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Open AccessArticle
Design Optimization of Rubber-Basalt Fiber- Modified Concrete Mix Ratios Based on a Response Surface Method
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6753; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196753 (registering DOI) - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
Rubber aggregates produced from waste rubber materials and environmentally friendly basalt fibers are excellent concrete modification materials, which significantly improve the working performance and mechanical properties of concrete. This paper studied the influences of water-binder ratio, basalt fiber content and rubber content on [...] Read more.
Rubber aggregates produced from waste rubber materials and environmentally friendly basalt fibers are excellent concrete modification materials, which significantly improve the working performance and mechanical properties of concrete. This paper studied the influences of water-binder ratio, basalt fiber content and rubber content on the properties of rubber-basalt fiber modified concrete (RBFC). Based on the response surface method (RSM), optimization schemes of three preparation parameters were designed. The results showed that all preparation parameters have significant impacts on the slump. The rubber content has a closer relationship with the compressive strength and the quadratic term of the basalt fiber content has a significant impact on the flexural strength. According to the analysis, the optimal mix ratio which possesses reliable accuracy compared with experimental results includes a water-binder ratio of 0.39, a basalt fiber content of 4.56 kg/m3 and a rubber content of 10%, Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in High-Performance of Eco-Efficient Concrete)
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Open AccessEditorial
Taking a Road Less Travelled: Welcome to Tourism and Hospitality
Tour. Hosp. 2020, 1(1), 20-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp1010002 (registering DOI) - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
It is my privilege to serve as founding editor of our new journal, Tourism and Hospitality, and my pleasure to welcome you to its pages [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cationically Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose/Carboxyl-Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite Thin Film: Characterization and Potential Sensing Application
Crystals 2020, 10(10), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10100875 (registering DOI) - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
In this study, highly functional cationically modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots (CGQD) has been described. The surface of NCC was first modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA) before combining with CGQD. The CGQD, CTA-NCC and CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposites thin films were prepared using [...] Read more.
In this study, highly functional cationically modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/carboxyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots (CGQD) has been described. The surface of NCC was first modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA) before combining with CGQD. The CGQD, CTA-NCC and CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposites thin films were prepared using spin coating technique. The obtained nanocomposite thin films were then characterized by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the existence of hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups and alkyl groups in CTA-NCC/CGQD. The optical properties of the thin films were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy. The absorption of CTA-NCC/CGQD was high with an optical band gap of 4.127 eV. On the other hand, the CTA-NCC/CGQD nanocomposite thin film showed positive responses towards glucose solution of different concentration using an optical method based on surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. This work suggests that the novel nanocomposite thin film has potential for a sensing application in glucose detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability of the Motivation Policy Model for Employees in State Administration
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197974 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
An important condition for the performance sustainability of organizations, in the public and state sector, is the maintenance and improvement of the employee motivation policy model. Motivation for work has a significant impact on the success of modern organizations; the impact is multidimensional [...] Read more.
An important condition for the performance sustainability of organizations, in the public and state sector, is the maintenance and improvement of the employee motivation policy model. Motivation for work has a significant impact on the success of modern organizations; the impact is multidimensional and complex, and it has been confirmed empirically. Motivation is influenced by numerous factors, of different influence and hierarchy, which depend on socio-economic conditions and cultural determinants, but also on the characteristics of employees, and it is necessary to constantly monitor them. The paper presents a sustainable model of employee motivation in public administration and the results of research on the hierarchy and the impact of motivation factors on employees of different demographic characteristics. The research was conducted by an anonymous survey of 2128 respondents (1576 employees in the state administration and 552 persons employed in the Republic of Serbia outside the state administration), in the period March–June 2020. The questionnaire developed for this research has 16 questions on motivating factors with a scale with a high level of internal consistency. Using one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), tests of subsequent comparisons, and t-test, statistically significant differences are determined for the influence of motivational factors on respondents of different levels of education, age, role in organization, gender, and family status—also, the magnitude of influence ranges from small to large. The influence of motivational factors is greater for older people, for people with a higher level of education, for managers in relation to workers, for women in relation to men, as well as for persons in marriage in relation to persons out of wedlock. By applying multi-criteria analysis, the factors are ranked: the amount of salary and good interpersonal relations are at the top, while criticism and information about work are in the last positions. As a factor that negatively affects motivation, low wages stands out. The difference in the motivation of state administration members was determined by comparing the results of motivational factors’ influence with the appropriate sample of employees outside the state administration. Differences were registered for 15 out of 16 factors (only for the factor high wages, there is no difference), and the magnitude of the impact is medium and small. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accurate Empirical Calculation System for Predicting the Seepage Discharge and Free Surface Location of Earth Dam over Horizontal Impervious Foundation
Eng 2020, 1(2), 60-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1020005 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
In the numerical analysis of the Laplace equation, which is the governing equation of the seepage phenomena of homogeneous, isotropic earth dams, it has been confirmed that numerical analysis with high accuracy is possible by using the interpolation finite difference method (IFDM). In [...] Read more.
In the numerical analysis of the Laplace equation, which is the governing equation of the seepage phenomena of homogeneous, isotropic earth dams, it has been confirmed that numerical analysis with high accuracy is possible by using the interpolation finite difference method (IFDM). In a previous paper, based on this numerical analysis method, the equivalent Kozeny (KZ) flow method was proposed as a new empirical method to calculate the seepage discharges and free surface locations of earth dams. Although this method is generally a highly accurate method compared with the empirical method of A. Casagrande, owing to calculating the seepage problems within a few percentages of discharge relative errors, several additional studies are necessary. By integrating the finding of this study to the previous literature, an empirical seepage calculation system with high accuracy, the equivalent KZ flow method, is created. Owing to the finally proposed empirical method, called “interpolation-equivalent KZ flow method”, the discharge and free surface location can be predicted with high accuracy in a wide range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Archaeological European White Elm (Ulmus laevis) for Identifying and Characterizing the Kind of Biological Degradation
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1083-1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3040060 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
The current work aims at the study of the biological degradation of archaeological European white elm via microscopy and chemical analysis in order to identify the kind of biological degradation and characterize the state of preservation of this type of wood. Profound knowledge [...] Read more.
The current work aims at the study of the biological degradation of archaeological European white elm via microscopy and chemical analysis in order to identify the kind of biological degradation and characterize the state of preservation of this type of wood. Profound knowledge of the chemical constituents and biological degradation in fresh-cut and archaeological elm wood will simplify the process of restoration and conservation of the investigated artifacts. Therefore, fresh-cut and archaeological elm were compared in terms of extractive, chlorite holocellulose, α-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents. In the fresh-cut elm wood, the contents of Kürschner–Hoffer cellulose, chlorite holocellulose, α-cellulose, and hemicellulose were significantly higher than that of the archaeological elm, confirmed by the degradation of native wood hemicelluloses by erosion bacteria during soil contact. Naturally, the mass percentage of lignin increases as the amount of chlorite holocellulose in the wood decreases. These wet chemistry results were also confirmed by FTIR analysis, where bands mainly attributed to hemicellulose and cellulose decreased significantly and bands belonging to lignin display higher intensity for the archaeological specimens. Ash and cyclohexane–ethanol extract contents of archaeological elm wood were significantly higher due to the movement of mineral components arising out of the soil into the wood specimens. Based on the microscopic investigation and given the fact that wood decay fungi need oxygen to degrade wood and the investigated archaeological elm specimens were buried to a 10 m depth in the soil, we might conclude that the wood degradation was caused by erosion bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopic Techniques in Cultural Heritage Conservation)
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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Iron Supplementation and Fortification on the Gut Microbiota: A Review
Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2(4), 327-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord2040030 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Iron supplementation and fortification are used to treat iron deficiency, which is often associated with gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Within the gut, commensal bacteria contribute to maintaining systemic iron homeostasis. Disturbances that lead to excess iron promote [...] Read more.
Iron supplementation and fortification are used to treat iron deficiency, which is often associated with gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Within the gut, commensal bacteria contribute to maintaining systemic iron homeostasis. Disturbances that lead to excess iron promote the replication and virulence of enteric pathogens. Consequently, research has been interested in better understanding the effects of iron supplementation and fortification on gut bacterial composition and overall gut health. While animal and human trials have shown seemingly conflicting results, these studies emphasize how numerous factors influence gut microbial composition. Understanding how different iron formulations and doses impact specific bacteria will improve the outcomes of iron supplementation and fortification in humans. Furthermore, discerning the nuances of iron supplementation and fortification will benefit subpopulations that currently do not respond well to treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulation of Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics in a Centrifugal Fan
Acoustics 2020, 2(4), 735-752; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2040040 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Due to the fact that legal and market requirements are becoming stricter, fan noise reduction, in addition to energy efficiency, represent a challenge for fan product designers. Most experimental studies are associated with trial-and-error approaches. Therefore, numerical methods are mostly preferable. However, the [...] Read more.
Due to the fact that legal and market requirements are becoming stricter, fan noise reduction, in addition to energy efficiency, represent a challenge for fan product designers. Most experimental studies are associated with trial-and-error approaches. Therefore, numerical methods are mostly preferable. However, the quantitative prediction of the noise emitted by radial fans via numerical simulations remains challenging. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach that promises a direct calculation of the aerodynamics coupled with the aeroacoustics. This article presents an LBM simulation of a centrifugal fan using the commercial Lattice Boltzmann Code SIMULIA PowerFLOW of Dassault Systèmes. The simulation model includes both the fan impeller and the spiral housing. In accordance with the experimental setup, the fan was mounted in a test bench to analyze four different operating points. The results of the LBM simulation were validated by experimental measurements. Flow information in terms of pressure rise and efficiency of the centrifugal fan as a function of the flow rate are in a good agreement. Considering the acoustic spectra and the blade passing frequency, the simulation was able to precisely predict the noise of the centrifugal fan. The simulation results are also used to visualize the flow and acoustic field inside of the fan to detect noise-generating flow features. By evaluating the filtered pressure fluctuation in the fluid volume and on the wall, four main noise sources of the centrifugal fan can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeroacoustics of Turbomachines)
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Open AccessEditorial
Computational Methods in Interdisciplinary Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics
Math. Comput. Appl. 2020, 25(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/mca25040062 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Nonlinear dynamics takes its origins from physics and applied mathematics [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Men and Place: Male Identity and the Meaning of Place in the Nineteenth-Century Scottish Gàidhealtachd
Genealogy 2020, 4(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/genealogy4040097 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
The perfunctory noting of name, dates, family relationships and a location on gravestones initially suggests that such details are unprofitable sources for evidence of male identity. However the sheer commonplaceness of stating a placename, particularly when it is noticeably associated with men rather [...] Read more.
The perfunctory noting of name, dates, family relationships and a location on gravestones initially suggests that such details are unprofitable sources for evidence of male identity. However the sheer commonplaceness of stating a placename, particularly when it is noticeably associated with men rather than women, and when not all cultures do the same, indicates that it may reveal something of how men thought of themselves and how they felt. Canadian and Australian studies have suggested that recording placenames on a headstone was a marker of Scottish ethnicity, like an image of a thistle. However, in the nineteenth-century Scottish Highlands ethnicity was not a key component of identity. Indications of place, at least in the ‘home’ country, must therefore signify a different element of identity. This article examines headstone inscriptions of men from across the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Islands of Scotland who died in the nineteenth century. The resulting evidence indicates that place was a significant element of male identity, indicating personal or ancestral connection with a particular location; a regional affiliation; professional success; social status; national and international mobility; an imperial or patriotic mindset; or even geographical dislocation. In short, place was highly significant to nineteenth-century Highland men, and was a key element of their personal identity. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Comparison of the Role of the Chelating Agent on the Structure of Lithium Conducting Solid Electrolyte Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3: Pechini vs. Modified Pechini-Type Methods
Batteries 2020, 6(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040048 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
In recent years, solid lithium-ion conductors have been widely studied because of their applications as electrodes and solid electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid (CA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were employed to synthesize the nanostructured NASICON-type Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6 [...] Read more.
In recent years, solid lithium-ion conductors have been widely studied because of their applications as electrodes and solid electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid (CA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were employed to synthesize the nanostructured NASICON-type Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 ceramic. The chelating agent, together with an ethylene glycol (EG) and the esterification agent were employed to form a network decorated with uniform dispersed metal ions under specific conditions: molar ratio [complexing agent/metal ions] = 1 and the molar ratio [EG/EDTA] = 6, whereas the solution pH was kept below 1. A well crystalline NASICON structure was formed following the heat treatment of the produced gel at 630 °C. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) revealed lower required temperature for pyrolysis and crystallization using EDTA. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) showed the formation of larger crystallite size when citric acid was employed. The data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have confirmed the higher apparent porosity and a larger proportion of grain boundaries in the case of EDTA-assisted synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Paramagnetic NMR Spectroscopy Is a Tool to Address Reactivity, Structure, and Protein–Protein Interactions of Metalloproteins: The Case of Iron–Sulfur Proteins
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6040046 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
The study of cellular machineries responsible for the iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster biogenesis has led to the identification of a large number of proteins, whose importance for life is documented by an increasing number of diseases linked to them. The labile nature of Fe–S [...] Read more.
The study of cellular machineries responsible for the iron–sulfur (Fe–S) cluster biogenesis has led to the identification of a large number of proteins, whose importance for life is documented by an increasing number of diseases linked to them. The labile nature of Fe–S clusters and the transient protein–protein interactions, occurring during the various steps of the maturation process, make their structural characterization in solution particularly difficult. Paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used for decades to characterize chemical composition, magnetic coupling, and the electronic structure of Fe–S clusters in proteins; it represents, therefore, a powerful tool to study the protein–protein interaction networks of proteins involving into iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis. The optimization of the various NMR experiments with respect to the hyperfine interaction will be summarized here in the form of a protocol; recently developed experiments for measuring longitudinal and transverse nuclear relaxation rates in highly paramagnetic systems will be also reviewed. Finally, we will address the use of extrinsic paramagnetic centers covalently bound to diamagnetic proteins, which contributed over the last twenty years to promote the applications of paramagnetic NMR well beyond the structural biology of metalloproteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamics Characterization of Lung Carcinoma, Entropic Study and Metabolic Correlations
Fluids 2020, 5(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids5040164 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
In recent years, the use of dielectric spectroscopy as an investigation technique to determine the chemical–physical characteristics of biological materials has had a great increase. This study used the non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables theory to test the potential pathological features of lung [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of dielectric spectroscopy as an investigation technique to determine the chemical–physical characteristics of biological materials has had a great increase. This study used the non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables theory to test the potential pathological features of lung cancer. After a brief exploration of the dielectric polarization concept highlighting some aspects that were used, some thermodynamic functions were obtained as functions of the frequency, both for lung tumor cells and physiological ones. Variations in the intensity of values but not in the trend of the curves were observed and this was attributed to the perturbing field. The trend of this field explains the behavior of phenomena described by other functions, as related to the frequencies of the perturbing field. Compared to the physiological ones, the cancer cells appeared to be "more predisposed" to conserve their state as characterized by minor entropy production, probably because this helped cells to obtain the required adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the minimum amount of nutrients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Procyanidin-Rich Extract from Grape Seeds as a Putative Tool against Helicobacter pylori
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101370 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistant to various antibiotics have increased in recent years. In this context, the search for new therapeutic approaches is crucial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the antibacterial activity of a procyanidin-rich [...] Read more.
Strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistant to various antibiotics have increased in recent years. In this context, the search for new therapeutic approaches is crucial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the antibacterial activity of a procyanidin-rich extract obtained from food-grade winery grape seeds against 14 H. pylori strains and elucidate its phenolic composition. Ten strains (71.4%) showed resistance to at least some of the tested antibiotics, while four isolates (28.6%) were susceptible to all antibiotics. Resistance to more than one class of antibiotics was observed in six strains (42.9%). The extract was able to inhibit the growth of all H. pylori strains in a range of a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 0.015 mg/mL to 0.125 mg/mL, confirming also the existence of a strain-dependent effect. The phenolic composition determined by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, photodiode array, and mass spectrometry detection (RP-HPLC-PAD-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 43 individual compounds and allowed the quantification of 41 of them, including seven procyanidin tetramers, seven procyanidin pentamers, and six galloylated procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers. The extract was composed mainly by catechin and procyanidin oligomers with a total amount of 5,801 mg/100 g, which represent 92% of the total individual phenolic content. Among them, the most abundant were catechins (2,047 mg/100 g), followed by procyanidin dimers (1,550 mg/100 g), trimers (1,176 mg/100 g), tetramers (436 mg/100 g), and pentamers (296 mg/100 g) that represent 35, 27, 20, 8, and 5%, respectively of the total flavanol constituents. The composition profile information may help to improve the production process of useful antibacterial extracts against H. pylori. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive/Nutraceutical Compounds in Plant Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Seasonal Variation of Health-Promoting Bioactives in Broccoli and Methyl-Jasmonate Pre-harvest Treatments to Enhance Their Contents
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101371 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Broccoli is a source of bioactive compounds that provide an important nutritional value. The content of these compounds can vary depending on agronomic and environmental conditions, as well as on elicitation. In this study, three crop trials were carried out to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Broccoli is a source of bioactive compounds that provide an important nutritional value. The content of these compounds can vary depending on agronomic and environmental conditions, as well as on elicitation. In this study, three crop trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of the cultivation season, the application of different dosages of methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) on the overall quality and on the total content of bioactive compounds of ‘Parthenon’ broccoli cultivated under the field conditions of southeastern Spain. Color parameters, chlorophyll content, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity were measured to evaluate the overall quality. Moreover, individual carotenoids, phenolic compounds and glucosinolates were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode array detector coupled to mass spectrometer using electro spray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn). The content of total carotenoids, phenolic compounds and glucosinolates were higher in autumn compared with spring, showing increases of 2.8-fold, 2-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. Moreover, a double application of MeJA increased the contents of total carotenoids, phenolic compounds and glucosinolates by 22%, 32% and 39%, respectively, relative to the untreated samples. Considering our results, the controlled and timely application of 250 µM MeJA to the aerial parts of the plants four days before harvest, on two consecutive days, seems to be a valid agronomic strategy to improve the health-promoting capacity of Parthenon broccoli, without compromising its overall quality. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(10), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13100227 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Cryptocurrencies are essentially digital currencies that use blockchain technology and cryptography to facilitate secure and anonymous transactions. Many institutions and countries are starting to understand and implement the idea of cryptocurrencies in their business models. With this recent surge in interest, we believe [...] Read more.
Cryptocurrencies are essentially digital currencies that use blockchain technology and cryptography to facilitate secure and anonymous transactions. Many institutions and countries are starting to understand and implement the idea of cryptocurrencies in their business models. With this recent surge in interest, we believe that now is the time to start studying these areas as a key piece of financial technology. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a collection of papers from leading experts in the area of blockchain and cryptocurrencies. The topics covered in this Special Issue includes the economics, financial analysis and risk management with cryptocurrencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies)
Open AccessArticle
Production of Fungal Mycelia in a Temperate Coniferous Forest Shows Distinct Seasonal Patterns
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040190 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
In temperate forests, climate seasonality restricts the photosynthetic activity of primary producers to the warm season from spring to autumn, while the cold season with temperatures below the freezing point represents a period of strongly reduced plant activity. Although soil microorganisms are active [...] Read more.
In temperate forests, climate seasonality restricts the photosynthetic activity of primary producers to the warm season from spring to autumn, while the cold season with temperatures below the freezing point represents a period of strongly reduced plant activity. Although soil microorganisms are active all-year-round, their expressions show seasonal patterns. This is especially visible on the ectomycorrhizal fungi, the most abundant guild of fungi in coniferous forests. We quantified the production of fungal mycelia using ingrowth sandbags in the organic layer of soil in temperate coniferous forest and analysed the composition of fungal communities in four consecutive seasons. We show that fungal biomass production is as low as 0.029 µg g−1 of sand in December–March, while it reaches 0.122 µg g−1 in June–September. The majority of fungi show distinct patterns of seasonal mycelial production, with most ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising ingrowth bags in the spring or summer, while the autumn and winter colonisation was mostly due to moulds. Our results indicate that fungal taxa differ in their seasonal patterns of mycelial production. Although fungal biomass turnover appears all-year-round, its rates are much faster in the period of plant activity than in the cold season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biodiversity and Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle
How Will We Dine? Prospective Shifts in International Haute Cuisine and Innovation beyond Kitchen and Plate
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101369 (registering DOI) - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
Haute cuisine, the cooking style for fine dining at gourmet restaurants, has changed over the last decades and can be expected to evolve in the upcoming years. To engage in foresight, the purpose of this study is to identify a plausible future trend [...] Read more.
Haute cuisine, the cooking style for fine dining at gourmet restaurants, has changed over the last decades and can be expected to evolve in the upcoming years. To engage in foresight, the purpose of this study is to identify a plausible future trend scenario for the haute cuisine sector within the next five to ten years, based on today’s chefs’ views. To achieve this goal, an international, two-stage Delphi study was conducted. The derived scenario suggests that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will lead to significant restaurant bankruptcies and will raise creativity and innovation among the remaining ones. It is expected that haute cuisine tourism will grow and that menu prices will differ for customer segments. More haute cuisine restaurants will open in Asia and America. Local food will remain a major trend and will be complemented by insect as well as plant-based proteins and sophisticated nonalcoholic food pairings. Restaurant design and the use of scents will become more relevant. Also, private dining and fine dining at home will become more important. The scenario also includes negative projections. These findings can serve as a research agenda for future research in haute cuisine, including the extension of the innovation lens towards the restaurant and the business model. Practical implications include the necessity for haute cuisine restaurants to innovate to cope with increasing competition in several regions. Customers should be seen as co-creators of the value of haute cuisine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)

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