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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Drosophila as a Model for Developmental Biology: Stem Cell-Fate Decisions in the Developing Nervous System
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb6040025 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Stem cells face a diversity of choices throughout their lives. At specific times, they may decide to initiate cell division, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis, or they may enter a quiescent non-proliferative state. Neural stem cells in the Drosophila central nervous system do all
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Stem cells face a diversity of choices throughout their lives. At specific times, they may decide to initiate cell division, terminal differentiation, or apoptosis, or they may enter a quiescent non-proliferative state. Neural stem cells in the Drosophila central nervous system do all of these, at stereotypical times and anatomical positions during development. Distinct populations of neural stem cells offer a unique system to investigate the regulation of a particular stem cell behavior, while comparisons between populations can lead us to a broader understanding of stem cell identity. Drosophila is a well-described and genetically tractable model for studying fundamental stem cell behavior and the mechanisms that underlie cell-fate decisions. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the factors that contribute to distinct stem cell-fate decisions within the context of the Drosophila nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
First Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of 1-Benzamido-1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102692 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Preliminary results concerning the first asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized 1-benzamido-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives via the reaction of hydrazones with alkylidenemalononitriles in the presence of β-isocupreidine catalyst are reported. The moderate, but promising, enantioselectivity observed (40–54% ee), opens the door to a new area of
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Preliminary results concerning the first asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized 1-benzamido-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives via the reaction of hydrazones with alkylidenemalononitriles in the presence of β-isocupreidine catalyst are reported. The moderate, but promising, enantioselectivity observed (40–54% ee), opens the door to a new area of research for the asymmetric construction of new chiral 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, whose enantioselective catalytic preparation are still very limited. Moreover, the use of hydrazones for the enantioselective construction of chiral 1,4-dihydropyridines has been overlooked in the literature so far. Therefore, our research represents a pivotal example in this field which remains still unexplored. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Islanding Detection of Synchronous Distributed Generator Based on the Active and Reactive Power Control Loops
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102819 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
There has been a considerable importance for the islanding detection due to the growing integration of distributed generations (DGs) in the modern power grids. This paper proposes a novel active islanding detection scheme for synchronous DGs, considering two additional compensators and a positive
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There has been a considerable importance for the islanding detection due to the growing integration of distributed generations (DGs) in the modern power grids. This paper proposes a novel active islanding detection scheme for synchronous DGs, considering two additional compensators and a positive feedback for each of active and reactive power control loops. The added blocks are designed using the small gain theorem and stability margins definition considering characteristics of open loop transfer functions of synchronous DG control loops. Islanding can be detected using the proposed method even where there is an exact match between generation and local load without sacrificing power quality. In addition, the performance of the proposed method can be retained even with high penetration of motor loads. The proposed scheme improves the stability and power quality of the grid, when the synchronous DG is subjected to the grid-connected disturbances. Furthermore, this method augments the stability margins of the system in the grid-connected conditions to enhance the disturbances ride-through capability of the system and reduce the negative impact of the active methods on the power quality. Simultaneous advantages of the proposed scheme are demonstrated by modeling a test system in MATLAB software and time-domain simulation achieved by PSCAD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Long View of VisibleLearning’s Impact
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040174 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this article, we address the common criticisms of the Visible Learning research and offer a long-term view of the potential presented with this body of knowledge. We contextualize our view with some experiences in a high school that is focused on improving
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In this article, we address the common criticisms of the Visible Learning research and offer a long-term view of the potential presented with this body of knowledge. We contextualize our view with some experiences in a high school that is focused on improving student learning. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report
Mitigation of Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammation and Vasoactivity in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells by Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102293 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure remains the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of PM are required, since there is no discernible threshold for its effects, and exposure reduction approaches are limited. The mitigation of PM
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Airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure remains the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Interventions to mitigate the adverse effects of PM are required, since there is no discernible threshold for its effects, and exposure reduction approaches are limited. The mitigation of PM (specifically diesel exhaust particles (DEP))-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) after 24 and 48 h of exposure by pre-treatment with individual pure, combined pure, and an oil formulation of two fish oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were all tested at an equivalent concentration of 100 µM in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The PUFAs and fish oil formulation completely mitigated or diminished the DEP-induced release of IL-6, IL-8, and ET-1 by 14–78%. DHA was more effective in reducing the levels of the DEP-induced release of the cytokines, especially IL-6 after 48 h of DEP exposure in comparison to EPA (p < 0.05), whereas EPA seemed to be more potent in reducing ET-1 levels. The potential of fish ω-3 PUFAs to mitigate PM-induced inflammation and vasoactivity was demonstrated by this study. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Applications of Invertebrate Animal Models to Dimorphic Fungal Infections
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040118 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Dimorphic fungi can be found in the yeast form during infection and as hyphae in the environment and are responsible for a large number of infections worldwide. Invertebrate animals have been shown to be convenient models in the study of fungal infections. These
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Dimorphic fungi can be found in the yeast form during infection and as hyphae in the environment and are responsible for a large number of infections worldwide. Invertebrate animals have been shown to be convenient models in the study of fungal infections. These models have the advantages of being low cost, have no ethical issues, and an ease of experimentation, time-efficiency, and the possibility of using a large number of animals per experiment compared to mammalian models. Invertebrate animal models such as Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Acanthamoebacastellanii have been used to study dimorphic fungal infections in the context of virulence, innate immune response, and the efficacy and toxicity of antifungal agents. In this review, we first summarize the features of these models. In this aspect, the growth temperature, genome sequence, availability of different strains, and body characteristics should be considered in the model choice. Finally, we discuss the contribution and advances of these models, with respect to dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sporothrix spp., and Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Regulation, Two-Way Foreign Direct Investment, and Green Innovation Efficiency in China’s Manufacturing Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102292 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper adopts 2009 to 2015 panel data from 27 manufacturing industries in China. A Super-SBM model is used to measure the green innovation efficiency (GIE) of China’s manufacturing industry. A panel data model is then built to systematically examine the impact of
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This paper adopts 2009 to 2015 panel data from 27 manufacturing industries in China. A Super-SBM model is used to measure the green innovation efficiency (GIE) of China’s manufacturing industry. A panel data model is then built to systematically examine the impact of environmental regulation (ER) and two-way foreign direct investment (FDI) on the GIE of China’s manufacturing industry under a unified analysis framework. The results are as follows: (1) the overall level of the green innovation efficiency in China’s manufacturing is low, and there is still great potential for improvement. Considering industry heterogeneity, the green innovation efficiency of patent-intensive manufacturing is significantly higher than that of non-patent-intensive manufacturing; (2) in terms of the whole manufacturing industry, ER and the interaction between ER and outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) have significantly negative effects on GIE, OFDI has significantly positive effects on GIE. (3) when considering industry heterogeneity, for patent-intensive manufacturing, ER and the interaction between ER and inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) have significantly negative effects on GIE, while IFDI has significantly positive effect on GIE. For non-patent-intensive manufacturing, ER and the interaction between ER and OFDI have significantly negative effects on GIE, while IFDI and the interaction between ER and IFDI have significantly positive effects on GIE. Full article
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