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Open AccessArticle
Platelet Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Induces Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells to Secrete Interleukin-6
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051311 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
The roles and interactions of platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver regeneration are unclear, and the trigger that initiates hepatocyte proliferation is unknown. We aimed to identify the key factors released by activated platelets that induce liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to [...] Read more.
The roles and interactions of platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver regeneration are unclear, and the trigger that initiates hepatocyte proliferation is unknown. We aimed to identify the key factors released by activated platelets that induce liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine implicated in the early phase of liver regeneration. We characterized the releasate of activated platelets inducing the in vitro production of IL-6 by mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and observed that the stimulating factor was a thermolabile protein. Following gel filtration, a single fraction of activated platelet releasate induced a maximal IL-6 secretion by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (90.2 ± 13.9 versus control with buffer, 9.0 ± 0.8 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Mass spectroscopy analysis of this fraction, followed by in silico processing, resulted in a reduced list of 18 candidates. Several proteins from the list were tested, and only recombinant transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) resulted in an increased IL-6 production up to 242.7 ± 30.5 pg/mL, which was comparable to non-fractionated platelet releasate effect. Using neutralizing anti-TGF-β1 antibody or a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor, IL-6 production by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells was dramatically reduced. These results support a role of platelet TGF-β1 β1 in the priming phase of liver regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cellular Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Increased Risk of Malignant Gliomas: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051343 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
The association between cigarette smoking and the risk of developing malignant glioma (MG) remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate this potential association in a large general population, using a well-established and validated longitudinal nationwide database. Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance [...] Read more.
The association between cigarette smoking and the risk of developing malignant glioma (MG) remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate this potential association in a large general population, using a well-established and validated longitudinal nationwide database. Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance System cohort, 9,811,768 people over 20 years old without any cancer history in 2009 were followed until the end of 2017. We documented 6100 MG cases (ICD-10 code C71) during the median follow-up period of 7.31 years. Current smokers had a higher risk of developing MG (HR = 1.22, CI: 1.13–1.32) compared with never-smokers, after adjusting for confounders. This association was stronger for those who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily (HR = 1.50, CI: 1.36–1.64). Furthermore, having 30 or more pack-years of smoking over the course of one’s lifetime was associated with an increased risk of developing MG in a dose-dependent manner, compared with never-smokers (HR = 1.31, CI: 1.16–1.48 for 30–39 pack-years of smoking; HR = 1.36, CI: 1.17–1.59 for 40–49 pack-years of smoking; HR = 1.68; CI: 1.44–1.95 for ≥ 50 pack-years of smoking). These results suggest that cigarette smoking may be associated with developing MG. Further prospective studies could help elucidate this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Covid-19 and the Subsequent Lockdown Modified Dietary Habits of Almost Half the Population in an Italian Sample
Foods 2020, 9(5), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050675 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in several parts of the world and, hence, changed some daily habits, including social interactions, the ability to perform sports, and—possibly—diet. The Italian government established and promulgated lockdown policies on 9 March 2020. We aim at assessing [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 pandemic led to lockdowns in several parts of the world and, hence, changed some daily habits, including social interactions, the ability to perform sports, and—possibly—diet. The Italian government established and promulgated lockdown policies on 9 March 2020. We aim at assessing the effects of Covid-19-induced confinement policies on self-reported food consumption of self-selected Italians by means of a questionnaire that was created and diffused by the Internet. Nearly half, i.e., 49.6% of responders did not substantially modify their diet during the lockdown; however, 46.1% of them reported that they were eating more during confinement, and 19.5% gained weight. In particular, we report an increase in “comfort food” consumption, notably chocolate, ice-cream, and desserts (42.5%) and salty snacks (23.5%). In addition, 42.7% percent of this cohort attributed this increase to higher anxiety levels. Related to this, 36.8% of responders reported a decrease in alcohol consumption, even though 10.1% of them reported an increase. Interestingly, 21.2% of responders increased their consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables. Only 33.5% of those who declared decreased consumption attributed this change of diet to lower availability and ease of purchasing such items. Equally interesting, over half of responders, i.e., 56.2%, admitted that fruit and vegetables did not appeal to them while in lockdown. Purchases of ready-made meals were reduced by nearly 50%. Future large-scale similar studies should be undertaken worldwide and will help public health authorities shape their reactions to future, unavoidable pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Selective Feature Anonymization for Privacy-Preserving Image Data Publishing
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050874 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
There is a strong positive correlation between the development of deep learning and the amount of public data available. Not all data can be released in their raw form because of the risk to the privacy of the related individuals. The main objective [...] Read more.
There is a strong positive correlation between the development of deep learning and the amount of public data available. Not all data can be released in their raw form because of the risk to the privacy of the related individuals. The main objective of privacy-preserving data publication is to anonymize the data while maintaining their utility. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving semi-generative adversarial network (PPSGAN) that selectively adds noise to class-independent features of each image to enable the processed image to maintain its original class label. Our experiments on training classifiers with synthetic datasets anonymized with various methods confirm that PPSGAN shows better utility than other conventional methods, including blurring, noise-adding, filtering, and generation using GANs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Machine Learning)
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Open AccessArticle
Validity, Reliability, and Usefulness of My Jump 2 App for Measuring Vertical Jump in Primary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103708 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument [...] Read more.
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument for measuring jump performance during the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and CMJ free arms (CMJAM) in primary school children. A total of 48 participants (11–14 years age), volunteered to participate in this research. The jumps were recorded with a validated OptoJump photoelectric cell system and a concurrent device (iPhone X through My Jump 2 app) at the same time. The participants repeated the testing procedure after two weeks to assess the reliability of the measurements (ICC). Systematic bias between sessions and tools was evaluated using the paired samples t-test and Bland and Altman analysis. High test–retest reliability (ICC > 0.89) was observed for all measures’ in-between conditions. Very large correlations in the total sample were observed between the My Jump 2 app and OptoJump for SJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), CMJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), and CMJAM (r = 0.99, p = 0.001). Bland and Altman’s plot depicting limits of agreement for the total sample between the OptoJump and My Jump 2 show that the majority of data points are within the 95% CIs. The results of this study suggest that My Jump 2 is a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring jump performance in primary school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Cash Crop Production on Household Food Security for Smallholder Farmers: A Case of Shamva District, Zimbabwe
Agriculture 2020, 10(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050188 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Zimbabwe has recently experienced a considerable shift towards the production of more cash crops, such as tobacco, at the expense of food crops. Although cash cropping has been associated with increased income, the question is whether the income gained from cash crops would [...] Read more.
Zimbabwe has recently experienced a considerable shift towards the production of more cash crops, such as tobacco, at the expense of food crops. Although cash cropping has been associated with increased income, the question is whether the income gained from cash crops would be enough to provide the food needs of farming households. This research was conducted to analyse the impact of cash crops on household food security. A cross-sectional survey consisting of 281 randomly selected smallholder farmers in Shamva District was used for primary data collection. Data were analysed using the Tobit regression model and Propensity score matching (PSM). The household dietary diversity score (HDDS) was used to measure food security. The PSM results showed a positive impact of cash crop production on the HDDS. This could be attributed to the income effect of cash cropping. Furthermore, Tobit regression results showed that cash crop production (p < 0.1), non-farm income (p < 0.01), total arable land (p < 0.05) and access to draft power (p < 0.05) positively influenced household food security. Household size negatively impacted food security (p < 0.05). While the results from this study suggest the need to promote cash crop production, it should not be regarded as the panacea for addressing food insecurity. There is a need for further research to derive optimum combinations of cash and food crops in the crop mixture for smallholder farmers to achieve food security. Furthermore, opportunities for off-farm livelihood options should be developed, since non-farm income had a positive effect on food security. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of a Francis Turbine over Wide Operating Range: Some Practical Aspects of Verification
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104301 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Hydropower plays an essential role in maintaining energy flexibility. Modern designs focus on sustainability and robustness using different numerical tools. Automatic optimization of the turbines is widely used, including low, mini and micro head turbines. The numerical techniques are not always foolproof in [...] Read more.
Hydropower plays an essential role in maintaining energy flexibility. Modern designs focus on sustainability and robustness using different numerical tools. Automatic optimization of the turbines is widely used, including low, mini and micro head turbines. The numerical techniques are not always foolproof in the absence of experimental data, and hence accurate verification is a key component of automatic optimization processes. This work aims to investigate the newly designed Francis runner for flexible operation. Unsteady simulations at 80 operating points of the turbine were conducted. The numerical model consisted of 16 million nodes of hexahedral mesh. A SAS-SST (scale adaptive simulation-shear stress transport) model was enabled for resolving/modeling the turbulent flow. The selected time-step size was equivalent to one-degree angular rotation of the runner. Global parameters, such as efficiency, torque, head and flow rate were considered for proper verification and validation. (1) A complete hill diagram of the turbine was prepared and verified with the reference case. (2) The relative error in hydraulic efficiency was computed and the over trend was studied. This allowed us to investigate the consistency of the numerical model under extreme operating conditions, far away from the best efficiency point. (3) Unsteady fluctuations of runner output torque were studied to identify unstable regions and magnitude of torque oscillations. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
From Increased Fluid Shear Stress to Natural Bypass Growth
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103707 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
This Special Issue enqueues a series of publications dealing with arteriogenesis, which is the growth of a natural bypass from pre-existing arteriolar connections, as defined by Wolfgang Schaper, Werner Risau and Ramon Munoz-Chapuli in the late nineties of the last century [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Australian Trainee Childcare Educators Regarding Their Role in the Feeding Behaviours of Young Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103712 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Background: Early childhood (2–5 years) is acknowledged as a critical time for the establishment of healthy behaviours. The increasing number of children and amount of time spent in childcare provides strong rationale to explore the important role that childcare services and childcare [...] Read more.
Background: Early childhood (2–5 years) is acknowledged as a critical time for the establishment of healthy behaviours. The increasing number of children and amount of time spent in childcare provides strong rationale to explore the important role that childcare services and childcare educators play in influencing healthy eating behaviours of young children in their care. Methods: This study used a qualitative exploratory approach to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Australian childcare trainee educators’ regarding their role in the feeding of young children. Results: All participants agreed that feeding of young children was an important part of their role, but described challenges to the promotion of healthy eating and the adoption of responsive child feeding practices. These included personal beliefs and experiences with food, the bi-directional nature of child feeding, conflicting parental requests and/or unsupportive centre-based policies and procedures. Conclusion: Training about responsive child feeding practices within the childcare sector should include all childcare staff; aim to enhance relational efficacy and communication skills with parents; and empower childcare staff to lead organisational change. To support this, childcare centres need to provide coherent centre-based healthy eating policies inclusive of healthy food provision and desirable feeding practices. Full article
Open AccessArticle
TATA-Like Boxes in RNA Polymerase III Promoters: Requirements for Nucleotide Sequences
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103706 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
tRNA and some other non-coding RNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III), due to the presence of intragenic promoter, consisting of boxes A and B spaced by 30–40 bp. Such pol III promoters, called type 2, are also intrinsic to [...] Read more.
tRNA and some other non-coding RNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III), due to the presence of intragenic promoter, consisting of boxes A and B spaced by 30–40 bp. Such pol III promoters, called type 2, are also intrinsic to Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs). The contribution of 5′-flanking sequences to the transcription efficiency of genes containing type 2 promoters is still studied insufficiently. Here, we studied this issue, focusing on the genes of two small non-coding RNAs (4.5SH and 4.5SI), as well as B1 and B2 SINEs from the mouse genome. We found that the regions from position −31 to −24 may significantly influence the transcription of genes and SINEs. We studied the influence of nucleotide substitutions in these sites, representing TATA-like boxes, on transcription of 4.5SH and 4.5SI RNA genes. As a rule, the substitutions of A and T to G or C reduced the transcription level, although the replacement of C with A also lowered it. In 4.5SH gene, five distal nucleotides of −31/−24 box (TTCAAGTA) appeared to be the most important, while in the box −31/−24 of 4.5SI gene (CTACATGA), all nucleotides, except for the first one, contributed significantly to the transcription efficiency. Random sequences occurring at positions −31/−24 upstream of SINE copies integrated into genome, promoted their transcription with different efficacy. In the 5′-flanking sequences of 4.5SH and 4.5SI RNA genes, the recognition sites of CREB, C/EBP, and Sp1 factors were found, and their deletion decreased the transcription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Links between Polychronicity and Job Performance from the Person–Environment Fit Perspective—The Mediating Role of Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103711 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Polychronicity refers to the preference of some individuals to structure their time in order to deal with multiple tasks simultaneously in a short period of time. Past research regarding the correlation between individual polychronicity and performance presented distinct arguments. Although most studies supported [...] Read more.
Polychronicity refers to the preference of some individuals to structure their time in order to deal with multiple tasks simultaneously in a short period of time. Past research regarding the correlation between individual polychronicity and performance presented distinct arguments. Although most studies supported a positive correlation with performance, empirical findings showed inconsistent results, indicating the presence of other influencing factors. According to the person–environment fit theory and self-determination theory, the effect of polychronicity on job performance was verified and the mediation effect of well-being was tested in this study. Dual-mode questionnaires were collected from 532 subordinators and their direct supervisors in 98 chain restaurants and hierarchical regression analysis was performed to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that polychronicity positively affected well-being, that is, well-being was a full mediator between polychronicity and job performance. This study provides valuable insight for managers to understand employee polychronicity and, in turn, improve their well-being, which could help improve job performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress and Work)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Validation of a Direct Fiber Model for Orientation Prediction
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020059 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Predicting the fiber orientation of reinforced molded components is required to improve their performance and safety. Continuum-based models for fiber orientation are computationally very efficient; however, they lack in a linked theory between fiber attrition, fiber–matrix separation and fiber alignment. This work, therefore, [...] Read more.
Predicting the fiber orientation of reinforced molded components is required to improve their performance and safety. Continuum-based models for fiber orientation are computationally very efficient; however, they lack in a linked theory between fiber attrition, fiber–matrix separation and fiber alignment. This work, therefore, employs a particle level simulation which was used to simulate the fiber orientation evolution within a sliding plate rheometer. In the model, each fiber is accounted for and represented as a chain of linked rigid segments. Fibers experience hydrodynamic forces, elastic forces, and interaction forces. To validate this fundamental modeling approach, injection and compression molded reinforced polypropylene samples were subjected to a simple shear flow using a sliding plate rheometer. Microcomputed tomography was used to measure the orientation tensor up to 60 shear strain units. The fully characterized microstructure at zero shear strain was used to reproduce the initial conditions in the particle level simulation. Fibers were placed in a periodic boundary cell, and an idealized simple shear flow field was applied. The model showed a faster orientation evolution at the start of the shearing process. However, agreement with the steady-state aligned orientation for compression molded samples was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discontinuous Fiber Composites, Volume II)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Linear Regression Modelling to Estimate the Global Warming Potential of a Newspaper
Entropy 2020, 22(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22050590 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Technological innovations are not enough by themselves to achieve social and environmental sustainability in companies. Sustainable development aims to determine the environmental impact of a product and the hidden price of products and services through the concept of radical transparency. This means that [...] Read more.
Technological innovations are not enough by themselves to achieve social and environmental sustainability in companies. Sustainable development aims to determine the environmental impact of a product and the hidden price of products and services through the concept of radical transparency. This means that companies should show and disclose the impact on the environment of any good or service. This way, the consumer can choose in a transparent manner, not only for the price. The use of the eco-label as a European eco-label, which bases its criteria on life cycle assessment, could provide an indicator of corporate social responsibility for a given product. However, it does not give a full guarantee that the product was obtained in a sustainable manner. The aim of this work is to provide a way of calculating the value of the environmental impacts of an industrial product, under different operating conditions, so that each company can provide detailed information on the impacts of its products, information that can form part of its "green product sheet". As a case study, the daily production of a newspaper, printed by coldset, has been chosen. Each process involved in production was configured with raw material and energy consumption information from production plants, manufacturer data and existing databases. Four non-linear regression models have been trained to estimate the impact of a newspaper’s circulation from five input variables (pages, grammage, height, paper type, and print run) with 5508 data samples each. These non-linear regression models were trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt nonlinear least squares algorithm. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) obtained by all the non-linear regression models tested were less than 5%. Through the proposed correlations, it is possible to obtain a score that reports on the impact of the product for different operating conditions and several types of raw materials. Ecolabelling can be further developed by incorporating a scoring system for the impact caused by the product or process, using a standardised impact methodology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Host Range of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Slovak Arboreta
Forests 2020, 11(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050596 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
The health of 34 different Fraxinus taxa in association with the pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was assessed in four Slovak arboreta. Averaged across all arboreta, nearly one-quarter (24.9%) of all evaluated trees showed ash dieback symptoms. The damage was most serious on the [...] Read more.
The health of 34 different Fraxinus taxa in association with the pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was assessed in four Slovak arboreta. Averaged across all arboreta, nearly one-quarter (24.9%) of all evaluated trees showed ash dieback symptoms. The damage was most serious on the common ash F. excelsior, a native species. The percentage of dead trees did not exceed 2% for all evaluated trees. Generally, ash trees of all ages were affected, though the intensity of the damage varied among the sites. The identity of H. fraxineus was confirmed by conventional PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, as well as the 18S gene/ITS-2 region of the rDNA operon. In Slovakia, the pathogen has expanded its host range from native species not only to their ornamental cultivars, but also to introduced North American (F. cinerea, F. latifolia, F. pennsylvanica, F. quadrangulata) and Asian (F. bungeana, F. chinensis ssp. rhynchophylla, F. mandshurica) ash species. H. fraxineus was also observed on the previous year’s leaf petioles of the native European species F. ornus, considered a weakly susceptible host. In Slovak arboreta, H. fraxineus was found on 23 Fraxinus taxa; 21 of them represent first records for the country. F. bungeana is recorded as a new host species of H. fraxineus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pests and Pathogens of Urban Trees)
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Open AccessArticle
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Its Pharmacotherapy, and Adrenal Gland Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103709 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n = 75,247) and one group of age- and gender-matching controls (n = 75,247) were chosen from Taiwan′s National Health Insurance database during the period of January 1999 to December 2011. Both patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011, in order to identify the occurrence of adrenal gland disorders (ICD-9-CM code 255.X). We also explored the potential effect of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) treatments on the risk of developing adrenal gland disorders. We found that ADHD patients showed a significantly increased probability of developing an adrenal gland disorder compared to the control group (0.2% of ADHD vs. 0.1% of controls). However, neither MPH nor ATX treatment significantly influenced the patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction. We propose that patients with ADHD had greater comorbid rates with adrenal gland dysfunction than the control subjects. Nevertheless, undergoing treatment with MPH or ATX did not significantly influence the risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction among ADHD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility Study Using UAV Aerial Photogrammetry for a Boundary Verification Survey of a Digitalized Cadastral Area in an Urban City of Taiwan
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101682 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
In conducting land boundary verification surveys in digitalized cadastral areas in Taiwan, possible parcel points must be surveyed. These points are employed in the overlap analysis and map registration of possible parcel points and digitalized cadastral maps to identify the coordinates of parcel [...] Read more.
In conducting land boundary verification surveys in digitalized cadastral areas in Taiwan, possible parcel points must be surveyed. These points are employed in the overlap analysis and map registration of possible parcel points and digitalized cadastral maps to identify the coordinates of parcel points. Based on the computed horizontal distance and angle between control points and parcel points, parcels are staked out using ground surveys. Most studies survey possible parcel points using ground surveys with, for example, total stations. Compared with ground surveys, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) aerial photogrammetry can provide more possible parcel points. Thus, an overlap analysis of digitalized cadastral maps, combined with the collection of possible parcel points, will be more comprehensive. In this study, a high-quality-medium format camera, with a 55 mm focal length, was carried on a rotary UAV to take images, with a 3 cm ground sampling distance (GSD), flying 300 m above the ground. The images were taken with an 80% end-lap and side-lap to increase the visibility of the terrain details for stereo-mapping. According to the test conducted in this study, UAV aerial photogrammetry can accurately provide supplementary control points and assist in the boundary verification of digitalized cadastral areas in Taiwan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Socio-Cultural and Economic Drivers of Plant and Animal Protein Consumption in Malaysia: The SCRiPT Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051530 (registering DOI) - 25 May 2020
Abstract
Countries in South East Asia are undergoing a nutrition transition, which typically involves a dietary shift from plant to animal proteins. To explore the main drivers of protein consumption, the SCRiPT (Socio Cultural Research in Protein Transition) study recruited a population sample in [...] Read more.
Countries in South East Asia are undergoing a nutrition transition, which typically involves a dietary shift from plant to animal proteins. To explore the main drivers of protein consumption, the SCRiPT (Socio Cultural Research in Protein Transition) study recruited a population sample in Malaysia (N = 1604). Participants completed in-person 24 h dietary recalls and socio-demographic surveys. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using Nutritionist Pro. A novel recipe-based frequency count coded protein sources as meat (chicken, beef, pork, and mutton), fish, eggs, dairy, and plants (cereals, pulses, tubers). Dietary intakes and frequencies were examined by gender, age, income, education, ethnicity, religion, and family status, using ANOVAs and general linear models. Energy intakes were 1869 kcal/d for men and 1699 kcal/d for women. Protein intakes were 78.5 g/d for men and 72.5 g/d for women. Higher energy and protein intakes were associated with Chinese ethnicity, higher education and incomes. Frequency counts identified plant proteins in 50% of foods, followed by meat (19%), fish (12%), eggs (12%), and dairy (7%). Most frequent source of meat was chicken (16%) rather than pork or beef (1.5% each). In bivariate analyses, animal protein counts were associated with younger age, higher education and incomes. In mutually adjusted multivariate regression models, animal proteins were associated with education and ethnicity; plant proteins were associated with ethnicity and religion. Protein choices in Malaysia involve socio-cultural as well as economic variables. Full article
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