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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Pharmaceutical Excipients for Applying to Spray-Dried Omega-3 Powder
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061177 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Omega-3 fatty acid plays a role in protecting cells in the human body, maintaining the structure of the cell, and helping smooth metabolism. Also, it inhibits the formation of blood clotting and is effective in enhancing the formation of bone. However, the instability [...] Read more.
Omega-3 fatty acid plays a role in protecting cells in the human body, maintaining the structure of the cell, and helping smooth metabolism. Also, it inhibits the formation of blood clotting and is effective in enhancing the formation of bone. However, the instability due to fatty acid oxidation and a fishy smell are the reasons it is avoided by people. In this study, we tried to obtain the omega-3 powder through spray-drying method using a variety of binders and surfactants for improving the limit of omega-3 fatty acid. First of all, an olive oil was used instead of omega-3 for optimization of the preparation of spray-dried omega-3 powder. Through the screening of binders and surfactants, γ-cyclodextrin and hydrogenated lecithin were chosen as a binder and a surfactant, respectively. Omega-3-loaded spray-dried powder was obtained, eventually. The morphology of omega-3-loaded spray-dried powder was spherical of 310 nm and the DHA amount was 98%. This study suggested that the transformation of omega-3 fatty acid into solid state by spray-drying using a binder and a surfactant was successively performed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Optimal Power Dispatch of an Offshore Wind Farm under Generator Fault
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061184 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
For offshore wind farms, the power loss caused by the wake effect is large due to the large capacity of the wind turbine. At the same time, the operating environment of the offshore wind farm is very harsh, and the cost of maintenance [...] Read more.
For offshore wind farms, the power loss caused by the wake effect is large due to the large capacity of the wind turbine. At the same time, the operating environment of the offshore wind farm is very harsh, and the cost of maintenance is higher than that of the onshore wind farm. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study through reasonable control how to reduce the wake loss of the wind farm and minimize the losses caused by the fault. In this paper, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the active power dispatch of wind farms under generator cooling system faults. The optimization objectives include avoiding the further deterioration of the generator fault, reducing unnecessary power loss of the faulty wind turbine, tracking the power demand from the Transmission System Operator (TSO), and reducing the power fluctuation caused by the PSO algorithm. The proposed optimal power dispatch strategy was compared with the two generally-used fault-handling methods and the proportional dispatch strategy in simulation. The result shows that the proposed strategy can improve the power generation capacity of the wind farm and achieve an efficient trade-off between power generation and fault protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feature Extraction Method of Transmission Signal in Electronic Communication Network Based on Symmetric Algorithm
Symmetry 2019, 11(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030410 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Because the existing methods extract the signal characteristics of electronic communication networks, there is a problem of poor extraction. In this paper, a feature extraction method based on symmetric algorithm for transmission signals in electronic communication networks is proposed. The transmission signal in [...] Read more.
Because the existing methods extract the signal characteristics of electronic communication networks, there is a problem of poor extraction. In this paper, a feature extraction method based on symmetric algorithm for transmission signals in electronic communication networks is proposed. The transmission signal in the time domain is decomposed by three-layer wavelet packet decomposition through threshold denoising and data dimension reduction. The adaptive floating threshold is used as a threshold to quantify the wavelet coefficients of the signal, which can effectively remove noise while retaining valuable transmission signal. Secondly, the feature extraction algorithm based on symmetric Holder coefficient is used to transform the transmitted signal from time domain to frequency domain, identify the signal sequence, and classify the signal sequence using neural network classifier. The simulation results show that the proposed method can extract the transmission signal of electronic communication network with the highest accuracy of 98.21%. This method can extract the amplitude and frequency characteristics of the transmission signal accurately under strong vibration environment. It is an efficient method for feature extraction of transmission signal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cyanosilylation of Aldehydes Catalyzed by Ag(I)- and Cu(II)-Arylhydrazone Coordination Polymers in Conventional and in Ionic Liquid Media
Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030284 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The novel Ag(I) and Cu(II) coordination polymers [Ag(μ3-1κO;2:3κO′;4κN-HL)]n∙n/2H2O (1) and [Cu(en)2(μ-1κO;2κN-L)]n∙nH2O (2) [HL [...] Read more.
The novel Ag(I) and Cu(II) coordination polymers [Ag(μ3-1κO;2:3κO′;4κN-HL)]n∙n/2H2O (1) and [Cu(en)2(μ-1κO;2κN-L)]n∙nH2O (2) [HL = 2-(2-(1-cyano-2-oxopropylidene)hydrazinyl)benzene sulfonate] were synthesized and characterized by IR and ESI-MS spectroscopies, elemental and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 as well as the already known complex salt [Cu(H2O)2(en)2](HL)2 (3) have been tested as homogenous catalysts for the cyanosilylation reaction of different aldehydes with trimethylsilyl cyanide, to provide cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers. Coordination polymer 2 was found to be the most efficient one, with yields ranging from 76 to 88% in methanol, which increases up to 99% by addition of the ionic liquid [DHTMG][L-Lactate]. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Poincaré Symmetry from Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Relations
Symmetry 2019, 11(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030409 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
It is noted that the single-variable Heisenberg commutation relation contains the symmetry of the Sp(2) group which is isomorphic to the Lorentz group applicable to one time-like dimension and two space-like dimensions, known as the SO(2 [...] Read more.
It is noted that the single-variable Heisenberg commutation relation contains the symmetry of the Sp(2) group which is isomorphic to the Lorentz group applicable to one time-like dimension and two space-like dimensions, known as the SO(2,1) group. According to Paul A. M. Dirac, from the uncertainty commutation relations for two variables, it possible to construct the de Sitter group SO(3,2), namely the Lorentz group applicable to three space-like variables and two time-like variables. By contracting one of the time-like variables in SO(3,2), it is possible to construct the inhomogeneous Lorentz group ISO(3,1) which serves as the fundamental symmetry group for quantum mechanics and quantum field theory in the Lorentz-covariant world. This ISO(3,1) group is commonly known as the Poincaré group. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bioengineered Skin Intended for Skin Disease Modeling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061407 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Clinical use of bioengineered skin in reconstructive surgery has been established for more than 30 years. The limitations and ethical considerations regarding the use of animal models have expanded the application of bioengineered skin in the areas of disease modeling and drug screening. [...] Read more.
Clinical use of bioengineered skin in reconstructive surgery has been established for more than 30 years. The limitations and ethical considerations regarding the use of animal models have expanded the application of bioengineered skin in the areas of disease modeling and drug screening. These skin models should represent the anatomical and physiological traits of native skin for the efficient replication of normal and pathological skin conditions. In addition, reliability of such models is essential for the conduction of faithful, rapid, and large-scale studies. Therefore, research efforts are focused on automated fabrication methods to replace the traditional manual approaches. This report presents an overview of the skin models applicable to skin disease modeling along with their fabrication methods, and discusses the potential of the currently available options to conform and satisfy the demands for disease modeling and drug screening. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prospects for Searching Thermal Effects, Non-Newtonian Gravity and Axion-Like Particles: Cannex Test of the Quantum Vacuum
Symmetry 2019, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030407 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We consider the Cannex (Casimir And Non-Newtonian force EXperiment) test of the quantum vacuum intended for measuring the gradient of the Casimir pressure between two flat parallel plates at large separations and constraining parameters of the chameleon model of dark energy in cosmology. [...] Read more.
We consider the Cannex (Casimir And Non-Newtonian force EXperiment) test of the quantum vacuum intended for measuring the gradient of the Casimir pressure between two flat parallel plates at large separations and constraining parameters of the chameleon model of dark energy in cosmology. A modification of the measurement scheme is proposed that allows simultaneous measurements of both the Casimir pressure and its gradient in one experiment. It is shown that with several improvements the Cannex test will be capable to strengthen the constraints on the parameters of the Yukawa-type interaction by up to an order of magnitude over a wide interaction range. The constraints on the coupling constants between nucleons and axion-like particles, which are considered as the most probable constituents of dark matter, could also be strengthened over a region of axion masses from 1 to 100 meV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pressure-Dependent Structural and Luminescence Properties of 1-(Pyren-1-yl)but-2-yn-1-one
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061107 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The crystal structure of 1-(pyren-1-yl)but-2-yn-1-one (1a, a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon displaying enhanced luminescence in the solid state, has been re-determined at several pressures ranging from atmospheric up to 3 GPa using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). These experiments were augmented [...] Read more.
The crystal structure of 1-(pyren-1-yl)but-2-yn-1-one (1a, a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon displaying enhanced luminescence in the solid state, has been re-determined at several pressures ranging from atmospheric up to 3 GPa using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). These experiments were augmented by periodic DFT calculations at pressures up to 4.4 GPa. UV-Vis fluorescence of 1a at non-ambient pressures has also been investigated. The crystal structure consists of infinite π-stacks of anti-parallel 1a molecules with discernible dimers, which may exemplify aggregates formed by pyrene derivatives in solution and thin films, and is predominantly stabilized by dispersion. The average inter-planar distance between individual molecules within π-stacks decreases with pressure in the investigated range. This results in piezochromic properties of 1a: a red-shift of sample color, as well as a bathochromic shift of fluorescence with pressure (by ca. 100 nm at 3.5 GPa). Two-component fluorescence spectra support the hypothesis that at least two types of excimers are involved in the electronic excitation processes in crystalline 1a. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Antidepressant-like Effect of Flavonoids from Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Seeds in Chronic Restraint Stress Mice via Modulation of Monoamine Regulatory Pathways
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061105 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) seeds flavonoids (FSF) have diverse biological activities, while the antidepressant-like effect of FSF has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of FSF and to identify the potential molecular mechanisms. LC-MS/MS [...] Read more.
Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) seeds flavonoids (FSF) have diverse biological activities, while the antidepressant-like effect of FSF has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of FSF and to identify the potential molecular mechanisms. LC-MS/MS was used for the determination of FSF. Chronic restraint stress (CRS) was used to establish the animal model of depression. Observation of exploratory behavior in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) indicated the stress level. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level was measured. The monoamine neurotransmitters (5-HT, NE and DA) and their metabolites, as well as monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum, were evaluated. The protein expression levels of KLF11, SIRT1, MAO-A were also determined by western blot analysis. The results showed that FSF treatment significantly reversed the CRS-induced behavioral abnormalities, including reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time. FSF administration markedly restored CRS induced changes in concentrations of serum corticosterone, prefrontal cortex neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT and DA), hippocampus neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT and DA) and striatum neurotransmitters (NE). FSF treatment exhibited significant inhibition of MAO-A activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. FSF also significantly down-regulated the KLF11, SIRT1 and MAO-A protein expression levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that FSF could exhibit an antidepressant-like effect by down-regulating the KLF11/SIRT1-MAO-A pathways, inhibiting MAO-A expression and activity, as well as up-regulating monoamine neurotransmitters levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Measurement of Flash-Flood in a Wadi Area by LSPIV and STIV
Hydrology 2019, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6010027 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Flash floods in wadi systems discharge large volumes of water to either the sea or the desert areas after high-intensity rainfall events. Recently, wadi flash floods have frequently occurred in arid regions and caused damage to roads, houses, and properties. Therefore, monitoring and [...] Read more.
Flash floods in wadi systems discharge large volumes of water to either the sea or the desert areas after high-intensity rainfall events. Recently, wadi flash floods have frequently occurred in arid regions and caused damage to roads, houses, and properties. Therefore, monitoring and quantifying these events by accurately measuring wadi discharge has become important for the installation of mitigation structures and early warning systems. In this study, image-based methods were used to measure surface flow velocities during a wadi flash flood in 2018 to test the usefulness of large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) and space–time image velocimetry (STIV) techniques for the estimation of wadi discharge. The results, which indicated the positive performance of the image-based methods, strengthened our hypothesis that the application of LSPIV and STIV techniques is appropriate for the analysis of wadi flash flood velocities. STIV is suitable for unidirectional flow velocity and LSPIV is reliable and stable for two-dimensional measurement along the wadi channel, the direction of flow pattern which varies with time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solvent-Mediated Polymorphic Transformation of Famoxadone from Form II to Form I in Several Mixed Solvent Systems
Crystals 2019, 9(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9030161 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper discloses six polymorphs of famoxadone obtained from polymorph screening, which were characterized by XRPD, DSC, and SEM. A study of solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation (SMPT) of famoxadone from the metastable Form II to the stable Form I in several mixed solvent systems [...] Read more.
This paper discloses six polymorphs of famoxadone obtained from polymorph screening, which were characterized by XRPD, DSC, and SEM. A study of solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation (SMPT) of famoxadone from the metastable Form II to the stable Form I in several mixed solvent systems at the temperature of 30 °C was also conducted. The transformation process was monitored by Process Analytical Technologies. It was confirmed that the Form II to Form I polymorphic transformation is controlled by the Form I growth process. The transformation rate constants depended linearly on the solubility difference value between Form I and Form II. Furthermore, the hydrogen-bond-donation/acceptance ability and dipolar polarizability also had an effect on the rate of solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Untangling Extracellular Proteasome-Osteopontin Circuit Dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis
Cells 2019, 8(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030262 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The function of proteasomes in extracellular space is still largely unknown. The extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit has recently been hypothesized to be part of the inflammatory machinery regulating relapse/remission phase alternation in multiple sclerosis. However, it is still unclear what dynamics there are between [...] Read more.
The function of proteasomes in extracellular space is still largely unknown. The extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit has recently been hypothesized to be part of the inflammatory machinery regulating relapse/remission phase alternation in multiple sclerosis. However, it is still unclear what dynamics there are between the different elements of the circuit, what the role of proteasome isoforms is, and whether these inflammatory circuit dynamics are associated with the clinical severity of multiple sclerosis. To shed light on these aspects of this novel inflammatory circuit, we integrated in vitro proteasome isoform data, cell chemotaxis cell culture data, and clinical data of multiple sclerosis cohorts in a coherent computational inference framework. Thereby, we modeled extracellular osteopontin-proteasome circuit dynamics during relapse/remission alternation in multiple sclerosis. Applying this computational framework to a longitudinal study on single multiple sclerosis patients suggests a complex interaction between extracellular proteasome isoforms and osteopontin with potential clinical implications. Full article
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