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Open AccessArticle
Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing ZnO Microrods
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121645 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
At an elevated temperature of 90 °C, a chemical bath deposition using an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and (CH2)6N4 resulted in the formation of both nanoflowers and microrods of ZnO on F-doped [...] Read more.
At an elevated temperature of 90 °C, a chemical bath deposition using an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and (CH2)6N4 resulted in the formation of both nanoflowers and microrods of ZnO on F-doped SnO2 glass with a seed layer. The nanoflowers and microrods were sensitized with dyes for application to the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By extending the growth time of ZnO, the formation of nanoflowers was reduced and the formation of microrods favored. As the growth time was increased from 4 to 6 and then to 8 h, the open circuit voltage (Voc) values of the DSSCs were increased, whilst the short circuit current (Jsc) values varied only slightly. Changes in the dye-loading amount, dark current, and electrochemical impedance were monitored and they revealed that the increase in Voc was found to be due to a retardation of the charge recombination between photoinjected electrons and I3 ions and resulted from a reduction in the surface area of ZnO microrods. A reduced surface area decreased the dye contents adsorbed on the ZnO microrods, and thereby decreased the light harvesting efficiency (LHE). An increase in the electron collection efficiency attributed to the suppressed charge recombination counteracted the decreased LHE, resulting in comparable Jsc values regardless of the growth time. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Facial Expressions of Visitors in Forests along the Urbanization Gradient: What Can We Learn from Selfies on Social Networking Services?
Forests 2019, 10(12), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121049 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
People’s satisfaction towards the experience in forests is one of most important feedbacks that forest park managers need to meet positive visitors’ experiences. Although the drawbacks of questionnaire methodology are obvious for data collection from self-reported scores at the landscape scale, few alternative [...] Read more.
People’s satisfaction towards the experience in forests is one of most important feedbacks that forest park managers need to meet positive visitors’ experiences. Although the drawbacks of questionnaire methodology are obvious for data collection from self-reported scores at the landscape scale, few alternative methods have been proposed. In this study, nine urban forest parks along the urbanization gradients in three capital cities of Northeast China were targeted to investigate their visitors’ selfies from social networking services (SNS) by assessing facial expressions. A total of 935 photos with location records were obtained from the SNS platform of Sina Micro-Blog in a social hot-event of ‘Golden Week Holidays of National Day of China’ of 2017. Images were recognized by FireFace software to assess scores of neutral, happy, sad, angry, surprised, scared, disgusted, and contempt expressions. Data were ranked in descending order and analyzed by Friedman’s test, correlation analysis, and Poisson regression. Visitors in downtown-forests showed fewer negative expressions at the most northern city than at the southern most one. The negative expressions tended to be alleviated with the increasing distance of forest parks from downtown. However, when the distance reached over 10 km no geographical effect was found. Female visitors showed positive emotional expressions to urban forests while male visitors showed no response. In conclusion, using data from SNS, this study found an experience in forest park less than 10 km from the downtown of a northern city resulted in female visitors showing the most positive expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics and Human Dimensions)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimizing the Synthetic Route of Chromone-2-carboxylic Acids: A Step forward to Speed-Up the Discovery of Chromone-Based Multitarget-Directed Ligands
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234214 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
6-Bromochromone-2-carboxylic acid (3) was synthesized by a microwave-assisted process. The optimization of the reaction was performed varying parameters, such as type of base/number of reagent equivalents, solvent, temperature and reaction time. The yield of the reaction was improved to 87%. The [...] Read more.
6-Bromochromone-2-carboxylic acid (3) was synthesized by a microwave-assisted process. The optimization of the reaction was performed varying parameters, such as type of base/number of reagent equivalents, solvent, temperature and reaction time. The yield of the reaction was improved to 87%. The new synthetic route is versatile as several chromone-2-carboxylic acids (compounds 4B10B) were obtained with good yields (54–93%). Only in the case of the nitro substituent (compound 11B), an ester was obtained instead of the desired carboxylic acid. Following this synthetic route chromone carboxylic acids can be attained with a high degree of purity, without the need of the tedious and expensive purification processes through column chromatography. The reaction is safe, cost-effective, fast and robust, and can be used in the development of concise and diversity-oriented libraries based on chromone scaffold. The overall study can be looked as a step forward to speed-up the discovery of chromone-based multitarget-directed ligands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioinspired ZnO-Based Solar Photocatalysts for the Efficient Decontamination of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Hexavalent Chromium in Wastewater
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9120974 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Biomimetic/bioinspired engineering and sulfidation processes are effective strategies for improving the visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO photocatalysts. A facile electrodeposition process in high oxygen-flux conditions was used to synthesize well-defined fractal micro/nanoferns, consequently increasing the photocatalyst’s light-trapping capability and the accessible active [...] Read more.
Biomimetic/bioinspired engineering and sulfidation processes are effective strategies for improving the visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO photocatalysts. A facile electrodeposition process in high oxygen-flux conditions was used to synthesize well-defined fractal micro/nanoferns, consequently increasing the photocatalyst’s light-trapping capability and the accessible active surface. Next, a simple sulfidation process was used to form a thin layer of ZnS, producing [email protected] [email protected] micro/nanoferns, thereby tuning the optoelectronic properties and extending the photoresponse to the visible region. The [email protected] micro/nanoferns exhibited clear superiority over other ZnO photocatalysts in the photooxidation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the photoreduction of Cr(VI). Their excellent photocatalytic performance allowed the photodegradation under UV-filtered sunlight of nearly 97% of methylene blue after 60 min; the mineralization of >98% of a mixture of methylene blue, 4-nitrophenol, and rhodamine-B after 210 min; and the removal of nearly 65% of Cr(VI) after 180 min. In addition, the [email protected] micro/nanoferns demonstrated a good ability to decontaminate an inorganic-organic bipollutant system, with promising potential to leverage synergistic effects. Finally, these micro/nanoferns presented great recyclability and reusability for both photooxidation and photoremediation processes. These findings support that sulfidation and biomimetic engineering can be a superior route for designing efficient sunlight-driven ZnO-photocatalysts for water decontamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalysis and Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Analysis of the Copper Exchange Implemented in Ammonia and Protonated Forms of Mordenite Using Microwave and Conventional Methods
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234216 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
This article presents the results of a comprehensive study of copper-exchanged mordenite samples prepared from its ammonia and protonated forms (Si/Al = 10) using two different ion exchange methods: conventional and microwave (MW)-assisted. The protonated H-MOR-10 sample was obtained by calcination of commercial [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a comprehensive study of copper-exchanged mordenite samples prepared from its ammonia and protonated forms (Si/Al = 10) using two different ion exchange methods: conventional and microwave (MW)-assisted. The protonated H-MOR-10 sample was obtained by calcination of commercial NH4MOR-10; in this case, a slight degradation of the mordenite framework was observed, but the resulting defects were partially restored after the first ion-exchange procedure of protons for copper ions. The level of copper exchange in the studied materials was found to be limited to 70%. Regardless of the exchange procedure, the replacement of ammonium or proton ions with copper led to a linear increase in the a/b ratio of cell parameters in accordance with an increase in the level of copper exchange, which means that all Cu2+ cations are ion-exchangeable and enter the main mordenite channel. Thermal analysis indicated a correlation between the replacement of various ammonium and hydroxyl groups by copper ions during the exchange treatment and their dehydroxylation energy during thermal decomposition. As a conclusion: MW-assisted treatment proved itself as an efficacious method for the synthesis of copper-exchanged mordenites, which not only significantly reduces preparation time but leads to a systematically higher copper exchange level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probing the Interactions of Sulfur-Containing Histidine Compounds with Human Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120650 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a cell surface enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism and maintenance of redox homeostasis. High expression of GGT on tumor cells is associated with an increase of cell proliferation and resistance against chemotherapy. GGT inhibitors that have been evaluated in [...] Read more.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a cell surface enzyme involved in glutathione metabolism and maintenance of redox homeostasis. High expression of GGT on tumor cells is associated with an increase of cell proliferation and resistance against chemotherapy. GGT inhibitors that have been evaluated in clinical trials are too toxic for human use. We have previously identified ovothiols, 5(Nπ)-methyl-thiohistidines of marine origin, as non-competitive-like inhibitors of GGT that are more potent than the known GGT inhibitor, 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), and are not toxic for human embryonic cells. We extended these studies to the desmethylated form of ovothiol, 5-thiohistidine, and confirmed that this ovothiol derivative also acts as a non-competitive-like GGT inhibitor, with a potency comparable to ovothiol. We also found that both 5-thiohistidine derivatives act as reversible GGT inhibitors compared to the irreversible DON. Finally, we probed the interactions of 5-thiohistidines with GGT by docking analysis and compared them with the 2-thiohistidine ergothioneine, the physiological substrate glutathione, and the DON inhibitor. Overall, our results provide new insight for further development of 5-thiohistidine derivatives as therapeutics for GGT-positive tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antioxidant)
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Open AccessArticle
Urinary Dialkylphosphate Metabolite Levels in US Adults—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2008
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234605 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Background: Urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites are considered to be a proxy of the cumulative exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. We analyzed the urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in US adults, to assess the factors associated with levels of urinary metabolites, and observe the [...] Read more.
Background: Urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites are considered to be a proxy of the cumulative exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. We analyzed the urinary levels of six dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in US adults, to assess the factors associated with levels of urinary metabolites, and observe the time trends. Methods: We analyzed the combined urinary levels of Dimethylphosphate (DMP), Diethylphosphate (DEP), Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), Diethylthiophosphate (DETP), Dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), and Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 and 2008. Results: Increased age and female gender were positively associated with combined levels of urinary DAP metabolites; BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, BMI > 25 kg/m2, current smoking, and later survey year were inversely associated with combined levels of DAP metabolites. Among those with at least one detectable DAP in their urine, the mean levels decreased starting in 2001, but stayed relatively stable through 2008. Although the maximum combined urinary DAP level was highest in 1999–2000, throughout all years, we observed extremely high levels of exposure for subgroups of individuals. Conclusion: Despite the fact that organophosphorus pesticides were banned for residential use in the US in 2006, there are still opportunities for exposure in the general population. The average urinary DAP levels have decreased over time; however, the decline appears to have plateaued in recent years, and there remains highly exposed individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure and Cancer Risk in Healthy Populations)
Open AccessArticle
Suppression of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Oxidative Stress by Hyperoside Via Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235832 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
In our ongoing research to discover natural products with neuroprotective effects, hyperoside (quercetin 3-O-galactoside) was isolated from Acer tegmentosum, which has been used in Korean traditional medicine to treat liver-related disorders. Here, we demonstrated that hyperoside protects cultured dopaminergic neurons from death via [...] Read more.
In our ongoing research to discover natural products with neuroprotective effects, hyperoside (quercetin 3-O-galactoside) was isolated from Acer tegmentosum, which has been used in Korean traditional medicine to treat liver-related disorders. Here, we demonstrated that hyperoside protects cultured dopaminergic neurons from death via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanisms, although other relevant mechanisms of hyperoside activity remain largely uncharacterized. For the first time, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of hyperoside on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in neurons, and the possible underlying mechanisms. Hyperoside significantly ameliorated the loss of neuronal cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, excessive ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction associated with 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, hyperoside treatment activated the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an upstream molecule of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Hyperoside also induced the expression of HO-1, an antioxidant response gene. Remarkably, we found that the neuroprotective effects of hyperoside were weakened by an Nrf2 small interfering RNA, which blocked the ability of hyperoside to inhibit neuronal death, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, we show that hyperoside, via the induction of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation, suppresses neuronal death caused by 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, Nrf2-dependent HO-1 signaling activation represents a potential preventive and therapeutic target in Parkinson′s disease management. Full article
Open AccessReview
LSD1/KDM1A, a Gate-Keeper of Cancer Stemness and a Promising Therapeutic Target
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121821 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
A new exciting area in cancer research is the study of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the translational implications for putative epigenetic therapies targeted against them. Accumulating evidence of the effects of epigenetic modulating agents has revealed their dramatic consequences on cellular reprogramming [...] Read more.
A new exciting area in cancer research is the study of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the translational implications for putative epigenetic therapies targeted against them. Accumulating evidence of the effects of epigenetic modulating agents has revealed their dramatic consequences on cellular reprogramming and, particularly, reversing cancer stemness characteristics, such as self-renewal and chemoresistance. Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) plays a well-established role in the normal hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells. Overexpression of LSD1 has been documented in a variety of cancers, where the enzyme is, usually, associated with the more aggressive types of the disease. Interestingly, recent studies have implicated LSD1 in the regulation of the pool of CSCs in different leukemias and solid tumors. However, the precise mechanisms that LSD1 uses to mediate its effects on cancer stemness are largely unknown. Herein, we review the literature on LSD1’s role in normal and cancer stem cells, highlighting the analogies of its mode of action in the two biological settings. Given its potential as a pharmacological target, we, also, discuss current advances in the design of novel therapeutic regimes in cancer that incorporate LSD1 inhibitors, as well as their future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Dysregulation in Cancer: From Mechanism to Therapy)
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Icing Performance of a Coating Based on Nano/Microsilica Particle-Filled Amino-Terminated PDMS-Modified Epoxy
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120771 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Coatings with anti-icing performance possess hydrophobicity and low ice adhesion strength, which delay ice formation and make ice removal easier. In this paper, the anti-icing performance of nano/microsilica particle-filled amino-terminated PDMS (A-PDMS)-modified epoxy coatings was investigated. In the process, the influence of the [...] Read more.
Coatings with anti-icing performance possess hydrophobicity and low ice adhesion strength, which delay ice formation and make ice removal easier. In this paper, the anti-icing performance of nano/microsilica particle-filled amino-terminated PDMS (A-PDMS)-modified epoxy coatings was investigated. In the process, the influence of the addition of A-PDMS on the hydrophobicity and ice adhesion strength was investigated. Furthermore, the influences of various weight ratios of nanosilica/microsilica (Rn/m) on the hydrophobicity and ice adhesion strength of the coating were investigated. Hydrophobicity was evaluated by contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) tests. Ice adhesion strength was measured by a centrifugal adhesion test. The addition of A-PDMS markedly increased hydrophobicity and decreased ice adhesion. The size combination of particles obviously affects hydrophobicity but has little effect on ice adhesion. Finally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to reveal the anti-icing mechanism of the coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Icing Coatings and Surfaces)
Open AccessReview
Bubbles, Foam Formation, Stability and Consumer Perception of Carbonated Drinks: A Review of Current, New and Emerging Technologies for Rapid Assessment and Control
Foods 2019, 8(12), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120596 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Quality control, mainly focused on the assessment of bubble and foam-related parameters, is critical in carbonated beverages, due to their relationship with the chemical components as well as their influence on sensory characteristics such as aroma release, mouthfeel, and perception of tastes and [...] Read more.
Quality control, mainly focused on the assessment of bubble and foam-related parameters, is critical in carbonated beverages, due to their relationship with the chemical components as well as their influence on sensory characteristics such as aroma release, mouthfeel, and perception of tastes and aromas. Consumer assessment and acceptability of carbonated beverages are mainly based on carbonation, foam, and bubbles, as a flat carbonated beverage is usually perceived as low quality. This review focuses on three beverages: beer, sparkling water, and sparkling wine. It explains the characteristics of foam and bubble formation, and the traditional methods, as well as emerging technologies based on robotics and computer vision, to assess bubble and foam-related parameters. Furthermore, it explores the most common methods and the use of advanced techniques using an artificial intelligence approach to assess sensory descriptors both for descriptive analysis and consumers’ acceptability. Emerging technologies, based on the combination of robotics, computer vision, and machine learning as an approach to artificial intelligence, have been developed and applied for the assessment of beer and, to a lesser extent, sparkling wine. This, has the objective of assessing the final products quality using more reliable, accurate, affordable, and less time-consuming methods. However, despite carbonated water being an important product, due to its increasing consumption, more research needs to focus on exploring more efficient, repeatable, and accurate methods to assess carbonation and bubble size, distribution and dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Alcoholic Beverages)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of GGT and C-S Lyase on the Generation of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Lentinula edodes at Different Growth Stages
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4203; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234203 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Endogenous formaldehyde is generated as a normal metabolite via bio-catalysis of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) during the growth and development of Lentinula edodes. In this study, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression levels, the activities of [...] Read more.
Endogenous formaldehyde is generated as a normal metabolite via bio-catalysis of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) during the growth and development of Lentinula edodes. In this study, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression levels, the activities of GGT and C-S lyase, and the endogenous formaldehyde content in L. edodes at different growth stages. With the growth of L. edodes, a decrease was found in the mRNA and protein expression levels of GGT, while an increase was observed in the mRNA and protein expression levels of C-S lyase as well as the activities of GGT and C-S lyase. Our results revealed for the first time a positive relationship of formaldehyde content with the expression levels of Csl (encoding Lecsl) and Lecsl (C-S lyase protein of Lentinula edodes) as well as the enzyme activities of C-S lyase and GGT during the growth of L. edodes. This research provided a molecular basis for understanding and controlling the endogenous formaldehyde formation in Lentinula edodes in the process of growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes, Biocatalysis and Chemical Biology)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis of Zeolite Using Aluminum Dross and Waste LCD Glass Powder: A Waste to Waste Integration Valorization Process
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121240 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
In the current investigation, we synthesize zeolite using two different waste streams, such as aluminum dross and waste glass powder, for its potential application in indium and tin recovery from the leach liquor of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) glass. The aluminum dross [...] Read more.
In the current investigation, we synthesize zeolite using two different waste streams, such as aluminum dross and waste glass powder, for its potential application in indium and tin recovery from the leach liquor of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) glass. The aluminum dross (Al resource) and waste glass powder (Si resource) were used as raw materials for the synthesis of zeolite. Zeolite was synthesized using different weight ratios of Al dross and waste LCD glass by hydrothermal synthesis route using NaOH. The weight ratio variations of Al dross and waste LCD glass in this study are 0.3:1, 0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 using 2 M NaOH hydroxide by the hydrothermal technique. The synthesized zeolite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) followed by the possible application for recovery/extraction of indium and tin from leach liquor of waste LCD glasses. The indium extraction of average 93.66%, and tin extraction of 93.10% could be achieved from mixed solution indium and tin chloride. The significant achievement of the current investigation is that it can address two environment problems simultaneously, i.e., waste LCD glass and Al dross, and can be used for value recovery from waste LCD, LCD etching waste like secondary resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Non-Linear Analysis of Inter-Story Pounding between Wood-Framed Buildings during Ground Motion
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120488 (registering DOI) - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
Pounding between adjacent buildings during ground motion may result in structural damage or lead to total destruction of structures. The research on the phenomenon has recently been much advanced; however, the analyses have been carried out only for concrete, steel, and masonry structures, [...] Read more.
Pounding between adjacent buildings during ground motion may result in structural damage or lead to total destruction of structures. The research on the phenomenon has recently been much advanced; however, the analyses have been carried out only for concrete, steel, and masonry structures, while pounding between wooden buildings has not been studied so far. The aim of this paper is to show the results of detailed non-linear seismic analysis of inter-story pounding between the wood-framed buildings modelled by using the finite element method. Firstly, the modal analysis of the structures was conducted. Then, the detailed non-linear analysis of earthquake-induced collisions between two wood-framed buildings of different heights was carried out. The results of the analysis indicate that the behavior of both structures in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction is significantly influenced by interactions. The response of the taller building is increased in both directions. On the other hand, the response of the lower building is decreased in the longitudinal direction, while it is increased in the transverse one. The results of the study presented in the paper indicate that, due to deformability of buildings made of wood, structural interactions may change their responses much more, as compared to steel, reinforced concrete, or masonry structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering)

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