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Open AccessShort Communication
Single-Nucleus Sequencing of an Entire Mammalian Heart: Cell Type Composition and Velocity
Cells 2020, 9(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020318 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
: Analyses on the cellular level are indispensable to expand our understanding of complex tissues like the mammalian heart. Single-nucleus sequencing (snRNA-seq) allows for the exploration of cellular composition and cell features without major hurdles of single-cell sequencing. We used snRNA-seq to investigate [...] Read more.
: Analyses on the cellular level are indispensable to expand our understanding of complex tissues like the mammalian heart. Single-nucleus sequencing (snRNA-seq) allows for the exploration of cellular composition and cell features without major hurdles of single-cell sequencing. We used snRNA-seq to investigate for the first time an entire adult mammalian heart. Single-nucleus quantification and clustering led to an accurate representation of cell types, revealing 24 distinct clusters with endothelial cells (28.8%), fibroblasts (25.3%), and cardiomyocytes (22.8%) constituting the major cell populations. An additional RNA velocity analysis allowed us to study transcription kinetics and was utilized to visualize the transitions between mature and nascent cellular states of the cell types. We identified subgroups of cardiomyocytes with distinct marker profiles. For example, the expression of Hand2os1 distinguished immature cardiomyocytes from differentiated cardiomyocyte populations. Moreover, we found a cell population that comprises endothelial markers as well as markers clearly related to cardiomyocyte function. Our velocity data support the idea that this population is in a trans-differentiation process from an endothelial cell-like phenotype towards a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype. In summary, we present the first report of sequencing an entire adult mammalian heart, providing realistic cell-type distributions combined with RNA velocity kinetics hinting at interrelations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Cell Analysis)
Open AccessArticle
Hydrogel Leclanché Cell: Construction and Characterization
Energies 2020, 13(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030594 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
A liquid-to-gel based Leclanché cell has been designed, constructed and characterized for use in implantable medical devices and other applications where battery access is limited. This well-established chemistry will provide reliable electrochemical potential over a wide range of applications and the novel construction [...] Read more.
A liquid-to-gel based Leclanché cell has been designed, constructed and characterized for use in implantable medical devices and other applications where battery access is limited. This well-established chemistry will provide reliable electrochemical potential over a wide range of applications and the novel construction provides a solution for the re-charging of electrodes in hard to access areas such as an internal pacemaker. The traditional Leclanché cell, comprised of zinc (anode) and manganese dioxide (cathode), conductive carbon powder (acetylene black or graphite), and aqueous electrolyte (NH4Cl and ZnCl2), has been suspended in an agar hydrogel to simplify construction while maintaining electrochemical performance. Agar hydrogel, saturated with electrolyte, serves as the cell support and separator allowing for the discharged battery suspension to be easily replaced once exhausted. Different amounts of active anode/cathode material have been tested and discharge characteristics have been plotted. It has been found that for the same amount of active material, acetylene black batteries have higher energy density compared to graphite batteries. Graphite batteries also discharge faster compared to acetylene black batteries. The results support further development of liquid batteries that can be replaced and refilled upon depletion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Technologies 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Role of Dinutuximab Beta-Based Immunotherapy in the SIOPEN High-Risk Neuroblastoma 1 Trial (HR-NBL1)
Cancers 2020, 12(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020309 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
To explore the effects of immunotherapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group SIOPEN high-risk neuroblastoma 1 trial (HR-NBL1 trial), two cohorts were studied: one prior to and one after the introduction of dinutuximab beta. All patients received standard induction [...] Read more.
To explore the effects of immunotherapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group SIOPEN high-risk neuroblastoma 1 trial (HR-NBL1 trial), two cohorts were studied: one prior to and one after the introduction of dinutuximab beta. All patients received standard induction and high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR); the local control comprised surgery and radiotherapy to the primary tumour site, followed by isotretinoin. A landmark timepoint of 109 days, resulting from the median time between ASCR and initiation of immunotherapy, was used to define patients’ eligibility in the pre-immunotherapy analysis cohort. Median follow-up was 5.8 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 4.2–8.2 years) for 844 eligible patients balanced for risk factors, such as age, sex, stage 4, MYCN amplification and response prior to HDT. The five-year event-free and overall survival (95% confidence interval (CI) of 466 patients not receiving immunotherapy was 42% (38–47%) and 50% (46–55%) but was 57% (51–62%) and 64% (59–69%) for 378 patients receiving immunotherapy (p < 0.001). A multivariate analysis identified absence of immunotherapy (p = 0.0002, hazard ratio (HR) 1.573); type of HDT (p = 0.0029, HR 1.431); less than complete response prior to maintenance therapy (p = 0.0043, HR 1.494) and >1 metastatic compartment at diagnosis (p < 0.001, HR 2.665) as risk factors for relapse or progression. Results suggest an important role for dinutuximab beta-based immunotherapy within the treatment concepts applied in HR-NBL1/SIOPEN. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes in the Surface Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3, the Induction of Apoptosis, and the Inhibition of Cell-Cycle Progression of Human Multidrug-Resistant Jurkat/A4 Cells Exposed to a Random Positioning Machine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030855 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Experiments from flight- and ground-based model systems suggest that unexpected alterations of the human lymphoblastoid cell line Jurkat, as well as effects on cell growth, metabolism, and apoptosis, can occur in altered gravity conditions. Using a desktop random positioning machine (RPM), we investigated [...] Read more.
Experiments from flight- and ground-based model systems suggest that unexpected alterations of the human lymphoblastoid cell line Jurkat, as well as effects on cell growth, metabolism, and apoptosis, can occur in altered gravity conditions. Using a desktop random positioning machine (RPM), we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on Jurkat cells and their multidrug-resistant subline, Jurkat/A4 cells. The viability of Jurkat/A4 cells decreased after simulated microgravity in contrast with the Jurkat cells. At the same time, the viability between the experimental Jurkat cells and control Jurkat cells was not significantly different. Of note, Jurkat cells appeared as less susceptible to apoptosis than their multidrug-resistant clone Jurkat/A4 cells, whereas cell-cycle analysis showed that the percentage of Jurkat/A4 cells in the S-phase was increased after 72 and 96 hours of RPM-simulated microgravity relative to their static counterparts. The differences in Jurkat cells at all phases between static and simulated microgravity were not significant. The surface expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)—also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)50—protein was changed for Jurkat/A4 cells following exposure to the RPM. Changes in cell morphology were observed in the Jurkat/A4 cells after 96 hours of RPM-simulated microgravity. Thus, we concluded that Jurkat/A4 cells are more sensitive to RPM-simulated microgravity as compared with the parental Jurkat cell line. We also suggest that intercellular adhesion molecule 3 may be an important adhesion molecule involved in the induction of leukocyte apoptosis. The Jurkat/A4 cells with an acquired multidrug resistance phenotype could be a useful model for studying the effects of simulated microgravity and testing anticancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgravity and Cell Adherence)
Open AccessReview
Role of the TRPV Channels in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Homeostasis
Cells 2020, 9(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020317 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
It has been widely established that transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels play a crucial role in calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells. Modulation of TRPV channels activity can modify their physiological function leading to some diseases and disorders like neurodegeneration, pain, cancer, skin [...] Read more.
It has been widely established that transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels play a crucial role in calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells. Modulation of TRPV channels activity can modify their physiological function leading to some diseases and disorders like neurodegeneration, pain, cancer, skin disorders, etc. It should be noted that, despite TRPV channels importance, our knowledge of the TRPV channels functions in cells is mostly limited to their plasma membrane location. However, some TRPV channels were shown to be expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum where their modulation by activators and/or inhibitors was demonstrated to be crucial for intracellular signaling. In this review, we have intended to summarize the poorly studied roles and functions of these channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organellar Calcium Signaling in Physiology and Pathophysiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy-Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control for In-Wheel Motor Electric Vehicles Utilising Motor Efficiency Maps
Energies 2020, 13(3), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030593 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
An active energy-efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) for in-wheel motor electric vehicles taking motor efficiency maps into consideration is proposed in this paper. The potential contribution of DYC to energy saving during quasi-steady-state cornering is analysed. The study in this paper has [...] Read more.
An active energy-efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) for in-wheel motor electric vehicles taking motor efficiency maps into consideration is proposed in this paper. The potential contribution of DYC to energy saving during quasi-steady-state cornering is analysed. The study in this paper has produced promising results which show that DYC can be used to reduce the power consumption while satisfying the same cornering demand. A controller structure that includes a driver model and an offline torque distribution law during continuous driving and cornering is developed. For comparison, the power consumption of stability DYC is also analysed. Simulations for double lane change manoeuvres are performed and driving conditions either with a constant velocity or with longitudinal acceleration are designed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in different driving situations. Under constant velocity cornering, since the total torque demand is not high, two rear wheels are engaged and during cornering it is beneficial to distribute more torque to one wheel to improve energy efficiency. In the simulated driving manoeuvres, up to 10% energy can be saved compared to other control methods. During acceleration in cornering, since the total torque demand is high, it is energy-efficient to use all the four in-wheel motors during cornering. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Aesthetic Value of Colluvial Blocks in Geosite-BasedTourist Destinations: Evidence from SW Russia
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020051 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Nature-based tourism is stimulated by the aesthetic properties of landscapes, and particular elements of the latter determine the overall scenic beauty. Big stones on forested mountain slopes are among such elements. The Partisan Glade geosite-based tourist destination ofthe Western Caucasus in southwestern Russia [...] Read more.
Nature-based tourism is stimulated by the aesthetic properties of landscapes, and particular elements of the latter determine the overall scenic beauty. Big stones on forested mountain slopes are among such elements. The Partisan Glade geosite-based tourist destination ofthe Western Caucasus in southwestern Russia is distinguished by the occurrence of such stones. Their field investigation (measurements of physical parameters and interpretation of the common criteria of tourist-meaningful beauty) shows that these are essentially blocks (clasts with the size of 1–10 m) of all grades (fine, medium, and coarse blocks) and colluvial origin. The blocks influence on such parameters of scenic beauty as scale, condition, balance, diversity, shape, and uniqueness, and, therefore, these blocks are of aesthetic value. The most important is color and size. Apparently, the presence of these big stones stimulates tourists’ positive emotions. It is recommended to avoid block removal or breaking in the course of road maintenance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Promoting Evidence Based Nutrition Education Across the World in a Competitive Space: Delivering a Massive Open Online Course
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020344 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
The internet is the fastest growing source of nutrition information for consumers. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide and avenue for nutrition professionals’ urgent need to respond to consumer demand for low-cost, accessible and engaging information. This research aimed to evaluate learner participation [...] Read more.
The internet is the fastest growing source of nutrition information for consumers. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide and avenue for nutrition professionals’ urgent need to respond to consumer demand for low-cost, accessible and engaging information. This research aimed to evaluate learner participation and perceptions in an evidence-based nutrition MOOC and provide recommendations for engaging international online lay audiences. Learners completed pre and post course surveys including quantitative and open-ended questions. Pre-course surveys collected demographic data, prior nutrition knowledge and motivations for doing the course. Post-course surveys evaluated their preferred learning modes and learners’ opinions of the course. Quantitative were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Conventional content analysis was conducted on learners’ responses to open-ended survey questions using an inductive approach. Learners represented 158 countries from a range of educational backgrounds. There were 3799 qualitative comments related to learners’ learning and course content preferences. Qualitative analysis identified key themes related to (1) online interaction, the (2) value of the evidence presented by nutrition experts and (3) the course structure and practical aspects. Divergent opinions were expressed within these themes. Satisfying the needs of large international audiences with diverse backgrounds is challenging in promoting sound evidence-based nutrition messages. MOOCs provide a means for delivering evidence based global nutrition education in the online space crowded with food advertising and nutrition conjecture. Recommendations are made as to how to construct and engage diverse on-line audiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Education in Medicine)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Comparative Analysis of High Frequency Signal Injection Based Torque Estimation Methods for SPMSM, IPMSM and SynRM
Energies 2020, 13(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030592 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Torque estimation in permanent magnet synchronous machines and synchronous reluctance machines is required in many applications. Torque produced by a permanent magnet synchronous machine depends on the permanent magnets’ flux and d q -axes inductances, whereas torque in synchronous reluctance machines depends on [...] Read more.
Torque estimation in permanent magnet synchronous machines and synchronous reluctance machines is required in many applications. Torque produced by a permanent magnet synchronous machine depends on the permanent magnets’ flux and d q -axes inductances, whereas torque in synchronous reluctance machines depends on the d q -axes inductances. Consequently, precise knowledge of these parameters is required for proper torque estimation. The use of high frequency signal both for permanent magnets’ flux and d q -axes inductances estimation has been recently shown to be a viable option. This paper reviews the physical principles, implementation and performance of high-frequency signal injection based torque estimation for permanent magnet synchronous machines and synchronous reluctance machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rotating Electric Machines)
Open AccessArticle
Interaction with Soil Bacteria Affects the Growth and Amino Acid Content of Piriformospora indica
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030572 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Exploration of the effect of soil bacteria on growth and metabolism of beneficial root endophytic fungi is relevant to promote favorable associations between microorganisms of the plant rhizosphere. Hence, the interaction between the plant-growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and different soil bacteria was investigated. [...] Read more.
Exploration of the effect of soil bacteria on growth and metabolism of beneficial root endophytic fungi is relevant to promote favorable associations between microorganisms of the plant rhizosphere. Hence, the interaction between the plant-growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and different soil bacteria was investigated. The parameters studied were fungal growth and its amino acid composition during the interaction. Fungus and bacteria were confronted in dual cultures in Petri dishes, either through agar or separated by a Perspex wall that only allowed the bacterial volatiles to be effective. Fungal growth was stimulated by Azotobacter chroococcum, whereas Streptomyces anulatus AcH 1003 inhibited it and Streptomyces sp. Nov AcH 505 had no effect. To analyze amino acid concentration data, targeted metabolomics was implemented under supervised analysis according to fungal-bacteria interaction and time. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model clearly discriminated P. indicaA. chroococcum and P. indicaS. anulatus interactions, according to the respective score plot in comparison to the control. The most observable responses were in the glutamine and alanine size groups: While Streptomyces AcH 1003 increased the amount of glutamine, A. chroococcum decreased it. The fungal growth and the increase of alanine content might be associated with the assimilation of nitrogen in the presence of glucose as a carbon source. The N-fixing bacterium A. chroococcum should stimulate fungal amino acid metabolism via glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT). The data pointed to a stimulated glycolytic activity in the fungus observed by the accumulation of alanine, possibly via alanine aminotransferase. The responses toward the growth-inhibiting Streptomyces AcH 1003 suggest an (oxidative) stress response of the fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Natural Products)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Adaptive Thermogenesis in Mice on the Treatment of Obesity
Cells 2020, 9(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020316 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases have become a priority area of study due to the exponential increase in their prevalence and the corresponding health and economic impact. In the last decade, brown adipose tissue has become an attractive target to treat obesity. However, [...] Read more.
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases have become a priority area of study due to the exponential increase in their prevalence and the corresponding health and economic impact. In the last decade, brown adipose tissue has become an attractive target to treat obesity. However, environmental variables such as temperature and the dynamics of energy expenditure could influence brown adipose tissue activity. Currently, most metabolic studies are carried out at a room temperature of 21 °C, which is considered a thermoneutral zone for adult humans. However, in mice this chronic cold temperature triggers an increase in their adaptive thermogenesis. In this review, we aim to cover important aspects related to the adaptation of animals to room temperature, the influence of housing and temperature on the development of metabolic phenotypes in experimental mice and their translation to human physiology. Mice studies performed in chronic cold or thermoneutral conditions allow us to better understand underlying physiological mechanisms for successful, reproducible translation into humans in the fight against obesity and metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Nutrients on Gene Expression and Cell Homeostasis)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Reduces Hepatic Steatosis in Obese C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020342 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
The beneficial effect of vitamin D (VD) supplementation on body weight gain limitation and inflammation has been highlighted in primary prevention mice models, but the long-term effect of VD supplementation in tertiary prevention has never been reported in obesity models. The curative effect [...] Read more.
The beneficial effect of vitamin D (VD) supplementation on body weight gain limitation and inflammation has been highlighted in primary prevention mice models, but the long-term effect of VD supplementation in tertiary prevention has never been reported in obesity models. The curative effect of VD supplementation on obesity and associated disorders was evaluated in high-fat- and high-sucrose (HFS)-fed mice. Morphological, histological, and molecular phenotype were characterized. The increased body mass and adiposity caused by HFS diet as well as fat cell hypertrophy and glucose homeostasis were not improved by VD supplementation. However, VD supplementation led to a decrease of HFS-induced inflammation in inguinal adipose tissue, characterized by a decreased expression of chemokine mRNA levels. Moreover, a protective effect of VD on HFS-induced hepatic steatosis was highlighted by a decrease of lipid droplets and a reduction of triglyceride accumulation in the liver. This result was associated with a significant decrease of gene expression coding for key enzymes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Altogether, our results show that VD supplementation could be of interest to blunt the adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic steatosis and could represent an interesting nutritional strategy to fight obesity-associated comorbidities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Mechanical Attributes (Roughness, Strength, and Hardness) of Al-alloy A356 during Sand Casting
Materials 2020, 13(3), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030598 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Sand-casting is a well established primary process for manufacturing various parts of A356 alloy. However, the quality of the casting is adversely affected by the change in the magnitude of the control variables. For instance, a larger magnitude of pouring velocity induces a [...] Read more.
Sand-casting is a well established primary process for manufacturing various parts of A356 alloy. However, the quality of the casting is adversely affected by the change in the magnitude of the control variables. For instance, a larger magnitude of pouring velocity induces a drop effect and a lower velocity increases the likelihood of cold-shut and mis-run types of defects. Similarly, a high pouring temperature causes the formation of hot tears, whereas a low temperature is a source of premature solidification. Likewise, a higher moisture content yields microcracks (due to gas shrinkages) in the casting and a lower moisture content results in the poor strength of the mold. Therefore, the appropriate selection of control variables is essential to ensure quality manufactured products. The empirical relations could provide valuable guidance in this regard. Additionally, although the casting process was optimized for A356 alloy, it was mostly done for a single response. Therefore, this paper aimed to formulate empirical relations for the contradictory responses, i.e., hardness, ultimate tensile strength and surface roughness, using the response surface methodology. The experimental results were comprehensively analyzed using statistical and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Optimized parameters were proposed and validated to achieve castings with high hardness (84.5 HB) and strength (153.5 MPa) with minimum roughness (5.8 µm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Porous Titanium Cylinders Obtained by the Freeze-Casting Technique: Influence of Process Parameters on Porosity and Mechanical Behavior
Metals 2020, 10(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020188 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
The discrepancy between the stiffness of commercially pure titanium and cortical bone tissue compromises its success as a biomaterial. The use of porous titanium has been widely studied, however, it is still challenging to obtain materials able to replicate the porous structure of [...] Read more.
The discrepancy between the stiffness of commercially pure titanium and cortical bone tissue compromises its success as a biomaterial. The use of porous titanium has been widely studied, however, it is still challenging to obtain materials able to replicate the porous structure of the bones (content, size, morphology and distribution). In this work, the freeze-casting technique is used to manufacture cylinders with elongated porosity, using a home-made and economical device. The relationship between the processing parameters (diameter and material of the mold, temperature gradient), microstructural features and mechanical properties is established and discussed, in terms of ensuring biomechanical and biofunctional balance. The cylinders have a gradient porosity suitable for use in dentistry, presenting higher Young’s modulus at the bottom, near the cold spot and, therefore better mechanical resistance (it would be in contact with a prosthetic crown), while the opposite side, the hot spot, has bigger, elongated pores and walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials Surface Engineering)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
From Austenitic Stainless Steel to Expanded Austenite-S Phase: Formation, Characteristics and Properties of an Elusive Metastable Phase
Metals 2020, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020187 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Austenitic stainless steels are employed in many industrial fields, due to their excellent corrosion resistance, easy formability and weldability. However, their low hardness, poor tribological properties and the possibility of localized corrosion in specific environments may limit their use. Conventional thermochemical surface treatments, [...] Read more.
Austenitic stainless steels are employed in many industrial fields, due to their excellent corrosion resistance, easy formability and weldability. However, their low hardness, poor tribological properties and the possibility of localized corrosion in specific environments may limit their use. Conventional thermochemical surface treatments, such as nitriding or carburizing, are able to enhance surface hardness, but at the expense of corrosion resistance, owing to the formation of chromium-containing precipitates. An effective alternative is the so called low temperature treatments, which are performed with nitrogen- and/or carbon-containing media at temperatures, at which chromium mobility is low and the formation of precipitates is hindered. As a consequence, interstitial atoms are retained in solid solution in austenite, and a metastable supersaturated phase forms, named expanded austenite or S phase. Since the first studies, dating 1980s, the S phase has demonstrated to have high hardness and good corrosion resistance, but also other interesting properties and an elusive structure. In this review the main studies on the formation and characteristics of S phase are summarized and the results of the more recent research are also discussed. Together with mechanical, fatigue, tribological and corrosion resistance properties of this phase, electric and magnetic properties, wettability and biocompatibility are overviewed. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Insight the Biological Activities of Selected Abietane Diterpenes Isolated from Plectranthus spp.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020194 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2020
Abstract
Natural compounds isolated from plants are excellent starting points in drug design and have been widely studied as anticancer agents; they hence find use in a considerable proportion of anticancer drugs. The genus Plectranthus (Lamiaceae) comprises a large and widespread group of species [...] Read more.
Natural compounds isolated from plants are excellent starting points in drug design and have been widely studied as anticancer agents; they hence find use in a considerable proportion of anticancer drugs. The genus Plectranthus (Lamiaceae) comprises a large and widespread group of species with various applications in traditional medicine. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of treatment with four abietane diterpenoids isolated from P. madagascariensis and P. ecklonii, 6,7-dehydroroyleanone, 7β,6β-dihydroxyroyleanone, 7α-acetoxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone and parvifloron D, in initiating apoptosis in a glioma cell line. The pure compounds were found to exhibit anticancer effects in primary H7PX glioma cells line by inducing apoptosis G2/M cell cycle arrest and double-strand breaks, indicated by increased levels of phosphorylated H2A.X and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential; they also influenced the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes (Bax, Bcl-2, TP53, or Cas-3). Our findings indicate that these compounds may offer potential as beneficial antitumor drugs but further in vivo studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Bio.Natural Meeting 2019)
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