Advancing Open Science
for more than 25 years
Supporting academic communities
since 1996
 
17 pages, 5304 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Diamond Band Saw Processing of Resin Mineral Composites
by Jiahao Sun, Jianhua Zhang, Weizhou Gu, Yunfang Long and Chuanxin Guo
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081814 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Resin mineral composite (RMC) is a new material with several times the damping properties of gray cast iron and great corrosion resistance. Due to its overall brittleness, sawing with a diamond band saw would be a suitable method. In this research, sawing experiments [...] Read more.
Resin mineral composite (RMC) is a new material with several times the damping properties of gray cast iron and great corrosion resistance. Due to its overall brittleness, sawing with a diamond band saw would be a suitable method. In this research, sawing experiments are carried out to study the sawing force characteristics of the material and its surface morphology during the processing. The results show that the feed force level is in the range of 3.5~5.5 N and the tangential force level is relatively low. The distribution of resin mineral components does not have a significant impact on the average sawing force but increases the fluctuation of the lateral force signal. The maximum fluctuation volume is 94.86% higher than other areas. Uneven lateral force, generated when diamond particles pass through the resin–mineral interface, is one of the causes of fluctuations. The machined surface of RMC has uniform strip scratches and a small number of pits. Maintaining a constant ratio of sawing speed to feed speed can result in approximately the same machined surface. A step structure with a height of about 10 μm appears at the interface of resin minerals. As a processing defect, it may affect the performance of RMC components in some aspects, which need a further precision machining processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Abrasive Processing Technology and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 326 KiB  
Review
Beyond Weight Loss: A Comprehensive Review of Pregnancy Management following Bariatric Procedures
by Iulia Huluță, Livia-Mihaela Apostol, Radu Botezatu, Anca Maria Panaitescu, Corina Gică, Romina-Marina Sima, Nicolae Gică and Florina Mihaela Nedelea
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040635 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of bariatric surgery among women of childbearing age raises critical questions about the correct management of pregnancy following these procedures. This literature review delves into the multifaceted considerations surrounding pregnancy after bariatric surgery, with a particular focus on the importance [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of bariatric surgery among women of childbearing age raises critical questions about the correct management of pregnancy following these procedures. This literature review delves into the multifaceted considerations surrounding pregnancy after bariatric surgery, with a particular focus on the importance of preconception counselling, appropriate nutrition assessment, and the necessity of correct folic acid supplementation. Key areas of investigation include nutrient absorption challenges, weight gain during pregnancy, and potential micronutrient deficiencies. Examining the relationship between bariatric surgery and birth defects, particularly heart and musculoskeletal issues, uncovers a twofold increase in risk for women who underwent surgery before pregnancy, with the risk emphasized before folic acid fortification. In contrast, a nationwide study suggests that infants born to mothers with bariatric surgery exhibit a reduced risk of major birth defects, potentially associated with improved glucose metabolism. In addition, this review outlines strategies for managing gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications in individuals with a history of bariatric surgery. By synthesizing existing literature, this paper aims to provide healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for the correct management of pregnancy in this unique patient population, promoting the health and well-being of both mother and child. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Risk Pregnancy - Series II)
24 pages, 1514 KiB  
Review
Strategies and Public Policies for Soil and Water Conservation and Food Production in Brazil
by Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches Suzuki, Helvio Debli Casalinho and Idel Cristiana Bigliardi Milani
Soil Syst. 2024, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems8020045 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
There is an urgent demand to change our intensive crop production systems, replacing them with soil use and management systems that recover, preserve, or improve soil health and are environmentally sustainable, producing healthy and good-quality food. In this work, we compile and present [...] Read more.
There is an urgent demand to change our intensive crop production systems, replacing them with soil use and management systems that recover, preserve, or improve soil health and are environmentally sustainable, producing healthy and good-quality food. In this work, we compile and present strategies and public policies aimed toward soil and water conservation and food production in Brazil. The results presented may help Brazilian farmers adopt practices to recover, maintain, or improve soil health and politicians to create or modify public policies for healthy soil and food, without the necessity of increasing agricultural areas. Food insecurity was also addressed, with family farming playing an important role in food production and decreasing food insecurity. But these challenges need the combined efforts and engagement of the whole society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Soil Management and Conservation: 2nd Edition)
13 pages, 740 KiB  
Article
Treatment Nonadherence among Multimorbid Chronic Disease Patients: Evidence from 3515 Subjects in Indonesia
by Ivan Surya Pradipta, Kevin Aprilio, Yozi Fiedya Ningsih, Mochammad Andhika Aji Pratama, Sofa Dewi Alfian and Rizky Abdulah
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040634 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Multimorbid patients require intensive treatment for their diseases. However, little research has been given to their treatment adherence as part of its management. This study aims to determine the prevalence and characteristics of chronic disease multimorbidity in Indonesia, alongside [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Multimorbid patients require intensive treatment for their diseases. However, little research has been given to their treatment adherence as part of its management. This study aims to determine the prevalence and characteristics of chronic disease multimorbidity in Indonesia, alongside its treatment nonadherence. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the fifth Indonesian Family Life Survey database among adult subjects aged ≥ 15 years with multimorbidity. Our descriptive and multivariate analyses include sex, age, formal education, ethnicity, geographic residence, demographic residence, household size, insurance ownership, annual income, current self-perceived health status, missing active days, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Results: We identified 3515 multimorbid patients, constituting 30.8% prevalence across chronic disease patients. Hypertension was found to be a prevalent component of multimorbidity (61.2%), followed by digestive diseases (44.5%) and arthritis (30.3%). We identified that 36.4% of the subjects were nonadherent to their chronic disease treatment. Characteristics associated with nonadherence were found to be a good self-perception of health (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.54–2.08), active smoking behavior (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14–1.99), no smoking behavior (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.90), missing seven active/productive days or less in the past month due to poor health (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.68), no insurance ownership (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04–1.39), age of 15–65 years (aOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.55), income below IDR 40 million (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04–1.46), and household size of 2–6 people (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01–1.36). Conclusions: While the prevalence of multimorbidity in Indonesia is generally similar to that observed in previous studies, we have identified patient characteristics related to nonadherence. We suggest that patient’s nonadherence was primarily dictated by their self-perception of health and treatment complexity. With the longstanding issue of nonadherence, this study indicated the need to consider creating patient-tailored treatment programs in clinical practice to improve adherence by considering individual patients’ characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risk Factors, Prevention, and Inequalities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
The Enjoyment of Being Had: The Aesthetics of Masquerade in The Confidence-Man
by J. Asher Godley
Philosophies 2024, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies9020051 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Impostors, confidence artists, and artful deceivers seem to have achieved a strange kind of popularity and even prestige in our contemporary political landscape, for reasons that remain elusive, especially given how harmful and socially unwanted such behaviors ostensibly are. Herman Melville’s 1857 novel, [...] Read more.
Impostors, confidence artists, and artful deceivers seem to have achieved a strange kind of popularity and even prestige in our contemporary political landscape, for reasons that remain elusive, especially given how harmful and socially unwanted such behaviors ostensibly are. Herman Melville’s 1857 novel, The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade, helps us shift our perspective on this seemingly irrational phenomenon because it points out how being susceptible to dupery is linked to the enjoyment of fiction itself. This insight also highlights the importance of epistemological failure in the recent “return to aesthetics” in literary studies, where the positive dimension of unconsciously “willing one’s dupery” directly links aesthetic form to politics. The logic that connects aesthetics to unconscious enjoyment is then elaborated in the work of psychoanalytic thinkers such as Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Helene Deutsch and others to raise particular questions about how and why the enjoyment of being duped has been associated with feminine sexuality. Reading Melville’s novel while considering psychoanalytic concepts such as the “as if” personality, imposture, and interpassivity illuminates how confidence games play upon the ruses of sexuality, which have profound implications for why the public remains in thrall to the workings of known deceivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Susceptibilities: Toward a Cultural Politics of Consent under Erasure)
22 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
Complex Microlandscape as a Structural Unit of the Study of Spatiotemporal Development of an Ombrotrophic Suboceanic Bog
by Tamara Ponomareva, Ivan Zubov, Anastasiya Shtang, Alexander Orlov and Svetlana Selyanina
Quaternary 2024, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat7020019 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Ombrotrophic suboceanic bogs are distinguished by a high diversity of complex microlandscapes within the bog massif. Each complex microlandscape is a separate intrabog ecosystem with a specific set of parameters and relationships. This study aims to assess the specifics of the characteristics and [...] Read more.
Ombrotrophic suboceanic bogs are distinguished by a high diversity of complex microlandscapes within the bog massif. Each complex microlandscape is a separate intrabog ecosystem with a specific set of parameters and relationships. This study aims to assess the specifics of the characteristics and parameters of the complex microlandscapes as part of an ombrotrophic suboceanic Sphagnum bog and as stages of bog morphogenesis, and to establish the internal relationships and their relationship with external environmental factors. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach was used to assess the functioning of the complex microlandscapes. It was found that the relationship with the air temperature is closer than with the bog water table dynamics. It was shown that the morphometric parameters of perennial dwarf shrubs can serve as indicators of the stages of development of bogs. The processes of the self-regulation of complex microlandscapes are weakened with the age of the complex microlandscape, as evidenced by an increase in the amplitude of temperature fluctuations and the level of bog waters, as well as the key physicochemical parameters of the peat deposit. This leads to a gradual, slow reorientation of the physicochemical processes occurring in the deposit, from the deposition of organic matter to the decomposition of peat biomass. Full article
18 pages, 1183 KiB  
Review
Assessment and Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults with Frailty
by Andrea Nathalie Rosas Diaz, Aaron L. Troy, Vladimir Kaplinskiy, Abiah Pritchard, Rati Vani, Darae Ko and Ariela R. Orkaby
Geriatrics 2024, 9(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9020050 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major driver of morbidity and mortality among older adults with frailty. Moreover, frailty is highly prevalent in older adults with AF. Understanding and addressing the needs of frail older adults with AF is imperative to guide clinicians caring [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major driver of morbidity and mortality among older adults with frailty. Moreover, frailty is highly prevalent in older adults with AF. Understanding and addressing the needs of frail older adults with AF is imperative to guide clinicians caring for older adults. In this review, we summarize current evidence to support the assessment and management of older adults with AF and frailty, incorporating numerous recent landmark trials and studies in the context of the 2023 US AF guideline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiogeriatrics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Deep Learning-Based Facial Recognition for Patient Identification in Diverse Hospital Settings
by Ayako Sadahide, Hideki Itoh, Ken Moritou, Hirofumi Kameyama, Ryoya Oda, Hitoshi Tabuchi and Yoshiaki Kiuchi
Bioengineering 2024, 11(4), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11040384 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Background: Facial recognition systems utilizing deep learning techniques can improve the accuracy of facial recognition technology. However, it remains unclear whether these systems should be available for patient identification in a hospital setting. Methods: We evaluated a facial recognition system using deep learning [...] Read more.
Background: Facial recognition systems utilizing deep learning techniques can improve the accuracy of facial recognition technology. However, it remains unclear whether these systems should be available for patient identification in a hospital setting. Methods: We evaluated a facial recognition system using deep learning and the built-in camera of an iPad to identify patients. We tested the system under different conditions to assess its authentication scores (AS) and determine its efficacy. Our evaluation included 100 patients in four postures: sitting, supine, and lateral positions, with and without masks, and under nighttime sleeping conditions. Results: Our results show that the unmasked certification rate of 99.7% was significantly higher than the masked rate of 90.8% (p < 0.0001). In addition, we found that the authentication rate exceeded 99% even during nighttime sleeping. Furthermore, the facial recognition system was safe and acceptable for patient identification within a hospital environment. Even for patients wearing masks, we achieved a 100% success rate for authentication regardless of illumination if they were sitting with their eyes open. Conclusions: This is the first systematical study to evaluate facial recognition among hospitalized patients under different situations. The facial recognition system using deep learning for patient identification shows promising results, proving its safety and acceptability, especially in hospital settings where accurate patient identification is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Biomedicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Primary Stability of Implants Inserted into Polyurethane Blocks: Micro-CT and Analysis In Vitro
by Chadi Dura Haddad, Ludovica Andreatti, Igor Zelezetsky, Davide Porrelli, Gianluca Turco, Lorenzo Bevilacqua and Michele Maglione
Bioengineering 2024, 11(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11040383 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
The approach employed for the site preparation of the dental implant is a variable factor that affects the implant’s primary stability and its ability to integrate with the surrounding bone. The main objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the influence [...] Read more.
The approach employed for the site preparation of the dental implant is a variable factor that affects the implant’s primary stability and its ability to integrate with the surrounding bone. The main objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the influence of different techniques used to prepare the implant site on the primary stability of the implant in two different densities of artificial bone. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 implant sites were prepared in rigid polyurethane blocks to simulate two distinct bone densities of 15 pounds per cubic foot (PCF) and 30 PCF, with a 1-mm-thick simulated cortex. The implant sites were equally distributed among piezoelectric surgery (PES), traditional drills (TD), and black ruby magnetic mallet inserts (MM). Two methods have been employed to evaluate the implant’s primary stability, Osstell and micro-tomography. Results: In the present study, we observed significant variations in the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values. More precisely, our findings indicate that the ISQ values were generally higher for 30 PCF compared to 15 PCF. In terms of the preparation technique, PES exhibited the greatest ISQ values, followed by MM, and finally TD. These findings corresponded for both bone densities of 30 PCF (PES 75.6 ± 1.73, MM 69.8 ± 1.91, and TD 65.8 ± 1.91) and 15 PCF (PES 72.3 ± 1.63, MM 62.4 ± 1.77, and TD 60.6 ± 1.81). By utilizing Micro-CT scans, we were able to determine the ratio of the implant occupation to the preparation site. Furthermore, we could calculate the maximum distance between the implant and the wall of the preparation site. The findings demonstrated that PES had a higher ratio of implant to preparation site occupation, followed by TD, and then the MM, at a bone density of 30 PCF (PES 96 ± 1.95, TD 94 ± 1.88, and MM 90.3 ± 2.11). Nevertheless, there were no statistically significant differences in the occupation ratio among these three approaches in the bone density of 15 PCF (PES 89.6 ± 1.22, TD 90 ± 1.31, and MM 88.4 ± 1.17). Regarding the maximum gap between the implant and the site preparation, the smallest gaps were seen when TD were used, followed by MM, and finally by PES, either in a bone density 15 PCF (PES 318 ± 21, TD 238 ± 17, and MM 301 ± 20 μm) or in a bone density 30 PCF (PES 299 ± 20, TD 221 ± 16, and MM 281 ± 19 μm). A statistical analysis using ANOVA revealed these differences to be significant, with p-values of < 0.05. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study indicate that employing the PES technique and osteo-densification with MM during implant insertion may enhance the primary stability and increase the possibility of early implant loading. Full article
24 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Healthcare 4.0 Technologies on Healthcare Supply Chain Management: A Multi-Criteria Evaluation Framework
by Ayoninuoluwa Oluwadare, Busola Dorcas Akintayo, Olubayo Moses Babatunde and Oludolapo Akanni Olanrewaju
Logistics 2024, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics8020044 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Background: Healthcare 4.0 has transformed supply chain management in the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of comprehensive frameworks to evaluate the impact of Healthcare 4.0 technologies on sector operations, particularly in developing countries. Methods: This study introduces a multi-criteria [...] Read more.
Background: Healthcare 4.0 has transformed supply chain management in the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of comprehensive frameworks to evaluate the impact of Healthcare 4.0 technologies on sector operations, particularly in developing countries. Methods: This study introduces a multi-criteria framework that synergically combines the techno-economic implications of Healthcare 4.0 technologies to improve healthcare supply chain management. The proposed approach innovatively integrates fuzzy VIKOR and Entropy methods to handle data vagueness and uncertainty, using data collected from healthcare supply chain specialists in Lagos, Nigeria. Results: The developed framework identifies the most and least critical technical and economic parameters for Healthcare 4.0 implementation in healthcare supply chain management. It also determines the suitability of different Healthcare 4.0 technologies for supply chain management in the healthcare sector. Conclusions: The main innovation of this study lies in the development of a comprehensive and context-specific framework for evaluating Healthcare 4.0 technologies in healthcare supply chains. The framework offers a new perspective on technology evaluation and provides practical insights for decision-makers. The findings contribute to advancing knowledge and practice in this field, promoting the proper adoption of Healthcare 4.0 technologies in healthcare, particularly in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Digital Supply Chain 4.0 Transformation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

48 pages, 12097 KiB  
Review
Role of Pyramidal Low-Dimensional Semiconductors in Advancing the Field of Optoelectronics
by Ao Jiang, Shibo Xing, Haowei Lin, Qing Chen and Mingxuan Li
Photonics 2024, 11(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11040370 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Numerous optoelectronic devices based on low-dimensional nanostructures have been developed in recent years. Among these, pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors (zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials) have been favored in the field of optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss in detail the structures, preparation methods, band structures, [...] Read more.
Numerous optoelectronic devices based on low-dimensional nanostructures have been developed in recent years. Among these, pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors (zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials) have been favored in the field of optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss in detail the structures, preparation methods, band structures, electronic properties, and optoelectronic applications (photocatalysis, photoelectric detection, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and optical quantum information processing) of pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors and demonstrate their excellent photoelectric performances. More specifically, pyramidal semiconductor quantum dots (PSQDs) possess higher mobilities and longer lifetimes, which would be more suitable for photovoltaic devices requiring fast carrier transport. In addition, the linear polarization direction of exciton emission is easily controlled via the direction of magnetic field in PSQDs with C3v symmetry, so that all-optical multi-qubit gates based on electron spin as a quantum bit could be realized. Therefore, the use of PSQDs (e.g., InAs, GaN, InGaAs, and InGaN) as effective candidates for constructing optical quantum devices is examined due to the growing interest in optical quantum information processing. Pyramidal semiconductor nanorods (PSNRs) and pyramidal semiconductor nanowires (PSNWRs) also exhibit the more efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and strong light absorption effects, which are expected to be widely utilized in light-receiving devices. Finally, this review concludes with a summary of the current problems and suggestions for potential future research directions in the context of pyramidal low-dimensional semiconductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optoelectronics and Optical Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2243 KiB  
Article
Risk Management in the Area of Bitcoin Market Development: Example from the USA
by Laeeq Razzak Janjua, Iza Gigauri, Agnieszka Wójcik-Czerniawska and Elżbieta Pohulak-Żołędowska
Risks 2024, 12(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/risks12040067 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
This paper explores the relationship between Bitcoin returns, the consumer price index, and economic policy uncertainty. Employing the QARDL method, this study examines both short- and long-term dynamics between macroeconomic factors and Bitcoin returns. Our analysis of monthly time series data from January [...] Read more.
This paper explores the relationship between Bitcoin returns, the consumer price index, and economic policy uncertainty. Employing the QARDL method, this study examines both short- and long-term dynamics between macroeconomic factors and Bitcoin returns. Our analysis of monthly time series data from January 2011 to November 2023 reveals that volatile US economic policy indicators, such as high economic policy uncertainty, volatile inflation, and rising interest rates, have recently exerted a negative impact on Bitcoin returns. This study shows that these results are true not only for traditional money but also for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, despite their cardinal features. Its decentralized nature, indicating that it has no physical representation, is not tied to any authority or national economy and relies on a complex algorithm to track transactions. Further, it yields volatile returns that depend on macroeconomic indicators. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
A New X-ray Diffraction Spectrum-Based Untargeted Strategy for Accurately Identifying Ancient Painted Pottery from Various Dynasties and Locations in China
by Jing-Jing Song, Yang-Yang Wang, Wen-Cheng Tong, Feng-Lian Ma, Jia-Nan Wang and Yong-Jie Yu
Chemosensors 2024, 12(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12040064 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is extensively used in archaeometric investigation. Herein, we provide a novel XRD spectrum-based untargeted strategy for the classification of ancient painted pottery for various dynasties. It was accomplished using the original spectrum without a phase identification. To eliminate the influence [...] Read more.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is extensively used in archaeometric investigation. Herein, we provide a novel XRD spectrum-based untargeted strategy for the classification of ancient painted pottery for various dynasties. It was accomplished using the original spectrum without a phase identification. To eliminate the influence of baseline drift, a new baseline drift correction algorithm was specifically designed for XRD spectra. The algorithm was implemented using local minimum values in the analyzed signal in an iterative optimization manner. The results indicated that with the aid of the algorithm, the baseline drift problem can be successfully resolved, and the classification of ancient painted pottery can be greatly improved. Finally, the developed strategy was successfully used to discriminate ancient painted pottery from the Han and Tang dynasties in the cities of Guyuan and Zhongwei, China. The developed untargeted strategy had the remarkable advantage of almost automatic data analysis. The toolbox of our strategy can be obtained from the authors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry: Second Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2728 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoparticles in Porous Silicon Nanotubes for Glucose Detection
by Roberto Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Evan Hathaway, Jeffery L. Coffer, Roxana M. del Castillo, Yuankun Lin and Jingbiao Cui
Chemosensors 2024, 12(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12040063 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Silicon nanotubes (Si NTs) have a unique structure among the silicon nanostructure family, which is useful for diverse applications ranging from therapeutics to lithium storage/recycling. Their well-defined structure and high surface area make them ideal for sensing applications. In this work, we demonstrate [...] Read more.
Silicon nanotubes (Si NTs) have a unique structure among the silicon nanostructure family, which is useful for diverse applications ranging from therapeutics to lithium storage/recycling. Their well-defined structure and high surface area make them ideal for sensing applications. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) on porous Si NTs (pSi NTs) fabricated using ZnO nanowires as a template. The system was characterized, and the proposed structure was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Varying glucose concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (0.5–80 mM) were introduced to the Si NT nanocomposite system. The glucose is detectable at low concentrations utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which shows a concentration-dependent peak shift in the benzene ring breathing mode (~1071 cm−1) of MPBA. Complementing these measurements are simulations of the Raman hot spots associated with plasmonic enhancement of the Au NPs using COMSOL. This biocompatible system is envisioned to have applications in nanomedicine and microfluidic devices for real-time, non-invasive glucose sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors Based on Low-Dimensional Semiconductors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Novel Photoluminescence and Optical Thermometry of Solvothermally Derived Tetragonal ZrO2:Ti4+,Eu3+ Nanocrystals
by Lu Li, Xuesong Qu, Guo-Hui Pan and Jung Hyun Jeong
Chemosensors 2024, 12(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors12040062 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the solvothermal preparation and detailed characterization of pristine and intentionally doped zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) nanocrystals (NCs, ~5 nm) with Eu3+ or Ti4+/Eu3+ ions using alkoxide precursors. The results indicated that the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report on the solvothermal preparation and detailed characterization of pristine and intentionally doped zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) nanocrystals (NCs, ~5 nm) with Eu3+ or Ti4+/Eu3+ ions using alkoxide precursors. The results indicated that the ZrO2 NCs were dominantly of a tetragonal phase (t-ZrO2) with a small proportion of monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2). The high purity of t-ZrO2 NCs could be synthesized with more Eu3+ doping. It was found that the as-obtained ZrO2 NCs contain some naturally present Ti4+ ions originating from precursors, but were being overlooked commonly, and some carbon impurities produced during synthesis. These species showed distinct photoluminescence (PL) properties. At least two types of Eu3+, located at low- and high-symmetry sites (probably sevenfold and eightfold oxygen coordination), respectively, were demonstrated to build into the lattice structure of t-ZrO2 NCs together. The cationic dopants were illustrated to be distributed non-randomly over the sites normally occupied by Zr, while Ti impurities preferentially occupied the sites near the low-symmetry site of Eu3+, yielding efficient energy transfer from the titanate groups to the neighboring Eu3+. Luminescence nanothermometry could measure temperature in a non-contact and remote way and could find great potentials in micro/nano-electronics, integrated photonics, and biomedicine. On the basis of the dual-emitting combination strategy involving the white broadband CT (Ti3+→O) emissions of the titanate groups and red sharp Eu3+ emissions, t-ZrO2:Eu3+ nanophosphors were demonstrated to be ratiometric self-referencing optical thermometric materials, with a working range of 130–230 K and a maxima of relative sensitivity of ~1.9% K1 at 230 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Chemical Sensors)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3180 KiB  
Article
Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants Born < 26 Weeks Gestation before and after Implementation of a Nutrition-Care Bundle
by Giulia Res, Rosine F. Bishara, Paige Terrien Church, Rena Rosenthal, Rita Maria Bishara, Annie Dupuis, Elizabeth Asztalos and Rudaina Banihani
Children 2024, 11(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040475 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess the impact of a nutrition-care bundle on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of micro-preterm infants born in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by two years corrected age. Methods: A nutrition-care bundle emphasizing the prompt initiation [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to assess the impact of a nutrition-care bundle on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of micro-preterm infants born in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by two years corrected age. Methods: A nutrition-care bundle emphasizing the prompt initiation of parenteral nutrition at birth, initiation of enteral feeds within 6 h after birth, and early addition of human milk fortifiers was implemented in 2015 for infants born < 26 weeks gestation. This before-and-after study evaluated growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born between 2012–2013 (before-nutrition-bundle, BNB) and 2016–2017 (after-nutrition-bundle, ANB). Results: A total of 145 infants were included in the study. Infants in the ANB group (n = 73) were smaller (birthweight and gestational age), and there were more male infants and multiples included compared to the BNB group (n = 72). Enteral feeds and fortifiers started earlier in the ANB group. Growth velocity and weight z-score changes were similar in both groups during NICU stay and post-discharge. Systemic steroid use, but not cohort, was linked to lower Bayley scores across all domains. Conclusions: Implementing a nutrition-care bundle was not consistently associated with improved weight gain and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the micro-preterm infant population, possibly due to ongoing high-quality nutritional care by the clinical team. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care and Outcome of the Extreme Preterm Infant)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
An Investigation into the Prevalence of Enamel Hypoplasia in an Urban Area Based on the Types and Affected Teeth
by Valbona Disha, Marin Zaimi, Elizana Petrela and Fatbardha Aliaj
Children 2024, 11(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040474 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Enamel hypoplasia (EH) is a qualitative defect, and it can have a significant impact on oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in urban area in Albania. Methodology: In total, 234 children of both sexes [...] Read more.
Enamel hypoplasia (EH) is a qualitative defect, and it can have a significant impact on oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in urban area in Albania. Methodology: In total, 234 children of both sexes aged 8–12 years old were randomly selected in five schools in Tirana, Albania. They underwent an intra-oral examination. Diagnostic criteria were in accordance with a European meeting on MIH held in Athens, 2003, and the FDI. Medical history was retrieved using questionnaires, and data obtained from clinical examination were recorded. Results: The prevalence of enamel hypoplasia was 12.8%. The most commonly occurring enamel hypoplasia was the mild type (58.62%). The mandibular first molar showed the highest prevalence of enamel hypoplasia (19.5%), and the maxillary canines and premolars were the least affected (2.3%). In this study, medical story did not have a significant effect on enamel hypoplasia. Conclusions: The prevalence of enamel hypoplasia remains high at 12.8%. Interestingly, the features of enamel hypoplasia were consistent across both sexes, with no correlation found between them. The predominant occurrence of mild enamel hypoplasia underscores the importance of implementing oral hygiene strategies in schools to mitigate its progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Epidemiology and Pathology in Children)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 661 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparing Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents with Autism and ADHD—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Claudia Ceruti, Alessandra Mingozzi, Nicoletta Scionti and Gian Marco Marzocchi
Children 2024, 11(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040473 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Two neurodevelopmental conditions, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with executive function (EF) impairment but the specificity of their impairments is still controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to identify the differences in EF profiles of ASD, [...] Read more.
Two neurodevelopmental conditions, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with executive function (EF) impairment but the specificity of their impairments is still controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to identify the differences in EF profiles of ASD, ADHD, and ASD+ADHD in relation to a control group of individuals with typical development (TD) and to understand whether the EF performance could change depending upon the type of measure used to assess EF (performance test vs. questionnaires). Results from 36 eligible studies revealed that ADHD and ASD showed more difficulties than the TD group in tests and, particularly, in questionnaires. No significant differences in the EF profile emerged between ASD and ADHD when assessed through neuropsychological tests (d = 0.02), while significant differences emerged when assessed through questionnaires, with ADHD having higher ratings than ASD (d = −0.34). An EF questionnaire and neuropsychological test may catch two different constructs of EF, with the former being more predictive of everyday life EF impairments. The comparison between the double diagnosis group (ADHD+ASD) and the clinical groups pointed out that the former has a more similar EF profile to the ADHD-alone one and that it shows more difficulties than ASD-alone. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 3567 KiB  
Article
Examining Language, Speech and Behaviour Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study in Saudi Arabia Using the Arabic Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Third Edition
by Muhammad Alasmari, Ahmed Alduais, Fawaz Qasem, Shrouq Almaghlouth and Lujain AlAmri
Children 2024, 11(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040472 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibits diverse manifestations influenced by demographic factors. This study evaluates these variations within Saudi Arabia, aiming to investigate language, speech and behaviour characteristics across different demographics in Saudi Arabia using the Arabic Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale—Third [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibits diverse manifestations influenced by demographic factors. This study evaluates these variations within Saudi Arabia, aiming to investigate language, speech and behaviour characteristics across different demographics in Saudi Arabia using the Arabic Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale—Third Edition (A-GARS-3). Employing a cross-sectional design, 178 participants were stratified by developmental status (n = 124 school settings, n = 54 clinical setting), sex (Females = 77, Males =101), age (range = 3–22), and geographical region (different provinces in Saudi Arabia). The A-GARS-3 measured ASD manifestations across six subscales. The study identified significant differences in ASD manifestations by developmental status, with higher ASD likelihood and severity in clinical settings. Younger children showed more pronounced ASD characteristics, and males were slightly more likely to be diagnosed with ASD. Geographical analysis revealed regional differences in severity. The findings underline the importance of demographic considerations in ASD assessment and diagnosis, suggesting the need for age-specific and culturally sensitive approaches. The A-GARS-3 is a reliable tool for the Saudi context. Regional disparities in ASD prevalence and severity indicate a need for tailored health policies and resources across Saudi provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
Intertemporal Improvement in Physicians’ Perceptions of the Short-Term Adverse Outcomes of Neonatal Pain: Results of a Two-Time-Point National Survey
by Eleni Agakidou, Angeliki Kontou, Theodora Stathopoulou, Maria Farini, Agathi Thomaidou, Konstantina Tsoni, William Chotas and Kosmas Sarafidis
Children 2024, 11(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040471 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Pain in early life may seriously impact neonatal outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether the perceptions of physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the short-term adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain have changed over a 20-year period. Self-administered questionnaires [...] Read more.
Pain in early life may seriously impact neonatal outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether the perceptions of physicians working in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the short-term adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain have changed over a 20-year period. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 117 and 145 neonatologists, pediatricians, and fellows working in level III NICUs in 2000 (T1) and 2019 (T2), respectively. The questionnaire consisted of four domains, including the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, as well as “other systems” (metabolic/endocrine system, growth, and general condition), with 21 total items overall. Although the proportion of positive (correct) responses to the total and system-specific domain scores was significantly higher at T2 than T1, the knowledge of certain short-term adverse outcomes was suboptimal even at T2. Adjustment for cofactors confirmed the independent association of the survey time-point with the total and system-specific domain scores. Moreover, NICU type was an independent significant factor associated with the adjusted total and central nervous system scores, while young doctors had a better knowledge of adverse cardiovascular effects. Conclusions: The perceptions of NICU physicians concerning the short-term outcomes associated with neonatal pain have significantly improved over the past 20 years, although remaining knowledge gaps mandate ongoing efforts to achieve an improvement in neonatal care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Pain Medicine and Palliative Care)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2956 KiB  
Article
Bracing of Pectus Carinatum in Children: Current Practices
by Pavol Omanik, Sergio Bruno Sesia, Katarina Kozlikova, Veronika Schmidtova, Miroslava Funakova and Frank-Martin Haecker
Children 2024, 11(4), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040470 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
Background: Although effective, compressive orthotic bracing (COB) in children with pectus carinatum is still not standardized. This study has aimed to analyze current practices amongst members of the Chest Wall International Group (CWIG). Methods: A web-based questionnaire was mailed to all CWIG members [...] Read more.
Background: Although effective, compressive orthotic bracing (COB) in children with pectus carinatum is still not standardized. This study has aimed to analyze current practices amongst members of the Chest Wall International Group (CWIG). Methods: A web-based questionnaire was mailed to all CWIG members at 208 departments. It included 30 questions regarding diagnostic work-up, age for COB indication, type of COB used, daily wearing time, treatment duration, complications, and recurrence rate. Results: Members from 44 departments have responded (institutional response rate 21.2%). A total of 93% consider COB as the first-line treatment for PC. A conventional COB (CC) is used in 59%, and the dynamic compression system (FMF) in 41%. The overall compliance rate is >80%. A total of 67% of responders consider COB to be indicated in patients <10 years. The actual wearing time is significantly shorter than the physician-recommended time (p < 0.01). FMF patients experience a significantly faster response than CC patients (p < 0.01). No recurrence of PC has been noted in 34%; recurrence rates of 10–30% have been noted in 61%. Conclusions: COB is the first-line treatment for PC with a high compliance rate. During puberty, the recurrence rate is high. Treatment standardization and follow-up until the end of puberty are recommended to enhance COB effectiveness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 606 KiB  
Review
The Prevention of House Dust Mite Allergies in Pediatric Asthma
by Angela Klain, Antonio Andrea Senatore, Amelia Licari, Francesca Galletta, Irene Bettini, Leonardo Tomei, Sara Manti, Francesca Mori, Michele Miraglia del Giudice and Cristiana Indolfi
Children 2024, 11(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040469 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
This review provides a concise overview of preventive measures against dust mite allergies in pediatric populations, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive and evolving approach. Dust mites, ubiquitous microscopic arachnids, pose a significant threat to children’s health, triggering allergies and asthma. Traditional preventive [...] Read more.
This review provides a concise overview of preventive measures against dust mite allergies in pediatric populations, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive and evolving approach. Dust mites, ubiquitous microscopic arachnids, pose a significant threat to children’s health, triggering allergies and asthma. Traditional preventive strategies such as regular cleaning, mattress covers, and humidity control are essential but warrant refinement. Empowering children through personalized hygiene education and exploring innovative bedding solutions showcase a forward-thinking paradigm. Collaboration with healthcare professionals and embracing technology-driven solutions ensures a holistic and adaptable approach to safeguarding pediatric health against dust mite-related ailments. This abstract underscores the importance of continually reassessing and innovating preventive measures to create resilient and health-conscious living environments for children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5536 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Machine Learning-Based and Conventional Technologies for Video Compression
by Lesia Mochurad
Technologies 2024, 12(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies12040052 - 15 Apr 2024
Abstract
The growing demand for high-quality video transmission over bandwidth-constrained networks and the increasing availability of video content have led to the need for efficient storage and distribution of large video files. To improve the latter, this article offers a comparison of six video [...] Read more.
The growing demand for high-quality video transmission over bandwidth-constrained networks and the increasing availability of video content have led to the need for efficient storage and distribution of large video files. To improve the latter, this article offers a comparison of six video compression methods without loss of quality. Particularly, H.255, VP9, AV1, convolutional neural network (CNN), recurrent neural network (RNN), and deep autoencoder (DAE). The proposed decision is to use a dataset of high-quality videos to implement and compare the performance of classical compression algorithms and algorithms based on machine learning. Evaluations of the compression efficiency and the quality of the received images were made on the basis of two metrics: PSNR and SSIM. This comparison revealed the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and provided insights into how machine learning algorithms can be optimized in future research. In general, it contributed to the development of more efficient and effective video compression algorithms that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open Access Journals

Browse by Indexing Browse by Subject Selected Journals
Back to TopTop