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Open AccessArticle
A Spatial Prediction-Based Motion-Compensated Frame Rate Up-Conversion
Future Internet 2019, 11(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11020026 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In Multimedia Internet of Things (IoT), in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of wireless channels, Motion-Compensated Frame Rate Up-Conversion (MC-FRUC) is often used to support the low-bitrate video communication. In this paper, we propose a spatial predictive algorithm which is used to
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In Multimedia Internet of Things (IoT), in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of wireless channels, Motion-Compensated Frame Rate Up-Conversion (MC-FRUC) is often used to support the low-bitrate video communication. In this paper, we propose a spatial predictive algorithm which is used to improve the performance of MC-FRUC. The core of the proposed algorithm is a predictive model to split a frame into two kinds of blocks: basic blocks and absent blocks. Then an improved bilateral motion estimation is proposed to compute the Motion Vectors (MVs) of basic blocks. Finally, with the spatial correlation of Motion Vector Field (MVF), the MV of an absent block is predicted based on the MVs of its neighboring basic blocks. Experimental results show that the proposed spatial prediction algorithm can improve both the objective and the subjective quality of the interpolated frame, with a low computational complexity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biomineralization Forming Process and Bio-inspired Nanomaterials for Biomedical Application: A Review
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020068 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Biomineralization is a process in which organic matter and inorganic matter combine with each other under the regulation of living organisms. Because of the biomineralization-induced super survivability and retentivity, biomineralization has attracted special attention from biologists, archaeologists, chemists, and materials scientists for its
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Biomineralization is a process in which organic matter and inorganic matter combine with each other under the regulation of living organisms. Because of the biomineralization-induced super survivability and retentivity, biomineralization has attracted special attention from biologists, archaeologists, chemists, and materials scientists for its tracer and transformation effect in rock evolution study and nanomaterials synthesis. However, controlling the biomineralization process in vitro as precisely as intricate biology systems still remains a challenge. In this review, the regulating roles of temperature, pH, and organics in biominerals forming process were reviewed. The artificially introducing and utilization of biomineralization, the bio-inspired synthesis of nanomaterials, in biomedical fields was further discussed, mainly in five potential fields: drug and cell-therapy engineering, cancer/tumor target engineering, bone tissue engineering, and other advanced biomedical engineering. This review might help other interdisciplinary researchers to bionic-manufacture biominerals in molecular-level for developing more applications of biomineralization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Miniaturized Frequency Standard Comparator Based on FPGA
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020123 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Frequency standard comparison measurement has important practical significance for the rational use of frequency standard in engineering. This paper was devoted to the study of frequency standard comparison measurement based on classical dual mixing time difference method. However, in the actual system design
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Frequency standard comparison measurement has important practical significance for the rational use of frequency standard in engineering. This paper was devoted to the study of frequency standard comparison measurement based on classical dual mixing time difference method. However, in the actual system design and implementation, the commonly used counter was discarded and the phase difference was measured by a digital signal processing method based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A miniaturized 10 MHz frequency standard comparator with good noise floor was successfully developed. The size of the prototype circuit board is only about 292.1 cm2. The experimental results showed that the noise floor of the frequency standard comparator was typically better than 7.50 × 10-12/s, and its relative error of phase difference measurement was less than 1.70 × 10-5. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Activity of Kv 11.1 Potassium Channel Modulates F-Actin Organization During Cell Migration of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020135 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Cell migration exerts a pivotal role in tumor progression, underlying cell invasion and metastatic spread. The cell migratory program requires f-actin re-organization, generally coordinated with the assembly of focal adhesions. Ion channels are emerging actors in regulating cell migration, through different mechanisms. We
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Cell migration exerts a pivotal role in tumor progression, underlying cell invasion and metastatic spread. The cell migratory program requires f-actin re-organization, generally coordinated with the assembly of focal adhesions. Ion channels are emerging actors in regulating cell migration, through different mechanisms. We studied the role of the voltage dependent potassium channel KV 11.1 on cell migration of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, focusing on its effects on f-actin organization and dynamics. Cells were cultured either on fibronectin (FN) or on a desmoplastic matrix (DM) with the addition of a conditioned medium produced by pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) maintained in hypoxia (Hypo-PSC-CM), to better mimic the PDAC microenvironment. KV11.1 was essential to maintain stress fibers in a less organized arrangement in cells cultured on FN. When PDAC cells were cultured on DM plus Hypo-PSC-CM, KV11.1 activity determined the organization of cortical f-actin into sparse and long filopodia, and allowed f-actin polymerization at a high speed. In both conditions, blocking KV11.1 impaired PDAC cell migration, and, on cells cultured onto FN, the effect was accompanied by a decrease of basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We conclude that KV11.1 is implicated in sustaining pro-metastatic signals in pancreatic cancer, through a reorganization of f-actin in stress fibers and a modulation of filopodia formation and dynamics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Application of Recycled Carpet Composite as a potential Noise Barrier in Infrastructure Applications
Recycling 2019, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling4010009 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this work, recycling of post-consumer carpets into structural composites using a modified vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process has been demonstrated. Fabrication of carpet composites addressed the problem related to the environmental effect of waste carpet. Application of the recycled carpet composite
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In this work, recycling of post-consumer carpets into structural composites using a modified vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process has been demonstrated. Fabrication of carpet composites addressed the problem related to the environmental effect of waste carpet. Application of the recycled carpet composite as the noise barrier structure has been studied in terms of noise absorption coefficient. Results show that the carpet composite absorbs noise better than conventional noise barrier at a wide spectrum of frequency. Effect of weather exposure on the carpet composite showed the degradation in the mechanical properties. Nanoclay films are also used on the carpet composite and show no change in the noise absorption ability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Performance of Various Essential Oils and Natural Extracts and Their Incorporation into Biowaste Derived Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Layers Made from Electrospun Ultrathin Fibers
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020144 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this research, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of oregano essential oil (OEO), rosemary extract (RE), and green tea extract (GTE) were evaluated. These active substances were encapsulated into ultrathin fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) derived from fruit waste using solution electrospinning,
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In this research, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of oregano essential oil (OEO), rosemary extract (RE), and green tea extract (GTE) were evaluated. These active substances were encapsulated into ultrathin fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) derived from fruit waste using solution electrospinning, and the resultant electrospun mats were annealed to produce continuous films. The incorporation of the active substances resulted in PHBV films with a relatively high contact transparency, but it also induced a slightly yellow appearance and increased the films opacity. Whereas OEO significantly reduced the onset of thermal degradation of PHBV, both the RE and GTE-containing PHBV films showed a thermal stability profile that was similar to the neat PHBV film. In any case, all the active PHBV films were stable up to approximately 200 °C. The incorporation of the active substances also resulted in a significant decrease in hydrophobicity. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the films were finally evaluated in both open and closed systems for up to 15 days in order to anticipate the real packaging conditions. The results showed that the electrospun OEO-containing PHBV films presented the highest antimicrobial activity against two strains of food-borne bacteria, as well as the most significant antioxidant performance, ascribed to the films high content in carvacrol and thymol. Therefore, the PHBV films developed in this study presented high antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and they can be applied as active layers to prolong the shelf life of the foods in biopackaging applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Viewpoint Management and Navigation in Urban Planning: Application to the Exploratory Phase
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030236 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
3D geovisualization is essential in urban planning as it assists the analysis of geospatial data and decision making in the design and development of land use and built environment. However, we noted that 3D geospatial models are commonly visualized arbitrarily as current 3D
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3D geovisualization is essential in urban planning as it assists the analysis of geospatial data and decision making in the design and development of land use and built environment. However, we noted that 3D geospatial models are commonly visualized arbitrarily as current 3D viewers often lack of design instructions to assist end users. This is especially the case for the occlusion management in most 3D environments where the high density and diversity of 3D data to be displayed require efficient visualization techniques for extracting all the geoinformation. In this paper, we propose a theoretical and operational solution to manage occlusion by automatically computing best viewpoints. Based on user’s parameters, a viewpoint management algorithm initially calculates optimal camera settings for visualizing a set of 3D objects of interest through parallel projections. Precomputed points of view are then integrated into a flythrough creation algorithm for producing an automatic navigation within the 3D geospatial model. The algorithm’s usability is illustrated within the scope of a fictive exploratory phase for the public transport services access in the European quarter of Brussels. Eventually, the proposed algorithms may also assist additional urban planning phases in achieving their purposes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Oligometastasis
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020133 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Oligometastatic disease is defined as “a condition with a few metastases arising from tumors that have not acquired a potential for widespread metastases.” Its behavior suggests a transitional malignant state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Treatment of oligometastatic disease is expected to
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Oligometastatic disease is defined as “a condition with a few metastases arising from tumors that have not acquired a potential for widespread metastases.” Its behavior suggests a transitional malignant state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Treatment of oligometastatic disease is expected to achieve long-term local control and to improve survival. Historically, patients with oligometastases have often undergone surgical resection since it was anecdotally believed that surgical resection could result in progression-free or overall survival benefits. To date, no prospective randomized trials have demonstrated surgery-related survival benefits. Short courses of highly focused, extremely high-dose radiotherapies (e.g., stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR)) have frequently been used as alternatives to surgery for treatment of oligometastasis. A randomized study has demonstrated the overall survival benefits of stereotactic radiosurgery for solitary brain metastasis. Following the success of stereotactic radiosurgery, SABR has been widely accepted for treating extracranial metastases, considering its efficacy and minimum invasiveness. In this review, we discuss the history of and rationale for the local treatment of oligometastases and probe into the implementation of SABR for oligometastatic disease. Full article
Open AccessReview
T-type Calcium Channels in Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020134 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Although voltage-activated Ca2+ channels are a common feature in excitable cells, their expression in cancer tissue is less understood. T-type Ca2+ channels are particularly overexpressed in various cancers. Because of their activation profile at membrane potentials close to rest and the
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Although voltage-activated Ca2+ channels are a common feature in excitable cells, their expression in cancer tissue is less understood. T-type Ca2+ channels are particularly overexpressed in various cancers. Because of their activation profile at membrane potentials close to rest and the generation of a window current, T-type Ca2+ channels may regulate a variety of Ca2+-dependent cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The expression of T-type Ca2+ channels is of special interest as a target for therapeutic interventions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Interplay of Auxin and Cytokinin in Lateral Root Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030486 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The spacing and distribution of lateral roots are critical determinants of plant root system architecture. In addition to providing anchorage, lateral roots explore the soil to acquire water and nutrients. Over the past several decades, we have deepened our understanding of the regulatory
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The spacing and distribution of lateral roots are critical determinants of plant root system architecture. In addition to providing anchorage, lateral roots explore the soil to acquire water and nutrients. Over the past several decades, we have deepened our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing lateral root formation and development. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and provide an overview of how auxin and cytokinin coordinate the regulation of lateral root formation and development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Items to Improve the Validity of the Five-Item Healthy Eating Score Compared with the 2015 Healthy Eating Index in a Military Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020251 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Military researchers utilize a five-item healthy eating score (HES-5) in the Global Assessment Tool (GAT) questionnaire to quickly assess the overall diet quality of military personnel. This study aimed to modify the HES-5 to improve its validity relative to the 2015 Healthy Eating
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Military researchers utilize a five-item healthy eating score (HES-5) in the Global Assessment Tool (GAT) questionnaire to quickly assess the overall diet quality of military personnel. This study aimed to modify the HES-5 to improve its validity relative to the 2015 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015) in active duty military personnel (n = 333). A food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate HEI-2015 scores and to assess sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in 8-oz (SSB-8) and 12-oz servings. GAT nutrition questions were used to calculate HES-5 scores and capture breakfast and post-exercise recovery fueling snack (RFsnack) frequencies. Two scoring options were considered for the highest RFsnack category: “4” vs. “5” (RFsnack-5). Potential candidates were added alone and in combination to the HES-5 and compared to the HEI-2015 with a Pearson correlation coefficient. Scores with the highest correlations were compared via a z-score equation to identify the simplest modification to the HES-5. Correlations between HES-5 and HEI-2015 scores in total participants, males, and females were 0.41, 0.45 and 0.32, respectively. Correlations were most significantly improved in total participants by adding RFsnack-5, SSB-8, RFsnack-5 + SSB-8, and RFsnack-5 + SSB-8 + breakfast, though the addition of SSB-8 + RFsnack-5 performed best (r = 0.53). Future work should consider scoring mechanisms, serving sizes, and question wording. Full article

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