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Open AccessArticle
Day-Ahead Hierarchical Steady State Optimal Operation for Integrated Energy System Based on Energy Hub
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102765 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The integrated energy system (IES) has the characteristic of energy system integrated/multi-energy coupling that involves heat, cooling, electricity, natural gas, and various other energy forms, which can maximize the synergistic effects and complementary benefits among various energy forms and their comprehensive utilization. In
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The integrated energy system (IES) has the characteristic of energy system integrated/multi-energy coupling that involves heat, cooling, electricity, natural gas, and various other energy forms, which can maximize the synergistic effects and complementary benefits among various energy forms and their comprehensive utilization. In this paper, based on energy hub (EH), the day-ahead hierarchical steady state optimal operation for IES is discussed, in which the coupling natural gas system, electricity transmission system, and district heating system are all considered. Firstly, the model architecture of EH with diverse storage devices, renewable energy, and different energy conversion equipment is proposed and the steady state mathematical model of different energy networks in IES is developed, respectively. Secondly, the day-ahead operating cost of EH is minimized by an optimizing strategy to maximize the benefits of all kinds of energy demand users, where different types of energy power input into EH can be obtained. Then, the day-ahead optimal operation mode for IES considering minimization of operating fuel cost index is proposed via an energy management system, which provides various energy power data that are uploaded from EH. Finally, numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness and usefulness of the day-ahead hierarchical optimal operation and steady state calculation analysis for IES, which could further illustrate that the proposed optimal operation can meet the requirements of practical engineering applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulations of Moisture Gradients in Wood Subjected to Changes in Relative Humidity and Temperature Due to Climate Change
Geosciences 2018, 8(10), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8100378 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Climate change is a growing threat to cultural heritage buildings and objects. Objects housed in historic buildings are at risk because the indoor environments in these buildings are difficult to control and often influenced by the outdoor climate. Hygroscopic materials, such as wood,
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Climate change is a growing threat to cultural heritage buildings and objects. Objects housed in historic buildings are at risk because the indoor environments in these buildings are difficult to control and often influenced by the outdoor climate. Hygroscopic materials, such as wood, will gain and release moisture during changes in relative humidity and temperature. These changes cause swelling and shrinkage, which may result in permanent damage. To increase the knowledge of climate-induced damage to heritage objects, it is essential to monitor moisture transport in wood. Simulation models need to be developed and improved to predict the influence of climate change. In a previous work, relative humidity and temperature was monitored at different depths inside wooden samples subjected to fluctuating climate over time. In this article, two methods, the hygrothermal building simulation software WUFI® Pro and the Simplified model, were compared in relation to the measured data. The conclusion was that both methods can simulate moisture diffusion and transport in wooden object with a sufficient accuracy. Using the two methods for predicted climate change data show that the mean RH inside wood is rather constant, but the RH minimum and maximum vary with the predicted scenario and the type of building used for the simulation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Soil Arthropod Abundance and Community Structure across a Poplar Plantation Chronosequence in Reclaimed Coastal Saline Soil
Forests 2018, 9(10), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9100644 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Poplar plantations have the capacity to improve the properties of soils in muddy coastal areas; however, our understanding of the impacts of plantation development on soil arthropods remains limited. For this study, we determined the community dynamics of soil dwelling arthropods across poplar
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Poplar plantations have the capacity to improve the properties of soils in muddy coastal areas; however, our understanding of the impacts of plantation development on soil arthropods remains limited. For this study, we determined the community dynamics of soil dwelling arthropods across poplar plantations of different ages (5-, 10-, and 21-years) over the course of one year in Eastern Coastal China. The total abundance of soil arthropods differed with stand development. Further, there were some interactions that involved the sampling date. On average, total abundance was highest in the 10-year-old stands and lowest in the 5-year-old stands. Total abundance exhibited strong age-dependent trends in June and September, but not in March or December. The abundance of Prostigmata and Oribatida increased in the 5- to 21-year-old stands, with the highest levels being in the 10-year-old stands. The abundance of Collembola increased with stand development; however, the stand age had no significant impact on the abundance of epedapic, hemiedaphic, and euedaphic Collembola. Order richness (Hill number q = 0) curve confidence intervals overlapped among three stand ages. Shannon and Simpson diversity (Hill numbers q = 1 and q = 2) differed between 10- and 21-year-old stand age. They showed almost similar trends, and the highest and lowest values were recorded in the 21- and 10-year-old stand ages, respectively. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated that composition also varied significantly with the sampling date and stand age, and the 10-year-old stands that were sampled in June stood well-separated from the others. Indicator analysis revealed that Scolopendromorpha and Prostigmata were indicators in June for the 10-year-old stands, while Collembola were indicators for the 21-year-old stands sampled in September. Our results highlight that both stand development and climate seasonality can significantly impact soil arthropod community dynamics in the reclaimed coastal saline soils of managed poplar plantations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Simulation of Detailed Turbulent Water by Preserving the Thin Sheets of Fluid
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100502 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
When we perform particle-based water simulation, water particles are often increased dramatically because of particle splitting around breaking holes to maintain the thin fluid sheets. Because most of the existing approaches do not consider the volume of the water particles, the water particles
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When we perform particle-based water simulation, water particles are often increased dramatically because of particle splitting around breaking holes to maintain the thin fluid sheets. Because most of the existing approaches do not consider the volume of the water particles, the water particles must have a very low mass to satisfy the law of the conservation of mass. This phenomenon smears the motion of the water, which would otherwise result in splashing, thereby resulting in artifacts such as numerical dissipation. Thus, we propose a new fluid-implicit, particle-based framework for maintaining and representing the thin sheets and turbulent flows of water. After splitting the water particles, the proposed method uses the ghost density and ghost mass to redistribute the difference in mass based on the volume of the water particles. Next, small-scale turbulent flows are formed in local regions and transferred in a smooth manner to the global flow field. Our results show us the turbulence details as well as the thin sheets of water, thereby obtaining an aesthetically pleasing improvement compared with existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oviposition Preferences and Behavior of Wild-Caught and Laboratory-Reared Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in Relation to Substrate Particle Size
Insects 2018, 9(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040141 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB), Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become one of the most important coconut and oil palm pests. This species was detected attacking coconut palms on Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi in December 2013, and an eradication program was initiated. One of
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The coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB), Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become one of the most important coconut and oil palm pests. This species was detected attacking coconut palms on Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi in December 2013, and an eradication program was initiated. One of the major challenges for eradication has been the identification of new breeding sites. Information on the factors influencing oviposition is needed to aid in finding sites likely to host the immature stages of this insect. In this study, a series of choice tests were conducted to assess the oviposition preferences of both laboratory-reared and wild-caught CRB. Mated females, of both lab-reared and wild-caught beetles, were offered for oviposition a choice between sand and two mulch substrates, one with small and one with large particle sizes. Both types of CRB laid eggs preferentially in substrate of small particle size rather than large and none laid eggs in sand. Lab-reared and wild-caught CRB differed in their oviposition behavior and size. These results can be used to aid in the identification of breeding sites for management programs and eradication efforts. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Altered Dairy Protein Intake Does Not Alter Circulatory Branched Chain Amino Acids in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101510 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Dairy, as a major component of a high protein diet, is a critical dietary source of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), which are biomarkers of health and diseases. While BCAA are known to be key stimulators of protein synthesis, elevated circulatory BCAA is
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Dairy, as a major component of a high protein diet, is a critical dietary source of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), which are biomarkers of health and diseases. While BCAA are known to be key stimulators of protein synthesis, elevated circulatory BCAA is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the impact of altered dairy intake on plasma BCAA and their potential relationship to insulin sensitivity. Healthy adults (n = 102) were randomized to receive dietary advice to reduce, maintain, or increase habitual dairy intake for 1 month. Food intake was recorded with food frequency questionnaires. Self-reported protein intake from dairy was reported to be reduced (−14.6 ± 3.0 g/day), maintained (−4.0 ± 2.0 g/day) or increased (+13.8 ± 4.1 g/day) according to group allocation. No significant alterations in circulating free amino acids (AA), including BCAA, were measured. Insulin sensitivity, as assessed by homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), was also unaltered. A significant change in dairy protein intake showed no significant effect on fasting circulatory BCAA and insulin sensitivity in healthy populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Landslide Disasters Triggered by Extreme Rainfall Events: The Case of Montescaglioso (Basilicata, Southern Italy)
Geosciences 2018, 8(10), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8100377 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We present the results of the study of a large and rapid landslide disaster event, which occurred in Montescaglioso, southern Italy, on 3 December 2013. The studied landslide developed following extreme rainfalls in a zone characterized by a stabilized paleo-landslide body and anthropized
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We present the results of the study of a large and rapid landslide disaster event, which occurred in Montescaglioso, southern Italy, on 3 December 2013. The studied landslide developed following extreme rainfalls in a zone characterized by a stabilized paleo-landslide body and anthropized in time, filling some streams of the original hydrographic network. The morpho-topographic setting characterizing the slope before the new landslide, has showed, in fact, a substantial stability confirmed also by the application of SINMAP (Stability Index MAPping) analysis. Nevertheless, heavy rains and floods caused a powerful and spectacular landslide event because of the anthropic removal of the old drainage network, which has caused the heaviness of the slope located upstream of the 20 collapsed buildings and along the ill-drained quick-road, built transversely to the slope. Full article
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