237 journals awarded Impact Factor
 
 
17 pages, 1363 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Biocompatibility of High-Transparency Zirconia Abutments with Human Gingival Fibroblasts via Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment: An In Vitro Study
by Miao Zheng, Xinrong Ma, Jianguo Tan, Hengxin Zhao, Yang Yang, Xinyi Ye, Mingyue Liu and Heping Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15070200 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment on the biological behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured on the surface of high-transparency zirconia. Two types of zirconia, 3Y-ZTP and 4Y-PSZ, were subjected to a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment on the biological behavior of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured on the surface of high-transparency zirconia. Two types of zirconia, 3Y-ZTP and 4Y-PSZ, were subjected to a CAP treatment for various treatment durations. Analyses of the physical and chemical properties of 3Y-ZTP and 4Y-PSZ were conducted using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, both before and after CAP treatment. The biological responses of HGFs on both surfaces were assessed using CCK-8 assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time PCR. Initially, the oxygen and hydroxyl contents on the surface of 4Y-PSZ exceeded those on 3Y-ZTP. CAP treatment enhanced the surface hydrophilicity and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of 4Y-PSZ, while not altering the surface morphology. After CAP treatment, HGFs’ adhesion on 4Y-PSZ was superior, with more pronounced effects compared to 3Y-ZTP. Notably, HGFs counts and the expression of adhesion-related genes on 4Y-PSZ peaked following the CAP exposures for 30 s and 60 s. Consequently, this study demonstrates that, following identical CAP treatments, 4Y-PSZ is more effective in promoting HGFs adhesion compared to traditional 3Y-ZTP zirconia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Properties and Modifications of Zirconia)
32 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Straw Logistics Network Optimization Considering Cost Importance and Carbon Emission under the Concept of Sustainable Development
by Jia Mao, Shiqi Zhang and Jin Liu
Sustainability 2024, 16(14), 6235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16146235 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
As biomass power generation projects progress, the supply chain of biomass resources has become a key link for the green development of biomass power facilities. The role of biomass recycling logistics in the sustainable development of biomass resources and power generation endeavors has [...] Read more.
As biomass power generation projects progress, the supply chain of biomass resources has become a key link for the green development of biomass power facilities. The role of biomass recycling logistics in the sustainable development of biomass resources and power generation endeavors has grown increasingly significant. To realize environmentally friendly and economical straw logistics, it is imperative to establish an efficient, economic and sustainable straw recycling logistics network. Therefore, based on the weighting theory and top-down method, this study proposes a planning model aiming at minimum total cost and minimum carbon emission to locate the logistics network. The immune algorithm is applied to solve and analyze the proposed examples. It is concluded that under the condition that the total cost is reasonable, reducing transportation cost. The verification model can enhance the environmental and economic performance of straw logistics networks. From the perspective of theory and practice, we provide ideas for the optimization of relevant biomass logistics networks and promote the realization of low-carbon sustainable development of logistics networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosustainability and Waste Valorization)
14 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
PD-L1 Expression in Paired Samples of Rectal Cancer
by Mina Coussement, Roberta Fazio, Alessandro Audisio, Reem El Khoury, Fatima-Zahra Abbassi, Irene Assaf, Chiara Conti, Chiara Gallio, Nada Benhima, Giacomo Bregni, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Valentina Spagnolo, Geraldine Anthoine, Gabriel Liberale, Luigi Moretti, Philippe Martinive, Alain Hendlisz, Pieter Demetter and Francesco Sclafani
Cancers 2024, 16(14), 2606; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers16142606 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors and immune-related biomarkers are increasingly investigated in rectal cancer (RC). We retrospectively analysed PD-L1 expression in diagnostic biopsy and resection samples from RC patients treated at our centre between 2000 and 2020. PD-L1 immunostaining (22C3 clone) was evaluated according to [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors and immune-related biomarkers are increasingly investigated in rectal cancer (RC). We retrospectively analysed PD-L1 expression in diagnostic biopsy and resection samples from RC patients treated at our centre between 2000 and 2020. PD-L1 immunostaining (22C3 clone) was evaluated according to tumour proportion (TPS), immune cell (ICS), and the combined positive score (CPS). Eighty-three patients were included. At diagnosis, PD-L1 expression ≥1%/≥5% was observed in 15.4%/0%, 80.7%/37.4%, and 69.2%/25.6% of patients based on TPS, ICS, and CPS, respectively. At surgery, the respective figures were 4.6%/1.5%, 60.2%/32.5%, and 50.7%/26.2%. Using the 1% cut-off and regardless of the scoring system, PD-L1 was less expressed in surgery than biopsy samples (p ≤ 0.04). In paired specimens, PD-L1-ICS reduction was especially observed following neoadjuvant long-course (chemo)radiotherapy (p = 0.03). PD-L1-ICS of ≥5% in surgical samples (HR: 0.17; p = 0.02), and a biopsy-to-surgery increase in PD-L1-ICS (HR: 0.19; p = 0.04) was predictive for longer disease-free survival, while the PD-L1-ICS of either ≥1% (HR 0.28; p = 0.04) or ≥5% (HR 0.19; p = 0.03) in surgical samples and the biopsy-to-surgery increase in PD-L1-ICS (HR: 0.20; p = 0.04) were associated with better overall survival. Our study suggests that PD-L1 expression in RC is largely reflective of immune cell infiltration, and its presence/increase in surgical samples predicts better outcomes. Full article
27 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
Extracting Geoscientific Dataset Names from the Literature Based on the Hierarchical Temporal Memory Model
by Kai Wu, Zugang Chen, Xinqian Wu, Guoqing Li, Jing Li, Shaohua Wang, Haodong Wang and Hang Feng
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2024, 13(7), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi13070260 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Extracting geoscientific dataset names from the literature is crucial for building a literature–data association network, which can help readers access the data quickly through the Internet. However, the existing named-entity extraction methods have low accuracy in extracting geoscientific dataset names from unstructured text [...] Read more.
Extracting geoscientific dataset names from the literature is crucial for building a literature–data association network, which can help readers access the data quickly through the Internet. However, the existing named-entity extraction methods have low accuracy in extracting geoscientific dataset names from unstructured text because geoscientific dataset names are a complex combination of multiple elements, such as geospatial coverage, temporal coverage, scale or resolution, theme content, and version. This paper proposes a new method based on the hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) model, a brain-inspired neural network with superior performance in high-level cognitive tasks, to accurately extract geoscientific dataset names from unstructured text. First, a word-encoding method based on the Unicode values of characters for the HTM model was proposed. Then, over 12,000 dataset names were collected from geoscience data-sharing websites and encoded into binary vectors to train the HTM model. We conceived a new classifier scheme for the HTM model that decodes the predictive vector for the encoder of the next word so that the similarity of the encoders of the predictive next word and the real next word can be computed. If the similarity is greater than a specified threshold, the real next word can be regarded as part of the name, and a successive word set forms the full geoscientific dataset name. We used the trained HTM model to extract geoscientific dataset names from 100 papers. Our method achieved an F1-score of 0.727, outperforming the GPT-4- and Claude-3-based few-shot learning (FSL) method, with F1-scores of 0.698 and 0.72, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Geocomputation and Artificial Intelligence for Mapping)
21 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
Leisure Time Habits and Levels of Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents
by Juan-José Mijarra-Murillo, Beatriz Polo-Recuero, Adrián Solera-Alfonso, Alberto Arribas-Romano, Miriam Gacía-González, Sofía Laguarta-Val and José Manuel Delfa-de-la-Morena
Children 2024, 11(7), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11070883 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Childhood and adolescence are important stages of life for acquiring healthy habits. There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyles worldwide during these ages, which negatively impacts health. This is attributed, in part, to excessive time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. [...] Read more.
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Childhood and adolescence are important stages of life for acquiring healthy habits. There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyles worldwide during these ages, which negatively impacts health. This is attributed, in part, to excessive time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the time spent on sedentary behaviors and their relationship with physical activity levels in children and adolescents in the Community of Madrid. Methods: A total of 26,729 participants aged 10–17 from various schools and institutes took part in this study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) was used, and they were asked about the time they spent on different leisure time habits (specific sedentary behaviors and organized physical activity). A generalized linear model was used to analyze the association between the time spent in sedentary activities and the time spent in physical activity. Results: The results revealed that children and adolescents engage in low levels of physical activity and most of them spend considerable time in sedentary behaviors such as studying, watching television, or using social media. Completing school homework (Coef: 1.23, 95% CI: −0.51 to 2.97, p = 0.167) or using social media for more than 2 h (Coef: 1.29, 95% CI: −2.98 to 0.40, p = 0.133) compared to not dedicating time to them did not show a significant association with daily physical activity time. Watching television for more than 2 h was associated with a decrease of 2.60 min (95% CI: −4.41 to −0.78, p = 0.005). Thus, no or only irrelevant associations were found between time spent in sedentary activities and physical activity time. Conclusions: Despite the drawbacks of spending time engaging in sedentary behaviors, they seem to be compatible with physical activity levels. Therefore, it is important to continue research on physical activity adherence strategies to promote overall health and well-being. Full article
25 pages, 1607 KiB  
Article
Impact of Structural Parameters on the Collision Characteristics and Coefficient of Restitution of Soybean Particles on Harvester’s Cleaning Screens
by Xiaohu Guo, Shiguo Wang, Shuren Chen, Bin Li, Zhong Tang and Yifan Hu
Agriculture 2024, 14(7), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14071201 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Abstract: Inadequate parameter design of the cleaning device in soybean combine harvesters leads to elevated levels of machine harvesting losses and impurity rates. To provide fundamental data for the optimization of structural parameters of soybean cleaning sieves, it is of great significance [...] Read more.
Abstract: Inadequate parameter design of the cleaning device in soybean combine harvesters leads to elevated levels of machine harvesting losses and impurity rates. To provide fundamental data for the optimization of structural parameters of soybean cleaning sieves, it is of great significance to study the collision and bouncing characteristics of soybeans on the cleaning sieve surface and the impact of parameters on the coefficient of restitution (COR). The current study designed a collision platform, using soybeans at the harvest stage as the research subject. The experimental factors included drop height, wall inclination angle, wall movement speed, and wall material. Through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments, the effects of different collision parameters on the rebound trajectory and COR of soybeans were investigated. This study focuses on soybeans at the harvest stage as the test subjects. Experiments were conducted on a collision platform and recorded with a high-speed camera to capture the three-dimensional motion trajectories of the soybeans using the principle of specular reflection. Through single-factor experiments, the jumping characteristics of the soybeans on sieve surfaces with different motion characteristics were analyzed. The impact of drop height (400–650 mm), wall inclination angle (8–13°), wall movement speed (0.6–1.1 m/s), and wall material (stainless steel plates and polyurethane plates) on the coefficient of restitution (COR) was calculated and clarified. Multi-factor orthogonal experiments were conducted to determine the significance order of the different factors affecting the COR. Three-dimensional models of the soybeans and the collision platform were constructed using SolidWorks software, and the collision between the soybeans and the cleaning wall was simulated using EDEM software. The micro-forces and energy transfer during the soybean collision were analyzed. The results indicated that the COR of soybeans decreases as the drop height increases, but increases with wall inclination angle and wall movement speed. Additionally, the COR is higher when the soybeans collide with stainless steel plates compared to polyurethane plates. The order of influence of the four factors on the COR were: wall material > wall inclination angle > wall speed > drop height. This study provides important reference value for the efficient and low-loss design of cleaning devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Technology)
18 pages, 3961 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Sucrose Metabolism Genes Involved in Actinidia rufa and Their Expression Profiling during the Fruit Developmental Stages
by Yun Jia, Xu Qiang, Pengbin Dong, Ting Ren, Ying Zhang and Yanci Yang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(7), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10070772 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Soluble sugars, as an indispensable source of energy, play crucial roles in plant growth and development. However, to date, scant information about the sucrose metabolism-related gene families is available in kiwifruit (Actinidia rufa Planch). Here, we systematically identified the members of various [...] Read more.
Soluble sugars, as an indispensable source of energy, play crucial roles in plant growth and development. However, to date, scant information about the sucrose metabolism-related gene families is available in kiwifruit (Actinidia rufa Planch). Here, we systematically identified the members of various gene families encoding crucial enzymes or transporters involved in sucrose metabolism, re-analyzed their expression patterns under different fruit development stages, and determined the regulatory mechanism involving key transcription factors. A total of sixty-two genes from six gene families (thirty-one ArINVs, two ArSPPs, four ArSPSs, nine ArSUSs, six ArSUCs/SUTs, and ten ArSWEETs) were identified in the A. rufa genome. The characterization of these members, including gene structure, motifs, conserved domains, and cis-acting elements, were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these gene families could be categorized into six distinct subgroups. These six gene families have undergone strong purifying selection during domestication. In addition, expression analysis of the 62 genes indicated that differential expression patterns are highly regulated by developmental processes. Specifically, we identified 11 transcription factors that were rigorously correlated (r > 0.98) with key gene expression profiles. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in kiwifruit, which provides useful information for further functional analysis of these genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
10 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Depression Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Mortality among Breast Cancer Survivors: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey–National Death Index Linked Study
by Jagdish Khubchandani, Srikanta Banerjee, Kavita Batra and May A. Beydoun
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14070732 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) and depression are globally prevalent problems. Numerous reviews have indicated the high prevalence of depression among BC survivors. However, the long-term impact of depression on survival among BC survivors has not been well explored. For this investigation, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) and depression are globally prevalent problems. Numerous reviews have indicated the high prevalence of depression among BC survivors. However, the long-term impact of depression on survival among BC survivors has not been well explored. For this investigation, we aimed to explore the relationship between BC, depression, and mortality from a national random sample of adult American women. Data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (years 2005–2010) were linked with mortality data from the National Death Index up to December 31st, 2019. A total of 4719 adult women (ages 45 years and older) were included in the study sample with 5.1% having breast cancer and more than a tenth (12.7%) having depression. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality risk among those with BC was 1.50 (95%CI = 1.05–2.13) compared to those without BC. In the adjusted analysis, the risk of all-cause mortality was highest among women with both depression and BC (HR = 3.04; 95%CI = 1.15–8.05) compared to those without BC or depression. The relationship between BC and mortality was moderated by cardiovascular diseases, anemia, smoking, age, PIR, and marital status. Our analysis provides vital information on factors that could be helpful for interventions to reduce mortality risk among those with BC and depression. In addition, given the higher risk of mortality with co-occurring BC and depression, collaborative healthcare practices should help with widespread screening for and treatment of depression among BC survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research on Mood Disorders: Opportunities and Challenges)
16 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgY Antibodies: Production, Reactivity, and Neutralizing Capability against Virus Variants
by Jacob Schön, Andrea Aebischer, Nico Joël Halwe, Lorenz Ulrich, Donata Hoffmann, Sven Reiche, Martin Beer and Christian Grund
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(14), 7976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25147976 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 initiated a global pandemic, which led to a need for effective therapeutics and diagnostic tools, including virus-specific antibodies. Here, we investigate different antigen preparations to produce SARS-CoV-2-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies in chickens (n = 3/antigen) and [...] Read more.
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 initiated a global pandemic, which led to a need for effective therapeutics and diagnostic tools, including virus-specific antibodies. Here, we investigate different antigen preparations to produce SARS-CoV-2-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies in chickens (n = 3/antigen) and rabbits (n = 2/antigen), exploring, in particular, egg yolk for large-scale production of immunoglobulin Y (IgY). Reactivity profiles of IgY preparations from chicken sera and yolk and rabbit sera were tested in parallel. We compared three types of antigens based on ancestral SARS-CoV-2: an inactivated whole-virus preparation, an S1 spike-protein subunit (S1 antigen) and a receptor-binding domain (RBD antigen, amino acids 319–519) coated on lumazine synthase (LS) particles using SpyCather/SpyTag technology. The RBD antigen proved to be the most efficient immunogen, and the resulting chicken IgY antibodies derived from serum or yolk, displayed strong reactivity with ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence and broad neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron BA.1 and BA.5. Preliminary in vivo studies using RBD–lumazine synthase yolk preparations in a hamster model showed that local application was well tolerated and not harmful. However, despite the in vitro neutralizing capacity, this antibody preparation did not show protective effect. Further studies on galenic properties seem to be necessary. The RBD–lumazine antigen proved to be suitable for producing SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies that can be applied to such therapeutic approaches and as reference reagents for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, including virus neutralization assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Therapeutic Strategies and Vaccines 2.0)
12 pages, 513 KiB  
Article
Association of Dietary Selenium Intake with Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China
by Fangyuan Li, Xi Hong, Huijun Wang, Weiyi Li, Lili Chen, Liusen Wang, Boya Zhao, Shaoshunzi Wang, Hongru Jiang and Zhihong Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(14), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16142367 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The relationship between distinct dietary selenium intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still a topic of uncertainty. This study examined the relationship between dietary selenium intake and T2D risk among middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Dietary selenium intake was assessed through three [...] Read more.
The relationship between distinct dietary selenium intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still a topic of uncertainty. This study examined the relationship between dietary selenium intake and T2D risk among middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Dietary selenium intake was assessed through three 24 h recalls, using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. To investigate the relationship and the potential dose–response pattern between selenium intake and the likelihood of developing T2D, we employed both the restricted cubic spline analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model as our analytical tools. A cohort of 5970 participants aged ≥ 50 years was followed for an average of 5.44 years. The results revealed a V-shaped correlation between selenium intake and T2D risk, with the lowest risk observed at approximately 45 µg/day. Below this level, the risk decreased with an increasing selenium intake, while the risk increased between 45 and 100 µg/day. No significant association was found beyond 100 µg/day. These findings suggest that both low and high selenium consumption may increase T2D risk, highlighting the importance of maintaining a balanced selenium intake for T2D prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
29 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
Design of Inner Ribs with Unequal Stiffness for Deep-Sea Highly Pressure-Resistant Cylindrical Shells and Utilizing NSGA-2 for Lightweight Optimization
by Yizhe Huang, Xiao Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Ying You and Haoxiang Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(7), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12071231 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
For conducting scientific research at depths in the ocean, deep-sea probes are essential pieces of equipment. The cylindrical shell is the most sensible and rational packaging structure for these detectors. New technical challenges for enhancing the pressure resistance and lightweight design of the [...] Read more.
For conducting scientific research at depths in the ocean, deep-sea probes are essential pieces of equipment. The cylindrical shell is the most sensible and rational packaging structure for these detectors. New technical challenges for enhancing the pressure resistance and lightweight design of the pressure-resistant cylindrical shell arise from the need to ensure that the detector packaging structure can withstand the immense water pressure at tens of thousands of meters in the underwater environment, while simultaneously reducing the detector packaging structure’s self-weight. This article examines the detection system’s deep-sea pressure-resistant cylindrical shell. To address the issue of the pressure-resistant shell’s insufficient ability to counteract the overall instability caused by the inability to form unstable half-waves in the radial direction when the ring rib pressure-resistant shell experiences it, a design method for the ribs inside the unequal-stiffness pressure-resistant cylindrical shell is suggested. The shell’s instability pressure increases by 9.65 MPa following the stiffness adjustment. Simultaneously, in order to attain even more lightweight optimization, the optimal inner rib section was obtained by applying the orthogonal topology optimization method, which also reduced the weight by 106.8 g and effectively improved the compression stability of the high-pressure cylindrical shell structure. Based on this, key optimization variables were found by performing sensitivity analysis on the cylindrical shell structure’s parameters. Then, with lightweighting as the primary objective, the high-pressure-resistant cylindrical shell’s optimal structural parameters were found using a multi-objective optimization process using the second-generation fast non-dominated genetic algorithm (NSGA-2). This resulted in a weight reduction of 1.2492 kg, or 17.26% of the original pressure-resistant shell. This has led to the development of a lightweight, highly pressure-resistant method for packaging marine exploration equipment structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
21 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Force and Deformation Characteristics of Large-Scale Zoning Excavation in Soft Soil: A Case Study in Hangzhou
by Gang Lin, Zhaorui Lin, Yi Zhao, Changjie Xu, Feng Sun, Yun Duan and Tao Fang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(14), 6358; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14146358 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The zoning excavation method is fully employed to control the deformation of foundation pits constructed in urban soft soil areas. However, the similarities and differences in forces and deformations between foundation pits excavated by the zonal method and those excavated by the conventional [...] Read more.
The zoning excavation method is fully employed to control the deformation of foundation pits constructed in urban soft soil areas. However, the similarities and differences in forces and deformations between foundation pits excavated by the zonal method and those excavated by the conventional method still need to be further explored. In this study, the deformation was monitored and analyzed by taking the zonal excavation of a foundation pit of the ‘New World’ project in Hangzhou City as the research object. The measured results showed that the pre-built diaphragm wall for the first excavated foundation pit restricted the deformation of the first excavated diaphragm wall. The presence of extensive construction and unloading activities also changed the deformation pattern of the soil. Further, finite element simulations were carried out. The simulation results revealed that excavating the foundation pit first caused displacements in the pre-built diaphragm wall. The displacements transmitted by non-adjacent pits through the pre-built diaphragm wall were small and were concentrated at the junction of the two sub-pits. Adjacent foundation pits caused large displacements of the pre-built diaphragm wall with similar displacement patterns. The results of the study can provide effective guidance for foundation pit excavation in soft soil areas in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Mechanics in Materials and Construction)
25 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Nexus between Fertilizer Composition and the Performance of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in the Himalayan Heartland of India
by Amani Lakshmi Vemulakonda, Ahmad Abdullah Saad, Shamal Shasang Kumar, Owais Ali Wani, Lal Singh, Subhash Babu, Inayat Mustafa Khan, Fahim Jeelani Wani, Shaheen Kauser Jan, Khalid M. Elhindi and Mohamed A. Mattar
Sustainability 2024, 16(14), 6234; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16146234 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Gaining insight into the interplay between crucial fertilizers and their impact on crop characteristics is crucial for enhancing the agricultural output and promoting sustainable crop administration. The objective of this study was to assess the growth, productivity, and nutrient-use efficiency (NUE) of common [...] Read more.
Gaining insight into the interplay between crucial fertilizers and their impact on crop characteristics is crucial for enhancing the agricultural output and promoting sustainable crop administration. The objective of this study was to assess the growth, productivity, and nutrient-use efficiency (NUE) of common bean genotypes with varying levels of NPK. In the RCBD field study, three genotypes of common bean were cultivated—SKUA-WB-5000/1446 (V1), SKUA-WB-5002/185 (V2), and SKUA-WB-5003/1492 (V3)—together with six combinations of NPK (N2:P2O5:K2O kg ha−1). The findings indicated that the height of the plants had a positive correlation with elevated NPK levels subsequent to the maximum point in NPK 10-20-10. The V1 genotype exhibited superior growth and productive traits, particularly with regard to its higher seed index and much greater quantity of pods plant−1. This indicates that the V1 genotype may be a suitable choice for cultivating common beans and highlights the importance of adjusting nutrient levels to ensure sustainable crop management. This study suggests applying 30-60-30 NPK kg ha−1 of fertilizer for genotypes V1 and V3, while genotype V2 should receive 40-80-40 NPK kg ha−1 under rainfed circumstances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
24 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Study on Deformation Control of Road−Deep Foundation Pit Passing under Elevated Subway Bridge
by Hua Peng, Bowen Meng, Sui Tan, Li Zhu and Guan Wang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(14), 6357; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14146357 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Abstract: This paper focuses on the application of pile foundation underpinning technology in a deep foundation pit of a subway Viaduct Project in Beijing. The study aims to address the engineering characteristics of the project, including a large number of new piles, a [...] Read more.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the application of pile foundation underpinning technology in a deep foundation pit of a subway Viaduct Project in Beijing. The study aims to address the engineering characteristics of the project, including a large number of new piles, a wide span of underpinning abutment, a long length of deep foundation pit, and a wide range of influences. This research utilizes field monitoring and numerical simulation methods to investigate the pile foundation underpinnings. The impact and management of road−deep foundation pit construction are considered, as well as their combined effect on subway viaducts and track structures. The primary accomplishments are as follows: (1) By analyzing the data from on−site deformation monitoring, it is evident that the pier exhibits maximum vertical deformation and maximum transverse deformation at the same location. The measuring locations are specifically situated on Pier 7# at the pile foundation underpinning. The maximum vertical and transverse deformations of the track are directly proportional to the maximum deformation of the pier. (2) By comparing the numerical simulation results with the field monitoring data, it is observed that although there is some discrepancy between the two, the deformation trend is largely consistent. This suggests that the numerical simulation analysis method is effective in reflecting the deformation of the bridge and track. (3) Through the numerical model and changing the values of the retaining structure parameters, the sensitivity of the pier deformation near the road foundation pit to the retaining structure parameters is systematically analyzed. The sensitivity of the pier deformation to the foundation pit parameters is as follows: the embedded depth insertion ratio of the retaining pile > the diameter of the retaining pile > the pile spacing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Tunnel and Underground Engineering)
19 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Charging Optimization Algorithm for Electric Vehicles to Mitigate Grid Power Peaks
by Alain Aoun, Mehdi Adda, Adrian Ilinca, Mazen Ghandour and Hussein Ibrahim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(7), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15070324 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) presents both opportunities and challenges for the electrical grid. While EVs offer a promising avenue for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels, their uncoordinated charging behavior can strain grid infrastructure, thus creating new [...] Read more.
The rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) presents both opportunities and challenges for the electrical grid. While EVs offer a promising avenue for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels, their uncoordinated charging behavior can strain grid infrastructure, thus creating new challenges for grid operators and EV owners equally. The uncoordinated nature of electric vehicle charging may lead to the emergence of new peak loads. Grid operators typically plan for peak demand periods and deploy resources accordingly to ensure grid stability. Uncoordinated EV charging can introduce unpredictability and variability into peak load patterns, making it more challenging for operators to manage peak loads effectively. This paper examines the implications of uncoordinated EV charging on the electric grid to address this challenge and proposes a novel dynamic optimization algorithm tailored to manage EV charging schedules efficiently, mitigating grid power peaks while ensuring user satisfaction and vehicle charging requirements. The proposed “Proof of Need” (PoN) charging algorithm aims to schedule the charging of EVs based on collected data such as the state of charge (SoC) of the EV’s battery, the charger power, the number of connected vehicles per household, the end-user’s preferences, and the local distribution substation’s capacity. The PoN algorithm calculates a priority index for each EV and coordinates the charging of all connected EVs at all times in a way that does not exceed the maximum allocated power capacity. The algorithm was tested under different scenarios, and the results offer a comparison of the charging power demand between an uncoordinated EV charging baseline scenario and the proposed coordinated charging model, proving the efficiency of our proposed algorithm, thus reducing the charging demand by 40.8% with no impact on the overall total charging time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electric Vehicles Energy Management, 2nd Volume)
20 pages, 7360 KiB  
Article
Constraining Geogenic Sources of Boron Impacting Groundwater and Wells in the Newark Basin, USA
by Larbi Rddad and Steven Spayd
Hydrology 2024, 11(7), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11070107 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The Newark Basin comprises Late Triassic and Early Jurassic fluvio-lacustrine rocks (Stockton, Lockatong, Passaic, Feltville, Towaco, and Boonton Formations) and Early Jurassic diabase intrusions and basalt lava flows. Boron concentrations in private well water samples range up to 18,000 μg/L, exceeding the U.S. [...] Read more.
The Newark Basin comprises Late Triassic and Early Jurassic fluvio-lacustrine rocks (Stockton, Lockatong, Passaic, Feltville, Towaco, and Boonton Formations) and Early Jurassic diabase intrusions and basalt lava flows. Boron concentrations in private well water samples range up to 18,000 μg/L, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Health Advisory of 2000 μg/L for children and 5000 μg/L for adults. Boron was analyzed in minerals, rocks, and water samples using FUS-ICPMS, LA-ICP-MS, and MC ICP-MS, respectively. Boron concentrations reach up to 121 ppm in sandstone of the Passaic Formation, 42 ppm in black shale of the Lockatong Formation, 31.2 ppm in sandstone of the Stockton Formation, and 36 ppm in diabase. The δ11B isotopic values of groundwater range from 16.7 to 32.7‰, which fall within those of the diabase intrusion (25 to 31‰). Geostatistical analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reveals that boron is associated with clay minerals in black shales and with Na-bearing minerals (possibly feldspar and evaporite minerals) in sandstones. The PCA also shows that boron is not associated with any major phases in diabase intrusion, and is likely remobilized from the surrounding rocks by the intrusion-related late hydrothermal fluids and subsequently incorporated into diabase. Calcite veins found within the Triassic rock formations exhibit relatively elevated concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 97.3 ppm and may contain micro-inclusions rich in boron. Based on the available data, it is suggested that the primary sources of boron contaminating groundwater in the area are clay minerals in black shales, Na-bearing minerals in sandstone, diabase intrusion-related hydrothermal fluids, and a contribution from calcite veins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Hydrology in the U.S.)
22 pages, 7585 KiB  
Review
Comparing the Effect of Isoinertial Flywheel Training and Traditional Resistance Training on Maximal Strength and Muscle Power in Healthy People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Zhongzhong Hu, Yuhang Liu, Keke Huang, Hao Huang, Feng Li and Xiaoyi Yuan
Life 2024, 14(7), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14070908 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyze whether isoinertial flywheel training (FWT) is superior to traditional resistance training (TRT) in enhancing maximal strength and muscle power in healthy individuals. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane [...] Read more.
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to analyze whether isoinertial flywheel training (FWT) is superior to traditional resistance training (TRT) in enhancing maximal strength and muscle power in healthy individuals. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus databases up to 21 April 2024. Outcomes were analyzed as continuous variables using either a random or fixed effects model to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of sixteen articles, involving 341 subjects, met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analyses. The pooled results indicate no statistically significant differences between FWT and TRT in developing maximal strength in healthy individuals (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI [−0.26, 0.74], p = 0.35). Additionally, the pooled outcomes showed a small-sized effect in muscle power with FWT (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI [0.10, 0.84]), which was significantly higher than that with TRT (p = 0.01) in healthy individuals. Subgroup analysis revealed that when the total number of FWT sessions is between 12 and 18 (1–3 times per week), it significantly improves muscle power (SMD = 0.61, 95% CI [0.12, 1.09]). Significant effects favoring FWT for muscle power were observed in both well-trained (SMD = 0.58, 95% CI [0.04, 1.13]) and untrained individuals (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI [0.23, 2.57]). In terms of exercise, performing flywheel training with squat and lunge exercises significantly enhances muscle power (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.02–0.84, and p = 0.04). Interestingly, FWT was superior to weight stack resistance training (SMD = 0.61, 95% CI [0.21, 1.00]) in enhancing muscle power, while no significant differences were found compared to barbell free weights training (SMD = 0.36, 95% CI [−0.22, 0.94]). Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms the superiority of FWT compared to TRT in promoting muscle power in both healthy untrained and well-trained individuals. Squats and lunges for FWT are more suitable for improving lower limb explosive power. It is recommended that coaches and trainers implement FWT for six weeks, 2–3 times per week, with at least a 48 h interval between each session. Although FWT is not superior to free weights training, it is advisable to include FWT in sport periodization to diversify the training stimuli for healthy individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Exercise Physiology and Sports Performance)
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14 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
Predicting Body Weight in Pre-Weaned Holstein–Friesian Calves Using Morphometric Measurements
by Flávio G. Silva, Emanuel Carreira, Joana M. Ramalho, Tomás Correia, Marília Meira, Cristina Conceição, Severiano R. Silva, Alfredo M. F. Pereira and Joaquim L. Cerqueira
Animals 2024, 14(14), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14142129 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Regularly weighing calves helps to assess the efficiency of the rearing period and contributes to animal welfare by allowing more precise feeding and medication application in dairy farming, but many farmers do not weigh their calves regularly. Improving the feasibility of this process [...] Read more.
Regularly weighing calves helps to assess the efficiency of the rearing period and contributes to animal welfare by allowing more precise feeding and medication application in dairy farming, but many farmers do not weigh their calves regularly. Improving the feasibility of this process is, therefore, important. The use of morphometric measurements has been used to estimate the weight of cattle. However, many studies have focused on adult animals or used a wide age range. As calves experience allometric tissue growth, specific models for certain ranges might be more accurate. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a weight estimation model specific for pre-weaned Holstein–Friesian calves using morphometric measurements and to compare the model with another equation previously validated for the same breed with young and adult animals. From four dairy farms, 237 measurements of body weight, heart girth, abdominal girth, hip height, withers height, and body length were taken from Holstein–Friesian male and female calves. Linear and non-linear regression analysis was used to test the relationship between body weight and morphometric measurements, with age, sex, and farm as possible explanatory variables. Selected models were compared with goodness of fit and agreement tests. The final model was able to accurately predict body weight (R2 = 0.96) with a mean difference of −1.4 ± 3.24 kg. Differences in the relationship between body weight and morphometric traits were observed between farms, but not between males and females. The genetics of the animal population at farm level may be responsible for this variability and further studies are needed to understand this variability and improve weight prediction models. The developed model was able to perform better in the agreement tests than the previously validated model for Holstein–Friesian animals, suggesting that different equations should be used depending on the growth phase the animal is in. In addition, a web application has been developed to facilitate the use of the developed model by farmers. This avoids the use of calibrated weight bands, which are usually calibrated for a broader age range or for beef cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calf Nutrition and Management)
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18 pages, 326 KiB  
Review
Occurrence of Microplastics in the Atmosphere: An Overview on Sources, Analytical Challenges, and Human Health Effects
by Fabiana Carriera, Cristina Di Fiore and Pasquale Avino
Atmosphere 2024, 15(7), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15070863 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The rapid spread and accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in environmental ecosystems result from extensive plastic usage. MPs have been found in both indoor and outdoor air. Outdoor MP levels vary widely across global cities, with reported ranges from 36 to 118 MPs m [...] Read more.
The rapid spread and accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in environmental ecosystems result from extensive plastic usage. MPs have been found in both indoor and outdoor air. Outdoor MP levels vary widely across global cities, with reported ranges from 36 to 118 MPs m−2 day−1. However, differing measurement units complicate comparisons. Indoor MPs are particularly concerning due to the significant amount of time people spend indoors. For instance, MP concentrations in workplaces like reception areas and nail salons were found to be 309 ± 214 and 46 ± 55 MPs m−3, respectively. Technological limitations hinder the identification of MPs, with methods like µ-ATR-FTIR, µ-FTIR, and µ-Raman identifying MPs of different sizes. MPs smaller than 0.3 µm pose a health risk as they can be internalized in lung cells, while MPs larger than 10 µm are too large to enter alveolar macrophages. This review highlights the current understanding of airborne MPs, focusing on their sources, transport, and deposition mechanisms. It aims to provide a foundation for further studies to deeply assess the presence, abundance, and occurrence of MPs in aerosols, a subject that remains underexplored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Pollution Exposure and Health Vulnerability)
17 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Cover Crop Effects on Surface Runoff and Subsurface Flow in Rainfed Hillslope Farming and Connections to Water Quality
by Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo, Belén Cárceles Rodríguez, Simón Cuadros Tavira, Baltasar Gálvez Ruiz and Iván Francisco García-Tejero
Land 2024, 13(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13071103 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
Abstract: Surface runoff and subsurface flow patterns were monitored in hillside runoff plots in almond and olive orchards with soils covered with spontaneous plants over two hydrological years. The experimental runoff plots were located on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada (Lanjarón, [...] Read more.
Abstract: Surface runoff and subsurface flow patterns were monitored in hillside runoff plots in almond and olive orchards with soils covered with spontaneous plants over two hydrological years. The experimental runoff plots were located on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada (Lanjarón, SE Spain) at 580 m a.s.l. with an area of 40 m2 (10 m × 4 m). The surface and subsurface discharge were collected and measured at different soil depths (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cm), and the dissolved nutrient concentrations (NO3–N, NH4–N, PO4–P, and K) were determined. According to the findings, the subsurface flow pathways drained most of the rainfall water compared with surface runoff, which was affected by plant cover. The influence of rainfall intensity (I30) on surface runoff was more meaningful than that on subsurface flow. Throughout the monitoring period, the runoff coefficients at soil depths of 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cm averaged 0.04, 0.11, 0.14, 0.17, and 0.18, respectively. Subsurface flow was one of the dominant pathways for N and K loss, whereas P loss mainly occurred via surface runoff. Moreover, the concentrations in subsurface flow were higher than the recommended level for standard water quality for NO3–N, NH4–N, and PO4–P. Subsurface flow was the main route of dissolved nutrient delivery, making these nutrients available to the root systems of trees, where nutrient uptake is more likely to occur. Thus, by lessening surface runoff and encouraging surface vegetation coverage to facilitate the recycling of nutrients and buffer the rainfall’s impact on the soil surface, nutrient loss control can be achieved. Full article
13 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Emergence of blaNDM-5 and blaOXA-232 Positive Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Bulgarian Hospital
by Rumyana Markovska, Petya Stankova, Georgi Popivanov, Ivanka Gergova, Kalina Mihova, Ventsislav Mutafchiyski and Lyudmila Boyanova
Antibiotics 2024, 13(7), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics13070677 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
The rapid spread of carbapenemase-producing strains has led to increased levels of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria. The current study aimed to collect and genetically characterize the colistin- and carbapenem-resistant isolates, obtained in one of the biggest hospitals (Military Medical Academy) in [...] Read more.
The rapid spread of carbapenemase-producing strains has led to increased levels of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria. The current study aimed to collect and genetically characterize the colistin- and carbapenem-resistant isolates, obtained in one of the biggest hospitals (Military Medical Academy) in Sofia, Bulgaria. Clonal relatedness was detected by RAPD and MLST. Carbapenemases, ESBLs, and mgrB were investigated by PCR amplification and sequencing, replicon typing, and 16S rRNA methyltransferases with PCRs. Fourteen colistin- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were detected over five months. Six carbapenem-resistant and colistin-susceptible isolates were also included. The current work revealed a complete change in the spectrum of carbapenemases in Bulgaria. blaNDM-5 was the only NDM variant, and it was always combined with blaOXA-232. The coexistence of blaOXA-232 and blaNDM-5 was observed in 10/14 (72%) of colistin- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates and three colistin-susceptible isolates. All blaNDM-5- and blaOXA-232-positive isolates belonged to the ST6260 (ST101-like) MLST type. They showed great mgrB variability and had a higher mortality rate. In addition, we observed blaOXA-232 ST14 isolates and KPC-2-producing ST101, ST16, and ST258 isolates. The colistin- and carbapenem-resistant isolates were susceptible only to cefiderocol for blaNDM-5- and blaOXA-232-positive isolates and to cefiderocol and ceftazidime/avibactam for blaOXA-232- or blaKPC-2-positive isolates. All blaOXA-232-positive isolates carried rmtB methylase and the colE replicon type. The extremely limited choice of appropriate treatment for patients infected with such isolates and their faster distribution highlight the need for urgent measures to control this situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance)
17 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Sustainability and Dividends: Complements or Substitutes?
by Kevin Krieger and Nathan Mauck
Sustainability 2024, 16(14), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16146233 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
We examine the relationship between environmental, social, and governance commitment levels (ESG) and firm dividend-payer status. Given that larger and more profitable firms are positively associated with both payer status and ESG, it could be that ESG and dividends are complements. However, given [...] Read more.
We examine the relationship between environmental, social, and governance commitment levels (ESG) and firm dividend-payer status. Given that larger and more profitable firms are positively associated with both payer status and ESG, it could be that ESG and dividends are complements. However, given that both dividends and ESG relate to firm spending decisions, it may be that the choice is “either/or”, and that ESG and dividends are substitutes. We document a positive relationship between ESG and dividend-payer status in U.S. firms over the period 1991–2016. In particular, we find that the proportion of dividend-payers is roughly 13% higher for firms with positive ESG compared to those with negative ESG. Including ESG in the models used to predict payer status provides, on average, a nearly 26% improvement in relative forecast accuracy. Our results are robust in regards to estimation techniques and the inclusion of variables known to be determinants of payer status. The results indicate that, on average, firms are not forced to sacrifice dividends in favor of ESG spending. Full article
21 pages, 14325 KiB  
Article
Fatigue-Healing Performance Analysis of Warm-Mix Rubber Asphalt Mastic Using the Simplified Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory
by Ping Li, Xiao Li, Shangjun Yu, Linhao Sun, Jinchao Yue and Ruixia Li
Coatings 2024, 14(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14070914 (registering DOI) - 21 Jul 2024
Abstract
As a green and low-carbon road material, warm-mix rubber asphalt (WMRA) has received extensive attention from scholars for its road performance. In the in-depth study of its properties, the fatigue characteristics of WMRA are particularly critical. However, in current studies on asphalt fatigue [...] Read more.
As a green and low-carbon road material, warm-mix rubber asphalt (WMRA) has received extensive attention from scholars for its road performance. In the in-depth study of its properties, the fatigue characteristics of WMRA are particularly critical. However, in current studies on asphalt fatigue performance, its self-healing ability is often underestimated or neglected. Furthermore, the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage theory (S-VECD), with its accuracy, speed, and convenience, provides a powerful tool for analyzing asphalt fatigue performance. Therefore, to analyze the fatigue and self-healing performances of WMRA in practical applications, four sample materials were selected in this study: virgin asphalt mastic (VAM), rubber asphalt mastic (RAM), Sasobit rubber asphalt mastic (SRAM), and Evotherm rubber asphalt mastic (ERAM). Subsequently, the samples were subjected to a comprehensive experimental design with frequency sweep tests, linear amplitude sweep tests, and multiple intermittent loading time sweep tests under different aging conditions. The fatigue and self-healing performances of different aging degrees and different types of WMRA were evaluated based on the S-VECD theory. The results show that aging reduces the fatigue and self-healing performances of asphalt mastic to a certain extent, and at a 7% strain, the fatigue life of SRAM after long-term aging is only 30.7% of the life of the unaged sample. The greater the aging degree, the more pronounced the effect. Under different aging levels, the warm-mix agent can significantly improve the fatigue and self-healing performances of rubber asphalt mastic. After undergoing ten fatigue intermittent loading tests, the recovery rate of the complex shear modulus for the long-term aged VAM was 0.65, which is lower than that of SRAM under the same conditions, and the warm mix can further extend the fatigue life of rubber asphalt by improving the self-healing properties of the asphalt. The role of Sasobit in enhancing the fatigue and self-healing performances of rubber asphalt mastic is more significant. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the promotion and application of WMRA pavements and contribute to the sustainable development of road construction. Full article
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