically studied the effects of administrative division adjustments of townships in Dalian City from 2010 to 2020. The results showed that: (i) adjustments in townships administrative divisions negatively affected regional enterprise concentrations and economic development in general, whereas industrial and transportation factors demonstrated positive effects to variable degrees, and the effects of policy, location, and population factors were not significant. (ii) Over time, the effects of townships administrative division adjustments changed from positive to negative, and the negative effects displayed an increasing trend, revealing that (iii) the effect of administrative division adjustments in Dalian City was positive and negative over time. This further reveals the objective problem that administrative division adjustment in recent years was effective over the short term, but not over the long term. (iv) During the study period, administrative division adjustments positively affected regional enterprise concentrations and economic development solely during a short time frame and in a small geographical area. However, its negative effects increased extensively, which infers that maintaining a relatively stable administrative division is more beneficial for promoting economic development in Dalian City. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Seasonal Differences in Land Surface Temperature under Different Land Use/Land Cover Types from the Perspective of Different Climate Zones
Land 2022, 11(8), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081122 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The process of urbanization is accelerating, and land surface temperature (LST) is increasing, seriously threatening human health. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the differences in LST of different land use/land cover (LULC) types. Using MOD11A2 and MCD12Q1 data, this study explored the [...] Read more.
The process of urbanization is accelerating, and land surface temperature (LST) is increasing, seriously threatening human health. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the differences in LST of different land use/land cover (LULC) types. Using MOD11A2 and MCD12Q1 data, this study explored the seasonal differences in LST of each LULC type from the perspective of different climate zones. The results showed that the maximum and minimum LSTs during the day were higher than those at night. During the day, the LSTs of urban and built-up and barren lands were higher than those of forests, grasslands, and water bodies; at night, the LSTs of urban and built-up lands decreased but remained high, while barren lands showed a significant decrease to LSTs even lower than those of water bodies. In addition, the difference in daytime LST of the LU16 type (barren lands) in different climatic zones was the most obvious and was much higher than that of other LULC types in the middle temperate and south temperate zones, but much lower than those in the middle subtropical and north subtropical zones. This comparison of the LST differences of each LULC type under different climate backgrounds provides an important reference for rational urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Bayesian Calibration for Office-Building Heating and Cooling Energy Prediction Model
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071052 - 20 Jul 2022
Abstract
Conventional building energy models (BEM) for heating and cooling energy-consumption prediction without calibration are not accurate, and the commonly used manual calibration method requires the high expertise of modelers. Bayesian calibration (BC) is a novel method with great potential in BEM, and there [...] Read more.
Conventional building energy models (BEM) for heating and cooling energy-consumption prediction without calibration are not accurate, and the commonly used manual calibration method requires the high expertise of modelers. Bayesian calibration (BC) is a novel method with great potential in BEM, and there are many successful applications for unknown-parameters calibrating and retrofitting analysis. However, there is still a lack of study on prediction model calibration. There are two main challenges in developing a calibrated prediction model: (1) poor generalization ability; (2) lack of data availability. To tackle these challenges and create an energy prediction model for office buildings in Guangdong, China, this paper characterizes and validates the BC method to calibrate a quasi-dynamic BEM with a comprehensive database including geometry information for various office buildings. Then, a case study analyzes the effectiveness and performance of the calibrated prediction model. The results show that BC effectively and accurately calibrates quasi-dynamic BEM for prediction purposes. The calibrated model accuracy (monthly CV(RMSE) of 0.59% and hourly CV(RMSE) of 19.35%) meets the requirement of ASHRAE Guideline 14. With the calibrated prediction model, this paper provides a new way to improve the data quality and integrity of existing building energy databases and will further benefit usability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Review
Analysis of the Sustainability of Livestock Farms in the Area of the Southwest of Bihor County to Climate Change
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8841; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148841 - 19 Jul 2022
Abstract
The concepts of sustainability and vulnerability are complementary and closely linked; mitigating the vulnerability of the human environment/climate change can increase its resilience or sustainability. Climate change can increase existing vulnerabilities and deepen socioeconomic imbalances. Measures to reduce and adapt to the effects [...] Read more.
The concepts of sustainability and vulnerability are complementary and closely linked; mitigating the vulnerability of the human environment/climate change can increase its resilience or sustainability. Climate change can increase existing vulnerabilities and deepen socioeconomic imbalances. Measures to reduce and adapt to the effects of climate change are needed in the livestock sector, as they can help reduce the damage caused by natural disasters and other effects of climate change. The future effects of climate change are a significant challenge for livestock managers, users of livestock products and other players, as they may face a number of problems, such as the qualitative and quantitative decline in cereals (feedstock), depletion of conventional sources of energy that provide the electricity and heat needed for animal husbandry, damage to animal shelters, changes in flood frequency and the effects of flooding on the process of spreading manure on land and unforeseen operating and maintenance costs. The adaptation of the intensive animal husbandry process to climate change is a complex process considering the variability of effects, physical vulnerability, degree of socioeconomic development of the entire analyzed area, natural adaptability, health services and disaster surveillance mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to help local authorities in the process of preparing for this transition in a way that takes into account not only socioeconomic factors but also the development constraints imposed by climate change. The studied area, Ciumeghiu–Avram Iancu, located in the southern part of Bihor County, Romania, has been designated as a disadvantaged area of socioeconomic development so that economic agents can apply for the financing of rural development projects with co-financing from European funds (up to 90%). The study presents an analysis of economic development (zootechnical activities) in the southern part of Bihor County, Romania in relation to the climatic vulnerability of the area. Knowing the changes induced in an area by climate change is still a challenge for any local community, and for a socioeconomically vulnerable area, such as the study area, it is important to have at hand studies that can indicate the directions and constraints of development in dictated by these changes. Through this study, we aimed to identify a correlation between the changes induced by climate change and the development capacity of livestock farms, as many economic agents have developed or are developing technical projects for the construction of animal farms in this area. This study is based on the requirements of European reference documents, standards and guidelines. Based on the data available at this time, the applied risk analysis methodology identified a moderate risk associated with increasing extreme temperatures, changes in average precipitation, increasing average temperature, availability of water/drought resources, floods, desertification and risks associated with soil erosion, and the risk of vegetation fires. The correlation of all these factors led us to the conclusion that the area allows for the strictly controlled development of new livestock farms based on plans for the development of territorial units in the area. These units must include desertified areas and define the areas for planting vegetal curtains that will both reduce the phenomenon of erosion and block the circulation of air masses with odor released from the activity of animal husbandry and manure management. The results of the analysis show that it is necessary to take into account the diverse nature of environmental evolution/climate change in different areas of economic development specific to a development area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Landscape Pattern Vulnerability of the Eastern Hengduan Mountains, China and Response to Elevation and Artificial Disturbance
Land 2022, 11(7), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071110 - 19 Jul 2022
Abstract
The eastern Hengduan Mountains are located in the transition zone between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basin and are important for global biodiversity and water conservation in China. However, their landscape pattern vulnerability index (LVI) and its influencing factors have not been [...] Read more.
The eastern Hengduan Mountains are located in the transition zone between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan Basin and are important for global biodiversity and water conservation in China. However, their landscape pattern vulnerability index (LVI) and its influencing factors have not been systematically studied. Therefore, the spatial distribution patterns, LVI, and the landscape artificial disturbance intensity (LHAI) of Ganzi Prefecture were analyzed using ArcGIS software based on landscape data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) digital elevation data. Then, the LVI response to LHAI and elevation was discussed. The results showed that Ganzi Prefecture was dominated by low- and middle-LVI areas, together accounting for 56.45% of the total area. LVI values were highest in the northern regions, followed by the southern and eastern regions. Batang and Derong counties had the highest LVI values. Most areas in Ganzi Prefecture had very low- or low-LHAI values, accounting for 81.48% of the total area, whereas high-LHAI areas accounted for 2.32% of the total area. Both the LVI and LHAI of Ganzi Prefecture had clustered distributions. Spearman analysis indicated that when elevation exceeded 4500 m, it was the most important factor affecting LVI and LHAI. In the range of 4500–5400 m, the relationship between elevation and LVI shifted from a weak positive correlation to a negative correlation, whereas LHAI was positively correlated with elevation. In addition, LVI also responded significantly to LHAI. However, the relationship kept changing as elevation increased. Hence, the ecological vulnerability of high elevation areas above 4500 m deserves greater attention. In addition, pasture areas in the upstream reaches of the Yalong River in the northern region, the coastal area in the downstream reaches of the Jinsha River in the southern region, and the eastern mining area, should be prioritized for protection and restoration. This research provides a basis for appropriate environmental planning mechanisms and policy protections at the landscape level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Health Risk Assessment and Influencing Factors Analysis of High Temperatures on Negative Emotions
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071040 - 19 Jul 2022
Abstract
The emotional health of urban residents has been seriously threatened by frequent and normalized heat waves. This study constructed the VI-level assessment standard for emotional health risk using data from satellite images, meteorological sites, questionnaire surveys, and statistical yearbooks to assess the effect [...] Read more.
The emotional health of urban residents has been seriously threatened by frequent and normalized heat waves. This study constructed the VI-level assessment standard for emotional health risk using data from satellite images, meteorological sites, questionnaire surveys, and statistical yearbooks to assess the effect of high temperatures on negative emotions in Hangzhou. The results showed that the morphological changes of urban high-temperature areas were aggregated from a cross-shape to a large patch shape, then dispersed into cracked patch shapes. Additionally, the health risk of daytime negative emotions peaked at the VI-level from 1984 to 2020, and the influence level of the typical period risk increased by 1–2 levels compared with the daytime. Additionally, driven by urban spatial structure policies, the risk pattern of emotional health expanded outward from a single center into multiple centers. The emotional health risk level rose and then descended in urban centers, and the innovation industries drove the variation tendency of hot spots. Furthermore, high educational background, employment, and couples living together were critical variables that could alleviate the emotional health risk to the middle-aged and elderly population. This study aimed to optimize the urban spatial structure and alleviate residents’ emotional health hazards for healthy urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
The Spatial Spillover Effects of Environmental Regulation and Regional Energy Efficiency and Their Interactions under Local Government Competition in China
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148753 - 18 Jul 2022
Abstract
Under the pressure of serious environmental pollution and energy shortage, China needs to improve its energy efficiency to alleviate these problems. Environmental regulation is an important constraint on economic development, which has an impact on energy efficiency. Meanwhile, energy efficiency is a reference [...] Read more.
Under the pressure of serious environmental pollution and energy shortage, China needs to improve its energy efficiency to alleviate these problems. Environmental regulation is an important constraint on economic development, which has an impact on energy efficiency. Meanwhile, energy efficiency is a reference factor for adjusting environmental policies, which has an impact on environmental regulation. Therefore, the relationship between environmental regulation and energy efficiency needs to be further studied under a unified framework. Based on Chinese provincial panel data, we first use a stochastic frontier model to estimate the energy efficiency of China’s 30 provinces from 2004 to 2019, and then employ a spatial simultaneous equation model to study the spatial spillover effects of environmental regulation and energy efficiency and their interactions. The results show that: (1) Both energy efficiency and environmental regulation have significantly positive spatial spillover effects. Specifically, an overall increase of 1% in energy efficiency in the surrounding areas can promote an improvement in the local energy efficiency by about 1.0404%, and an overall increase of 1% in environmental regulation in the surrounding areas can lead to an increase of about 0.6075% in the local environmental regulation. (2) The impact of environmental regulation on energy efficiency is significantly positive; i.e., under the current situation in China, an increase of 1% in environmental regulation can promote local energy efficiency by about 0.2777%. (3) The impact of energy efficiency on environmental regulation is significantly positive; i.e., a 1% increase in energy efficiency may stimulate local governments to strengthen their environmental regulation by 1.5981%. Accordingly, some targeted policy suggestions are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatial Heterogeneity of Public Service Facilities in the Living Circle and Its Influence on Housing Prices: A Case Study of Central Urban Dalian, China
Land 2022, 11(7), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071095 - 18 Jul 2022
Abstract
The spatial layout of public service facilities (PSFs) markedly influences residents’ quality of life. Based on Baidu map data, spatial information on 27,552 PSFs across eight categories was collected for urban Dalian, China, and analyzed using the nearest neighbor index and nuclear density. [...] Read more.
The spatial layout of public service facilities (PSFs) markedly influences residents’ quality of life. Based on Baidu map data, spatial information on 27,552 PSFs across eight categories was collected for urban Dalian, China, and analyzed using the nearest neighbor index and nuclear density. Then, PSF accessibility across eight dimensions of residential quarters was calculated based on the cumulative opportunity method, and its impact on housing prices was analyzed. The results revealed the following: (1) The degree of spatial agglomeration for PSFs varied, with that of business facilities being higher than that of other public welfare facilities. The distribution of business facilities was characterized by a dense center and sparse periphery, whereas public welfare facilities were laid out in a relatively balanced “multi-center” distribution across the study area. (2) Significant spatial differences in the number and types of accessible resident facilities were identified. The number of accessible PSFs in the core area of central urban regions was large and the types were relatively complete, whereas the accessible PSFs in the western and northern marginal areas were limited in number, few in type, and lacking across certain categories, such as educational facilities and life services. (3) The spatial distribution of PSF accessibility was unbalanced. The accessibility of various PSFs in the Shahekou District was the highest, followed by that in the Zhongshan, Xigang, and Ganjingzi Districts. (4) The accessibility of educational, sport, and cultural facilities, and the total accessibility and greening rate of residential areas were the most significantly positively correlated with housing prices; however, the number of households in residential areas and the distances between residential areas and large shopping centers were significantly negatively correlated. Our findings will expand the research perspective of PSFs, provide a basis for meeting residents’ needs and a rational allocation of PSFs, and provide references for people’s decisions to buy houses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Land Use Improvement as the Drought Mitigation to Manage Climate Change in the Dodokan Watershed, Lombok, Indonesia
Land 2022, 11(7), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071060 - 12 Jul 2022
Abstract
The Dodokan watershed is one of the priority watersheds on Lombok Island, which is a mainstay for providing water for the community but has a high vulnerability to drought. This condition causes disruption to the fulfillment of water needs, so it needs to [...] Read more.
The Dodokan watershed is one of the priority watersheds on Lombok Island, which is a mainstay for providing water for the community but has a high vulnerability to drought. This condition causes disruption to the fulfillment of water needs, so it needs to be anticipated early with mitigation actions. Understanding the trend of drought is needed as a basis for developing mitigation measures, especially related to land use in the watershed. This study aims to analyze the hydro-meteorological drought trend that occurred from 2009 to 2020 and to find out the role of land use improvement in mitigating drought, which is predicted in the next 10 years. The Thornthwaite–Mather method was used for drought analysis, and its predictions for the next 10 years were determined by using trend analysis. Land use simulation using a spatial analysis was carried out as an effort to prepare for drought mitigation actions. The results show that the drought in the Dodokan Watershed has increased in the period between 2009–2020 and is predicted to continue to increase. Land use improvement by restoring the forest is a more appropriate mitigation method to overcome the drought than rearranging the agricultural land on slopes above 25%. The simulation results have succeeded in increasing the water surplus and reducing the water deficit in 2030 so that it can be used for drought mitigation in the Dodokan watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
New Strategy for Innovative RD&D in View of Stakeholder Interaction during Climate Technology Transfer
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148363 - 08 Jul 2022
Abstract
To tackle the global climate change issues, many countries have been interested in technology research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) during climate technology development and transfer processes in terms of technology innovation. According to our previous staged innovation model, technology RD&D is regarded as [...] Read more.
To tackle the global climate change issues, many countries have been interested in technology research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) during climate technology development and transfer processes in terms of technology innovation. According to our previous staged innovation model, technology RD&D is regarded as a crucial stage enabling the transition from technology-push to market-pull innovation. However, the strategic operation of RD&D during the climate technology transfer processes is still inactive. Thus, in the present work, we first elucidated innovative features by reviewing the RD&D activities during the climate technology transfer processes in terms of three elements of innovation: technology, market, and regulation. Moreover, innovative barriers to participating in the RD&D projects were identified by analyzing brief survey for various stakeholders from academia, private sectors, and governments. Based on both findings from case study and survey, new strategies were proposed for innovative RD&D facilitation, considering the interactions between the technology transfer matchmaker and Triple Helix during transferring climate technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Temporal and Spatial Distribution Changes, Driving Force Analysis and Simulation Prediction of Ecological Vulnerability in Liaoning Province, China
Land 2022, 11(7), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071025 - 06 Jul 2022
Abstract
As China’s main grain-producing region, the ecological security pattern of Liaoning Province has an extremely important impact on the ecological security of Northeast China and even the whole country. Furthermore, the construction of the ecological security pattern is restricted by the ecological vulnerability [...] Read more.
As China’s main grain-producing region, the ecological security pattern of Liaoning Province has an extremely important impact on the ecological security of Northeast China and even the whole country. Furthermore, the construction of the ecological security pattern is restricted by the ecological vulnerability assessment in order to explore the ecological vulnerability pattern of spatial distribution and the trend of future vulnerability development in Liaoning Province and guide how to formulate ecological protection policies scientifically. Based on the sensitivity–resilience–pressure (SRP) conceptual model which is combined with natural and socio-economic factors, the ecological vulnerability evaluation index system of Liaoning Province is established in this paper. This paper also evaluates the ecological vulnerability of Liaoning Province from 2010 to 2020 and analyzes the driving factors by using a geographic detector and the CA-Markov model. Moreover, the study forecasts the growing tendency of vulnerability in 2025. The results show that (1) the ecological vulnerability of Liaoning Province is mainly light and has medium vulnerability, which gradually decreases from northwest to southeast; (2) the spatial heterogeneity of the ecological vulnerability index (EVI) is very significant in the southeast and northwest region but not significant in the middle; (3) from the past decade to the next five years, the ecological vulnerability of Liaoning Province has been improving, and the overall distribution pattern of ecological vulnerability is relatively stable; (4) the analysis of driving factors indicates that the impact of natural environmental factors such as land-use type and habitat quality on EVI is more significant than socio-economic factors such as population density. The research results implicate that it is necessary to formulate an ecological protection and restoration plan in Liaoning Province to prevent further ecological degradation in high-value areas of northwest Liaoning, and to balance the relationship between human development and ecological protection and restoration in the metropolitan district. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Ecosystem Service Values of Watershed and Ecological Compensation Scheme Considering Its Realization in Spatial Planning
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8204; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138204 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
A reasonable ecological compensation scheme for watersheds is beneficial for water resource protection and ecological sustainability. The existing literature has few watershed ecological compensation (WEC) schemes based on long-term observation and large spatial scale analysis of ecosystem service value (ESV) and considering its [...] Read more.
A reasonable ecological compensation scheme for watersheds is beneficial for water resource protection and ecological sustainability. The existing literature has few watershed ecological compensation (WEC) schemes based on long-term observation and large spatial scale analysis of ecosystem service value (ESV) and considering its realization in spatial planning. Therefore, in order to establish a WEC scheme and integrate it into spatial planning, we take the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRSNWDP), a water resource area protecting the water resources at a huge local economic development cost, as a case study, and calculate the change trend and change range of the watershed’s total ESV from 1990 to 2015, thus, forming the WEC scheme. The results show the total ESV in the study area shows a slight downward fluctuation trend from 1990 to 2015, decreasing by 3310.70. The total ESV in most types of ecosystem service (ES) functions is relatively reduced except for the increase in functions of water conservation, waste treatment, and entertainment and culture. In addition, the change rate of total ESV has been in a high-value agglomeration, and the ES capabilities have been increasing since 2000, while the growth trend of the ES capabilities has been weak, and the high-value agglomeration has been expanding from the core area of Danjiangkou reservoir to the upstream and surrounding areas since 2005. We formulate a WEC scheme according to the partition idea of spatial planning that the priority compensation area accounts for 25.34% of the total study area, and the second priority compensation area, the general compensation area, and the potential compensation area account for 25.34%, 47.48%, and 12.80%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variability in Water-Use Efficiency in Tianshan Mountains (Xinjiang, China) and the Influencing Factors
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8191; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138191 - 05 Jul 2022
Abstract
Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial physiological index in carbon–water interactions and is defined as the ratio of vegetation productivity to water loss. The variation in climatic variables and drought have the most significant effects on WUE and evapotranspiration (ET). Nevertheless, how WUE [...] Read more.
Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a crucial physiological index in carbon–water interactions and is defined as the ratio of vegetation productivity to water loss. The variation in climatic variables and drought have the most significant effects on WUE and evapotranspiration (ET). Nevertheless, how WUE varies with climate factors and drought processes in the Tianshan Mountains (TMS) is still poorly understood. In the present work, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variations in WUE, and investigated the correlations between WUE, climate factors, and drought, in the study area. The results showed that, in the TMS during 2000–2020, annual net primary productivity (NPP) ranged from 147.9 to 189.4 gC·m−2, annual ET was in the range of 212.5–285.8 mm, and annual WUE ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 gC·kg−1·H2O. Both NPP and ET exhibited an increasing trend with some fluctuation, whereas WUE showed the opposite tendency during the study period. The obtained results demonstrated that the decrease in WUE was primarily because of the increase in ET. There were obvious differences in WUE, under different land-use types, caused by NPP and ET. However, the interannual variation in WUE showed small fluctuations and the dynamic process of WUE in each land-use type showed good consistency. Temperature and wind speed had a positive influence on WUE in the middle and eastern regions of the TMS. Precipitation also played a mainly positive role in enhancing WUE, especially on the northern slope of the TMS. There was strong spatial heterogeneity of the correlation coefficient (0.68, p < 0.05) between WUE and the temperature vegetation drought index (TVDI). Moreover, the slopes of WUE and TVDI showed good consistency in terms of spatial distribution, suggesting that drought had a significant impact on ecosystem WUE. This work will enhance the understanding of WUE variation, and provide scientific evidence for water resource management and sustainable utilization in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Recent Environmental Legislation in Brazil and the Impact on Cerrado Deforestation Rates
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8096; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138096 - 02 Jul 2022
Abstract
This study aims to relate the recent trajectory of Brazilian environmental policies with the last 20 years deforestation rates observed in the Cerrado through the PRODES-Cerrado monitoring initiative. The main hypothesis is that the improvement of environmental legislation in Brazil, mainly during the [...] Read more.
This study aims to relate the recent trajectory of Brazilian environmental policies with the last 20 years deforestation rates observed in the Cerrado through the PRODES-Cerrado monitoring initiative. The main hypothesis is that the improvement of environmental legislation in Brazil, mainly during the period between 2005 and 2012, influenced the decrease in deforestation rates. In addition, policies to control environmental compliance, such as the Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) also influenced the reduction of deforestation. In the early 2000s, there was a significant increase in public environmental policies and implementation of an environmental management structure with the creation of conservation, protection, and management agency for conservation units (ICMBio), the Brazilian Forest Service for the management of public forests and Rural Environment Registry (CAR). Comparing the annual deforestation rate, it was observed that between 2000 and 2005, when 12.60% of the Cerrado was deforested, the annual deforestation average rate was 2.52%. Between 2006 and 2012, the period that precedes the revision of the Forest Code, the total deforestation is equivalent to 7.98%, which results in an annual average rate of 1.33%. After the enactment of the new Forest Code, between 2013 and 2020, there was a deforestation of 7.03% of the Cerrado area, which is equivalent to a deforestation annual average rate of 1.00%. One of the positive aspects of the new legislation was the creation of CAR, which obliges rural landowners to make an environmental attributes declaration of their property, this program being the main environmental management tool created in Brazil recently. After CAR regulation in 2014, there was a decrease in deforestation from 10,904 km2 to 7905 km2 in 2020. On the other hand, since 2016, changes occurred in the political scenario that increased agribusiness influence and the rise of a more conservative agenda, which jeopardizes the future of environmental quality in Brazil (illustrated, for example, by the increased release of pesticides from 104 in 2010 to 493 in 2020). As the main conclusion of this research, we showed that the state’s commitment to environmental management can contribute to deforestation reduction. The regulation of programs such as CAR can also contribute to the reduction of deforestation since it is one more tool for monitoring and ensure compliance of environmental regularization and recovery vegetation programs. At the same time, is necessary to keep on monitoring deforestation once the influence of the agricultural lobby has gained strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Study on Ecological Loss in Coal Mining Area Based on Net Primary Productivity of Vegetation
Land 2022, 11(7), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071004 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Opencast mining contributes to the severe disturbance of vegetation and serious damage to the ecological environment. Scientific assessment of the ecological losses may provide guidance for the sustainable land use in mining areas. This study uses the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) model [...] Read more.
Opencast mining contributes to the severe disturbance of vegetation and serious damage to the ecological environment. Scientific assessment of the ecological losses may provide guidance for the sustainable land use in mining areas. This study uses the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) model to estimate the net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation in the Pingshuo mining area from 2006 to 2020 and uses statistical analysis and mathematical models to study the impact of mining and land reclamation on NPP. The results show that NPP decreased slowly at a rate of 0.809 gC/(m2·month) per year. In 2006, the urban area of Pinglu and the opencast coal mining area were located in the western part of the study area, while the eastern part was distributed with a large amount of grassland, forested and cultivated land, and the NPP showed a high pattern in the east and low in the west. With the continued eastward movement of Antaibao and Anjialing mining areas, as well as the construction and continuous westward expansion of the East opencast mine, the pits of all three opencast mines moved to a central location in 2020, changing the spatial distribution of NPP to high in the surroundings and low in the middle. The NPP within the three opencast mines decreased significantly, but the change in NPP increased from −7.34 gC/(m2·month) to 7.15 gC/(m2·month) as the reclamation area increased, indicating that mining increased ecological losses while land reclamation mitigated them. The variation of NPP within 600 m outside the mining area is 2.06~7.45 gC/(m2·month), and 0.11~1.00 gC/(m2·month) from 600 m to 1000 m, indicating that NPP is sensitive to the influence of mining. The results may provide guidance for further analysis of the impact of mining on local environments and exploration of more appropriate land reclamation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Multi-Scenario Simulation of Land Use Changes with Ecosystem Service Value in the Yellow River Basin
Land 2022, 11(7), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11070992 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
Land use change plays a crucial role in global environmental change. Understanding the mode and land use change procedure is conducive to improving the quality of the global eco-environment and promoting the harmonized development of human–land relationships. Large river basins play an important [...] Read more.
Land use change plays a crucial role in global environmental change. Understanding the mode and land use change procedure is conducive to improving the quality of the global eco-environment and promoting the harmonized development of human–land relationships. Large river basins play an important role in areal socioeconomic development. The Yellow River Basin (YRB) is an important ecological protective screen, economic zone, and major grain producing area in China, which faces challenges with respect to ecological degradation and water and sediment management. Simulating the alterations in ecosystem service value (ESV) owing to land use change in the YRB under multiple scenarios is of great importance to guaranteeing the ecological security of the basin and improve the regional ESV. According to the land use data of 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2018, the alterations in the land use and ESV in the YRB over the past 30 years were calculated and analyzed on the basis of six land use types: cultivated land, forestland, grassland, water area, built-up land, and unused land. The patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) model was used to simulate the land use change in the study area under three scenarios (natural development, cultivated land protection, and ecological protection in 2026); estimate the ESV under each scenario; and conduct a comparative analysis. We found that the land use area in the YRB changed significantly during the study period. The ESV of the YRB has slowly increased by ~USD 15 billion over the past 30 years. The ESV obtained under the ecological protection scenario is the highest. The simulation of the YRB’s future land use change, and comparison and analysis of the ESV under different scenarios, provide guidance and a scientific basis for promoting ecological conservation and high-quality development of river basins worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Dynamic Variations of Ground/Air Surface Temperatures and Their Correlation with Large-Scale Circulation Indexes in Southwest China (1980–2019)
Atmosphere 2022, 13(7), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13071031 - 28 Jun 2022
Abstract
Air/soil temperatures play important roles in land–atmosphere interactions. The three-dimensional (temporal, spatial, and vertical) variations of maximum, mean, and minimum ground soil temperature at 0 cm (GSTx, GSTm, and GSTn, respectively), surface air temperature at 2 m (SATx, SATm, and SATn, respectively), and [...] Read more.
Air/soil temperatures play important roles in land–atmosphere interactions. The three-dimensional (temporal, spatial, and vertical) variations of maximum, mean, and minimum ground soil temperature at 0 cm (GSTx, GSTm, and GSTn, respectively), surface air temperature at 2 m (SATx, SATm, and SATn, respectively), and soil–air temperature difference (SATDx, SATDm, and SATDn, respectively) and their potential linkages with large-scale indexes in Southwest China during 1980–2019 were analyzed. Variations of GST and SAT at the majority of stations (pixels) exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) warming, albeit at different rates; consequently, SATD exhibited different variation. Moreover, the period of GST, SAT, and SATD was similar in intra-annual and interannual oscillation but was different in interdecadal oscillation. The variation rate of GST, SAT, and SATD exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation with elevation, but with different variation gradient. Notably, asymmetric variation of SATDx (downward trend) and of SATDn (upward trend) with elevation was found at elevations >3 km. Wavelet coherence showed that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is the dominant factor affecting GST and SAT, whereas the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation make the greatest contributions to SATD. It was found that GST, SAT, and SATD exhibit different variations under the effects of global warming, the driving mechanism of which requires further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Relationship between Environmental Pollution, Environmental Regulation and Resident Health in the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River, China: Spatial Effect and Regulating Effect
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7801; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137801 - 27 Jun 2022
Abstract
The Healthy China 2030 Initiative is closely related to the coordinated development between national health, economy, and society. This major move demonstrates China’s active engagement in global health governance and in the fulfillment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDGs). Based on [...] Read more.
The Healthy China 2030 Initiative is closely related to the coordinated development between national health, economy, and society. This major move demonstrates China’s active engagement in global health governance and in the fulfillment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDGs). Based on Grossman’s health production function, this paper introduces key factors such as environmental pollution and environmental regulation to empirically investigate the regulating effect of environmental regulation, as well as the spatial spillover of environmental pollution and environmental regulation acting on resident health. We examine these effects by using the panel data of 28 cities of the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMYRY) between 2009 and 2019. The results show that: (1) Environmental pollution brings a loss to resident health. Among the urban agglomerations, the circum-Changsha–Zhuzhou–Xiangtan urban agglomeration (CCZXUA) and the Poyang Lake urban agglomeration (PLUA) have a much lower health effect of environmental pollution than the Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA). (2) With the growing intensity of environmental regulation, the negative effect of environmental pollution on resident health will gradually decrease. Regionally, the environmental regulation in the CCZXUA has the best effect on residents’ health, followed by the WUA and the PLUA, which have the worst. (3) As a whole, the spatial spillover of environmental regulation and pollution has a significant impact on residents’ health, and the spatial spillover effect between urban agglomerations is stronger than that between cities in each urban agglomeration. The conclusions remain robust with various tests such as replacing control variables, introducing lagged explanatory variables, and considering endogeneity. Based on robust empirical evidence, several specific region policy suggestions, including rolling out proper environmental regulation policies, and establishing a linking mechanism of environmental management, were put forward to improve the environmental pollution state and resident health level of the UAMYRY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
Article
Research on Frequency Response Modeling and Frequency Modulation Parameters of the Power System Highly Penetrated by Wind Power
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7798; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137798 - 27 Jun 2022
Abstract
Renewable energy units led by wind power participate in diversified control primary frequency modulation, making the frequency response modes and the setting of frequency modulation parameters more complex. This paper proposes a frequency response model of the power system which is highly penetrated [...] Read more.
Renewable energy units led by wind power participate in diversified control primary frequency modulation, making the frequency response modes and the setting of frequency modulation parameters more complex. This paper proposes a frequency response model of the power system which is highly penetrated by wind power based on the two mainstream control strategies of wind power that participate in primary frequency modulation. The model considers the influence of wind capture devices, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and other complex control strategies on system frequency response. Based on this model, the calculation formulas of the maximum change rate of dynamic frequency, the lowest point of dynamic frequency, and the maximum steady-state frequency deviation of the system after fault disturbance are derived in the frequency domain. The influences of wind power permeability and two typical frequency response control strategies on system frequency stability are analyzed. On the one hand, it is found that the proposed model can fit the system frequency response better than the traditional system frequency response model. Beyond that, two control strategies are mainly aimed at the different frequency stability requirements. On the other hand, under the condition of meeting the system’s stability requirements, the paper calculates the control parameters of frequency response of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The time-domain simulation model of the improved IEEE three-machine nine-node system and IEEE 39-node system with high permeability of wind power are built. Through the different fault scenarios, the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and the accuracy of control strategy parameter calculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Exploring Community Perceptions of Climate Change Issues in Peninsular Malaysia
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7756; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137756 - 25 Jun 2022
Abstract
The urbanization process in Peninsular Malaysia has resulted in an increase in temperature. Large cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu, and George Town are experiencing rapid urbanization processes, resulting in unpredictable changes in temperature and weather, which consequently impact community livelihoods. Many [...] Read more.
The urbanization process in Peninsular Malaysia has resulted in an increase in temperature. Large cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu, and George Town are experiencing rapid urbanization processes, resulting in unpredictable changes in temperature and weather, which consequently impact community livelihoods. Many believe that the recent flooding in urban residential areas in Peninsular Malaysia has been worsened by climate change. Hence, this paper explores and discusses recent community perceptions of the climate change issue in Peninsular Malaysia. A group of 350 community members from different states in Peninsular Malaysia gave their views and opinions related to climate change via an online quantitative survey questionnaire. Their perception of the urbanization process and its impact on the increase in temperature was descriptively analyzed using the frequency analysis technique and mean score, while their suggestions in verbatim form on reducing the effects of climate change were analyzed thematically. The respondents perceived the climate change issue as attributable to the factors of urbanization, namely the manufacturing industry, population density, and private motor vehicles. Respondents provided suggestions for reducing the effects of climate change, ranging from government policies to community actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Use of Fuels in the Productivity of Ecuadorian Companies: Assessment of Their Impact on Climate Change
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7649; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137649 - 23 Jun 2022
Abstract
This article aims to analyze the relationship between fuel consumption (gasoline, diesel, and Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and total production in Ecuadorian companies that use some fuel in their processes, in addition to quantifying the CO2 emissions generated by these fuels in [...] Read more.
This article aims to analyze the relationship between fuel consumption (gasoline, diesel, and Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and total production in Ecuadorian companies that use some fuel in their processes, in addition to quantifying the CO2 emissions generated by these fuels in 2019. For this purpose, a correlational study of these variables (Pearson’s correlation coefficient) has been made, using statistical data from the ENESEM 2019 Structural Enterprise Survey, prepared by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC). The results show that the relationship between the consumption of Extra gasoline and Ecopais with total production is not significant, while it is in the case of consumption of Super gasoline, Diesel, and LPG. As for CO2 emissions, it is observed that the largest generator is diesel, with almost 4.5 megatons per year, second to gasoline, with a little less than 2 megatons, and finally is LPG, with less than 0.5 megatons. In conclusion, LPG fuel, whose association with total production is the most significant, is the least polluting and in total these business sectors generate almost 7 megatons of CO2 per year of the total 40 megatons generated by the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Review
Characteristics, Progress and Trends of Urban Microclimate Research: A Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070877 - 22 Jun 2022
Abstract
Climate change has been a hot topic in recent years. However, the urban microclimate is more valuable for research because it directly affects people’s living environments and can be adjusted by technological means to enhance the resilience of cities in the face of [...] Read more.
Climate change has been a hot topic in recent years. However, the urban microclimate is more valuable for research because it directly affects people’s living environments and can be adjusted by technological means to enhance the resilience of cities in the face of climate change and disasters. This paper analyses the literature distribution characteristics, development stages, and research trends of urban microclimate research based on the literature on “urban microclimate” collected in the Web of Science core database since 1990, using CiteSpace and VOSviewer bibliometric software. It is found that the literature distribution of the urban microclimate is characterized by continuous growth, is interdisciplinary, and can be divided into four stages: nascent exploration, model quantification, diversified development and ecological synergy. Based on the knowledge mapping analysis of keyword clustering, annual overlap, and keyword highlighting, it can be predicted that the research on foreign urban land patch development has three hot trends—multi-scale modelling, multi-factor impact, and multi-policy guidance. The study’s findings help recognize the literature distribution characteristics and evolutionary lineage of urban microclimate research and provide suggestions for future urban microclimate research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Study on the Spatial and Temporal Differentiation Pattern of Carbon Emission and Carbon Compensation in China’s Provincial Areas
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7627; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137627 - 22 Jun 2022
Abstract
Excessive carbon emissions lead to global warming, which has attracted widespread attention in the global society. Carbon emissions and land use are closely related. An analysis of land use carbon emissions and carbon fairness can provide guidance for the formulation of energy conservation [...] Read more.
Excessive carbon emissions lead to global warming, which has attracted widespread attention in the global society. Carbon emissions and land use are closely related. An analysis of land use carbon emissions and carbon fairness can provide guidance for the formulation of energy conservation and emission reduction policies. This study uses data on agricultural production activities, land use and energy consumption and uses the carbon emission coefficient method to calculate carbon emissions and carbon absorption. The tendency value is used to analyze trends in land use carbon emissions and carbon absorption. The Gini coefficient, ecological support coefficient and economic contributive coefficient are used to analyze the fairness and difference of carbon emissions. The results showed that: (1) During the study period, there were fewer provinces with rapid growth in carbon emissions and carbon absorption and more provinces with slow growth. (2) Cultivated land and woodland are the main carriers of land use carbon absorption, and most provinces steadily maintain the type of carbon absorption to which they belong. (3) Carbon emissions from construction land are the main source of total carbon emissions, and the high concentration areas of carbon emissions are mainly located in the more economically developed areas. (4) There are obvious regional differences in the net carbon emissions. By 2015, Shanxi–Shandong High–High agglomeration areas and Yunnan–Guangxi Low–Low agglomeration areas were finally formed. (5) The distribution of carbon emissions in different provinces is not fair, and the spatial distribution is obviously different. Based on the analysis results, relevant suggestions are made from the perspectives of carbon emission reduction and carbon sink enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
The Legal Framework for Combating Gas Flaring in Nigeria’s Oil and Gas Industry: Can It Promote Sustainable Energy Security?
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7626; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137626 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gas flaring is a global problem affecting oil-producing countries. The Nigerian petroleum industry is not an exemption. Gas flaring is responsible for the emission of greenhouse gas, depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, and climate change. The study aims to offer legal [...] Read more.
Gas flaring is a global problem affecting oil-producing countries. The Nigerian petroleum industry is not an exemption. Gas flaring is responsible for the emission of greenhouse gas, depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, and climate change. The study aims to offer legal panaceas to the menace of gas flaring, which has affected Nigeria’s economy. Many scholars have raised concerns and the need for discontinuance of gas flaring in Nigeria due to its adverse effect on oil-producing areas and human health. The study adopts a doctrinal legal research method, exploring both primary and secondary sources of information to achieve its aim. The study finds that weak enforcement of the existing anti-gas-flaring laws in Nigeria made some oil companies flare gas. The study designs a hybrid model or mechanism for combating the menace and advocates that defaulting companies should be made to pay dearly for violation of anti-gas-flaring laws to promote the commercialisation of fled gas. The study recommends stringent enforcement of the Petroleum Industry Act 2021 and advocates replication of the provisions of the anti-gas-flaring laws of other advanced climes, especially the selected case-study countries where gas flaring has been abated. The study further advocates the need for the use of sophisticated or advanced technologies in oil and gas operations. In conclusion, it is believed that if the government adopts and implements stringent laws, it would combat gas flaring in Nigeria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Socioeconomic Determinants of Households’ Vulnerability to Drought in Western Cape, South Africa
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7582; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137582 - 22 Jun 2022
Abstract
This paper examines the determinants of household vulnerability to drought in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The study used secondary data collected by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The dataset is made up of 240 households located in the City of [...] Read more.
This paper examines the determinants of household vulnerability to drought in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The study used secondary data collected by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). The dataset is made up of 240 households located in the City of Cape Town along with two small towns in the West Coast District Municipality (Piketberg and Clanwilliam). While descriptive statistics were used to analyse households’ socioeconomic variables, an ordered logit model was employed to analyse the factors contributing to households’ vulnerability to drought in the study area. The paper revealed that 28% of the households were extremely vulnerable to drought. The result of the ordered logit regression model showed that factors such as the age of the household head, communication of water restrictions by the authorities, household water consumption in the last two years, and public cooperation with water restrictions were significant factors influencing households’ vulnerability to drought. It was also discovered that female-headed and older household members were more vulnerable to drought than their male-headed and younger members respectively. The paper concluded that to minimise vulnerability to drought among the households, stakeholders in the province should be better prepared to implement proactive policies with regard to climate disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Wheat Production in Drought-Prone Agro-Ecologies in Ethiopia: Diagnostic Assessment of Farmers’ Practices and Sustainable Coping Mechanisms and the Role of Improved Cultivars
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7579; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137579 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is traditionally cultivated under drought-affected and low-input agro-ecologies in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Wheat productivity in these agro-systems is considerably low (<2.4 t/ha) due to climate change-induced drought and heat stress, a lack of modern production technologies, including [...] Read more.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is traditionally cultivated under drought-affected and low-input agro-ecologies in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Wheat productivity in these agro-systems is considerably low (<2.4 t/ha) due to climate change-induced drought and heat stress, a lack of modern production technologies, including climate-smart varieties, and an array of biotic and abiotic factors. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of wheat production in drought-prone agro-ecologies and to assess farmers’ practices and sustainable coping mechanisms and the role of improved cultivars in Ethiopia. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study was conducted involving 170 randomly selected wheat farmers in the drier areas of Arsi Zone of the Oromia Regional State. Results showed that wheat and tef (Eragrostis tef Zucc.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were the most widely grown cereal crops in the study areas as the primary food source and cash income. Yield losses varying from 63.1 to 73.8% were reported by farmers due to drought stress occurring mainly during grain filling stage. The majority of the respondent farmers (>50%) planted wheat in early July using the broadcasting method. Their land was of medium fertility, and the application of inorganic fertilizer was suboptimal. Due to crop failures by intense drought conditions in the study areas, above 50% of the respondent farmers had not expressed coping strategies against drought stress except resorting to government food aid. However, about 22% of the respondent farmers reported improved agronomic practices, such as the cultivation of early maturing wheat varieties and soil and water conservation methods as sustainable solutions to mitigate against drought. Therefore, current and future wheat breeding in Ethiopia should target drought and heat stress tolerance and adaptive crop traits as ideal coping strategies under low input agriculture systems for sustainable wheat production and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Key Bio-Temperature Indicators and Their Effects on Vegetation Dynamics in the Great Lakes Region of Central Asia
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122948 - 20 Jun 2022
Abstract
Dryland ecosystems are fragile to climate change due to harsh environmental conditions. Climate change affects vegetation growth primarily by altering some key bio-temperature thresholds. Key bio-temperatures are closely related to vegetation growth, and slight changes could produce substantial effects on ecosystem structure and [...] Read more.
Dryland ecosystems are fragile to climate change due to harsh environmental conditions. Climate change affects vegetation growth primarily by altering some key bio-temperature thresholds. Key bio-temperatures are closely related to vegetation growth, and slight changes could produce substantial effects on ecosystem structure and function. Therefore, this study selected the number of days with daily mean temperature above 0 °C (DT0), 5 °C (DT5), 10 °C (DT10), 20 °C (DT20), the start of growing season (SGS), the end of growing season (EGS), and the length of growing season (LGS) as bio-temperature indicators to analyze the response of vegetation dynamics to climate change in the Great Lakes Region of Central Asia (GLRCA) for the period 1982–2014. On the regional scale, DT0, DT5, DT10, and DT20 exhibited an overall increasing trend. Spatially, most of the study area showed that the negative correlation between DT0, DT5, DT10, DT20 with the annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) increased with increasing bio-temperature thresholds. In particular, more than 88.3% of the study area showed a negative correlation between annual NDVI and DT20, as increased DT20 exacerbated ecosystem drought. Moreover, SGS exhibited a significantly advanced trend at a rate of −0.261 days/year for the regional scale, while EGS experienced a significantly delayed trend at a rate of 0.164 days/year. Because of changes in SGS and EGS, LGS across the GLRCA was extended at a rate of 0.425 days/year, which was mainly attributed to advanced SGS. In addition, our study revealed that about 53.6% of the study area showed a negative correlation between annual NDVI and LGS, especially in the north, indicating a negative effect of climate warming on vegetation growth in the drylands. Overall, the results of this study will help predict the response of vegetation to future climate change in the GLRCA, and support decision-making for implementing effective ecosystem management in arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Coupling Coordination and Spatiotemporal Evolution between Carbon Emissions, Industrial Structure, and Regional Innovation of Counties in Shandong Province
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7484; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127484 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Industrial structure and regional innovation have a significant impact on emissions. This study explores, from the multivariate coupling and spatial perspectives, the degree of coupling coordination between three factors: industrial structure, carbon emissions, and regional innovation of 97 counties in Shandong Province, China [...] Read more.
Industrial structure and regional innovation have a significant impact on emissions. This study explores, from the multivariate coupling and spatial perspectives, the degree of coupling coordination between three factors: industrial structure, carbon emissions, and regional innovation of 97 counties in Shandong Province, China from 2000 to 2017. On the basis of global spatial autocorrelation and cold and hot spots, this article analyzes the spatial characteristics and aggregation effects of coupled and coordinated development within each region. The results are as follows. (1) The coupling degree between carbon emissions, industrial structure, and regional innovation in these counties fluctuated upward from 2000 to 2017. Coupling coordination progressed from low coordination to basic coordination. Regional differences in coupling coordination degree are evident, showing a stepped spatial distribution pattern with high levels in the east and low levels in the west. (2) During the study period, the coupling coordination showed a positive correlation in spatial distribution. Moran’s I varies from 0.057 to 0.305 on a global basis. Spatial clustering is characterized by agglomeration of cold spots and hot spots. (3) The coupling coordination exhibited significant spatial differentiation. The hot spots were distributed in the eastern part, while the cold spots were located in the western part. The results of this study suggest that the counties in Shandong Province should promote industrial structure upgrades and enhance regional innovation to reduce carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variation and Driving Factors of Embodied Carbon in China-G7 Trade
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7478; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127478 - 19 Jun 2022
Abstract
China and G7 countries contribute 70% global GDP and 55% global carbon emissions. The carbon leakage between China and G7 is a crucial issue in achieving the synergetic emission abatement globally. The motivation of this study is to evaluate the embodied carbon transfer [...] Read more.
China and G7 countries contribute 70% global GDP and 55% global carbon emissions. The carbon leakage between China and G7 is a crucial issue in achieving the synergetic emission abatement globally. The motivation of this study is to evaluate the embodied carbon transfer between China and G7 in the trade between 2000 and 2014, and investigate the driving factors that impact the embodied carbon trend. A multiregional input–output (MRIO) model based on the WIOD database is constructed, and a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is employed. The results indicate that China plays the role of net exporter of embodied carbon in trade with G7, which mainly flows to the US (5825.67 Mt), Japan (3170.36 Mt) and Germany (1409.93 Mt). However, China’s embodied carbon exports to the G7 show an inverted U-shaped trend with a turning point after financial crisis, while the G7’s embodied carbon exports to China continue to rise. The conclusion is that to achieve the climate goal of carbon neutrality, it is not enough to rely solely on the low-carbon transition on the production side, the demand side should also be adjusted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Study on Eco-Environmental Effects of Land-Use Transitions and Their Influencing Factors in the Central and Southern Liaoning Urban Agglomeration: A Production–Living–Ecological Perspective
Land 2022, 11(6), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060937 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 3
Abstract
From the perspective of the production–living–ecological space, this paper reclassifies the land-use categories in the central and southern Liaoning urban agglomeration in the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018. It then quantitatively analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of land-use transitions by adopting the [...] Read more.
From the perspective of the production–living–ecological space, this paper reclassifies the land-use categories in the central and southern Liaoning urban agglomeration in the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018. It then quantitatively analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of land-use transitions by adopting the land-use transfer matrix and other methods. This paper further uses the eco-environmental quality index and ecological contribution rate to explore the eco-environmental effects of the land-use transition. Finally, it identifies the influencing factors of the eco-environmental effect and the spatial differentiation law of the effect in the study area through the multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model. The main conclusions reached are as follows: (1) During the study period, a slow increase was seen in the ecological land of the central and southern Liaoning urban agglomeration. A sharp decline occurred in the production land, and a rapid rise was found in the living land. (2) From 1990 to 2018, the eco-environmental quality index in the study region showed significant spatial differentiation, with the distribution characteristics being high in the east and low in the west. The areas have expanded and spread along the Shenyang-Dalian axis to form medium-low quality agglomerations. The encroachment of agricultural production land and urban and rural living land on forest ecological land is the main contributor to the deterioration of the eco-environmental quality during the study period. (3) Compared with the geographically weighted regression model and the ordinary least squares model, a remarkable advancement can be seen in the MGWR model, which is more suitable for research on the influencing factors of eco-environmental quality. In addition, different influencing factors have significant spatial differences in the degree and scale of impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Dynamic Monitoring of Desertification in Ningdong Based on Landsat Images and Machine Learning
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7470; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127470 - 18 Jun 2022
Abstract
The ecological stability of mining areas in Northwest China has been threatened by desertification for a long time. Remote sensing information combined with machine learning algorithms can effectively monitor and evaluate desertification. However, due to the fact that the geological environment of a [...] Read more.
The ecological stability of mining areas in Northwest China has been threatened by desertification for a long time. Remote sensing information combined with machine learning algorithms can effectively monitor and evaluate desertification. However, due to the fact that the geological environment of a mining area is easily affected by factors such as resource exploitation, it is challenging to accurately grasp the development process of desertification in a mining area. In order to better play the role of remote sensing technology and machine learning algorithms in the monitoring of desertification in mining areas, based on Landsat images, we used a variety of machine learning algorithms and feature combinations to monitor desertification in Ningdong coal base. The performance of each monitoring model was evaluated by various performance indexes. Then, the optimal monitoring model was selected to extract the long-time desertification information of the base, and the spatial-temporal characteristics of desertification were discussed in many aspects. Finally, the factors driving desertification change were quantitatively studied. The results showed that random forest with the best feature combination had better recognition performance than other monitoring models. Its accuracy was 87.2%, kappa was 0.825, Macro-F1 was 0.851, and AUC was 0.961. In 2003–2017, desertification land in Ningdong increased first and then slowly improved. In 2021, the desertification situation deteriorated. The driving force analysis showed that human economic activities such as coal mining have become the dominant factor in controlling the change of desert in Ningdong coal base, and the change of rainfall plays an auxiliary role. The study comprehensively analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics and driving factors of desertification in Ningdong coal base. It can provide a scientific basis for combating desertification and for the construction of green mines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
The Spatial-Temporal Evolution of China’s Carbon Emission Intensity and the Analysis of Regional Emission Reduction Potential under the Carbon Emissions Trading Mechanism
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7442; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127442 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is of great significance to study the regional differences and temporal and spatial evolution of China’s carbon emission intensity under the carbon emissions trading mechanism, and to explore the potential for regional emission reduction. This paper uses the Theil index and Moran [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to study the regional differences and temporal and spatial evolution of China’s carbon emission intensity under the carbon emissions trading mechanism, and to explore the potential for regional emission reduction. This paper uses the Theil index and Moran index to analyze the regional differences and temporal and spatial evolution trend of carbon emission intensity in China from 2010 to 2019, further constructs the emission reduction effect standard of carbon emissions trading mechanisms, discusses the emission reduction effect of the trading mechanisms, and measures the regional emission reduction potential according to the environmental learning curve. The results showed that: (1) China’s overall carbon emissions continued to increase, but the carbon emission intensity showed an overall decreasing trend. There are strong regional differences in China’s carbon emission intensity. The carbon emission intensity in the western region is higher, and the overall regional difference is decreasing year by year. (2) China’s carbon emissions trading mechanism has a significant reduction effect, but the total quota slack of the Tianjin, Beijing, and Chongqing carbon emissions trading pilot markets is loose. (3) Shanghai, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Beijing are high-efficiency carbon emission reduction provinces (more than 35%), and Fujian and Xinjiang are low-efficiency carbon emission reduction provinces (less than 15%). It is necessary to further develop the demonstration effect of high emission reduction potential areas and increase the emission reduction efforts in low emission reduction potential areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
A Dynamic Perspective on the Gender Diversity–Firms’ Environmental Performances Nexus: Evidence from the Energy Industry
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7346; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127346 - 15 Jun 2022
Abstract
We explore the role that a country’s economic and political uncertainty plays in shaping its environmental performance. We put emphasis on the role played by gender diversity in the board of firms, and we address two limitations characterizing the literature on the topic: [...] Read more.
We explore the role that a country’s economic and political uncertainty plays in shaping its environmental performance. We put emphasis on the role played by gender diversity in the board of firms, and we address two limitations characterizing the literature on the topic: (i) the use of static modelling that prevents identifying static and dynamic endogeneity and (ii) the assumption that the relationship is linear, which prevents accounting for the factors that affect the magnitude and the shape of this nexus. Using a System-GMM approach, we find evidence that gender diversity is associated positively with firms’ environmental results. Furthermore, the intensity of this relationship is increasing in gender diversity, and more importantly, the effect tends to be greater in less uncertain countries. These findings are of first importance in terms of the policy. Improving environmental quality can be achieved cost-effectively through the promotion of gender diversity, along with building/strengthening institutions to mitigate the effects of economic and political uncertainty. The benefits of these actions can support an effective implementation of the UN SDGs related to gender equality (Goal 5) and several environment-related SDGs (Goal 13 and Goal 15). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Rural Carbon Emissions in Ecologically Fragile Energy Areas—Taking Ejin Horo Banner in Inner Mongolia as an Example
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7126; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127126 - 10 Jun 2022
Abstract
To achieve carbon neutrality in our country, studying the carbon emissions of rural residents in ecologically fragile energy areas is an important way to scientifically explore a green and low-carbon development mechanism of rural regional systems. Taking Ejin Horo Banner as an example, [...] Read more.
To achieve carbon neutrality in our country, studying the carbon emissions of rural residents in ecologically fragile energy areas is an important way to scientifically explore a green and low-carbon development mechanism of rural regional systems. Taking Ejin Horo Banner as an example, and based on the survey data drawn from it, this paper analyzes the characteristics and mechanism of carbon emissions in rural regional systems by using the methods of the carbon emissions factor method and multiple stepwise regression. The result showed that: (1) in the total composition of carbon emissions in Ejin Horo Banner, the sources of rural carbon emissions had remarkable characteristics. Energy consumption and livestock and poultry breeding accounted for the largest proportion, 63.89% and 22.72%, respectively. (2) In the family attributes of the rural villages in Ejin Horo Banner, the two factors that had the greatest correlation with the total carbon emissions were age and income. In energy consumption, the largest correlation coefficient with carbon emissions was 0.804 for coal, and the lowest was 0.550 for gasoline. In agricultural inputs, chemical fertilizer had the strongest correlation with carbon emissions, with a correlation coefficient of 0.734, and irrigation had the weakest, with a correlation coefficient of 0.657. In livestock production, cattle had the strongest correlation with carbon emissions, with a correlation coefficient of 0.724. In family life, the factors of daily diet consumption had a strong correlation with carbon emissions, among which the highest was the liquor consumption at 0.784, and the lowest was wastewater treatment at 0.442. (3) The multiple stepwise regression result showed that in the three production and living sectors of energy consumption, agricultural and animal husbandry investment, and household life, 21 factors had a significant predictive power on the carbon emissions in the rural regional systems of Ejin Horo Banner. Through the analysis, it was found that accelerating the popularization of green energy-saving technology, promoting the transformation of rural traditional energy utilization, improving energy efficiency, and advocating a green lifestyle are the important ways to realize rural green development in ecologically fragile energy areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Empowering the Voiceless: Securing the Participation of Marginalised Groups in Climate Change Governance in South Africa
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7111; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127111 - 10 Jun 2022
Abstract
For many of the world’s poor people, adaptation to climate change is not a choice but a reality. Existing evidence suggests that the poor, particularly those in the developing world, are the most vulnerable to any changes in climate variability and change. Using [...] Read more.
For many of the world’s poor people, adaptation to climate change is not a choice but a reality. Existing evidence suggests that the poor, particularly those in the developing world, are the most vulnerable to any changes in climate variability and change. Using research methods inspired by the tradition of participatory research, we explore and discuss community perceptions on climate change adaptation governance in South Africa. We examine the myriad ways in which climate change adaptation policies and strategies are developed, and we systematically discuss the factors which either facilitate or hamper the involvement of all stakeholders in the development of these intervention measures. Our findings indicate that women seem to be the group of people who are mostly unaware of community initiatives, policies, and strategies for the adaptation to climate change. Thus, it is argued that, although South Africa has developed good climate change initiatives, policies, and strategies, the implementation of these policies seems to present difficulties, as those for whom they have been developed do not seem to have any knowledge of their effectiveness in helping them build resilience against extreme weather events. This study recommends that, in order to achieve successful public participation in climate change adaptation policy development, there must be an all-inclusive system which incorporates all stakeholders, including vulnerable groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Walking Accessibility to the Bus Stop: Does It Affect Residential Rents? The Case of Jinan, China
Land 2022, 11(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060860 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is a crucial question to understand the relationship between public transit and residential rents for the proposal of a sustainable transportation system and efficient allocation of lands during the policy marking process. Little has been discovered in the current literature regarding the [...] Read more.
It is a crucial question to understand the relationship between public transit and residential rents for the proposal of a sustainable transportation system and efficient allocation of lands during the policy marking process. Little has been discovered in the current literature regarding the impact of the bus system on residential rents. This study investigated walking accessibility to the bus stop based on the average daily on-ridership data of bus stops and street networks in Jinan, China, and analysed the impact on the spatial differentiation of residential rents using the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method. Our results suggested that residential rent levels in Jinan had evident spatial dependence and spatial differentiation characteristics, which was signified by a significant high rent, and a high accessibility distribution pattern surrounding both city and sub-city centres. GWR results further showed that walking accessibility to the bus stop could significantly improve residential rents. On the spatial scale, a 1% increase in walking accessibility could result in a premium of up to 0.427% and a 2.984% decline in rental prices. Lastly, we found that walking accessibility to the bus stop significantly affected housing rents incrementally with increasing distance between residences and the city centre. Moreover, walking accessibility to the bus stop showed a marginal ‘first increase and then decrease’ effect on residential rents as the distance to the bus stop increased. The premium effect was the most significant among residences within 500–900 m of a bus stop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Legal Aspect of Plastic Waste Management in Indonesia and Malaysia: Addressing Marine Plastic Debris
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 6985; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14126985 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Marine plastic debris is a common issue faced by the entire international community, with some countries finding it exceptionally difficult to address and combat the issue, including Indonesia and Malaysia. The two neighboring countries are ranked as the largest contributors of plastic waste [...] Read more.
Marine plastic debris is a common issue faced by the entire international community, with some countries finding it exceptionally difficult to address and combat the issue, including Indonesia and Malaysia. The two neighboring countries are ranked as the largest contributors of plastic waste in the ocean. Unmanaged plastic waste that will ultimately end up in waters and seas has become a major issue that Indonesia and Malaysia must deal with, and a firm legal approach holds a key role for both countries in solving the issue. This paper is devoted to normatively analyzing the various legal approaches that are/can be used by Indonesia and Malaysia, and to identify the problems related to such approaches. This article applies normative legal research, in which various legal instruments and other secondary legal materials are descriptively analyzed to unravel the legal issues. The main findings reveal that laws and regulations, as well as public policies that serve as a legal basis and approaches to deal with plastic waste governance in Indonesia and Malaysia, still possess some weaknesses, including the absence of distinctive provisions specifically aimed at dealing with plastic waste, the lower legal binding power of some instruments due to their soft-law nature, and the application of rather ineffective approaches. One important initial step towards actually exerting the legal approaches in governing plastic waste in both countries is to strengthen the governing structure and legal culture surrounding the management of plastic waste. Finally, this paper encourages the establishment of a bilateral agreement between Indonesia and Malaysia that will allow both countries to formulate a more legally binding framework for tackling the issues of marine waste in general and marine plastic debris in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Assessment of Genotype Stress Tolerance as an Effective Way to Sustain Wheat Production under Salinity Stress Conditions
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 6973; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14126973 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The creation of salt-tolerant wheat genotypes can provide a basis for sustainable wheat production in areas that are particularly sensitive to the impacts of climate change on soil salinity. This study aimed to select salt-tolerant wheat genotypes that could serve as a genetic [...] Read more.
The creation of salt-tolerant wheat genotypes can provide a basis for sustainable wheat production in areas that are particularly sensitive to the impacts of climate change on soil salinity. This study aimed to select salt-tolerant wheat genotypes that could serve as a genetic resource in breeding for salinity tolerance. A two-year experiment was established with 27 wheat genotypes, grown in salinity stress and non-stress conditions. Agronomic parameters (plant height, spike weight, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, and grain yield/plant) were analyzed in the phenophase of full maturity, while biochemical parameters (DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content) were tested in four phenophases. Grain yield/plant was the most sensitive parameter to salinity, with a 31.5% reduction in value. Selection based on salt tolerance indices (STI, MP, and GMP) favored the selection of the genotypes Renesansa, Harmonija, Orašanka, Bankut 1205, KG-58, and Jugoslavija. Based on YI (1.30) and stability analysis, the genotype Harmonija stands out as the most desirable genotype for cultivation in saline conditions. The presence of positive correlations between grain yield/plant and biochemical parameters, in all phenophases, enables the selection of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and high yield potential, even in the early stages of plant development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
How Positive and Negative Environmental Behaviours Influence Sustainable Tourism Intentions
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6922; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116922 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study developed and examined a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which positive and negative environmental behaviours (e.g., attitudes, destruction, conservation, and eco-friendliness) serve as a moderating mechanism that explains the link between the two critical mediating effects of escape and sustainable [...] Read more.
This study developed and examined a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which positive and negative environmental behaviours (e.g., attitudes, destruction, conservation, and eco-friendliness) serve as a moderating mechanism that explains the link between the two critical mediating effects of escape and sustainable experiences on revisit intentions. The results of a study of 483 foreign tourists provide support for our hypothesized model. First, the results showed that motivations have indirect and positive effects on revisit intentions through sustainable experiences and escape-seeking. Second, the moderating effects of positive environmental behaviours were found to be positive, while negative environmental behaviours had negative effects on the dimensions of escape and experience on revisit intentions for sustainable tourism. Third, we discussed how this interesting pattern of the moderated mediation setting could be explained by using the theoretical background and considering previous studies on sustainable tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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Article
Carbon Emission Inversion Model from Provincial to Municipal Scale Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Improved STIRPAT
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6813; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116813 - 02 Jun 2022
Abstract
Carbon emissions and consequent climate change directly affect the sustainable development of ecological environment systems and human society, which is a pertinent issue of concern for all countries globally. The construction of a carbon emission inversion model has significant theoretical importance and practical [...] Read more.
Carbon emissions and consequent climate change directly affect the sustainable development of ecological environment systems and human society, which is a pertinent issue of concern for all countries globally. The construction of a carbon emission inversion model has significant theoretical importance and practical significance for carbon emission accounting and control. Established carbon emission models usually adopt socio-economic parameters or energy statistics to calculate carbon emissions. However, high-precision estimates of carbon emissions in administrative regions lacking energy statistics are difficult. This problem is especially prominent in small-scale regions. Methods to accurately estimate carbon emissions in small-scale regions are needed. Based on nighttime light remote-sensing data and the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology) model, combined with the environmental Kuznets curve, this paper proposes an ISTIRPAT (Improved Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology) model. Through the improved STIRPAT model (ISTIRPAT) and panel data regression, provincial carbon emission inventory data were downscaled to the municipal level, and municipal scale carbon emission inventories were obtained. This study took the 17 cities and prefectures of Hubei Province, China, as an example to verify the accuracy of the model. Carbon emissions for 17 cities and prefectures from 2012 to 2018 calculated from the original STIRPAT model and the ISTIRPAT model were compared with real values. The results show that using the ISTIRPAT model to downscale the provincial carbon emission inventory to the municipal level, the inversion accuracy reached 0.9, which was higher than that of the original model. Overall, carbon emissions in Hubei Province showed an upward trend. Regarding the spatial distribution, the main carbon emission area was formed in the central part of Hubei Province as a ring-shaped mountain peak. The lowest carbon emissions in the central area expanded outward, increased, and gradually decreased to the edge of the province. The overall composition of carbon emissions in eastern Hubei was higher than those in western Hubei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
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