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Article

Suitability of Different Methods for Measuring Black Carbon Emissions from Marine Engines

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VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 Espoo, Finland
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Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, 33100 Tampere, Finland
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Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
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DMPE, ONERA, Université Paris Saclay, CEDEX, 91123 Palaiseau, France
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Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Baojie He, Ayyoob Sharifi, Chi Feng and Jun Yang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010031
Received: 1 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 26 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
Black carbon (BC) emissions intensify global warming and are linked to adverse health effects. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) considers the impact of BC emissions from international shipping. A prerequisite for the anticipated limits to BC emissions from marine engines is a reliable measurement method. The three candidate methods (photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), laser-induced incandescence (LII), and filter smoke number (FSN)) selected by the IMO were evaluated with extensive ship exhaust matrices obtained by different fuels, engines, and emission control devices. A few instruments targeted for atmospheric measurements were included as well. The BC concentrations were close to each other with the smoke meters (AVL 415S and 415SE), PAS (AVL MSS), LII (Artium-300), MAAP 5012, aethalometers (Magee AE-33 and AE-42), and EC (TOA). In most cases, the standard deviation between instruments was in the range of 5–15% at BC concentrations below 30 mg Sm−3. Some differences in the BC concentrations measured with these instruments were potentially related to the ratio of light-absorbing compounds to sulphates or to particle sizes and morphologies. In addition, calibrations, sampling, and correction of thermophoretic loss of BC explained differences in the BC results. However, overall differences in the BC results obtained with three candidate methods selected by the IMO were low despite challenging exhaust compositions from marine diesel engines. Findings will inform decision making on BC emission control from marine engines. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine engine emissions; black carbon; instrumental comparison; smoke meter; FSN; PAS; LII; MAAP; aethalometer; EC TOA marine engine emissions; black carbon; instrumental comparison; smoke meter; FSN; PAS; LII; MAAP; aethalometer; EC TOA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aakko-Saksa, P.; Kuittinen, N.; Murtonen, T.; Koponen, P.; Aurela, M.; Järvinen, A.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Barreira, L.M.F.; Salo, L.; Karjalainen, P.; Ortega, I.K.; Delhaye, D.; Lehtoranta, K.; Vesala, H.; Jalava, P.; Rönkkö, T.; Timonen, H. Suitability of Different Methods for Measuring Black Carbon Emissions from Marine Engines. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010031

AMA Style

Aakko-Saksa P, Kuittinen N, Murtonen T, Koponen P, Aurela M, Järvinen A, Teinilä K, Saarikoski S, Barreira LMF, Salo L, Karjalainen P, Ortega IK, Delhaye D, Lehtoranta K, Vesala H, Jalava P, Rönkkö T, Timonen H. Suitability of Different Methods for Measuring Black Carbon Emissions from Marine Engines. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(1):31. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010031

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aakko-Saksa, Päivi, Niina Kuittinen, Timo Murtonen, Päivi Koponen, Minna Aurela, Anssi Järvinen, Kimmo Teinilä, Sanna Saarikoski, Luis M.F. Barreira, Laura Salo, Panu Karjalainen, Ismael K. Ortega, David Delhaye, Kati Lehtoranta, Hannu Vesala, Pasi Jalava, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen. 2022. "Suitability of Different Methods for Measuring Black Carbon Emissions from Marine Engines" Atmosphere 13, no. 1: 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010031

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