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Open AccessAbstract
Enzymatic Fractionation of Protein, Fat and Chitin from Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036187 (registering DOI) - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
Abstract: Insects have the ability to convert biowaste into valuable functional compounds, such as proteins, fat and chitin. Currently, unlike with conventional commodities, there are few fractionation methods to isolate these compounds for diversification of use. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a possible [...] Read more.
Abstract: Insects have the ability to convert biowaste into valuable functional compounds, such as proteins, fat and chitin. Currently, unlike with conventional commodities, there are few fractionation methods to isolate these compounds for diversification of use. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a possible method to fractionate Hermetia illucens larvae, into protein, fat and chitin. This method is a particularly attractive due to the milder process conditions required compared to chemical methods, the relative ease to control the reaction and minimal formation of unpalatable and toxic by-products. A central composite design was used to help identify the optimum hydrolysis conditions for fractionation. At these conditions the fat recovery was ?~81%; substantially more than previous attempts and the fatty acid profile stayed unchanged from the original larvae material. The protein solubility was ~57%, with a degree of hydrolysis of ~22%, and was on par with previous studies. The amino acid profile of the soluble proteins differed from the original larvae material with a slight decrease in the ratio of essential to total amino acids. The insoluble proteins were accounted for with the chitin. A washing-and-sieving step, as means to recover the insoluble proteins from the chitin is envisaged. Also, the spray drying of the protein hydrolysate produced and its functional properties allows for future investigation. This technology allows for higher margins to be made, both environmentally as well as financially, compared to the use of the ‘intact’ biomass. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Impact of Insect Larvae on Meat Quality
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036186 (registering DOI) - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
The use of the black soldier fly (BSF: Hermetia illucens) as a means of upstreaming waste has enjoyed increasing research the past few years. One of the uses of the resultant larvae is as animal feed, with particular success achieved when fed [...] Read more.
The use of the black soldier fly (BSF: Hermetia illucens) as a means of upstreaming waste has enjoyed increasing research the past few years. One of the uses of the resultant larvae is as animal feed, with particular success achieved when fed to mono-gastric animals. Most of the research has been on the use of BSF as feed in poultry and fish species. In poultry, larvae were produced on abattoir waste, kitchen waste or faecal matter (human and animal manure). The insects were grown until harvest as larvae, pre-pupae or pupae. The post-harvest processing included freezing, drying and/or milling. Where the poultry were fed Iso-nitrogenous/Iso-energetic diets containing various proportions of BSF, no differences in production performance or carcass yields (breast-, thigh-yields) were found. As pertaining to meat quality, no differences for initial pH or ultimate pH of the meat were noted. Differences for breast colour measurements were found; larvae fed chicken breast meat was generally lighter and redder whilst results on the breasts’ water binding capacity was inconclusive. For sensory attributes, no differences were observed except for juiciness and sustained juiciness. Sometimes a metallic flavour was noted, particularly on larvae fed on abattoir wastes. Manipulating the larvae’s diet as a strategy to change the chemical composition of the poultry has focused on attempts to change the fatty acid profiles and yielded mixed results; irrespective of the fatty acid profile, the fat of BSF larvae contains large amounts of lauric acid; known to have profound antiviral and antibacterial activity. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Linkages for Life: Assessing Tomato Value Chain Pathways and Opportunities for Better Livelihoods of Marginal and Vulnerable Groups in Pakistan
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036184 (registering DOI) - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
This case study offers insights into assessing tomato value chain to improving rural livelihoods of marginal and vulnerable groups in rural Punjab, Pakistan. This research is based on qualitative data collected through Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) in two pilot villages of district Muzaffargarh [...] Read more.
This case study offers insights into assessing tomato value chain to improving rural livelihoods of marginal and vulnerable groups in rural Punjab, Pakistan. This research is based on qualitative data collected through Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) in two pilot villages of district Muzaffargarh with men and women farmers separately. The research aims to explore the pathways, linkages and new avenues and opportunities for marginal and vulnerable groups especially women to increase their household incomes under a collaborative Pakistan-Australia Strengthening Vegetable Value Chain Project (SVVCP). It is imperative to identify effective linkages between farmers and other chain actors to have a comprehensive understanding of how these works and what roles public and private actors play in making them work more effectively to plan and implement the project activities with farmers, for farmer and by farmers. It was found that most of farming households operate less than an acre of land and supplement their income with farm labour and small businesses. Both men and women farmers indicated lack of linkages and opportunities for them besides their limited access to agricultural knowledge, skills and resources. Men have diverse linkages with male dominant institutions such as agriculture and marketing. In contrast, women have no linkages with viable economic institutions such as production and marketing and tend to be associated with domestic and community affairs. The findings suggest that, it is imperative that farmers must have access to required information and skills and opportunities for networking to build sustainable linkages with value chain actors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stability and Solid Solutions of Hydrous Alumino-Silicates in the Earth’s Mantle
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040330 (registering DOI) - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
The degree to which the Earth’s mantle stores and cycles water in excess of the storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals is dependent upon the stability of hydrous phases under mantle-relevant pressures, temperatures, and compositions. Two hydrous phases, phase D and phase H, [...] Read more.
The degree to which the Earth’s mantle stores and cycles water in excess of the storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals is dependent upon the stability of hydrous phases under mantle-relevant pressures, temperatures, and compositions. Two hydrous phases, phase D and phase H, are stable to the pressures and temperatures of the Earth’s lower mantle, suggesting that the Earth’s lower mantle may participate in the cycling of water. We build on our prior work of density functional theory calculations on phase H with the stability, structure, and bonding of hydrous phases D, and we predict the aluminum partitioning with H in the Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -MgO-H 2 O system. We address the solid solutions through a statistical sampling of site occupancy and calculation of the partition function from the grand canonical ensemble. We show that each phase has a wide solid solution series between MgSi 2 O 6 H 2 -Al 2 SiO 6 H 2 and MgSiO 4 H 2 -2 δ AlOOH + SiO 2 , in which phase H is more aluminum rich than phase D at a given bulk composition. We predict that the addition of Al to both phases D and H stabilizes each phase to higher temperatures through additional configurational entropy. While we have shown that phase H does not exhibit symmetric hydrogen bonding at high pressure, we report here that phase D undergoes a gradual increase in the number of symmetric H-bonds beginning at ∼30 GPa, and it is only ∼50% complete at 60 GPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Physics—In Memory of Orson Anderson)
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Open AccessAbstract
Evaluation of the Effect of Lime and Irrigation on Lettuce Yield in Laos
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036185 (registering DOI) - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
Diversification of food sources and agricultural production systems has potential to enhance domestic supplies and provide export market opportunities for Laos. Major constraints to agricultural productivity are related to soil management and include inefficient irrigation, poor soil structural stability, low pH and nutrient [...] Read more.
Diversification of food sources and agricultural production systems has potential to enhance domestic supplies and provide export market opportunities for Laos. Major constraints to agricultural productivity are related to soil management and include inefficient irrigation, poor soil structural stability, low pH and nutrient availability. An experiment at the National University of Laos (NUOL) in Vientiane assessed the effect of lime and irrigation scheduling on growth and yield of lettuce. The soil was a sandy clay loam with pH 4.89 (H2O) in the top 15 cm. Lime (CaCO3) was applied at rates of 2 and 4 tonnes per hectare (t/ha). Irrigation scheduling was based on calculated evapotranspiration (ETc) with frequencies of either twice daily, once daily or alternate days. Urea, chicken manure and rice husks were added to soil in all trial plots. The experimental design was split-plot with two treatments (lime and irrigation scheduling) and four replications. The combination of 4 t/ha lime and irrigation every second day had the highest yield (mean > 2 kg/m2). The combined treatment of irrigation once a day and no added lime showed significantly higher leaf number (p = 0.01) and plant height (p < 0.001) compared to the other treatment combinations. However, increased biomass of individual plants did not translate into increased marketable yield per square metre. The application of lime raised the pH of soil but the effect on plant growth and yield was not conclusive. Separation of the two treatments into single factor trials is needed to elucidate the effects of individual treatments in future trials. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
3D Printing beyond Dentistry during COVID 19 Epidemic: A Technical Note for Producing Connectors to Breathing Devices
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 46-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020005 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of this report was to provide the specific settings to optimize printing with the 3D printers of the dental industry. (2) Methods: In order to provide comprehensive technical notes to volunteer dental professionals interested in printing Charlotte and Dave connectors to breathing devices, the entire digital workflow is reported. (3) Results: The present paper introduces an alternative use of the dental Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machinery, and reports on the fabrication of a 3D printed connection prototypes suitable for connection to face masks, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this application. (4) Conclusions: This call for action was addressed to dentists and dental laboratories who are willing to making available their experience, facilities and machinery for the benefit of patients, even way beyond dentistry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
QuietPlace: An Ultrasound-Based Proof of Location Protocol with Strong Identities
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi3020019 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Location-based services are becoming extremely popular due to the widespread use of smartphones and other mobile and portable devices. These services mainly rely on the sincerity of users, who can spoof the location they report to them. For applications with higher security requirements, [...] Read more.
Location-based services are becoming extremely popular due to the widespread use of smartphones and other mobile and portable devices. These services mainly rely on the sincerity of users, who can spoof the location they report to them. For applications with higher security requirements, the user should be unable to report a location different than the real one. Proof of Location protocols provide a solution to secure localization by validating the device’s location with the help of nearby nodes. We propose QuietPlace, a novel protocol that is based on ultrasound and provides strong identities, proving the location of the owner of a device, without exposing though their identity. QuietPlace provides unforgeable proof that is able to resist to various attacks while respecting the users’ privacy. It can work regardless of certificate authority and location-based service and is able to support trust schemas that evaluate the participants’ behavior. We implement and validate the protocol for Android devices, showing that ultrasound-based profiles offer a better performance in terms of maximum receiving distance than audible profiles, and discuss its strengths and weaknesses, making suggestions about future work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Stability of a Family of Exponential Polynomial Maps
Math. Comput. Appl. 2020, 25(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25020020 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
We perturbed a family of exponential polynomial maps in order to show both analytically and numerically their unpredictable orbit behavior. Due to the analytical form of the iteration functions the family has numerically different behavior than its correspondent analytical one, which is a [...] Read more.
We perturbed a family of exponential polynomial maps in order to show both analytically and numerically their unpredictable orbit behavior. Due to the analytical form of the iteration functions the family has numerically different behavior than its correspondent analytical one, which is a topic of paramount importance in computer mathematics. We discover an unexpected oscillatory parametrical behavior of the perturbed family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining Which Cooking Method Provides the Best Sensory Differentiation of Potatoes
Foods 2020, 9(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040451 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
There are many ways to prepare potatoes that each provide a unique set of sensory properties. However, when conducting a descriptive sensory study, it is important to utilize a cooking method that will highlight, and not distract from, the sensory differences among potato [...] Read more.
There are many ways to prepare potatoes that each provide a unique set of sensory properties. However, when conducting a descriptive sensory study, it is important to utilize a cooking method that will highlight, and not distract from, the sensory differences among potato samples due to factors such as variety or growing conditions. This study aimed to determine which of five cooking methods results in the best differentiation among potato varieties to recommend a single method for use in future descriptive sensory studies. Five different potato varieties were each prepared using boiling, mashing, baking, frying, and air frying methods. The samples were provided to six highly trained descriptive panelists and evaluated by consensus using a modified high identity traits (HITs) method. Panelists evaluated the aroma, flavor, and texture to develop a list of up to five total HITs per sample. Additionally, panelists scored each sample for degree of difference (DOD) from the control. Based on the HITs profiles and DOD scores, mashing, baking, and air frying methods were all effective in differentiating the samples. Frying and boiling methods introduced too much variation and are not recommended for sample differentiation. Ultimately, the method chosen for future research would depend on the study objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
Open AccessArticle
Neural Networks for the Joint Development of Individual Payments and Claim Incurred
Risks 2020, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks8020033 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to develop regression models and postulate distributions which can be used in practice to describe the joint development process of individual claim payments and claim incurred. We apply neural networks to estimate our regression models. As regressors [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to develop regression models and postulate distributions which can be used in practice to describe the joint development process of individual claim payments and claim incurred. We apply neural networks to estimate our regression models. As regressors we use the whole claim history of incremental payments and claim incurred, as well as any relevant feature information which is available to describe individual claims and their development characteristics. Our models are calibrated and tested on a real data set, and the results are benchmarked with the Chain-Ladder method. Our analysis focuses on the development of the so-called Reported But Not Settled (RBNS) claims. We show benefits of using deep neural network and the whole claim history in our prediction problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Finance, Insurance and Risk Management)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybridization of Multi-Objective Deterministic Particle Swarm with Derivative-Free Local Searches
Mathematics 2020, 8(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040546 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The paper presents a multi-objective derivative-free and deterministic global/local hybrid algorithm for the efficient and effective solution of simulation-based design optimization (SBDO) problems. The objective is to show how the hybridization of two multi-objective derivative-free global and local algorithms achieves better performance than [...] Read more.
The paper presents a multi-objective derivative-free and deterministic global/local hybrid algorithm for the efficient and effective solution of simulation-based design optimization (SBDO) problems. The objective is to show how the hybridization of two multi-objective derivative-free global and local algorithms achieves better performance than the separate use of the two algorithms in solving specific SBDO problems for hull-form design. The proposed method belongs to the class of memetic algorithms, where the global exploration capability of multi-objective deterministic particle swarm optimization is enriched by exploiting the local search accuracy of a derivative-free multi-objective line-search method. To the authors best knowledge, studies are still limited on memetic, multi-objective, deterministic, derivative-free, and evolutionary algorithms for an effective and efficient solution of SBDO for hull-form design. The proposed formulation manages global and local searches based on the hypervolume metric. The hybridization scheme uses two parameters to control the local search activation and the number of function calls used by the local algorithm. The most promising values of these parameters were identified using forty analytical tests representative of the SBDO problem of interest. The resulting hybrid algorithm was finally applied to two SBDO problems for hull-form design. For both analytical tests and SBDO problems, the hybrid method achieves better performance than its global and local counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Computation & Swarm Intelligence)
Open AccessArticle
Approximation of Finite Hilbert and Hadamard Transforms by Using Equally Spaced Nodes
Mathematics 2020, 8(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040542 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
In the present paper, we propose a numerical method for the simultaneous approximation of the finite Hilbert and Hadamard transforms of a given function f, supposing to know only the samples of f at equidistant points. As reference interval we consider [ [...] Read more.
In the present paper, we propose a numerical method for the simultaneous approximation of the finite Hilbert and Hadamard transforms of a given function f, supposing to know only the samples of f at equidistant points. As reference interval we consider [ - 1 , 1 ] and as approximation tool we use iterated Boolean sums of Bernstein polynomials, also known as generalized Bernstein polynomials. Pointwise estimates of the errors are proved, and some numerical tests are given to show the performance of the procedures and the theoretical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multivariate Approximation for solving ODE and PDE)
Open AccessArticle
Phytoestrogen Agathisflavone Ameliorates Neuroinflammation-Induced by LPS and IL-1β and Protects Neurons in Cocultures of Glia/Neurons
Biomolecules 2020, 10(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10040562 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Inflammation and oxidative stress are common aspects of most neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system. In this context, microglia and astrocytes are central to mediating the balance between neuroprotective and neurodestructive mechanisms. Flavonoids have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Here, we have [...] Read more.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are common aspects of most neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system. In this context, microglia and astrocytes are central to mediating the balance between neuroprotective and neurodestructive mechanisms. Flavonoids have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Here, we have examined the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential of the flavonoid agathisflavone (FAB), which is derived from the Brazilian plant Poincianella pyramidalis, in in vitro models of neuroinflammation. Cocultures of neurons/glial cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 µg/mL) or interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h and treated with FAB (0.1 and 1 µM, 24 h). FAB displayed a significant neuroprotective effect, as measured by nitric oxide (NO) production, Fluoro-Jade B (FJ-B) staining, and immunocytochemistry (ICC) for the neuronal marker β-tubulin and the cell death marker caspase-3, preserving neuronal soma and increasing neurite outgrowth. FAB significantly decreased the LPS-induced microglial proliferation, identified by ICC for Iba-1/bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and CD68 (microglia M1 profile marker). In contrast, FAB had no apparent effect on astrocytes, as determined by ICC for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Furthermore, FAB protected against the cytodestructive and proinflammatory effects of IL-1β, a key cytokine that is released by activated microglia and astrocytes, and ICC showed that combined treatment of FAB with α and β estrogen receptor antagonists did not affect NF-κB expression. In addition, qPCR analysis demonstrated that FAB decreased the expression of proinflammatory molecules TNF-α, IL-1β, and connexins CCL5 and CCL2, as well as increased the expression of the regulatory molecule IL-10. Together, these findings indicate that FAB has a significant neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect in vitro, which may be considered as an adjuvant for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioenergetics of the Dictyostelium Kinesin-8 Motor Isoform
Biomolecules 2020, 10(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10040563 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
The functional organization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells requires a combination of their inherent dynamic properties, interactions with motor machineries, and interactions with accessory proteins to affect growth, shrinkage, stability, and architecture. In most organisms, the Kinesin-8 family of motors play an integral [...] Read more.
The functional organization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells requires a combination of their inherent dynamic properties, interactions with motor machineries, and interactions with accessory proteins to affect growth, shrinkage, stability, and architecture. In most organisms, the Kinesin-8 family of motors play an integral role in these organizations, well known for their mitotic activities in microtubule (MT) length control and kinetochore interactions. In Dictyostelium discoideum, the function of Kinesin-8 remains elusive. We present here some biochemical properties and localization data that indicate that this motor (DdKif10) shares some motility properties with other Kinesin-8s but also illustrates differences in microtubule localization and depolymerase action that highlight functional diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Assembled Monolayer Formation on a Dental Orthodontic Stainless Steel Wire Surface to Suppress Metal Ion Elution
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040367 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Metal ion elution, including Cr and Ni from dental orthodontic stainless steel, accounts for some allergies. In this study, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a wire surface is proposed for suppressing such elution. This method involves modifying the stainless steel surface using phosphonic [...] Read more.
Metal ion elution, including Cr and Ni from dental orthodontic stainless steel, accounts for some allergies. In this study, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a wire surface is proposed for suppressing such elution. This method involves modifying the stainless steel surface using phosphonic acid containing a long alkyl chain. The uncoated and coated wires are immersed in different acidic solutions, and the supernatant is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after 1–4 weeks. The results reveal that Cr and Ni ion elution is significantly suppressed by SAM modification. These findings will help in minimizing potential allergens from dental orthodontics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemical Modification)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Interactions between a Buffered Amine Oxide Impregnation Carrier and an Acrylic Resin, and Their Relationship with Moisture
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040366 (registering DOI) - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
Wood used outdoor is subjected to different sources of degradation and should be protected properly. In this study, acrylic resins were added to a wood impregnation system using amine oxides and propiconazole, an organic fungicide, to create a two-part wood protection preservation treatment. [...] Read more.
Wood used outdoor is subjected to different sources of degradation and should be protected properly. In this study, acrylic resins were added to a wood impregnation system using amine oxides and propiconazole, an organic fungicide, to create a two-part wood protection preservation treatment. Since amine oxides can diffuse readily into wood, this treatment protected both the surface and inner structure of the treated wood following a simple dipping. Many aspects of the treatment were studied: the adhesion of the acrylic coatings, their permeability to water, and the impregnation depth of the propiconazole. In each case, a particular attention was accorded to the interactions between the resins and the impregnation system. Adhesion and permeability tests were coupled with an artificial aging process simulating severely wet conditions. Amine oxides reduced the adhesion of the coatings but did not impair their aging properties. Because of their hydrophilic nature, they also increased the permeability to liquid water, although they did not affect the air moisture permeability. The penetration of the propiconazole, estimated with a dye, decreased with the resin. Overall, the two parts of the treatment lightly impaired each other, but the practical aspect of this treatment may overcome these disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments and Trends in Wood Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thin Benzotriazole Films for Inhibition of Carbon Steel Corrosion in Neutral Electrolytes
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040362 - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
This article investigates the modification of a carbon steel surface by benzotriazole (BTA), and the structure and properties of the formed layers. Adsorption was studied by surface analytical methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflecting infrared microscopy (FTIR). It has been [...] Read more.
This article investigates the modification of a carbon steel surface by benzotriazole (BTA), and the structure and properties of the formed layers. Adsorption was studied by surface analytical methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflecting infrared microscopy (FTIR). It has been established that a polymer-like film containing iron-azole complexes that are 2 nm thick and strongly bonded to the metal is formed on the surface as a result of the azole interacting with a steel surface. This film is capable to inhibit uniform and localized corrosion of steel in neutral aqueous electrolytes containing chloride ions. It is shown that the iron-azole layer located at the interface acts as a promotor of adhesion, increasing the interaction of polymeric coatings with the steel surface. Taking into account these properties, the steel pretreatments can be used for improving the anticorrosion properties of polymeric coatings applied for the protection of steel constructions. Full article
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