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Open AccessArticle
PG-Priming Enhances Doxorubicin Influx to Trigger Necrotic and Autophagic Cell Death in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100375 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Synergistic effects between natural compounds and chemotherapy drugs are believed to have fewer side effects with equivalent efficacy. However, the synergistic potential of prodigiosin (PG) with doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy is still unknown. This study explores the synergistic mechanism of PG and Dox against
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Synergistic effects between natural compounds and chemotherapy drugs are believed to have fewer side effects with equivalent efficacy. However, the synergistic potential of prodigiosin (PG) with doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy is still unknown. This study explores the synergistic mechanism of PG and Dox against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Three OSCC cell lines were treated with different PG/Dox combinatory schemes for cytotoxicity tests and were further investigated for cell death characteristics by cell cycle flow cytometry and autophagy/apoptosis marker labelling. When OSCC cells were pretreated with PG, the cytotoxicity of the subsequent Dox-treatment was 30% higher than Dox alone. The cytotoxic efficacy of PG-pretreated was found better than those of PG plus Dox co-treatment and Dox-pretreatment. Increase of Sub-G1 phase and caspase-3/LC-3 levels without poly (ADP-ribose) polymeras (PARP) elevation indicated both autophagy and necrosis occurred in OSCC cells. Dox flux after PG-priming was further evaluated by rhodamine-123 accumulation and Dox transporters analysis to elucidate the PG-priming effect. PG-priming autophagy enhanced Dox accumulation according to the increase of rhodamine-123 accumulation without the alterations of Dox transporters. Additionally, the cause of PG-triggered autophagy was determined by co-treatment with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. PG-induced autophagy was not related to nutrient deprivation and ER stress was proved by co-treatment with specific inhibitor. Taken together, PG-priming autophagy could sensitize OSCC cells by promoting Dox influx without regulation of Dox transporter. The PG-priming might be a promising adjuvant approach for the chemotherapy of OSCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
XPS Analysis of 2- and 3-Aminothiophenol Grafted on Silicon (111) Hydride Surfaces
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102712 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Following on from our previous study on the resonance/inductive structures of ethynylaniline, this report examines similar effects arising from resonance structures with aromatic aminothiophenol with dual electron-donating substituents. In brief, 2- and 3-aminothiophenol were thermally grafted on silicon (111) hydride substrate at 130
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Following on from our previous study on the resonance/inductive structures of ethynylaniline, this report examines similar effects arising from resonance structures with aromatic aminothiophenol with dual electron-donating substituents. In brief, 2- and 3-aminothiophenol were thermally grafted on silicon (111) hydride substrate at 130 °C under nonpolar aprotic mesitylene. From the examination of high resolution XPS Si2p, N1s, and S2p spectrum, it was noticed that there was a strong preference of NH2 over SH to form Si–N linkage on the silicon hydride surface for 2-aminothiophenol. However, for 3-aminothiophenol, there was a switch in reactivity of the silicon hydride toward SH group. This was attributed to the antagonistic and cooperative resonance effects for 2- and 3-aminothiophenol, respectively. The data strongly suggested that the net resonance of the benzylic-based compound could have played an important role in the net distribution of negative charge along the benzylic framework and subsequently influenced the outcome of the surface reaction. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this correlation between dual electron-donating substituents and the outcome of the nucleophilic addition toward silicon hydride surfaces has not been described before in literature. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Immobilizing Polyether Imidazole Ionic Liquids on ZSM-5 Zeolite for the Catalytic Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102710 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Traditional ionic liquids (ILs) catalysts suffer from the difficulty of product purification and can only be used in homogeneous catalytic systems. In this work, by reacting ILs with co-catalyst (ZnBr2), we successfully converted three polyether imidazole ionic liquids (PIILs), i.e., HO-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl
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Traditional ionic liquids (ILs) catalysts suffer from the difficulty of product purification and can only be used in homogeneous catalytic systems. In this work, by reacting ILs with co-catalyst (ZnBr2), we successfully converted three polyether imidazole ionic liquids (PIILs), i.e., HO-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl), HOOC-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl), and H2N-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (H2N-[PECH-MIM]Cl), to three composite PIIL materials, which were further immobilized on ZSM-5 zeolite by chemical bonding to result in three immobilized catalysts, namely ZSM-5-HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], ZSM-5-HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], and ZSM-5-H2N-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2]. Their structures, thermal stabilities, and morphologies were fully characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amount of composite PIIL immobilized on ZSM-5 was determined by elemental analysis. Catalytic performance of the immobilized catalysts was evaluated through the catalytic synthesis of propylene carbonate (PC) from CO2 and propylene oxide (PO). Influences of reaction temperature, time, and pressure on catalytic performance were investigated through the orthogonal test, and the effect of catalyst circulation was also studied. Under an optimal reaction condition (130 °C, 2.5 MPa, 0.75 h), the composite catalyst, ZSM-5-HOOC- [PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], exhibited the best catalytic activity with a conversion rate of 98.3% and selectivity of 97.4%. Significantly, the immobilized catalyst could still maintain high heterogeneous catalytic activity even after being reused for eight cycles. Full article
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Open AccessReview
mTOR Complexes as a Nutrient Sensor for Driving Cancer Progression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103267 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recent advancement in the field of molecular cancer research has clearly revealed that abnormality of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes causes tumor progression thorough the promotion of intracellular metabolism. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the strategies for cancer cells to ensure their survival
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Recent advancement in the field of molecular cancer research has clearly revealed that abnormality of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes causes tumor progression thorough the promotion of intracellular metabolism. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the strategies for cancer cells to ensure their survival by enabling cancer cells to obtain the macromolecular precursors and energy needed for the rapid growth. However, an orchestration of appropriate metabolic reactions for the cancer cell survival requires the precise mechanism to sense and harness the nutrient in the microenvironment. Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes are known downstream effectors of many cancer-causing mutations, which are thought to regulate cancer cell survival and growth. Recent studies demonstrate the intriguing role of mTOR to achieve the feat through metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Importantly, not only mTORC1, a well-known regulator of metabolism both in normal and cancer cell, but mTORC2, an essential partner of mTORC1 downstream of growth factor receptor signaling, controls cooperatively specific metabolism, which nominates them as an essential regulator of cancer metabolism as well as a promising candidate to garner and convey the nutrient information from the surrounding environment. In this article, we depict the recent findings on the role of mTOR complexes in cancer as a master regulator of cancer metabolism and a potential sensor of nutrients, especially focusing on glucose and amino acid sensing in cancer. Novel and detailed molecular mechanisms that amino acids activate mTOR complexes signaling have been identified. We would also like to mention the intricate crosstalk between glucose and amino acid metabolism that ensures the survival of cancer cells, but at the same time it could be exploitable for the novel intervention to target the metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Facing the Issues Raised in Psalm 1 through Thinking and Feeling: Applying the SIFT Approach to Biblical Hermeneutics among Muslim Educators
Religions 2018, 9(10), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9100323 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A group of 22 Muslim educators participating in a residential Islamic Education summer school were invited to explore their individual preferences for thinking and feeling (the two functions of the Jungian judging process). They were then invited to work in three groups (seven
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A group of 22 Muslim educators participating in a residential Islamic Education summer school were invited to explore their individual preferences for thinking and feeling (the two functions of the Jungian judging process). They were then invited to work in three groups (seven clear thinking types, eight clear feeling types, and seven individuals less clear of their preference) to discuss Psalm 1. Clear differences emerged between the ways in which thinking types and feeling types handled the judgement metred out to the wicked in the Psalm. The feeling types were disturbed by the portrayal of God in Psalm 1 and sought ways to mitigate the stark message. The thinking types confronted the dangers to which this image of God could lead and sought pedagogic strategies for dealing with these dangers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) Study—Differences in Children’s Energy Balance-Related Behaviors (EBRBs) and in Long-Term Stress by Parental Educational Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102313 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper describes the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) survey process and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in children’s energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), meaning physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and long-term stress that serve as the basis for the intervention development.
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This paper describes the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) survey process and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in children’s energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), meaning physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and long-term stress that serve as the basis for the intervention development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2015–2016 in 66 Finnish preschools in eight municipalities involving 864 children (3–6 years old). Parents, preschool personnel, and principals assessed environmental factors at home and preschool with questionnaires. Measurement of children’s EBRBs involved three-day food records, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), seven-day accelerometer data, and seven-day sedentary behavior diaries. Children’s long-term stress was measured by hair cortisol concentration. Parental educational level (PEL) served as an indicator of SES. Children with low PEL had more screen time, more frequent consumption of sugary beverages and lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, and berries (VFB) than those with high PEL. Children with middle PEL had a higher risk of consuming sugary everyday foods than children with high PEL. No PEL differences were found in children’s physical activity, sedentary time, or long-term stress. The DAGIS intervention, aiming to diminish SES differences in preschool children’s EBRBs, needs to have a special focus on screen time and consumption of sugary foods and beverages, and VFB. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Protective Role of Histidine Supplementation Against Oxidative Stress Damage in the Management of Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease
Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11040111 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Anemia is a major health condition associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A key underlying cause of this disorder is iron deficiency. Although intravenous iron treatment can be beneficial in correcting CKD-associated anemia, surplus iron can be detrimental and cause complications. Excessive generation
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Anemia is a major health condition associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A key underlying cause of this disorder is iron deficiency. Although intravenous iron treatment can be beneficial in correcting CKD-associated anemia, surplus iron can be detrimental and cause complications. Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly by mitochondria, leads to tissue oxidation and damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. Oxidative stress increase in CKD has been further implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. Iron supplementation leads to the availability of excess free iron that is toxic and generates ROS that is linked, in turn, to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Histidine is indispensable to uremic patients because of the tendency toward negative plasma histidine levels. Histidine-deficient diets predispose healthy subjects to anemia and accentuate anemia in chronic uremic patients. Histidine is essential in globin synthesis and erythropoiesis and has also been implicated in the enhancement of iron absorption from human diets. Studies have found that L-histidine exhibits antioxidant capabilities, such as scavenging free radicals and chelating divalent metal ions, hence the advocacy for its use in improving oxidative stress in CKD. The current review advances and discusses evidence for iron-induced toxicity in CKD and the mechanisms by which histidine exerts cytoprotective functions. Full article
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