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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis of Traditional Herbal and Coffee Liqueurs made with Grape Marc Spirit (Orujo)
Foods 2020, 9(6), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060753 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Orujo is a recognized traditional grape marc distillate from Galicia (NW of Spain). It is also employed as an alcohol base to elaborate coffee and herbal liqueurs and spirits. In this manuscript, quantitative descriptive analysis was applied to obtain the most important sensory [...] Read more.
Orujo is a recognized traditional grape marc distillate from Galicia (NW of Spain). It is also employed as an alcohol base to elaborate coffee and herbal liqueurs and spirits. In this manuscript, quantitative descriptive analysis was applied to obtain the most important sensory terms that describe these traditional beverages. Thirteen trained panelists developed a complete sensory lexicon. Sixteen sensory descriptors (four in appearance, five in aroma, four in mouth, and three in aftertaste) were defined, valuated, and scored with the corresponding references, after elimination of hedonic, synonymous, and non-pertinent attributes according to statistical methods. The panelists evaluated a total of 464 samples in order to define their sensory profile. Panel performance was investigated showing good discriminatory ability, repeatability, and reproducibility. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to identify the sensory descriptors that better discriminate the samples. The results obtained showed the importance of including new terms (orujo, chocolate-cocoa, floral, bitter, and astringent) in the tasting sheet, mainly in the case of coffee liqueurs to improve their sensory profile. The results of this study were useful for the development and implementation of an important tool for the corresponding regulating council in the sensory characterization and qualification of Galician liqueurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Spirit Beverages of Vitivinicultural Origin)
Open AccessArticle
Subacute Oral Administration of Clinacanthus nutans Ethanolic Leaf Extract Induced Liver and Kidney Toxicities in ICR Mice
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112631 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans for its bioactive compounds and acute and subacute toxicity effects of C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract (CELE) on blood, liver and kidneys of ICR mice. A total of 10 8-week-old female mice were divided into [...] Read more.
This study investigated the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans for its bioactive compounds and acute and subacute toxicity effects of C. nutans ethanolic leaf extract (CELE) on blood, liver and kidneys of ICR mice. A total of 10 8-week-old female mice were divided into groups A (control) and B (2000 mg/kg) for the acute toxicity study. A single dose of 2000 mg/kg was administered to group B through oral gavage and mice were monitored for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, mice were divided into five groups: A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). The extract was administered daily for 28 days via oral gavage. The mice were sacrificed, and samples were collected for analyses. Myricetin, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, isookanin, apigenin and ferulic acid were identified in the extract. Twenty-eight days of continuous oral administration revealed significant increases (p < 0.05) in creatinine, ALT and moderate hepatic and renal necrosis in groups D and E. The study concluded that the lethal dose (LD50) of CELE in mice is greater than 2000 mg/kg and that repeated oral administrations of CELE for 28 days induced hepatic and renal toxicities at 1000 mg/kg in female ICR mice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Forced Convection of Al2O3–Cu, TiO2–SiO2, FWCNT–Fe3O4, and ND–Fe3O4 Hybrid Nanofluid in Porous Media
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2902; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112902 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Adding nanoparticles to fluid has led to a new class of fluids named as nanofluids. Different concentrations and its effective cooling have attracted many engineering applications to test this new fluid. Lately, important heat enhancement has been observed by dispersing two distinct nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Adding nanoparticles to fluid has led to a new class of fluids named as nanofluids. Different concentrations and its effective cooling have attracted many engineering applications to test this new fluid. Lately, important heat enhancement has been observed by dispersing two distinct nanoparticles in the regular fluid. This type of hybrid nanofluid has led researchers to study its effectiveness in the cooling process. Here, we experimentally studied the forced convection of Al2O3–Cu hybrid nanofluid in porous media at a constant flow rate and heating condition. The numerical code after being calibrated with the experimental results is used to predict the effectiveness in cooling by using a set of hybrid fluid of TiO2–SiO2, MWCNT–Fe3O4, and ND–Fe3O4 at different concentrations. In the experiment, we used water and a water–ethylene glycol mixture as base fluids. The results revealed that the hybrid fluid contributed to heat enhancement levied increased pumping power. However, the index of efficiency, obtained by combining the Nusselt number and pressure drop, indicated that the best hybrid fluid for such an application is ND–Fe3O4 in the water–ethylene glycol mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogen Energy)
Open AccessArticle
Responsiveness to Influenza Vaccination Correlates with NKG2C-Expression on NK Cells
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020281 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Influenza vaccination often results in a large percentage of low responders, especially in high-risk groups. As a first line of defense, natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the fight against infections. However, their implication with regard to vaccine responsiveness is [...] Read more.
Influenza vaccination often results in a large percentage of low responders, especially in high-risk groups. As a first line of defense, natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the fight against infections. However, their implication with regard to vaccine responsiveness is insufficiently assessed. Therefore, this study aimed at the validation of essential NK cell features potentially associated with differential vaccine responsiveness with a special focus on NKG2C- and/or CD57-expressing NK cells considered to harbor memory-like functions. To this end, 16 healthy volunteers were vaccinated with an adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. Vaccine responders and low responders were classified according to their hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. A majority of responders displayed enhanced frequencies of NKG2C-expressing NK cells 7- or 14-days post-vaccination as compared to low responders, whereas the expression of CD57 was not differentially modulated. The NK cell cytotoxic potential was found to be confined to CD56dimCD16+ NKG2C-expressing NK cells in the responders but not in the low responders, which was further confirmed by stochastic neighbor embedding analysis. The presented study is the first of its kind that ascribes CD56dimCD16+ NKG2C-expressing NK cells a crucial role in biasing adaptive immune responses upon influenza vaccination and suggests NKG2C as a potential biomarker in predicting pandemic influenza vaccine responsiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
Open AccessReview
Chemical Bonding: The Journey from Miniature Hooks to Density Functional Theory
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112623 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Our modern understanding of chemistry is predicated upon bonding interactions between atoms and ions resulting in the assembly of all of the forms of matter that we encounter in our daily life. It was not always so. This review article traces the development [...] Read more.
Our modern understanding of chemistry is predicated upon bonding interactions between atoms and ions resulting in the assembly of all of the forms of matter that we encounter in our daily life. It was not always so. This review article traces the development of our understanding of bonding from prehistory, through the debates in the 19th century C.E. bearing on valence, to modern quantum chemical models and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bonding in Inorganic and Coordination Compounds)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Computational and Crystallographic Examination of Naphthoquinone Based Diarylethene Photochromes
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112630 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Photochromic compounds have a lengthy history of study and a profusion of applications that stand to gain from these studies. Among the classes of photochromic compounds, diarylethenes show desirable properties including high fatigue resistance and thermal stability, thus meeting some of the most [...] Read more.
Photochromic compounds have a lengthy history of study and a profusion of applications that stand to gain from these studies. Among the classes of photochromic compounds, diarylethenes show desirable properties including high fatigue resistance and thermal stability, thus meeting some of the most important criteria necessary to enter the realm of practical applications. Recently, photochromic diarylethenes containing quinone functionalities have demonstrated interesting optical and solid-state properties. When properly interfaced with suitable electron withdrawing groups on the aryl component, both the ring-opening and ring-closing reactions can be achieved with visible light; this is in contrast to most other diarylethenes where UV light is required for ring closure. Unfortunately, quantitative conversion from open to closed forms is not possible. In this work, we examine the relative energies of conformations of solid-state structures observed by X-ray crystallography and evaluate their thermal stabilities based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Time-dependent DFT (TD–DFT) is used to model the UV-vis absorption spectra of these quinone diarylethenes. We show that spectral overlap between open and closed forms is a major hindrance to full photoconversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies of Photoisomerization)
Open AccessReview
Oncogenic Properties of the EBV ZEBRA Protein
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061479 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is one of the most common human herpesviruses. After primary infection, it can persist in the host throughout their lifetime in a latent form, from which it can reactivate following specific stimuli. EBV reactivation is triggered by transcriptional transactivator [...] Read more.
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is one of the most common human herpesviruses. After primary infection, it can persist in the host throughout their lifetime in a latent form, from which it can reactivate following specific stimuli. EBV reactivation is triggered by transcriptional transactivator proteins ZEBRA (also known as Z, EB-1, Zta or BZLF1) and RTA (also known as BRLF1). Here we discuss the structural and functional features of ZEBRA, its role in oncogenesis and its possible implication as a prognostic or diagnostic marker. Modulation of host gene expression by ZEBRA can deregulate the immune surveillance, allow the immune escape, and favor tumor progression. It also interacts with host proteins, thereby modifying their functions. ZEBRA is released into the bloodstream by infected cells and can potentially penetrate any cell through its cell-penetrating domain; therefore, it can also change the fate of non-infected cells. The features of ZEBRA described in this review outline its importance in EBV-related malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Causality between CO2 Emissions and Stock Markets
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2893; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112893 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
It is generally accepted in the scientific community that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which lead to global warming, arise from using fossil fuels, namely coal, oil and gas, as energy sources. Consequently, alleviating the effects of global warming and climate change necessitates substantial [...] Read more.
It is generally accepted in the scientific community that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which lead to global warming, arise from using fossil fuels, namely coal, oil and gas, as energy sources. Consequently, alleviating the effects of global warming and climate change necessitates substantial reductions in the use of fossil fuel energy. This paper uses a financial market-based approach to investigate whether positive stock returns cause changes in CO2 emissions, or vice-versa, based on the Granger causality test to determine cause and effect, or leader and follower. If Granger causality can be determined in any direction, this will enable a clear directional statement regarding temporal predictability between stock returns and CO2 emissions. The empirical data include annual CO2 emissions from fuel combustion of the three main fossil energy sources, namely coal, oil and gas, based on 18 countries with sophisticated financial markets that are in the Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) World Index from 1971 to 2017. The empirical results show clearly that all the statistically significant causality findings are unidirectional from the stock market returns to CO2 emissions from coal, oil and gas, but not the reverse. More importantly, the regression results suggest that when stock returns rise by 1%, CO2 emissions from coal combustion decrease by 9% among the countries that are included in MSCI World Index. Furthermore, when stock returns rise 1%, CO2 emissions from oil combustion increase by 2%, but stock returns have no significant effect on CO2 emissions from gas combustion. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Boron-Doped TiO2-CNT Nanocomposites with Improved Photocatalytic Efficiency toward Photodegradation of Toluene Gas and Photo-Inactivation of Escherichia coli
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060632 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
An in-situ sol-gel method was used for the synthesis of boron-doped TiO2-CNT nanocomposites with varied boron concentrations from 1 to 4 mol%. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by various techniques, namely XRD, UV-DRS, TEM, PL, and XPS; all results show that [...] Read more.
An in-situ sol-gel method was used for the synthesis of boron-doped TiO2-CNT nanocomposites with varied boron concentrations from 1 to 4 mol%. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by various techniques, namely XRD, UV-DRS, TEM, PL, and XPS; all results show that 3 mol% B-TiO2-CNT nanocomposites have superior properties to pure TiO2, 3B-TiO2 nanoparticles, and other nanocomposites. TEM images clearly show the B-TiO2 nanoparticles decorated on the CNT surface. Photo-luminescence studies confirm that boron doping of up to 3 mol% in TiO2-CNT nanocomposites reduces the electron-hole pair recombination rate. The photocatalytic performance of the B-TiO2-CNT nanocomposites was tested against the photodegradation of toluene gas and the photocatalytic inactivation of E. coli in the presence of UV and visible light respectively. B-TiO2-CNT (3 mol%) nanocomposites show the highest photocatalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Photocatalysis)
Open AccessReview
Breast Cancer Chemotherapeutic Options: A General Overview on the Preclinical Validation of a Multi-Target Ruthenium(III) Complex Lodged in Nucleolipid Nanosystems
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061412 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
In this review we have showcased the preclinical development of original amphiphilic nanomaterials designed for ruthenium-based anticancer treatments, to be placed within the current metallodrugs approach leading over the past decade to advanced multitarget agents endowed with limited toxicity and resistance. This strategy [...] Read more.
In this review we have showcased the preclinical development of original amphiphilic nanomaterials designed for ruthenium-based anticancer treatments, to be placed within the current metallodrugs approach leading over the past decade to advanced multitarget agents endowed with limited toxicity and resistance. This strategy could allow for new options for breast cancer (BC) interventions, including the triple-negative subtype (TNBC) with poor therapeutic alternatives. BC is currently the second most widespread cancer and the primary cause of cancer death in women. Hence, the availability of novel chemotherapeutic weapons is a basic requirement to fight BC subtypes. Anticancer drugs based on ruthenium are among the most explored and advanced next-generation metallotherapeutics, with NAMI-A and KP1019 as two iconic ruthenium complexes having undergone clinical trials. In addition, many nanomaterial Ru complexes have been recently conceived and developed into anticancer drugs demonstrating attractive properties. In this field, we focused on the evaluation of a Ru(III) complex—named AziRu—incorporated into a suite of both zwitterionic and cationic nucleolipid nanosystems, which proved to be very effective for the in vivo targeting of breast cancer cells (BBC). Mechanisms of action have been widely explored in the context of preclinical evaluations in vitro, highlighting a multitarget action on cell death pathways which are typically deregulated in neoplasms onset and progression. Moreover, being AziRu inspired by the well-known NAMI-A complex, information on non-nanostructured Ru-based anticancer agents have been included in a precise manner. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Seaweeds as a Functional Ingredient for a Healthy Diet
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060301 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Seaweeds have been used since ancient times as food, mainly by Asian countries, while in Western countries, their main application has been as gelling agents and colloids for the food, pharmaceuticals, and the cosmetic industry. Seaweeds are a good source of nutrients such [...] Read more.
Seaweeds have been used since ancient times as food, mainly by Asian countries, while in Western countries, their main application has been as gelling agents and colloids for the food, pharmaceuticals, and the cosmetic industry. Seaweeds are a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Polyphenols, polysaccharides, and sterols, as well as other bioactive molecules, are mainly responsible for the healthy properties associated with seaweed. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic properties are attributed to these compounds. If seaweeds are compared to terrestrial plants, they have a higher proportion of essential fatty acids as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids. In addition, there are several secondary metabolites that are synthesized by algae such as terpenoids, oxylipins, phlorotannins, volatile hydrocarbons, and products of mixed biogenetic origin. Therefore, algae can be considered as a natural source of great interest, since they contain compounds with numerous biological activities and can be used as a functional ingredient in many technological applications to obtain functional foods. Full article
Open AccessReview
Phage Therapy as a Novel Strategy in the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Caused by E. Coli
Antibiotics 2020, 9(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060304 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are regarded as one of the most common bacterial infections affecting millions of people, in all age groups, annually in the world. The major causative agent of complicated and uncomplicated UTIs are uropathogenic E. coli strains (UPECs). Huge problems [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are regarded as one of the most common bacterial infections affecting millions of people, in all age groups, annually in the world. The major causative agent of complicated and uncomplicated UTIs are uropathogenic E. coli strains (UPECs). Huge problems with infections of this type are their chronicity and periodic recurrences. Other disadvantages that are associated with UTIs are accompanying complications and high costs of health care, systematically increasing resistance of uropathogens to routinely used antibiotics, as well as biofilm formation by them. This creates the need to develop new approaches for the prevention and treatment of UTIs, among which phage therapy has a dominant potential to eliminate uropathogens within urinary tract. Due to the growing interest in such therapy in the last decade, the bacteriophages (natural, genetically modified, engineered, or combined with antibiotics or disinfectants) represent an innovative antimicrobial alternative and a strategy for managing the resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms and controlling UTIs. Full article
Open AccessReview
A Multidisciplinary Review of the Roles of Cripto in the Scientific Literature Through a Bibliometric Analysis of its Biological Roles
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061480 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Cripto is a small glycosylphosphatidylinisitol (GPI)-anchored and secreted oncofetal protein that plays important roles in regulating normal physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation, embryonal development, and tissue growth and remodeling, as well as pathological processes such as tumor initiation and progression. Cripto functions [...] Read more.
Cripto is a small glycosylphosphatidylinisitol (GPI)-anchored and secreted oncofetal protein that plays important roles in regulating normal physiological processes, including stem cell differentiation, embryonal development, and tissue growth and remodeling, as well as pathological processes such as tumor initiation and progression. Cripto functions as a co-receptor for TGF-β ligands such as Nodal, GDF1, and GDF3. Soluble and secreted forms of Cripto also exhibit growth factor-like activity and activate SRC/MAPK/PI3K/AKT pathways. Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 kDa (GRP78) binds Cripto at the cell surface and has been shown to be required for Cripto signaling via both TGF-β and SRC/MAPK/PI3K/AKT pathways. To provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature related to Cripto, we performed, for the first time, a bibliometric analysis of the biological roles of Cripto as reported in the scientific literature covering the last 10 years. We present different fields of knowledge in comprehensive areas of research on Cripto, ranging from basic to translational research, using a keyword-driven approach. Our ultimate aim is to aid the scientific community in conducting targeted research by identifying areas where research has been conducted so far and, perhaps more importantly, where critical knowledge is still missing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antigens and Cancer Therapy)
Open AccessReview
The Role of Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in the Glycoprotein Diseases
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061411 (registering DOI) - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
The glycoprotein disorders are a group of lysosomal storage diseases (α-mannosidosis, aspartylglucosaminuria, β-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, mucolipidosis II, mucolipidosis III, and Schindler Disease) characterized by specific lysosomal enzyme defects and resultant buildup of undegraded glycoprotein substrates. This buildup causes a multitude of abnormalities [...] Read more.
The glycoprotein disorders are a group of lysosomal storage diseases (α-mannosidosis, aspartylglucosaminuria, β-mannosidosis, fucosidosis, galactosialidosis, sialidosis, mucolipidosis II, mucolipidosis III, and Schindler Disease) characterized by specific lysosomal enzyme defects and resultant buildup of undegraded glycoprotein substrates. This buildup causes a multitude of abnormalities in patients including skeletal dysplasia, inflammation, ocular abnormalities, liver and spleen enlargement, myoclonus, ataxia, psychomotor delay, and mild to severe neurodegeneration. Pharmacological treatment options exist through enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for a few, but therapies for this group of disorders is largely lacking. Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) has been explored as a potential therapeutic option for many of these disorders, as HCT introduces functional enzyme-producing cells into the bone marrow and blood along with the engraftment of healthy donor cells in the central nervous system (presumably as brain macrophages or a type of microglial cell). The outcome of HCT varies widely by disease type. We report our institutional experience with HCT as well as a review of the literature to better understand HCT and outcomes for the glycoprotein disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lysosomal Storage Disorders)
Open AccessArticle
Impacts of LEDs in the Red Spectrum on the Germination, Early Seedling Growth and Antioxidant Metabolism of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Melon (Cucumis melo L.)
Agriculture 2020, 10(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10060204 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: In recent years, the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for plant production purposes has expanded. However, LEDs’ effect on seed germination and early seedling growth has been scarcely documented. (2) Methods: In this work, the effect of monochromatic red light [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In recent years, the use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for plant production purposes has expanded. However, LEDs’ effect on seed germination and early seedling growth has been scarcely documented. (2) Methods: In this work, the effect of monochromatic red light (RL, 100 µmol m−2 s−1) for up to 60 min applied to seeds of pea and melon was analyzed in terms of seedling growth and antioxidant enzymes levels. An experimental LED chamber coupled to an electronic control system was developed for this purpose. (3) Results: RL did not alter the germination rate, but significantly improved the early seedling growth. Pea and melon seedlings showed the highest increase in fresh weight and length upon 15 min RL treatment of the seeds, whereas longer exposure times decreased seedling growth. Interestingly, RL favored the development of secondary roots in both species, which could favor the nutrition and water uptake by the seedling. The ability of the seedlings to respond to a hypothetical LED irradiance-induced oxidative stress was reflected differently on the antioxidant system of pea and melon. (4) Conclusions: These findings can be relevant for designing seed priming treatments to improve plant vigor, thus enhancing the productivity of important crop plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Agronomic Practices for Maximizing Crop Growth and Yield)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acids from Ganoderma lucidum Spores: Extraction, Identification and Quantification
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3907; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113907 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Ganoderma lucidum is a rich and promising source of bioactive compounds capable of positively influencing the human health. For this reason, G. lucidum is the target of vigorous investigational activities, focusing on the extraction of substances with potential biomedical applications, as well as [...] Read more.
Ganoderma lucidum is a rich and promising source of bioactive compounds capable of positively influencing the human health. For this reason, G. lucidum is the target of vigorous investigational activities, focusing on the extraction of substances with potential biomedical applications, as well as on the improvement of analytical methodologies for their screening. In the present study, three different extraction processes (i.e., extraction with n-hexane, in Soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane and reflux with chloroform) were employed to evaluate the lipid content of G. lucidum spores. The experimental data from the produced extracts were compared with ones from the commercial liquid extract obtained with supercritical CO2 extraction of G. lucidum spores. To achieve this goal, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology was optimized for an accurate and reliable identification and quantification of fatty acids in triglycerides of G. lucidum spores. Significant amounts of oleic and palmitic acids were found in the examined extracts. In particular, our findings show that economical and convenient extraction procedures, which are simple, low cost and no need for expensive tools, allow to produce extracts with a lipid composition similar to the one obtained with hard strategies of extraction. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fractional Riccati Equation and Its Applications to Rough Heston Model Using Numerical Methods
Symmetry 2020, 12(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12060959 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Rough volatility models are recently popularized by the need of a consistent model for the observed empirical volatility in the financial market. In this case, it has been shown that the empirical volatility in the financial market is extremely consistent with the rough [...] Read more.
Rough volatility models are recently popularized by the need of a consistent model for the observed empirical volatility in the financial market. In this case, it has been shown that the empirical volatility in the financial market is extremely consistent with the rough volatility. Currently, fractional Riccati equation as a part of computation for the characteristic function of rough Heston model is not known in explicit form and therefore, we must rely on numerical methods to obtain a solution. In this paper, we will be giving a short introduction to option pricing theory (Black–Scholes model, classical Heston model and its characteristic function), an overview of the current advancements on the rough Heston model and numerical methods (fractional Adams–Bashforth–Moulton method and multipoint Padé approximation method) for solving the fractional Riccati equation. In addition, we will investigate on the performance of multipoint Padé approximation method for the small u values in D α h ( u i / 2 , x ) as it plays a huge role in the computation for the option prices. We further confirm that the solution generated by multipoint Padé (3,3) method for the fractional Riccati equation is incredibly consistent with the solution generated by fractional Adams–Bashforth–Moulton method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Discrete and Fractional Mathematics)
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