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Open AccessArticle
Automatic Inspection of Aeronautical Mechanical Assemblies by Matching the 3D CAD Model and Real 2D Images
J. Imaging 2019, 5(10), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5100081 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
In the aviation industry, automated inspection is essential for ensuring quality of production. It allows acceleration of procedures for quality control of parts or mechanical assemblies. As a result, the demand of intelligent visual inspection systems aimed at ensuring high quality in production [...] Read more.
In the aviation industry, automated inspection is essential for ensuring quality of production. It allows acceleration of procedures for quality control of parts or mechanical assemblies. As a result, the demand of intelligent visual inspection systems aimed at ensuring high quality in production lines is increasing. In this work, we address a very common problem in quality control. The problem is verification of presence of the correct part and verification of its position. We address the problem in two parts: first, automatic selection of informative viewpoints before the inspection process is started (offline preparation of the inspection) and, second, automatic treatment of the acquired images from said viewpoints by matching them with information in 3D CAD models is launched. We apply this inspection system for detecting defects on aeronautical mechanical assemblies with the aim of checking whether all the subparts are present and correctly mounted. The system can be used during manufacturing or maintenance operations. The accuracy of the system is evaluated on two kinds of platform. One is an autonomous navigation robot, and the other one is a handheld tablet. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is accurate and promising for industrial applications with possibility for real-time inspection. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increased Expression of Meteorin-Like Hormone in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity and Its Association with Irisin
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101283 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing pandemic associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Meteorin-like hormone (METRNL) is an adipomyokine that is linked to T2D. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in METRNL levels in T2D and obesity and assess the [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing pandemic associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Meteorin-like hormone (METRNL) is an adipomyokine that is linked to T2D. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in METRNL levels in T2D and obesity and assess the association of METRNL levels with irisin. Overall, 228 Arab individuals were enrolled. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were assessed using immunoassay. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were significantly higher in T2D patients than in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.05). When the population was stratified based on obesity, METRNL and irisin levels were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese individuals (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between METRNL and irisin (r = 0.233 and p = 0.001). Additionally, METRNL and irisin showed significant correlation with various metabolic biomarkers associated with T2D and Obesity. Our data shows elevated METRNL plasma levels in individuals with T2D, further exacerbated with obesity. Additionally, a strong positive association was observed between METRNL and irisin. Further studies are necessary to examine the role of these proteins in T2D and obesity, against their ethnic background and to understand the mechanistic significance of their possible interplay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocytes and Metabolic Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dewatering Characteristics and Inflow Prediction of Deep Foundation Pits with Partial Penetrating Curtains in Sand and Gravel Strata
Water 2019, 11(10), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102182 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
The dewatering of deep foundation pits excavated in highly permeable geology usually requires waterproofing technologies to relieve groundwater flow. However, no effective prediction formula is yet available for determining water inflow in the presence of partial penetrating curtains. In this study, a dewatering [...] Read more.
The dewatering of deep foundation pits excavated in highly permeable geology usually requires waterproofing technologies to relieve groundwater flow. However, no effective prediction formula is yet available for determining water inflow in the presence of partial penetrating curtains. In this study, a dewatering project with partial penetrating curtains is analyzed via a finite difference method to show evident three-dimensional (3D) seepage characteristics. The standard curve and distortion functions are established under the assumption of an equivalent well by quantifying the blocking effects; thus, the empirical inflow prediction formulas for steady flow are further developed. Moreover, a dewatering design method based on the prediction formulas is proposed and applied to the field dewatering project in sand and gravel strata. Measured results show that dewatering efficiency is considerably enhanced by 3D flow, forming appropriate pressure distributions for dewatering construction. The uplift pressure below the pit bottom is controlled within a 25% safety margin to verify the reliability of the design method. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of Energy Consumption and Optimization Techniques for Writing Energy-Efficient Code
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101192 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
The unprecedented growth of connected devices, together with the remarkable convergence of a wide variety of technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the services that the internet of things (IoT) can offer, all aimed at improving quality of life. Consequently, in [...] Read more.
The unprecedented growth of connected devices, together with the remarkable convergence of a wide variety of technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the services that the internet of things (IoT) can offer, all aimed at improving quality of life. Consequently, in order to meet the numerous challenges this produces, the IoT has become a major subject of research. One of these challenges is the reduction of energy consumption given the significant limitations of some devices. In addition, although the search for energy efficiency was initially focused on hardware, it has become a concern for software developers too. In fact, it has become an intense area of research with the principal objective of analyzing and optimizing the energy consumption of software systems. This research analyzes the energy saving that can be achieved when using a broad set of techniques for writing energy-efficient code for Raspberry Pi devices. It also demonstrates that programmers can save more energy if they apply the proposed techniques manually than when relying on other automatic optimization options offered by the GNU compiler collection (GCC). Thus, it is important that programmers are aware of the significant impact these techniques can have on an application’s energy consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Security-Oriented Architecture for Managing IoT Deployments
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101315 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Assuring security and privacy is one of the key issues affecting the Internet of Things (IoT), mostly due to its distributed nature. Therefore, for the IoT to thrive, this problem needs to be tackled and solved. This paper describes a security-oriented architecture for [...] Read more.
Assuring security and privacy is one of the key issues affecting the Internet of Things (IoT), mostly due to its distributed nature. Therefore, for the IoT to thrive, this problem needs to be tackled and solved. This paper describes a security-oriented architecture for managing IoT deployments. Our main goal was to deal with a fine-grained control in the access to IoT data and devices, to prevent devices from being manipulated by attackers and to avoid information leaking from IoT devices to unauthorized recipients. The access control is split: the management of authentication and access control policies is centered on special components (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Controllers), which can be distributed or centralized, and the actual enforcement of access control decisions happens on the entities that stay in the path to the IoT devices (Gateways and Device Drivers). The authentication in the entire system uses asymmetric cryptography and pre-distributed unique identifiers derived from public keys; no Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is used. A Kerberos-like ticket-based approach is used to establish secure sessions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mutational Landscape of the BAP1 Locus Reveals an Intrinsic Control to Regulate the miRNA Network and the Binding of Protein Complexes in Uveal Melanoma
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101600 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
The BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) gene is associated with a variety of human cancers. With its gene product being a nuclear ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase with deubiquitinase activity, BAP1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene with potential pleiotropic effects in multiple tumor types. Herein, [...] Read more.
The BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) gene is associated with a variety of human cancers. With its gene product being a nuclear ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase with deubiquitinase activity, BAP1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene with potential pleiotropic effects in multiple tumor types. Herein, we focused specifically on uveal melanoma (UM) in which BAP1 mutations are associated with a metastasizing phenotype and decreased survival rates. We identified the ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase (UCH) domain as a major hotspot region for the pathogenic mutations with a high evolutionary action (EA) score. This also includes the mutations at conserved catalytic sites and the ones overlapping with the phosphorylation residues. Computational protein interaction studies revealed that distant BAP1-associated protein complexes (FOXK2, ASXL1, BARD1, BRCA1) could be directly impacted by this mutation paradigm. We also described the conformational transition related to BAP1-BRCA-BARD1 complex, which may pose critical implications for mutations, especially at the docking interfaces of these three proteins. The mutations affect - independent of being somatic or germline - the binding affinity of miRNAs embedded within the BAP1 locus, thereby altering the unique regulatory network. Apart from UM, BAP1 gene expression and survival associations were found to be predictive for the prognosis in several (n = 29) other cancer types. Herein, we suggest that although BAP1 is conceptually a driver gene in UM, it might contribute through its interaction partners and its regulatory miRNA network to various aspects of cancer. Taken together, these findings will pave the way to evaluate BAP1 in a variety of other human cancers with a shared mutational spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Bacterial Community Changes during Vermicomposting of Grape Marc Derived from Red Winemaking
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100473 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Previous studies dealing with changes in microbial communities during vermicomposting were mostly performed at lab-scale conditions and by using low-throughput techniques. Therefore, we sought to characterize the bacterial succession during the vermicomposting of grape marc over a period of 91 days in a [...] Read more.
Previous studies dealing with changes in microbial communities during vermicomposting were mostly performed at lab-scale conditions and by using low-throughput techniques. Therefore, we sought to characterize the bacterial succession during the vermicomposting of grape marc over a period of 91 days in a pilot-scale vermireactor. Samples were taken at the initiation of vermicomposting, and days 14, 28, 42, and 91, representing both active and mature stages of vermicomposting. By using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, significant changes in the bacterial community composition of grape marc were found after 14 days and throughout the process (p < 0.0001). There was also an increase in bacterial diversity, both taxonomic and phylogenetic, from day 14 until the end of the trial. We found the main core microbiome comprised of twelve bacterial taxa (~16.25% of the total sequences) known to be capable of nitrogen fixation and to confer plant-disease suppression. Accordingly, functional diversity included increases in specific genes related to nitrogen fixation and synthesis of plant hormones (salicylic acid) after 91 days. Together, the findings support the use of grape marc vermicompost for sustainable practices in the wine industry by disposing of this high-volume winery by-product and capturing its value to improve soil fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Crystal-Chemical Properties of Synthetic Almandine-Pyrope Solid Solution by X-Ray Single-Crystal Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy
Crystals 2019, 9(10), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9100541 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Crystal-chemical properties of synthetic Almandine-Pyrope (Alm-Pyr) solid solutions were investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Garnet solid solution with different compositions were synthesized from powder at 4.0 GPa and annealed at 1200 °C for 48 h by a multi-anvil pressure apparatus. [...] Read more.
Crystal-chemical properties of synthetic Almandine-Pyrope (Alm-Pyr) solid solutions were investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Garnet solid solution with different compositions were synthesized from powder at 4.0 GPa and annealed at 1200 °C for 48 h by a multi-anvil pressure apparatus. Garnet crystals with different sizes (about 60-1000 μm) were obtained from synthesis. The results of X-ray single-crystal diffraction show that the unit cell constants decrease with increasing Pyr contents in the synthetic Alm-Pyr crystals due to the smaller ionic radius of Mg2+ in eightfold coordination than that of Fe2+. The data exhibit obviously positive deviations from ideal mixing volumes across the Alm-Pyr join which may be caused by the distortion of the SiO4 tetrahedron. Moreover, the significant decrease in the average M-O bond length and volume of the [MgO8]/[FeO8] dodecahedron with increasing Pyr contents are the most important factors to the decrease in the Alm-Pyr crystal unit cell constant and volume. On the other hand, selected bond distances (average <M-O>, <Al-O>, and <D-O> distances) have a linear correlation with the unit-cell parameter, but the <Si-O> distance has nonlinear correlation. With increasing the unit-cell parameter, the average <M-O> distance increases significantly, followed by the average <D-O> and <Al-O> distances. While the <Si-O> distance changes negligibly further confirming the conclusion that the significant decrease of the average M-O bond length of the [MgO8]/[FeO8] dodecahedron with increasing Pyr contents are the most important factors to the decrease in the Alm-Pyr crystal unit cell volume. In the Raman spectra collected for the Alm-Pyr solid solutions, Raman vibration mode assignments indicate that the Raman vibrational spectra change along the Alm-Pyr binary solution. The mode frequencies of Si-O stretching, Si-O bending, and the rotation of the SiO4-tetrahedron (R(SiO4)) decrease linearly, while the translational modes of the SiO4-tetrahedron (T(SiO4)) increase with increasing Alm contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Pressure Synthesis in Crystalline Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Ambipolar Transport in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Film Transistors
Crystals 2019, 9(10), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9100539 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
We report clear room temperature ambipolar transport in ambient-air processed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with aluminum oxide gate-insulators and indium-zinc-oxide source/drain electrodes. The high ionicity of the MAPbI3 leads to p-type and n-type self-doping, and depending on [...] Read more.
We report clear room temperature ambipolar transport in ambient-air processed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with aluminum oxide gate-insulators and indium-zinc-oxide source/drain electrodes. The high ionicity of the MAPbI3 leads to p-type and n-type self-doping, and depending on the applied bias we show that simultaneous or selective transport of electrons and/or holes is possible in a single MAPbI3 TFT. The electron transport (n-type), however, is slightly more pronounced than the hole transport (p-type), and the respective channel resistances range from 5–11 and 44–55 MΩ/μm. Both p-type and n-type TFTs show good on-state characteristics for low driving voltages. It is also shown here that the on-state current of the n-type and p-type TFTs is highest in the slightly PbI2-rich and MAI-rich films, respectively, suggesting controllable n-type or p-type transport by varying precursor ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thin Film Materials and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Base-Promoted Chemodivergent Formation of 1,4-Benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones and 1,3-Benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones Switched by Solvents
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3773; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203773 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
The KOH-promoted chemodivergent benzannulation of ortho-fluorobenzamides with 2-propyn-1-ol can afford either 1,4-benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones or 1,3-benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones in good yields with high selectivity, depending greatly upon the use of solvents. In the case of using DMSO, the intermolecular benzannulation produced seven-membered [...] Read more.
The KOH-promoted chemodivergent benzannulation of ortho-fluorobenzamides with 2-propyn-1-ol can afford either 1,4-benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones or 1,3-benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones in good yields with high selectivity, depending greatly upon the use of solvents. In the case of using DMSO, the intermolecular benzannulation produced seven-membered benzo-fused heterocycles of 1,4-benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones, whereas in MeCN, the six-membered benzo-fused heterocycles of 1,3-benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones were formed. The KOH-promoted benzannulation proceeded most probably through the C–F nucleophilic substitution of ortho-fluorobenzamides with 2-propyn-1-ol to give the intermediate of ortho-[(2-propynyl)oxy]benzamide, which underwent the intramolecular hydroamidation in a different manner to afford either seven- or six-membered benzo-fused heterocycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solvent-dependent Organic Transformations)
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Open AccessCommunication
Synthesis of 1,1′-Bis(1-Methyl/Chloro-2,3,4,5-Tetraphenyl-1-Silacyclopentadienyl) [Ph4C4Si(Me/Cl)-(Me/Cl)SiC4Ph4] from Silole Anion [MeSiC4Ph4]•[Li+ or Na+] and Silole Dianion [SiC4Ph4]2−•2[Li+]; Oxidative Coupling of Silole Anion [MeSiC4Ph4]•[Li+ or Na+] by Ferrous Chloride (FeCl2) and Oxidative Coupling and Chlorination of Silole Dianion [SiC4Ph4]2−•2[Li+] by Cupric Chloride (CuCl2)
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203772 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
A reaction of silole anion {[MeSiC4Ph4]•[Li+ or Na+] (1) with anhydrous ferrous chloride (FeCl2) in THF (tetrahydrofuran) gives 1,1′-bis(1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-1-silacyclopentadienyl) [Ph4C4Si(Me)-(Me)SiC4Ph4] (2) with precipitation of [...] Read more.
A reaction of silole anion {[MeSiC4Ph4]•[Li+ or Na+] (1) with anhydrous ferrous chloride (FeCl2) in THF (tetrahydrofuran) gives 1,1′-bis(1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-1-silacyclopentadienyl) [Ph4C4Si(Me)-(Me)SiC4Ph4] (2) with precipitation of iron metal in high yield. Silole dianion {[SiC4Ph4]2−•2[Li+] (3) is added to anhydrous cupric chloride (CuCl2) in THF at −78 °C, then the dark red solution changes into a greenish solution. From the solution, a green solid is isolated, and stirring it in toluene at room temperature provides quantitatively 1,1′-bis(1-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-1-silacyclopentadienyl) [Ph4C4Si(Cl)-(Cl)SiC4Ph4] (4) with precipitation of copper metal in toluene. The green solid is suggested to be 1,1′-bissilolyl bisradical [Ph4C4Si-SiC4Ph4]2• (8), and lithium cuprous chloride salts {[Li2CuICl2]+•[CuICl2]}. Both reactions are initiated by single-electron transfer (SET) from the electron-rich anionic silole substrates (1 and 3) to iron(II) and copper(II). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Frequency Analysis Using Participatory GIS and Rainfall Data for Two Stations in Narok Town, Kenya
Hydrology 2019, 6(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6040090 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Flood management requires in-depth computational modelling through assessment of flood return period and river flow data in order to effectively analyze catchment response. The participatory geographic information system (PGIS) is a tool which is increasingly used for collecting data and decision making on [...] Read more.
Flood management requires in-depth computational modelling through assessment of flood return period and river flow data in order to effectively analyze catchment response. The participatory geographic information system (PGIS) is a tool which is increasingly used for collecting data and decision making on environmental issues. This study sought to determine the return periods of major floods that happened in Narok Town, Kenya, using rainfall frequency analysis and PGIS. For this purpose, a number of statistical distribution functions were applied to daily rainfall data from two stations: Narok water supply (WS) station and Narok meteorological station (MS). The first station has a dataset of thirty years and the second one has a dataset of fifty-nine (59) years. The parameters obtained from the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) test and chi-square test helped to select the appropriate distribution. The best-fitted distribution for WS station were Gumbel L-moment, Pareto L-moment, and Weibull distribution for maximum one day, two days, and three days rainfall, respectively. However, the best-fitted distribution was found to be generalized extreme value L-moment, Gumbel and gamma distribution for maximum one day, two days, and three days, respectively for the meteorological station data. Each of the selected best-fitted distribution was used to compute the corresponding rainfall intensity for 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years return period, as well as the return period of the significant flood that happened in the town. The January 1993 flood was found to have a return period of six years, while the April 2013, March 2013, and April 2015 floods had a return period of one year each. This study helped to establish the return period of major flood events that occurred in Narok, and highlights the importance of population in disaster management. The study’s results would be useful in developing flood hazard maps of Narok Town for different return periods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Practical N-Hydroxyphthalimide-Mediated Oxidation of Sulfonamides to N-Sulfonylimines
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203771 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
A new method to prepare sulfonylimines through the oxidation of sulfonamides mediated by N-hydroxyphthalimide under mild conditions has been developed. Compared to reported oxidation methods, broader substrates scope and milder conditions were achieved in our method. Importantly, this oxidation method can afford [...] Read more.
A new method to prepare sulfonylimines through the oxidation of sulfonamides mediated by N-hydroxyphthalimide under mild conditions has been developed. Compared to reported oxidation methods, broader substrates scope and milder conditions were achieved in our method. Importantly, this oxidation method can afford N-sulfonyl enaminones using Mannich products as starting materials. Additionally, the one-pot Friedel–Crafts arylation reaction of unseparated N-sulfonylimine formed in our system with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene was successful without any additional catalyst. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Ultra-Wideband Sensing Board for Radio Frequency Front-End in IoT Transmitters
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101191 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
The upcoming technologies related to Internet of Things will be characterized by challenging requirements oriented toward the most efficient exploitation of the energy in electronic systems. The use of wireless communications in these devices makes this aspect particularly important, since the performance of [...] Read more.
The upcoming technologies related to Internet of Things will be characterized by challenging requirements oriented toward the most efficient exploitation of the energy in electronic systems. The use of wireless communications in these devices makes this aspect particularly important, since the performance of radio transceivers is strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the antenna electrical characteristics. The use of circuits capable of adapting themselves to the actual state of the environment can be a valuable solution, provided that the implemented sensing features have negligible impact on the overall performance and cost of the system. In this work, we present the design and verification of an innovative ultra-wideband sensing board to detect real-time variations of the antenna impedance in transmitters oriented to Internet of Things applications. The proposed sensing board was widely validated by means of small- and large-signal measurements carried out at microwave frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G Front-End Transceivers)
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Open AccessArticle
To Raise or Not to Raise the Level of Ingredients in Yoghurts: Polish Consumer Preferences Regarding Dairy Products
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102526 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product [...] Read more.
Modern consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the perceived health benefits of food. As a result, they are in search of various types of information, for example, information on the packaging of food products that could confirm to what extent the purchased product will meet their expectations regarding the proper composition, that is, nutritional value, or perceived health values earlier mentioned. Furthermore, consumers increasingly seek new dairy products with additional health benefits and, therefore, it is essential to explore which attributes are important drivers of food choices and how producers can better respond to shifting consumer values and needs in each dairy product category. Therefore, the aims of our research was twofold: (1) To determine different segments of consumers based on their preferences towards food and nutrition, including opinion on new food products with a particular emphasis on a dairy market as well as (2) to study the importance of some statements related to nutrition presented on the yoghurt label with a precise focus on aspects of the increased and decreased content of some ingredients. The data were collected using a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) survey on a sample of 489 adult Polish consumers. Respondents provided answers to questions and took part in a discrete choice-based experiment. The obtained data were analysed using the clustering method. The segmentation was performed using a hierarchical Ward’s method. As a result, four segments were identified: Quality-oriented, Involved, Quality Enthusiasts, and Neutral. The results indicated that in relation to the features that are important in the case of yoghurts, the following were indicated above all: Beneficial effects on health, its sensory values, as well as its availability on the market and production by traditional methods. Consumers belonging to Quality Enthusiasts seemed to be the most promising segment due to their openness to new products, as well as positive feedback on yoghurt. From the perspective of taking action on the food market, Involved may also be interesting, as it showed their openness to new products available on the food market. However, due to the relatively lower, compared to other segments, assessment on the beneficial effect of yoghurt on health, their taste, aroma, availability, as well as the importance of information on care for the proper method of breeding animals, this segment can pose a special challenge to entrepreneurs. Moreover, Involved seemed to be more demanding and critical towards some projects undertaken on the market by policy makers and marketing practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Choice and Health-Related Claims)
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