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Open AccessReview
Toxic-Metal-Induced Alteration in miRNA Expression Profile as a Proposed Mechanism for Disease Development
Cells 2020, 9(4), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040901 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Toxic metals are extensively found in the environment, households, and workplaces and contaminate food and drinking water. The crosstalk between environmental exposure to toxic metals and human diseases has been frequently described. The toxic mechanism of action was classically viewed as the ability [...] Read more.
Toxic metals are extensively found in the environment, households, and workplaces and contaminate food and drinking water. The crosstalk between environmental exposure to toxic metals and human diseases has been frequently described. The toxic mechanism of action was classically viewed as the ability to dysregulate the redox status, production of inflammatory mediators and alteration of mitochondrial function. Recently, growing evidence showed that heavy metals might exert their toxicity through microRNAs (miRNA)—short, single-stranded, noncoding molecules that function as positive/negative regulators of gene expression. Aberrant alteration of the endogenous miRNA has been directly implicated in various pathophysiological conditions and signaling pathways, consequently leading to different types of cancer and human diseases. Additionally, the gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs is particularly valuable in the brain—a complex organ with neurons demonstrating a significant ability to adapt following environmental stimuli. Accordingly, dysregulated miRNAs identified in patients suffering from neurological diseases might serve as biomarkers for the earlier diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. This review will greatly emphasize the effect of the toxic metals on human miRNA activities and how this contributes to progression of diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circulating DNA and Epigenetic Alterations as Biomarkers in Oncology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done [...] Read more.
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done of baseline lifestyle factors from 5739 participants with overweight/obesity and MetS features (aged 55–75 years) included in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Participants were categorized in tertiles according to a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, as well as a Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were measured. Diet quality was assessed using a 17-item energy-restricted MD questionnaire. Duration and intensity of PA was self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary behaviours were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. The 30 s chair stand test was also assessed. Participants with highest MetSSS showed higher values of cardiovascular risk factors (except for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), depression risk, sedentary and TV viewing time, and lower moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Highest MetSSS participants tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and tended to lower MD adherence. In addition, they showed lower carbohydrate and nut intake and higher intake of protein, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, iodine, sodium, red and processed meat products, other oils different from olive oil and spirit alcoholic drinks. The highest MetS severity score was associated with lower moderate and vigorous LTPA and higher sedentary time and depression risk, as they tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and lower MD adherence. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Current Development of Membranes for Oil Removal from Wastewaters
Membranes 2020, 10(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10040065 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The current situation with the problems associated with the removal of oil from wastewaters by membranes is being explored. Many types of membranes have been investigated—organic polymers, inorganic or ceramic species and hybrids of the two. Polymeric membranes can be designed to facilitate [...] Read more.
The current situation with the problems associated with the removal of oil from wastewaters by membranes is being explored. Many types of membranes have been investigated—organic polymers, inorganic or ceramic species and hybrids of the two. Polymeric membranes can be designed to facilitate the passage of oil, but the more successful approach is with hydrophilic types that encourage the passage of water. Ceramic membranes have an advantage here as they are less often irreversibly fouled and give a higher recovery of oil, with a lower flux decline. Furthermore, they can be cleaned up by a simple heating procedure. More attention should be given to understanding the mechanism of fouling so that operating conditions can be optimised to further reduce fouling and further decrease the flux decline, as well as assisting in the design of antifouling membranes. Another obstacle to ceramic membrane use is the high cost of manufacture. Cheaper starting materials such as clays have been surveyed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
α-Conotoxins Enhance both the In Vivo Suppression of Ehrlich carcinoma Growth and In Vitro Reduction in Cell Viability Elicited by Cyclooxygenase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitors
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18040193 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Several biochemical mechanisms, including the arachidonic acid cascade and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), are involved in increased tumor survival. Combined application of inhibitors acting on these two pathways may result in a more pronounced antitumor effect. Here, we show that baicalein [...] Read more.
Several biochemical mechanisms, including the arachidonic acid cascade and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), are involved in increased tumor survival. Combined application of inhibitors acting on these two pathways may result in a more pronounced antitumor effect. Here, we show that baicalein (selective 12-lipoxygenase inhibitor), nordihydroguaiaretic acid (non-selective lipoxygenase inhibitor), and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) are cytotoxic to Ehrlich carcinoma cells in vitro. Marine snail α-conotoxins PnIA, RgIA and ArIB11L16D, blockers of α3β2/α6β2, α9α10 and α7 nAChR subtypes, respectively, as well as α-cobratoxin, a blocker of α7 and muscle subtype nAChRs, exhibit low cytotoxicity, but enhance the antitumor effect of baicalein 1.4-fold after 24 h and that of nordihydroguaiaretic acid 1.8–3.9-fold after 48 h of cell cultivation. α-Conotoxin MII, a blocker of α6-containing and α3β2 nAChR subtypes, increases the cytotoxic effect of indomethacin 1.9-fold after 48 h of cultivation. In vivo, baicalein, α-conotoxins MII and PnIA inhibit Ehrlich carcinoma growth and increase mouse survival; these effects are greatly enhanced by the combined application of α-conotoxin MII with indomethacin or conotoxin PnIA with baicalein. Thus, we show, for the first time, antitumor synergism of α-conotoxins and arachidonic acid cascade inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cone Snail Venom Peptides, from Treasure Hunt to Drug Leads)
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Open AccessArticle
Neural Networks for the Joint Development of Individual Payments and Claim Incurred
Risks 2020, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks8020033 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to develop regression models and postulate distributions which can be used in practice to describe the joint development process of individual claim payments and claim incurred. We apply neural networks to estimate our regression models. As regressors [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to develop regression models and postulate distributions which can be used in practice to describe the joint development process of individual claim payments and claim incurred. We apply neural networks to estimate our regression models. As regressors we use the whole claim history of incremental payments and claim incurred, as well as any relevant feature information which is available to describe individual claims and their development characteristics. Our models are calibrated and tested on a real data set, and the results are benchmarked with the Chain-Ladder method. Our analysis focuses on the development of the so-called Reported But Not Settled (RBNS) claims. We show benefits of using deep neural network and the whole claim history in our prediction problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Finance, Insurance and Risk Management)
Open AccessArticle
Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein NS5 Dysregulates HSP90 to Broadly Inhibit JAK/STAT Signaling
Cells 2020, 9(4), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040899 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Pathogenic flaviviruses antagonize host cell Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling downstream of interferons α/β. Here, we show that flaviviruses inhibit JAK/STAT signaling induced by a wide range of cytokines beyond interferon, including interleukins. This broad inhibition was mapped to [...] Read more.
Pathogenic flaviviruses antagonize host cell Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling downstream of interferons α/β. Here, we show that flaviviruses inhibit JAK/STAT signaling induced by a wide range of cytokines beyond interferon, including interleukins. This broad inhibition was mapped to viral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) binding to cellular heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), resulting in reduced Janus kinase–HSP90 interaction and thus destabilization of unchaperoned JAKs (and other kinase clients) of HSP90 during infection by Zika virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Our studies implicate viral dysregulation of HSP90 and the JAK/STAT pathway as a critical determinant of cytokine signaling control during flavivirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zika Virus and Host Interactions)
Open AccessArticle
Approximation of Finite Hilbert and Hadamard Transforms by Using Equally Spaced Nodes
Mathematics 2020, 8(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040542 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
In the present paper, we propose a numerical method for the simultaneous approximation of the finite Hilbert and Hadamard transforms of a given function f, supposing to know only the samples of f at equidistant points. As reference interval we consider [ [...] Read more.
In the present paper, we propose a numerical method for the simultaneous approximation of the finite Hilbert and Hadamard transforms of a given function f, supposing to know only the samples of f at equidistant points. As reference interval we consider [ - 1 , 1 ] and as approximation tool we use iterated Boolean sums of Bernstein polynomials, also known as generalized Bernstein polynomials. Pointwise estimates of the errors are proved, and some numerical tests are given to show the performance of the procedures and the theoretical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multivariate Approximation for solving ODE and PDE)
Open AccessArticle
Cylindrospermopsin- and Deoxycylindrospermopsin-Producing Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Microcystin-Producing Microcystis spp. in Meiktila Lake, Myanmar
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040232 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Meiktila Lake is a shallow reservoir located close to Meiktila city in central Myanmar. Its water is used for irrigation, domestic purposes and drinking water. No detailed study of the presence of cyanobacteria and their potential toxin production has been conducted so far. [...] Read more.
Meiktila Lake is a shallow reservoir located close to Meiktila city in central Myanmar. Its water is used for irrigation, domestic purposes and drinking water. No detailed study of the presence of cyanobacteria and their potential toxin production has been conducted so far. To ascertain the cyanobacterial composition and presence of cyanobacterial toxins in Meiktila Lake, water samples were collected in March and November 2017 and investigated for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Phytoplankton composition and biomass determination revealed that most of the samples were dominated by the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii. In a polyphasic approach, seven isolated cyanobacterial strains were classified morphologically and phylogenetically as R. raciborskii, and Microcystis spp. and tested for microcystins (MCs), cylindrospermopsins (CYNs), saxitoxins and anatoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). ELISA and LC–MS analyses confirmed CYNs in three of the five Raphidiopsis strains between 1.8 and 9.8 μg mg−1 fresh weight. Both Microcystis strains produced MCs, one strain 52 congeners and the other strain 20 congeners, including 22 previously unreported variants. Due to the presence of CYN- and MC-producing cyanobacteria, harmful effects on humans, domestic and wild animals cannot be excluded in Meiktila Lake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anisotropic Plastic Behavior in an Extruded Long-Period Ordered Structure Mg90Y6.5Ni3.5 (at.%) Alloy
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040279 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The Mg90Y6.5Ni3.5 alloy composed almost completely of the Long-Period-Stacking-Ordered (LPSO) phase has been prepared by casting and extrusion at high temperature. An elongated microstructure is obtained where the LPSO phase with 18R crystal structure is oriented with its [...] Read more.
The Mg90Y6.5Ni3.5 alloy composed almost completely of the Long-Period-Stacking-Ordered (LPSO) phase has been prepared by casting and extrusion at high temperature. An elongated microstructure is obtained where the LPSO phase with 18R crystal structure is oriented with its basal plane parallel to the extrusion direction. Islands of α-magnesium are located between the LPSO grains. The mechanical properties of the alloy are highly anisotropic and depend on the stress sign as well as the relative orientation between the stress and the extrusion axes. The alloy is stronger when it is compressed along the extrusion direction. Under this configuration, the slip of <a> dislocations in the basal plane is highly limited. However, the activation of kinking induces an increase in the plastic deformation. In the transversal extrusion direction, some grains deform by the activation of basal slip. The difference in the yield stress between the different stress configurations decreases with the increase in the test temperature. The evolution of internal strains obtained during in-situ compressive experiments reveals that tensile twinning is not activated in the LPSO phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Characterization of Magnesium-Based Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Deep Inorganic Fraction Characterization of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in an Industrial Area Located in Central Italy by Means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072532 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Atmospheric pollution is an important task in life sciences and, in particular, inorganic fraction characterization is considered as an important issue in this field. For many years, researchers have focused their attention on the particulate matter fraction below 10 μm: in this case, [...] Read more.
Atmospheric pollution is an important task in life sciences and, in particular, inorganic fraction characterization is considered as an important issue in this field. For many years, researchers have focused their attention on the particulate matter fraction below 10 μm: in this case, our attention was also focused on PM2.5 (i.e., particles with a size fraction smaller than 2.5 μm) and PM1 (below 1 μm). This paper would like to investigate whether the element accumulation in different granulometric fractions is similar, or whether there are behavior dissimilarities. Among the different analytical techniques, the instrumental neutron activation analysis, an instrumental nuclear method, was used for its peculiarity of investigating the sample without performing any chemical-physical treatment. Forty-two daily samples using the reference method were collected, 15 filters for PM10, 18 for PM2.5, and 12 for PM1; the filters, along with primary standards and appropriate standard reference materials, were irradiated at the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) R.C.-Casaccia’s Triga MARK II reactor. The irradiations carried out in the Rabbit and Lazy Susan channels allowed for the investigation of 36 elements and the relative Pearson’s correlations between elements and PM-fractions (PM10 vs. PM2.5 was good, whereas PM10 vs. PM1 was the worst). The Enrichment Factors were studied for the three fractions to show how anthropogenic sources have affected the element content. A comparison between these data and element levels determined worldwide showed that our concentrations were lower than those determined in similar scenarios. Furthermore, a statistical approach (source discrimination, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis) has allowed us to identify similarities between the samples: the airborne filters can be divided in two main groups (i.e., one made of PM10 and PM2.5 filters and one only of PM1 filters), meaning a different element contribution to this fraction coming from other sources present at the site. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms of Resistance to NK Cell Immunotherapy
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040893 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Immunotherapy has recently been a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells are suitable targets for immunotherapy owing to their potent cytotoxic activity that may target cancer cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and antigen-unrestricted manner. Current therapies targeting NK [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has recently been a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells are suitable targets for immunotherapy owing to their potent cytotoxic activity that may target cancer cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and antigen-unrestricted manner. Current therapies targeting NK cells include monoclonal antibodies that promote NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the adoptive transfer of NK cells, the redirection of NK cells using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-NK cells and the use of cytokines and immunostimulatory drugs to boost the anti-tumor activity of NK cells. Despite some encouraging clinical results, patients receiving these therapies frequently develop resistance, and a myriad of mechanisms of resistance affecting both the immune system and cancer cells have been reported. A first contributing factor that modulates the efficacy of the NK cell therapy is the genetic profile of the individual, which regulates all aspects of NK cell biology. Additionally, the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis and the immunoediting of cancer cells, a process that decreases their immunogenicity and promotes immunosuppression, are major determinants of the resistance to NK cell therapy. Consequently, the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor therapy is specific to each patient and disease. The elucidation of such immunosubversive mechanisms is crucial to developing new procedures and therapeutic strategies to fully harness the anti-tumor potential of NK cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Response to Exclusive Enteral Nutrition in Newly Diagnosed Crohn´s Disease in Children: PRESENCE Study from SEGHNP
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041012 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to be more effective than corticosteroids in achieving mucosal healing in children with Crohn´s disease (CD) without the adverse effects of these drugs. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of EEN in [...] Read more.
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to be more effective than corticosteroids in achieving mucosal healing in children with Crohn´s disease (CD) without the adverse effects of these drugs. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of EEN in terms of inducing clinical remission in children newly diagnosed with CD, to describe the predictive factors of response to EEN and the need for treatment with biological agents during the first 12 months of the disease. We conducted an observational retrospective multicentre study that included paediatric patients newly diagnosed with CD between 2014–2016 who underwent EEN. Two hundred and twenty-two patients (140 males) from 35 paediatric centres were included, with a mean age at diagnosis of 11.6 ± 2.5 years. The median EEN duration was 8 weeks (IQR 6.6–8.5), and 184 of the patients (83%) achieved clinical remission (weighted paediatric Crohn’s Disease activity index [wPCDAI] < 12.5). Faecal calprotectin (FC) levels (μg/g) decreased significantly after EEN (830 [IQR 500–1800] to 256 [IQR 120–585] p < 0.0001). Patients with wPCDAI ≤ 57.5, FC < 500 μg/g, CRP >15 mg/L and ileal involvement tended to respond better to EEN. EEN administered for 6–8 weeks is effective for inducing clinical remission. Due to the high response rate in our series, EEN should be used as the first-line therapy in luminal paediatric Crohn’s disease regardless of the location of disease and disease activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Stability of a Family of Exponential Polynomial Maps
Math. Comput. Appl. 2020, 25(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020020 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
We perturbed a family of exponential polynomial maps in order to show both analytically and numerically their unpredictable orbit behavior. Due to the analytical form of the iteration functions the family has numerically different behavior than its correspondent analytical one, which is a [...] Read more.
We perturbed a family of exponential polynomial maps in order to show both analytically and numerically their unpredictable orbit behavior. Due to the analytical form of the iteration functions the family has numerically different behavior than its correspondent analytical one, which is a topic of paramount importance in computer mathematics. We discover an unexpected oscillatory parametrical behavior of the perturbed family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of d-Cycloserine Impurities in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Comparison of the International Pharmacopoeia HPLC–UV Method and the DOSY NMR Method
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071684 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
d-cycloserine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is currently being used as a secondary choice in the treatment of tuberculosis. In recent years, it has become more popular, due to its effect on the nervous system. In this current study, we provide evidence [...] Read more.
d-cycloserine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is currently being used as a secondary choice in the treatment of tuberculosis. In recent years, it has become more popular, due to its effect on the nervous system. In this current study, we provide evidence that The International Pharmacopoeia HPLC–UV method for d-cycloserine impurity profiling is not repeatable due to the variable response of cycloserine dimer, one of d-cycloserine impurities. Therefore, we introduced the DOSY (diffusion ordered spectroscopy) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technique to determine the levels of d-cycloserine impurities in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The DOSY NMR technique allowed separation of d-cycloserine, its degradation products, and key process impurities in concentrations below pharmacopoeial specification limits. The proposed DOSY NMR method allowed accurate identification and quantification of the cycloserine dimer, which was not possible through the use of the pharmacopoeial HPLC method. The current method has the potential for practical use in analytical laboratories of the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Analysis in Pharmaceutical Development and Drug Manufacturing)
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Open AccessReview
Calcium and/or Vitamin D Supplementation for the Prevention of Fragility Fractures: Who Needs It?
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041011 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Vitamin D and calcium have different biological functions, so the need for supplementation, and its safety and efficacy, need to be evaluated for each separately. Vitamin D deficiency is usually the result of low sunlight exposure (e.g., in frail older people, those who [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and calcium have different biological functions, so the need for supplementation, and its safety and efficacy, need to be evaluated for each separately. Vitamin D deficiency is usually the result of low sunlight exposure (e.g., in frail older people, those who are veiled, those with dark-skin living at higher latitudes) and is reversible with calciferol 400–800 IU/day. Calcium supplements produce a 1% increase in bone density in the first year of use, without further increases subsequently. Vitamin D supplements do not improve bone density in clinical trials except in analyses of subgroups with baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 nmol/L. Supplementation with calcium, vitamin D, or their combination does not prevent fractures in community-dwelling adults, but a large study in vitamin D-deficient nursing home residents did demonstrate fracture prevention. When treating osteoporosis, co-administration of calcium with anti-resorptive drugs has not been shown to impact on treatment efficacy. Correction of severe vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) is necessary before use of potent anti-resorptive drugs to avoid hypocalcemia. Calcium supplements cause gastrointestinal side effects, particularly constipation, and increase the risk of kidney stones and, probably, heart attacks by about 20%. Low-dose vitamin D is safe, but doses >4000 IU/day have been associated with more falls and fractures. Current evidence does not support use of either calcium or vitamin D supplements in healthy community-dwelling adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis Prevention and Nutrition )
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Open AccessArticle
Bioenergetics of the Dictyostelium Kinesin-8 Motor Isoform
Biomolecules 2020, 10(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10040563 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The functional organization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells requires a combination of their inherent dynamic properties, interactions with motor machineries, and interactions with accessory proteins to affect growth, shrinkage, stability, and architecture. In most organisms, the Kinesin-8 family of motors play an integral [...] Read more.
The functional organization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells requires a combination of their inherent dynamic properties, interactions with motor machineries, and interactions with accessory proteins to affect growth, shrinkage, stability, and architecture. In most organisms, the Kinesin-8 family of motors play an integral role in these organizations, well known for their mitotic activities in microtubule (MT) length control and kinetochore interactions. In Dictyostelium discoideum, the function of Kinesin-8 remains elusive. We present here some biochemical properties and localization data that indicate that this motor (DdKif10) shares some motility properties with other Kinesin-8s but also illustrates differences in microtubule localization and depolymerase action that highlight functional diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Peak of H3T3 Phosphorylation Occurs in Synchrony with Mitosis in Sea Urchin Early Embryos
Cells 2020, 9(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9040898 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The sea urchin embryo provides a valuable system to analyse the molecular mechanisms orchestrating cell cycle progression and mitosis in a developmental context. However, although it is known that the regulation of histone activity by post-translational modification plays an important role during cell [...] Read more.
The sea urchin embryo provides a valuable system to analyse the molecular mechanisms orchestrating cell cycle progression and mitosis in a developmental context. However, although it is known that the regulation of histone activity by post-translational modification plays an important role during cell division, the dynamics and the impact of these modifications have not been characterised in detail in a developing embryo. Using different immuno-detection techniques, we show that the levels of Histone 3 phosphorylation at Threonine 3 oscillate in synchrony with mitosis in Sphaerechinus granularis early embryos. We present, in addition, the results of a pharmacological study aimed at analysing the role of this key histone post-translational modification during sea urchin early development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing a Female Gamete: An Oocyte Story)
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