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Open AccessArticle
5-Nitro-2,4-Dichloropyrimidine as an Universal Model for Low-Energy Electron Processes Relevant for Radiosensitization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218173 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
We report experimental results of low-energy electron interactions with Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation-Induced Damage to DNA 2.0)
Open AccessArticle
Unplanned Natural Experiments: The Case of Remote Sensing of Primary Production and Its Environmental Correlations in The Negev
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3581; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213581 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Studies of the correlations of environmental factors with vegetation growth using remotely sensed measurements are necessarily made against a background of biophysical and anthropogenic factors, such as local fertility, microclimate, and the effects of human land use, in addition to the factors of [...] Read more.
Studies of the correlations of environmental factors with vegetation growth using remotely sensed measurements are necessarily made against a background of biophysical and anthropogenic factors, such as local fertility, microclimate, and the effects of human land use, in addition to the factors of interest. This is an inevitable outcome of a natural (unplanned) design where the effects of the factors of interest are confounded with other, often unknown factors, possibly rendering the results inaccurate or poorly-constrained. The problems associated with a natural design would be reduced if sites could be identified in which uncontrolled variables had no impact. However, rarely are such sites known a priori. Here, a component of the net primary production (NPP) local scaling (LNS) method was used to estimate the potential NPP in the absence of confounding factors. Subsequent analyses of the effects of the selected environmental variables were carried out using the potential NPP. The method was tested in relation to NPP along the transitional ecotone from desert to semiarid conditions in the northern Negev, Israel. The effects of four environmental factors were tested: precipitation, topography, land cover, and interannual variability. While precipitation is generally the only environmental variable that is considered in drylands, the other factors were found to be significant. The results provided unambiguous evidence of the value of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Nephrotoxicity of Microcystins
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110693 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms triggered by eutrophication and climate change have become a global public health issue. The toxic metabolites microcystins (MCs) generated by cyanobacteria can accumulate in food chain and contaminate water, thus posing a potential threat to human and animals health. Studies have [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms triggered by eutrophication and climate change have become a global public health issue. The toxic metabolites microcystins (MCs) generated by cyanobacteria can accumulate in food chain and contaminate water, thus posing a potential threat to human and animals health. Studies have suggested that aside liver, the kidney may be another target organ of MCs intoxication. Therefore, this review provides various evidences on the nephrotoxicity of MCs. The review concludes that nephrotoxicity of MCs may be related to inhibition of protein phosphatases and excessive production of reactive oxygen species, cytoskeleton disruption, endoplasmic reticulum stress, DNA damage and cell apoptosis. To protect human from MCs toxic consequences, this paper also puts forward some directions for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacterial Toxins: Their Occurrence, Detection and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Continuities of Grasslands and Forests as Patches of Natural Land in Urban Landscapes: A Case Study of the Tsukuba Science City
Land 2020, 9(11), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110425 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Development has fragmented urban nature, and target sites for conservation strategies need to be those that have long maintained their original land cover in a clustered area. Additionally, continuously grasping changes from rural to urban as well as changes over decades after urbanization [...] Read more.
Development has fragmented urban nature, and target sites for conservation strategies need to be those that have long maintained their original land cover in a clustered area. Additionally, continuously grasping changes from rural to urban as well as changes over decades after urbanization is essential. Therefore, this study identified and investigated natural patches in urban landscapes, clarified actual management practices in the identified patches, and traced changes in land ownership and land cover during the past 130 years in the Tsukuba Science City, Japan. We first identified areas containing clusters of urban grasslands and forest patches that have existed since the 2010s. We then identified urban green space patches that since the 1880s have remained undeveloped after being agricultural landscapes, despite the rapid urbanization of the Tsukuba Science City since the 1970s. These patches of urban green space were mainly identified near rural communities, research institutions, planned development sites, and golf courses. The findings of this study highlighted the need for new policy implications through systematic arrangement of diverse conservation strategies to maintain urban green space patches. Further investigation is required to elucidate the ecosystem services provided by these remnant green patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Systems in Transition between Persistence and Change)
Open AccessArticle
Heme-Induced Oxidation of Cysteine Groups of Myofilament Proteins Leads to Contractile Dysfunction of Permeabilized Human Skeletal Muscle Fibres
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218172 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Background: Heme released from red blood cells targets a number of cell components including the cytoskeleton. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of free heme (20–300 µM) on human skeletal muscle fibres made available during orthopedic surgery. [...] Read more.
Background: Heme released from red blood cells targets a number of cell components including the cytoskeleton. The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of free heme (20–300 µM) on human skeletal muscle fibres made available during orthopedic surgery. Methods: Isometric force production and oxidative protein modifications were monitored in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibre segments. Results: A single heme exposure (20 µM) to muscle fibres decreased Ca2+-activated maximal (active) force (Fo) by about 50% and evoked an approximately 3-fold increase in Ca2+-independent (passive) force (Fpassive). Oxidation of sulfhydryl (SH) groups was detected in structural proteins (e.g., nebulin, α-actinin, meromyosin 2) and in contractile proteins (e.g., myosin heavy chain and myosin-binding protein C) as well as in titin in the presence of 300 µM heme. This SH oxidation was not reversed by dithiothreitol (50 mM). Sulfenic acid (SOH) formation was also detected in the structural proteins (nebulin, α-actinin, meromyosin). Heme effects on SH oxidation and SOH formation were prevented by hemopexin (Hpx) and α1-microglobulin (A1M). Conclusions: These data suggest that free heme has a significant impact on human skeletal muscle fibres, whereby oxidative alterations in structural and contractile proteins limit contractile function. This may explain and or contribute to the weakness and increase of skeletal muscle stiffness in chronic heart failure, rhabdomyolysis, and other hemolytic diseases. Therefore, therapeutic use of Hpx and A1M supplementation might be effective in preventing heme-induced skeletal muscle alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heme- and Hemoglobin Stress in Human Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Laser-Based Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles for Optical Sensing of Glyphosate: A Preliminary Study
Micromachines 2020, 11(11), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11110989 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Nowadays, gold nanoparticles Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) capture great interest due to their chemical stability, optical properties and biocompatibility. The success of technologies based on the use of AuNPs implies the development of simple synthesis methods allowing, also, the fine control over their properties [...] Read more.
Nowadays, gold nanoparticles Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) capture great interest due to their chemical stability, optical properties and biocompatibility. The success of technologies based on the use of AuNPs implies the development of simple synthesis methods allowing, also, the fine control over their properties (shape, sizes, structure). Here, we present the AuNPs fabrication by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in citrate-solution, that has the advantage of being a simple, economic and eco-sustainable method to fabricate colloidal solutions of NPs. We characterized the stability and the absorbance of the solutions by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and the morphology of the AuNPs by Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, we used the AuNPs solutions as colorimetric sensor to detect the amount of glyphosate in liquid. Indeed, glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides which intensive use represents a risk to human health. The glyphosate presence in the colloidal AuNPs solutions determines the aggregation of the AuNPs causing the change in the color of the solution. The variation of the optical properties of the colloidal solutions versus the concentration of glyphosate is studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanomaterials-Based Sensors)
Open AccessReview
Recycling Tire Rubber in Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219076 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The use of recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements to improve the overall performance, economy, and sustainability of pavements has gained considerable attention over the last few decades. Several studies have indicated that recycled tire rubber can reduce the permanent deformation of flexible [...] Read more.
The use of recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements to improve the overall performance, economy, and sustainability of pavements has gained considerable attention over the last few decades. Several studies have indicated that recycled tire rubber can reduce the permanent deformation of flexible pavements and enhance its resistance to rutting, reduce pavement construction and maintenance costs, and improve the resistance to fatigue damage. This paper provides a systematic and critical overview of the research on and practice of using recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements in terms of engineering properties, performance, and durability assessment. This critical analysis of the state-of-the-art should enhance the understanding of using recycled tire rubber in asphalt pavements, define pertinent recommendations, identify knowledge gaps, and highlight the need for concerted future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Pavement Materials and Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Cell Analysis of Different Stages of Oral Cancer Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218171 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Oral carcinogenesis involves the progression of the normal mucosa into potentially malignant disorders and finally into cancer. Tumors are heterogeneous, with different clusters of cells expressing different genes and exhibiting different behaviors. 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and arecoline were used to induce oral cancer [...] Read more.
Oral carcinogenesis involves the progression of the normal mucosa into potentially malignant disorders and finally into cancer. Tumors are heterogeneous, with different clusters of cells expressing different genes and exhibiting different behaviors. 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and arecoline were used to induce oral cancer in mice, and the main factors for gene expression influencing carcinogenesis were identified through single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a control group (receiving normal drinking water) and treatment group (receiving drinking water containing 4-NQO (200 mg/L) and arecoline (500 mg/L)) to induce the malignant development of oral cancer. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 16, 20, and 29 weeks. Except for mice sacrificed at 8 weeks, all mice were treated for 16 weeks and then either sacrificed or given normal drinking water for the remaining weeks. Tongue lesions were excised, and all cells obtained from mice in the 29- and 16-week treatment groups were clustered into 17 groups by using the Louvain algorithm. Cells in subtypes 7 (stem cells) and 9 (keratinocytes) were analyzed through gene set enrichment analysis. Results indicated that their genes were associated with the MYC_targets_v1 pathway, and this finding was confirmed by the presence of cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. These cell subtype biomarkers can be applied for the detection of patients with precancerous lesions, the identification of high-risk populations, and as a treatment target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer—Diagnosis and Therapeutics 2020)
Open AccessBrief Report
A Few TH-Immunoreactive Neurons Closely Appose DMX-Located Neuronal Somata Projecting to the Stomach Prepyloric Region in the Pig
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112008 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The vagus nerve is responsible for efferent innervation and functional control of stomach functions. The efferent fibers originate from neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX) and undergo functional control of the local neuroregulatory terminals. The aim of the [...] Read more.
The vagus nerve is responsible for efferent innervation and functional control of stomach functions. The efferent fibers originate from neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX) and undergo functional control of the local neuroregulatory terminals. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of morphological foundations for direct regulatory action of the local TH-immunoreactive neurons on parasympathetic efferent neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. Combined injection of neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue into the stomach prepyloric region with TH immunostaining was used in order to visualize spatial relationship between DMX-located stomach prepyloric region supplying neuronal stomata and local TH-IR terminals. We confirmed existence of TH-immunoreactive neural terminals closely opposing the stomach prepyloric region innervating neurons at the porcine DMX area. The observed spatial relationship points out the possibility of indirect catecholaminergic control of the stomach function exerted through preganglionic parasympathetic efferent neurons in the pig. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
Open AccessCase Report
Mediastinal Nodular Lesions Synchronous to Lung Carcinoma on Frozen Section: Trap and Lesson
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110893 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Thymoma is the most frequent neoplasm arising in the anterior mediastum. It usually presents as an enlarged central mass. In the literature, multiple thymoma is described as an unusual finding; rare variants have also been described, like the signet ring-like cell variant. Evidence [...] Read more.
Thymoma is the most frequent neoplasm arising in the anterior mediastum. It usually presents as an enlarged central mass. In the literature, multiple thymoma is described as an unusual finding; rare variants have also been described, like the signet ring-like cell variant. Evidence of co-existence of signet ring-like cells and lymphocytes in small biopsies from nodular mediastinal lesions can lead to a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma, mostly at frozen sections. Thymoma and pulmonary carcinoma are very rarely associated neoplasms. We present a case of two mediastinal lesions discovered during pulmonary carcinoma staging. At frozen section, a diagnosis of ‘epithelioid proliferation associated to lymphoid tissue’ was advanced on a sample of nodular lesions and of ‘carcinoma’ on pulmonary biopsy. Double AB Type Thymoma with a signet ring cell-like component, synchronous to pulmonary adenocarcinoma, was the diagnosis made on formalin fixed-paraffin embedded samples. Reporting the coexistence of these two entities can help pathologists and surgeons to establish the best management of similar patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle
Whole-Transcriptome Sequencing-Based Analysis of DAZL and Its Interacting Genes during Germ Cells Specification and Zygotic Genome Activation in Chickens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218170 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The deleted in azoospermia like (DAZL) is required for germ cells development and maintenance. In chickens, the mRNA and protein of DAZL, a representative maternally inherited germ plasm factor, are detected in the germ plasm of oocyte, zygote, and all [...] Read more.
The deleted in azoospermia like (DAZL) is required for germ cells development and maintenance. In chickens, the mRNA and protein of DAZL, a representative maternally inherited germ plasm factor, are detected in the germ plasm of oocyte, zygote, and all stages of the intrauterine embryos. However, it is still insufficient to explain the origin and specification process of chicken germ cells, because the stage at which the zygotic transcription of DAZL occurs and the stage at which the maternal DAZL RNA/protein clears have not yet been fully identified. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the expression of DAZL interacting genes during the germ cells specification and development and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is lacking in chickens. In this study, we identified a set of DAZL interacting genes in chickens using in silico prediction method. Then, we analyzed the whole-transcriptome sequencing (WTS)-based expression of DAZL and its interacting genes in the chicken oocyte, zygote, and Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EGK) stage embryos (EGK.I to EGK.X). In the results, DAZL transcripts are increased in the zygote (onset of transcription), maintained the increased level until EGK.VI, and decreased from EGK.VIII (possible clearance of maternal RNAs). Among the DAZL interacting genes, most of them are increased either at 1st ZGA or 2nd ZGA, indicating their involvement in germ cells specification and development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastic Waste: I. Kinetic Study
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214912 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Plastic wastes have become one of the biggest global environmental issues and thus recycling such massive quantities is targeted. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) are considered among the main types of plastic wastes. Since pyrolysis is one [...] Read more.
Plastic wastes have become one of the biggest global environmental issues and thus recycling such massive quantities is targeted. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) are considered among the main types of plastic wastes. Since pyrolysis is one of the most promising recycling techniques, this work aims to build knowledge on the co-pyrolysis of mixed polymers using two model-fitting (Criado and Coats–Redfern) methods. Seventeen co-pyrolysis tests using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at 60 K/min for different mixed compositions of LDPE, HDPE, PP, and PS were conducted. It was observed that the pyrolysis of the pure polymer samples occurs at different temperature ranges in the following order: PS < PP < LDPE < HDPE. However, compared to pure polymer samples, the co-pyrolysis of all-polymer mixtures was delayed. In addition, the synergistic effect on the co-pyrolysis of polymer blends was reported. The Master plot of the Criado model was used to determine the most suitable reaction mechanism. Then, the Coats–Redfern model was used to efficiently obtain the kinetic parameters (R2 ≥ 97.83%) and the obtained values of the activation energy of different polymer blends were ranging from 104 to 260 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the most controlling reaction mechanisms were in the following orders: First order reaction (F1), Contracting sphere (R3), and then Contracting cylinder (R2). Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Patient and Public Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive Health: Time to Properly Integrate Citizen’s Input into Science
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218048 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Evidence-based sexual and reproductive health is a global endeavor without borders. Inter-sectorial collaboration is essential for identifying and addressing gaps in evidence. Health research funders and regulators are promoting patient and public involvement in research, but there is a lack of quality tools [...] Read more.
Evidence-based sexual and reproductive health is a global endeavor without borders. Inter-sectorial collaboration is essential for identifying and addressing gaps in evidence. Health research funders and regulators are promoting patient and public involvement in research, but there is a lack of quality tools for involving patients. Partnerships with patients are necessary to produce and promote robust, relevant and timely research. Without the active participation of women as stakeholders, not just as research subjects, the societal benefits of research cannot be realized. Creating and developing platforms and opportunities for public involvement in sexual and reproductive health research should be a key international objective. Cooperation between healthcare professionals, academic institutions and the community is essential to promote quality research and significant developments in women’s health. This cooperation will be improved when involvement of citizens in the research process becomes standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Open AccessReview
Platelets, Thrombocytosis, and Ovarian Cancer Prognosis: Surveying the Landscape of the Literature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218169 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Platelets are critical components of a number of physiologic processes, including tissue remodeling after injury, wound healing, and maintenance of vascular integrity. Increasing evidence suggests that platelets may also play important roles in cancer. In ovarian cancer, thrombocytosis, both at the time of [...] Read more.
Platelets are critical components of a number of physiologic processes, including tissue remodeling after injury, wound healing, and maintenance of vascular integrity. Increasing evidence suggests that platelets may also play important roles in cancer. In ovarian cancer, thrombocytosis, both at the time of initial diagnosis and at recurrence, has been associated with poorer prognosis. This review describes current evidence for associations between thrombocytosis and ovarian cancer prognosis and discusses the clinical relevance of platelet count thresholds and timing of assessment. In addition, we discuss several mechanisms from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies that may underlie these associations and recommend potential approaches for novel therapeutic targets for this lethal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease 2.0)
Open AccessArticle
Automatic Space Analysis Using Laser Scanning and a 3D Grid: To Industrial Plant Facilities
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9087; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219087 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
While industrial plant projects are becoming bigger, and global attention to the plant as a construct is increasing, space arrangement in plant projects is inefficient because of the complex structure of required facilities (e.g., complex MEP (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing) installations, specialized tools, [...] Read more.
While industrial plant projects are becoming bigger, and global attention to the plant as a construct is increasing, space arrangement in plant projects is inefficient because of the complex structure of required facilities (e.g., complex MEP (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing) installations, specialized tools, etc.,). Furthermore, problems during installation, operation, and maintenance stages caused by inconsistencies between floor plans and actual layout are on the rise. Although some of these conflicts can be addressed through clash detection using BIM (building information modeling), quality BIM models are scarce, especially for existing industrial plants. This study proposes a way to address the complexities caused by changes during plant construction and securing space for the installation of equipment during the construction and lifecycle of built facilities. 3D cloud point data of space and equipment were collected using 3D laser scanning to conduct space matching. In processing the space matching, data were simplified by applying the 3D grid and by comparing the data, easier identification of the space for target equipment was accomplished. This study also proposed a pre-processing method based on sub-sampling that optimizes the point cloud data and verifies the processing speed and accuracy. Lastly, it finds free space for various equipment layouts required in industrial plant projects by space analysis, proposed algorithms, and processes for obtaining the coordinates of valid space for equipment arrangement. The proposed method of this study is expected to help solve the problems derived from arrangement and installation of new equipment in a complex plant site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Physical Asset Management Core Practices and Their Influence on Operational Performance
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219097 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The commitment of organisations to physical assets management (PAM) has recently received considerable attention in theory and practice. Indeed, PAM plays a key role in asset-intensive organizations and is also considered as a principal actor within Industry 4.0. Therefore, this paper aims to [...] Read more.
The commitment of organisations to physical assets management (PAM) has recently received considerable attention in theory and practice. Indeed, PAM plays a key role in asset-intensive organizations and is also considered as a principal actor within Industry 4.0. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the PAM core practices and the performance implications of integrating these practices into business, in particular by assessing their impact on operational performance. Survey data were collected from managers in 138 international and local organisations. The data was analysed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM). The study validates the second-order construct consisting of PAM latent variables, namely Strategy and Planning, Risk management, Lifecycle Delivery, Asset Information, and Asset Review. The results have shown that PAM core practices directly influence operational performance. This paper is a response to recent calls for empirical studies on the organisational approaches that can increase the success of organisations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Facilities Management and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle
Downregulation of CTRP-3 by Weight Loss In Vivo and by Bile Acids and Incretins in Adipocytes In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218168 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The adipokine CTRP-3 (C1q/TNF-related protein-3) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. Its regulation in obesity and during weight loss is unknown. Serum and adipose tissue (AT) samples were obtained from patients (n = 179) undergoing bariatric surgery (BS). Moreover, patients (n = [...] Read more.
The adipokine CTRP-3 (C1q/TNF-related protein-3) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. Its regulation in obesity and during weight loss is unknown. Serum and adipose tissue (AT) samples were obtained from patients (n = 179) undergoing bariatric surgery (BS). Moreover, patients (n = 131) participating in a low-calorie diet (LCD) program were studied. CTRP 3 levels were quantified by ELISA and mRNA expression was analyzed in AT and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with bile acids and incretins. There was a persistent downregulation of CTRP-3 serum levels during weight loss. CTRP-3 expression was higher in subcutaneous than in visceral AT and serum levels of CTRP-3 were positively related to AT expression levels. A rapid decrease of circulating CTRP-3 was observed immediately upon BS, suggesting weight loss-independent regulatory mechanisms. Adipocytes CTRP-3 expression was inhibited by primary bile acid species and GLP 1. Adipocyte-specific CTRP-3 deficiency increased bile acid receptor expression. Circulating CTRP-3 levels are downregulated during weight loss, with a considerable decline occurring immediately upon BS. Mechanisms dependent and independent of weight loss cause the post-surgical decline of CTRP-3. The data strongly argue for regulatory interrelations of CTRP-3 with bile acids and incretin system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines 3.0)
Open AccessArticle
Rabbit as an Aging Model in Reproduction: Advanced Maternal Age Alters Glo1 Expression the Endometrium at the Time of Implantation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7732; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217732 (registering DOI) - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and the decline of female fertility in mammals. A potential reason for reduced fertility is metabolic changes due to protein modifications by advanced glycation end products. To elucidate the aging process in female reproduction, [...] Read more.
Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and the decline of female fertility in mammals. A potential reason for reduced fertility is metabolic changes due to protein modifications by advanced glycation end products. To elucidate the aging process in female reproduction, we analysed a key enzyme for detoxification of reactive dicarbonyls, the glyoxalase 1 (GLO1), in reproductive organs and blastocysts of young and old rabbits at the preimplantation stage. At day 6 post coitum, uterine, oviductal, ovarian tissue and blastocysts from young (16–20 weeks) and old rabbits (>108 weeks) were characterised for GLO1 expression. GLO1 amounts, enzymatic activity and localisation were quantified by qPCR, Simple Western, activity assay and immunohistochemistry. The GLO1 enzyme was present and active in all reproductive tract organs in a cell-type-specific pattern. Ovarian follicle and uterine epithelial cells expressed GLO1 to a high extent. In tertiary follicles, GLO1 expression increased, whereas it decreased in the endometrium of old rabbits at day 6 of pregnancy. In blastocysts of old animals, GLO1 expression remained unchanged. In early pregnancy, advanced maternal age leads to modified GLO1 expression in ovarian follicles and the endometrium, indicating an altered metabolic stress response at the preimplantation stage in older females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabbit Models for Translational Medicine)
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