Latest Articles

Open AccessReview
The Oxidized Protein Repair Enzymes Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases and Their Roles in Protecting against Oxidative Stress, in Ageing and in Regulating Protein Function
Antioxidants 2018, 7(12), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7120191 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Cysteine and methionine residues are the amino acids most sensitive to oxidation by reactive oxygen species. However, in contrast to other amino acids, certain cysteine and methionine oxidation products can be reduced within proteins by dedicated enzymatic repair systems. Oxidation of cysteine first
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Cysteine and methionine residues are the amino acids most sensitive to oxidation by reactive oxygen species. However, in contrast to other amino acids, certain cysteine and methionine oxidation products can be reduced within proteins by dedicated enzymatic repair systems. Oxidation of cysteine first results in either the formation of a disulfide bridge or a sulfenic acid. Sulfenic acid can be converted to disulfide or sulfenamide or further oxidized to sulfinic acid. Disulfide can be easily reversed by different enzymatic systems such as the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase and the glutaredoxin/glutathione/glutathione reductase systems. Methionine side chains can also be oxidized by reactive oxygen species. Methionine oxidation, by the addition of an extra oxygen atom, leads to the generation of methionine sulfoxide. Enzymatically catalyzed reduction of methionine sulfoxide is achieved by either methionine sulfoxide reductase A or methionine sulfoxide reductase B, also referred as to the methionine sulfoxide reductases system. This oxidized protein repair system is further described in this review article in terms of its discovery and biologically relevant characteristics, and its important physiological roles in protecting against oxidative stress, in ageing and in regulating protein function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Gradient Temperature Raman Spectroscopy of Fish Oils Provides Detailed Vibrational Analysis and Rapid, Nondestructive Graphical Product Authentication
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3293; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123293 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the continuous temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a new means for rapid high throughput material identification and quality control. Methods: Using 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with
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Background: Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the continuous temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a new means for rapid high throughput material identification and quality control. Methods: Using 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes. The entire set or any subset of the any of the contour plots, first derivatives or second derivatives can be utilized to create a graphical standard to quickly authenticate a given source. In addition, a temperature range can be specified that maximizes information content. Results: We compared GTRS and DSC data for five commercial fish oils that are excellent sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Each product has a unique, distinctive response to the thermal gradient, which graphically and spectroscopically differentiates them. We also present detailed Raman data and full vibrational mode assignments for EPA and DHA. Conclusion: Complex lipids with a variety of fatty acids and isomers have three dimensional structures based mainly on how structurally similar sites pack. Any localized non-uniformity in packing results in discrete “fingerprint” molecular sites due to increased elasticity and decreased torsion. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Management of Typical and Atypical Pulmonary Carcinoids Based on Different Established Guidelines
Cancers 2018, 10(12), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10120510 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of malignancies that originated from neuroendocrine cells, with the most common sites being lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Lung NETs comprise 25% of all lung malignancies. Small cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung
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Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of malignancies that originated from neuroendocrine cells, with the most common sites being lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Lung NETs comprise 25% of all lung malignancies. Small cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung NETs, and other rare forms include well-differentiated typical carcinoids (TCs) and poorly differentiated atypical carcinoids (ACs). Given the paucity of randomized studies, rational treatment is challenging. Therefore, it is recommended that these decisions be made using a multidisciplinary collaborative approach. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, when feasible. Following surgery, various guidelines offer different recommendations in the adjuvant setting. In this paper, we describe the adjuvant management of lung NETs, as recommended by different guidelines, and highlight their differences. In addition to that, we also discuss the management of metastatic lung NETS, including the use of peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Anti-Candida albicans Activity of Thiazolylhydrazone Derivatives in Invertebrate and Murine Models
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040134 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection with Candida albicans being the most frequently isolated species. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to resistance that can develop during therapy, and the limited number of available antifungal compounds. Given this situation, the aim of
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Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection with Candida albicans being the most frequently isolated species. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to resistance that can develop during therapy, and the limited number of available antifungal compounds. Given this situation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of four thiazolylhydrazone compounds against C. albicans. Thiazolylhydrazone compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were found to exert antifungal activity, with MICs of 0.125–16.0 μg/mL against C. albicans. The toxicity of the compounds was evaluated using human erythrocytes and yielded LC50 > 64 μg/mL. The compounds were further evaluated using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella as an in vivo model. The compounds prolonged larval survival when tested between 5 and 15 mg/kg, performing as well as fluconazole. Compound 2 was evaluated in murine models of oral and systemic candidiasis. In the oral model, compound 2 reduced the fungal load on the mouse tongue; and in the systemic model it reduced the fungal burden found in the kidney when tested at 10 mg/kg. These results show that thiazolylhydrazones are an antifungal towards C. albicans with in vivo efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Dietary Intervention of Transgenic Low-Gliadin Wheat Bread in Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) Showed No Differences with Gluten Free Diet (GFD) but Provides Better Gut Microbiota Profile
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121964 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The study evaluated the symptoms, acceptance, and digestibility of bread made from transgenic low-gliadin wheat, in comparison with gluten free bread, in Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) patients, considering clinical/sensory parameters and gut microbiota composition. This study was performed in two phases of seven
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The study evaluated the symptoms, acceptance, and digestibility of bread made from transgenic low-gliadin wheat, in comparison with gluten free bread, in Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) patients, considering clinical/sensory parameters and gut microbiota composition. This study was performed in two phases of seven days each, comprising a basal phase with gluten free bread and an E82 phase with low-gliadin bread. Gastrointestinal clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire, and stool samples were collected for gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) determination and the extraction of gut microbial DNA. For the basal and E82 phases, seven and five patients, respectively, showed undetectable GIPs content. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform and downstream analysis was done using a Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. No significant differences in the GSRS questionnaires were observed between the two phases. However, we observed a significantly lower abundance of some gut genera Oscillospira, Dorea, Blautia, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, and Collinsella, and a significantly higher abundance of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera during the E82 phase compared with the basal phase. The consumption of low-gliadin bread E82 by NCGS subjects induced potentially positive changes in the gut microbiota composition, increasing the butyrate-producing bacteria and favoring a microbial profile that is suggested to have a key role in the maintenance or improvement of gut permeability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Vertical and Horizontal Transmission of Pospiviroids
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120706 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen
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Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis. In addition, some of Pospiviroidae are also horizontally transmitted by pollen. Tomato planta macho viroid in pollen infects to the ovary from pollen tube during pollen tube elongation and eventually causes systemic infection, resulting in the establishment of horizontal transmission. Furthermore, fertilization is not required to accomplish the horizontal transmission. In this review, we will overview the recent research progress in vertical and horizontal transmission of viroids, mainly by focusing on histopathological studies, and also discuss the impact of seed transmission on viroid dissemination and seed health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of C2H2 Flows on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of TiCN Films Doped with Carbon Atoms
Coatings 2018, 8(12), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8120458 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Nanosized TiCN/TiN films were deposited on AZ31 by reactive magnetron sputtering under different acetylene flows. The microstructures of obtained films were characterized, and their corrosion behaviors were also investigated. The films doped with carbon atoms under different acetylene flows own different structures and
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Nanosized TiCN/TiN films were deposited on AZ31 by reactive magnetron sputtering under different acetylene flows. The microstructures of obtained films were characterized, and their corrosion behaviors were also investigated. The films doped with carbon atoms under different acetylene flows own different structures and grain sizes. The grain size decreased to some extent, and the film structure changed from polycrystalline to nanocrystalline, with an increase of C2H2 flow. The surface morphology also changed from rough to smooth, with an increase of C2H2 flow. The Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrated that the composite films could greatly improve the corrosion resistance of bare substrates in a 3.5% NaCl solution, and the films’ corrosion resistance is different, owing to their different structures and grain sizes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
9,10-Phenanthrenedione as Visible-Light Photoredox Catalyst: A Green Methodology for the Functionalization of 3,4-Dihydro-1,4-Benzoxazin-2-Ones through a Friedel-Crafts Reaction
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120653 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A visible-light photoredox functionalization of 3,4-dihydro-1,4-benzoxazin-2-ones through a Friedel-Crafts reaction with indoles using an inexpensive organophotoredox catalyst is described. The reaction uses a dual catalytic system that is formed by a photocatalyst simple and cheap, 9,10-phenanthrenedione, and a Lewis acid, Zn(OTf)2.
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A visible-light photoredox functionalization of 3,4-dihydro-1,4-benzoxazin-2-ones through a Friedel-Crafts reaction with indoles using an inexpensive organophotoredox catalyst is described. The reaction uses a dual catalytic system that is formed by a photocatalyst simple and cheap, 9,10-phenanthrenedione, and a Lewis acid, Zn(OTf)2. 5W white LEDs are used as visible-light source and oxygen from air as a terminal oxidant, obtaining the corresponding products with good yields. The reaction can be extended to other electron-rich arenes. Our methodology represents one of the most valuable and sustainable approach for the functionalization of 3,4-dihydro-1,4-benzoxazin-2-ones, as compared to the reported procedures. Furthermore, several transformations were carried out, such as the synthesis of the natural product cephalandole A and a tryptophol derivative. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Ni- and Co-Based Superalloys and their Coatings
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121055 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Nickel- and Cobalt-based superalloys are state-of-the art materials for the manufacturing of components in the hottest sections of aero-engines and land-based power generation gas turbines. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Contemplating the Antecedents of a Sustainable Work Life in an Emerging Economy: Lessons from Early Retirees in the ICT Sector of Pakistan
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4734; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124734 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Sustainable careers at present are characterized by elements of both planned and unplanned career transitions traversed over the entire life course. Planned career transitions involve voluntary departure from the routine career while unplanned career displacements come in the form of involuntary retirement decisions
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Sustainable careers at present are characterized by elements of both planned and unplanned career transitions traversed over the entire life course. Planned career transitions involve voluntary departure from the routine career while unplanned career displacements come in the form of involuntary retirement decisions resulting from the job-cuts imposed by organizations. Involuntarily-displaced workers are challenged with threats, such as an unwelcoming job-market, depleted skillsets and potential obsolescence which results in limited employability. For developed nations, extant research has investigated to a reasonable extent this budding avenue of post-retirement career decision making and its dependency on various micro-level socioeconomic determinants. However, the same avenue is, as yet, unexplored for developing economies. In an endeavor to fill this gap, the present research is undertaken to study different post-retirement career trajectories chosen by middle-aged and elderly workers after a job loss from the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in Pakistan. We employ the technique of multinomial logistic regression on data obtained from 295 early displaced workers (M = 217, F = 78) to compare different retirement decisions in the light of various socioeconomic factors, such as age, gender and specific measures of human, social and financial capital and risk-taking ability. Age, gender and health status are observed to be major deterrents to sustainable career participation while technical qualification helps to sustain reemployment opportunities. Our research offers notable contributions to the realm of sustainable career development by identifying the factors which influence workers’ employability for sustainable workforce participation. Managerial and theoretical implications are discussed followed by conclusions and research limitations. Full article

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