Next Article in Journal
Is Organic Food Becoming Less Safe? A Longitudinal Analysis of Conventional and Organic Product Recalls
Previous Article in Journal
Approaches and Policies to Promote Zero-Waste City Construction: China’s Practices and Lessons
 
 
Article

Heavy Metal Contamination and Human Health Implications in the Chan Thnal Reservoir, Cambodia

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
3
Chemistry for Green Society and Healthy Living Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Baojie He
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13538; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413538
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 7 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability)
Chan Thnal reservoir, built during the Pol Pot period, is the major water source for the people in Krang Chek commune, Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. Metal pollution caused by agricultural activities, improper wastewater treatment, and municipal waste disposal poses serious environmental health problems. In this study, the concentrations of four potential toxic metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) from six locations across the reservoir were investigated both in the water and sediment. The results reflected progressive deterioration and indicated moderate to heavy pollution from the metals. The metal levels in the water were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The statistical analysis revealed primary sources of heavy metals contamination in the water. Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb in the water likely originate from anthropogenic activities including agricultural runoff (i.e., the use of fertilizers and pesticides) and urban runoff (i.e., improper wastewater discharge and waste disposal). Among the four metals, the Pb levels in the water significantly exceeded the guideline for drinking water in all locations. The health risk assessment revealed serious non-carcinogenic risks of Pb intake in the children at the age below 10 and infants. Appropriate control and protection strategies are urgently needed to cut off the main Pb exposure pathway in pregnant women, children, and infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; pollution; ecological risk; source analysis; health risk assessment; Chan Thnal reservoir heavy metals; pollution; ecological risk; source analysis; health risk assessment; Chan Thnal reservoir
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chheang, L.; Thongkon, N.; Sriwiriyarat, T.; Thanasupsin, S.P. Heavy Metal Contamination and Human Health Implications in the Chan Thnal Reservoir, Cambodia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13538. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413538

AMA Style

Chheang L, Thongkon N, Sriwiriyarat T, Thanasupsin SP. Heavy Metal Contamination and Human Health Implications in the Chan Thnal Reservoir, Cambodia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(24):13538. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413538

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chheang, Lita, Nisakorn Thongkon, Tongchai Sriwiriyarat, and Sudtida Pliankarom Thanasupsin. 2021. "Heavy Metal Contamination and Human Health Implications in the Chan Thnal Reservoir, Cambodia" Sustainability 13, no. 24: 13538. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413538

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop