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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Advanced Heat Treatments and Complex Ferritic Structures for Bearing Steels
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111137 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nanostructured bainitic steels exhibit an optimum strength/toughness combination as a consequence of their extremely fine structure. They have also demonstrated potential for wear-resistance applications. The aim of this work was to develop bearing steels by the multi-scale control of complex ferritic structures, designed [...] Read more.
Nanostructured bainitic steels exhibit an optimum strength/toughness combination as a consequence of their extremely fine structure. They have also demonstrated potential for wear-resistance applications. The aim of this work was to develop bearing steels by the multi-scale control of complex ferritic structures, designed using atomic transformation theory and processed by novel heat treatments. Based on the results, the new ball bearings outperformed conventional grades, approaching more expensive material options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearing Steels)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Potato Crisps Processing Parameters on Acrylamide Formation and Bioaccesibility
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213827 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
A fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, frying time, blanching treatment and the thickness of potato slices on acrylamide content in crisps. The design was used on freshly harvested and four-month stored potatoes. The critical factors found were [...] Read more.
A fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, frying time, blanching treatment and the thickness of potato slices on acrylamide content in crisps. The design was used on freshly harvested and four-month stored potatoes. The critical factors found were temperature and frying time, and the interaction between blanching treatment and slice thickness. Once frying conditions were selected, an acrylamide content of 725 and 1030 mg kg−1 was found for non-stored and 4-month stored tubers, with adequate textural parameters in both cases. The difference in concentration is related to storage conditions, which must be controlled in order to control acrylamide levels. Bioaccesibility studies demonstrated that acrylamide concentration remained at 70%, and reductions took place mainly at the intestinal phase, as a result of reaction with nucleophilic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Technology in Nutrition Analysis)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Study of Iron Piperazine-Based Chelators as Potential Siderophore Mimetics
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12040160 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Gram-negative bacteria’s resistance such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Burkholderia group to conventional antibiotics leads to therapeutic failure. Use of siderophores as Trojan horses to internalize antibacterial agents or toxic metals within bacteria is a promising strategy to overcome resistance phenomenon. To combat [...] Read more.
Gram-negative bacteria’s resistance such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Burkholderia group to conventional antibiotics leads to therapeutic failure. Use of siderophores as Trojan horses to internalize antibacterial agents or toxic metals within bacteria is a promising strategy to overcome resistance phenomenon. To combat the Pseudomonas sp, we have synthesized and studied two piperazine-based siderophore mimetics carrying either catecholate moieties (1) or hydroxypyridinone groups (2) as iron chelators. These siderophore-like molecules were prepared in no more than four steps with good global yields. The physicochemical study has highlighted a strong iron affinity since their pFe values were higher than 20. 1 possesses even a pFe value superior than those of pyoverdine, the P. aeruginosa endogenous siderophore, suggesting its potential ability to compete with it. At physiological pH, 1 forms mainly a 2:3 complex with iron, whereas two species are observed for 2. Unfortunately, the corresponding Ga(III)-1 and 2 complexes showed no antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa DSM 1117 strain. The evaluation of their siderophore-like activity showed that 1 and 2 could be internalized by the bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Tools for Medicinal Chemists)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112561 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed [...] Read more.
We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (β = −0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p < 0.001), waist circumference (β = −0.34, p < 0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p < 0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Novel Chalcone-Thiosemicarbazones Derivatives as Potential Anti-Leishmania amazonensis Agents and Its HSA Binding Studies
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110643 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
A series of seven chalcone-thiosemicarbazones (5a5g) were synthesized and evaluated as potential new drugs (anti-leishmanial effect). Although four of the chalcone-thiosemicarbazones are already known, none of them or any compound in this class has been previously investigated for their [...] Read more.
A series of seven chalcone-thiosemicarbazones (5a5g) were synthesized and evaluated as potential new drugs (anti-leishmanial effect). Although four of the chalcone-thiosemicarbazones are already known, none of them or any compound in this class has been previously investigated for their effects on parasites of the Leishmania genus. The compounds were prepared in satisfactory yields (40–75%) and these compounds were evaluated against promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis after 48 h of culture. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the intracellular amastigotes were determined to be in the range of 3.40 to 5.95 µM for all compounds assayed. The selectivity index showed value of 15.05 for 5a, whereas pentamidine (reference drug) was more toxic in our model (SI = 2.32). Furthermore, to understand the preliminary relationship between the anti-leishmanial activity of the chalcone-thiosemicarbazones, their electronic (σ), steric (MR) and lipophilicity (π) properties were correlated, and the results indicated that moieties with electronic withdrawing effects increase the anti-leishmanial activity. The preliminary pharmacokinetic evaluation of one of the most active compound (5e) was studied via interaction to human serum albumin (HSA) using multiple spectroscopic techniques combined with molecular docking. The results of antiparasitic effects against L. amazonensis revealed the chalcone-thiosemicarbazone class to be novel prototypes for drug development against leishmaniasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a Commercially Available Bacteriophage and Bacteriocin on Listeria monocytogenes in Coleslaw
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110977 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Changing consumer attitudes show an increased interest in non-chemical antimicrobials in food preservation and safety. This greater interest of consumers in more ‘natural’ or ‘clean-label’ food interventions is complicated by concurrent demands for minimally processed, ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with long shelf lives. Two [...] Read more.
Changing consumer attitudes show an increased interest in non-chemical antimicrobials in food preservation and safety. This greater interest of consumers in more ‘natural’ or ‘clean-label’ food interventions is complicated by concurrent demands for minimally processed, ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with long shelf lives. Two viable interventions are bacteriophage (phage) and bacteriocins, a number of which have already been approved for use in food safety. Listeriosis is a serious foodborne infection which affects at-risk members of the population. Listeriosis incidence has increased between 2008 and 2015 and has a case fatality rate of up to 20% with antibiotic intervention. Here, we tested an intervention to attempt to control a pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes strain in a food model using two of these alternative antimicrobials. Phage P100 on its own had a significant effect on L. monocytogenes ScottA numbers in coleslaw over a 10-day period at 4 °C (p ≤ 0.001). A combination of P100 and Nisaplin® (a commercial formulation of the lantibiotic bacteriocin, nisin) had a significant effect on the pathogen (p ≤ 0.001). P100 and Nisaplin® in combination were more effective than Nisaplin® alone, but not P100 alone. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increasing the Number of Sea Surface Reflected Signals Received by GNSS-Reflectometry Altimetry Satellite Using the Nadir Antenna Observation Capability Optimization Method
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212473 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
High spatial resolution Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) sea surface altimetry is of great significance for extracting precise information from sea surface topography. The nadir antenna is one of the key payloads for the GNSS-R altimetry satellite to capture and track the sea [...] Read more.
High spatial resolution Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) sea surface altimetry is of great significance for extracting precise information from sea surface topography. The nadir antenna is one of the key payloads for the GNSS-R altimetry satellite to capture and track the sea surface GNSS reflected signal. The observation capability of the nadir antenna directly determines the number of received reflected signals, which, in turn, affects the spatial resolution of the GNSS-R altimetry. The parameters affecting the ability of the nadir antenna to receive the reflected signal mainly include antenna gain, half-power beam width (HPBW), and pointing angle. Thus far, there are rarely studies on the observation capability of GNSS-R satellite nadir antenna. The design of operational satellite antenna does not fully combine the above three parameters to optimize the design of GNSS-R nadir antenna. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a GNSS-R spaceborne nadir antenna observation capability optimization method. This is the key to improving the number of sea surface reflected signals received by the GNSS-R altimeter satellites, thereby increasing the spatial resolution of the altimetry. This paper has carried out the following research on this. Firstly, based on the GNSS-R geometric relationship and signal processing theory, the nadir antenna signal-to-noise ratio model (NASNRM) with the gain and the elevation angle at the specular point (SP) as the main parameters is established. The accuracy of the model was verified using TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) observations. Secondly, based on the theory of electromagnetic scattering, considering the influence of HPBW and pointing angle on the antenna footprint size, a specular point filtering algorithm (SPFA) is proposed. Combined with the results obtained by NASNRM, the number of available specular points (SPs) is counted. The results show that as the antenna gain and the nadir-pointing angle increase, the number of SPs can reach a peak and then gradually decrease. Thirdly, combined with NASNRM and SPSA, a nadir antenna observation capability optimization method (NAOCOM) is proposed. The nadir antenna observation capability is characterized through the reflected signal utilization, and the results obtained by the method are used to optimize the combination of nadir antenna parameters. The research shows that when the orbital height of the GNSS-R satellite is 635 km, the optimal combination of nadir antenna parameters is 20.94 dBi for the gain and 32.82 degrees for the nadir-pointing angle, which can increase the observation capability of the TDS-1 satellite nadir antenna by up to 5.38 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Navigation Satellite Systems for Earth Observing System)
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Open AccessArticle
Various Patterns of Composition and Accumulation of Steroids and Triterpenoids in Cuticular Waxes from Screened Ericaceae and Caprifoliaceae Berries during Fruit Development
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3826; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213826 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Cuticular waxes are primarily composed of two classes of lipids: compounds derived from very-long-chain fatty acids and isoprenoids, particularly triterpenoids and steroids. Isoprenoids can occur in cuticular waxes in high amounts, dominating the mixture of aliphatic long-chain hydrocarbons, while in other plants they [...] Read more.
Cuticular waxes are primarily composed of two classes of lipids: compounds derived from very-long-chain fatty acids and isoprenoids, particularly triterpenoids and steroids. Isoprenoids can occur in cuticular waxes in high amounts, dominating the mixture of aliphatic long-chain hydrocarbons, while in other plants they are found in trace concentrations. Triterpenoids occurring in fruit cuticular waxes are of interest due to their potential role in the protection against biotic stresses, including pathogen infections, and their impact on the mechanical toughness of the fruit surface, maintaining fruit integrity, and post-harvest quality. The aim of the present study was the determination of the changes in the triterpenoid profile of the fruit cuticular waxes of four plant species bearing edible berries: Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Arbutus unedo of the Ericaceae and the edible honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea of the Caprifoliaceae. Triterpenoids were identified and quantified by GC-MS/FID (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection) at three different phenological stages: young berries, berries at the onset of ripening, and mature berries. During fruit development and maturation, the triterpenoid content in cuticular waxes displayed species-specific patterns of changes. The steroid content seemed to be directly correlated with the developmental stage, with a very typical point of transition between growth and ripening being observed in all the fruit analyzed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Antigenic Change in Human Influenza A(H2N2) Viruses Detected by Using Human Plasma from Aged and Younger Adult Individuals
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110978 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Human influenza A(H2N2) viruses emerged in 1957 and were replaced by A(H3N2) viruses in 1968. The antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses has been tested by using ferret antisera or mouse and human monoclonal antibodies. Here, we examined the antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses [...] Read more.
Human influenza A(H2N2) viruses emerged in 1957 and were replaced by A(H3N2) viruses in 1968. The antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses has been tested by using ferret antisera or mouse and human monoclonal antibodies. Here, we examined the antigenicity of human H2N2 viruses by using human plasma samples obtained from 50 aged individuals who were born between 1928 and 1933 and from 33 younger adult individuals who were born after 1962. The aged individuals possessed higher neutralization titers against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1957 and 1963 than those against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1968, whereas the younger adults who were born between 1962 and 1968 possessed higher neutralization titers against H2N2 viruses isolated in 1963 than those against other H2N2 viruses. Antigenic cartography revealed the antigenic changes that occurred in human H2N2 viruses during circulation in humans for 11 years, as detected by ferret antisera. These results show that even though aged individuals were likely exposed to more recent H2N2 viruses that are antigenically distinct from the earlier H2N2 viruses, they did not possess high neutralizing antibody titers to the more recent viruses, suggesting immunological imprinting of these individuals with the first H2N2 viruses they encountered and that this immunological imprinting lasts for over 50 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Phlorofucofuroeckol-A as a Dual Inhibitor of Amyloid-β25-35 Self-Aggregation and Insulin Glycation: Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism of Action
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110600 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Both amyloid-β (Aβ) and insulin are amyloidogenic peptides, and they play a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Misfolded or aggregated Aβ and glycated insulin are commonly found in AD and T2D patients, respectively, and exhibit neurotoxicity and oxidative [...] Read more.
Both amyloid-β (Aβ) and insulin are amyloidogenic peptides, and they play a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Misfolded or aggregated Aβ and glycated insulin are commonly found in AD and T2D patients, respectively, and exhibit neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. The present study examined the anti-Aβ25-35 aggregation and anti-insulin glycation activities of five phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera. Thioflavin-T assay results suggest that eckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFFA) significantly inhibit Aβ25-35 self-assembly. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation analyses confirmed that these phlorotannins have a strong potential to interact with Aβ25-35 peptides and interrupt their self-assembly and conformational transformation, thereby inhibiting Aβ25-35 aggregation. In addition, PFFA dose-dependently inhibited d-ribose and d-glucose induced non-enzymatic insulin glycation. To understand the molecular mechanism for insulin glycation and its inhibition, we predicted the binding site of PFFA in insulin via computational analysis. Interestingly, PFFA strongly interacted with the Phe1 in insulin chain-B, and this interaction could block d-glucose access to the glycation site of insulin. Taken together, our novel findings suggest that phlorofucofuroeckol-A could be a new scaffold for AD treatment by inhibiting the formation of β-sheet rich structures in Aβ25-35 and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in insulin. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Remote Sensing the Archaeological Traces of Boat Movement in the Marshes of Southern Mesopotamia
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212474 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
: This study presents the results of the first remote sensing survey of hollow ways in Southern Mesopotamia between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf, primarily using the imagery in Google Earth. For archaeologists, hollow ways are important trace fossils of past human movement [...] Read more.
: This study presents the results of the first remote sensing survey of hollow ways in Southern Mesopotamia between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf, primarily using the imagery in Google Earth. For archaeologists, hollow ways are important trace fossils of past human movement that inform about how people travelled in the past and what considerations were important to them as they moved through the landscape. In this study, remotely sensed hollow ways were ground-truthed and dated by association with both palaeochannels and known archaeological sites. Contextual and morphological evidence of the hollow ways indicate that they are likely the archaeological manifestation of ethnographically attested “water channels” formed through the dense reeds of marshlands in southern Iraq, not formed by traction overland like other known hollow ways. The map itself documents the first known hollow ways preserved underwater and one of the best-preserved landscapes of past human movement in the Near East. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2nd Edition Advances in Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical and Numerical Modelling on the Mixing Condition in a 50 t Ladle
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111136 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
The bubbly flow and mixing conditions for gas stirring in a 50t ladle were investigated by using physical modelling and mathematical modelling. In the physical modelling, the effect of the porous plugs’ configurations on the tracer homogenization was studied by using a saturated [...] Read more.
The bubbly flow and mixing conditions for gas stirring in a 50t ladle were investigated by using physical modelling and mathematical modelling. In the physical modelling, the effect of the porous plugs’ configurations on the tracer homogenization was studied by using a saturated NaCl solution to predict the mixing time and a color dye to show the mixing pattern. In the mathematical modelling, the Euler–Lagrange model and species transport model were used to predict the flow pattern and tracer homogenization, respectively. The results show that, for a ±5% homogenization degree, the mixing time with dual plugs using a radial angle of 180° is shortest. In addition, the mixing time using a radial angle of 135° decreases the most with an increased flow rate. The flow pattern and mixing conditions predicted by mathematical modelling agree well with the result of the physical modelling. For a ±1% homogenization degree, the influence of the tracer’s natural convection on its homogenization pattern cannot be neglected. This is especially true for a ‘soft bubbling’ case using a low gas flow rate. Overall, it is recommended that large radial angles in the range of 135°~180° are chosen for gas stirring in the present study when using dual porous plugs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of IMERG Precipitation Estimates over Europe
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(21), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11212470 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper evaluates Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals from GPM (IMERG-F) over Europe for the period 2014–2018 in order to evaluate application of the retrievals to hydrology. IMERG-F is compared with a large pan-European precipitation dataset built on rain gauge stations, i.e., the ENSEMBLES OBServation [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals from GPM (IMERG-F) over Europe for the period 2014–2018 in order to evaluate application of the retrievals to hydrology. IMERG-F is compared with a large pan-European precipitation dataset built on rain gauge stations, i.e., the ENSEMBLES OBServation (E-OBS) gridded dataset. Although there is overall agreement in the spatial distribution of mean precipitation (R2 = 0.8), important discrepancies are revealed in mountainous regions, specifically the Alps, Pyrenees, west coast of the British Isles, Scandinavia, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, and the Adriatic coastline. The results show that the strongest contributors to poor performance are pixels where IMERG-F has no gauges available for adjustment. If rain gauges are available, IMERG-F yields results similar to those of the surface observations, although the performance varies by region. However, even accounting for gauge adjustment, IMERG-F systematically underestimates precipitation in the Alps and Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, IMERG-F overestimates precipitation in the British Isles, Italian Peninsula, Adriatic coastline, and eastern European plains. Additionally, the research shows that gauge adjustment worsens the spatial gradient of precipitation because of the coarse resolution of Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing of the Water Cycle)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Double-Bed Adsorptive Heat Transformer for Upgrading Ambient Heat: Design and First Tests
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214037 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
A full scale lab prototype of an adsorptive heat transformer (AHT), consisting of two adsorbers, an evaporator, and a condenser, was designed and tested in subsequent cycles of heat upgrading. The composite LiCl/SiO2 was used as an adsorbent with methanol as an [...] Read more.
A full scale lab prototype of an adsorptive heat transformer (AHT), consisting of two adsorbers, an evaporator, and a condenser, was designed and tested in subsequent cycles of heat upgrading. The composite LiCl/SiO2 was used as an adsorbent with methanol as an adsorbtive substance under boundary temperatures of TL/TM/TH = −30/20/30 °C. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the tested AHT in continuous heat generation, with specific power output of 520 W/kg over 1–1.5 h steady-state cycling. The formal and experimental thermal efficiency of the tested rig were found to be 0.5 and 0.44, respectively. Although the low potential heat to be upgraded was available for free from a natural source, the electric efficiency of the prototype was found to be as high as 4.4, which demonstrates the promising potential of the “heat from cold” concept. Recommendations for further improvements are also outlined and discussed in this paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Association of Serum TNF-α Levels and Blood Multi-Elements Modified by TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in Metal Industrial Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214079 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Health of the metal industrial workers should be a noteworthy issue due to the hazard of
chronic exposure to metals or toxic elements. The interactions among multiple elements are
sophisticated and may differ from person to person. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) [...] Read more.
Health of the metal industrial workers should be a noteworthy issue due to the hazard of
chronic exposure to metals or toxic elements. The interactions among multiple elements are
sophisticated and may differ from person to person. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene
polymorphisms were supposed to be involved with the interactions because TNF-α plays an
important role in inflammation, a mechanism by which toxic elements cause threats to human
health. This research aimed to analyze the influence of TNF-α gene polymorphisms and multielements
on serum TNF-α level. Blood multi-elements concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic,
selenium, cobalt, copper, and zinc), serum TNF-α level, and TNF-α single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs), including −238G > A (rs361525), −308G > A (rs1800629), −857C > T
(rs1799724), −863C > A (rs1800630), and −1031T > C (rs1799964), were measured in 462 metal
industrial workers. We applied mixed-effect models to analyze the interactions among multielements
and TNF-α SNPs. Blood concentration of all elements were positively associated with
serum TNF-α level, and the effects may be modified by TNF-α gene polymorphisms. Our study
revealed that TNF-α −308A/A and −1031C/C may be susceptible genotypes, and thus we suggest
that those workers should take preventive measures against metal toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology and Public Health)

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