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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Analysis of Porosities in High Pressure Die Cast Aluminum by Using Metallography, X-Ray Radiography, and Micro-Computed Tomography
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143068 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Mechanical performance of cast aluminum alloys is strongly affected by the defects formed during solidification. For example, fractography studies of the fatigue specimens have shown that fatigue failure in aluminum castings containing defects is almost always initiated from defects, among which pores are [...] Read more.
Mechanical performance of cast aluminum alloys is strongly affected by the defects formed during solidification. For example, fractography studies of the fatigue specimens have shown that fatigue failure in aluminum castings containing defects is almost always initiated from defects, among which pores are most detrimental. However, elimination of these pores is neither always economically nor technically possible. This work characterizes defects in high pressure die cast aluminum alloy as an illustrative material, but the methods used can be applicable to other types of castings and defects. The defects were evaluated using metallography as well as micro-computed tomography techniques. The variability of defects between the specimens of two sizes as well as different porosity levels are studied statistically. The distributions of defects based on location within the specimens are also analyzed. Moreover, the maximum defect size within the specimens are estimated using extreme value statistics, which can be used as an input to fatigue life prediction models. Extreme value statistics is applied on both 2D and 3D defect data. The accuracy of each approach is verified by comparing the estimated maximum defect size within the specimens with the maximum observed defects on fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Performance Analysis of an Optical Communication Channel over Maritime Environment
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071109 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Free space optical communications (FSO), which make use of the visible and infrared spectrum for data transmission, offer significant advantages such as a very high data rate, security and immunity, low cost of installation and ease of use without any license restrictions. However, [...] Read more.
Free space optical communications (FSO), which make use of the visible and infrared spectrum for data transmission, offer significant advantages such as a very high data rate, security and immunity, low cost of installation and ease of use without any license restrictions. However, a significant challenge for FSO systems is their inherent constraints due to environmental conditions and especially atmospheric turbulence. This paper focuses on the experimental performance analysis of a real FSO system in a maritime environment. We propose a new model which allows an FSO link performance estimation over sea and depends upon point measurements of environmental parameters. The Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) has been measured and a second-order polynomial has been constructed using regression modeling to quantify its relation with macroscopic environmental parameters collected by a weather station. This model has then been validated against real meteorological data over different period of times and exhibited a reasonably strong correlation. Atmospheric turbulence has been determined using bulk estimates of the structure index parameter extracted from the same meteorological data, and thus allowed for a statistical correlation between turbulence and RSSI. In the second part of the paper, the probability distribution of the RSSI data has been investigated and the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence has been used to investigate the difference between probability distributions over the same variable. As an illustrative example of the process, the Weibull, Lognormal and Gamma distributions have been evaluated against the RSSI data probability distribution and the latter has proved to exhibit the best fit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Exact Likelihood Inference for an Exponential Parameter under Generalized Adaptive Progressive Hybrid Censoring
Symmetry 2020, 12(7), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071149 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new type censoring scheme named a generalized adaptive progressive hybrid censoring scheme (GenAdPrHyCS). In this new type censoring scheme, the experiment is assured to stop at a pre-assigned time. This censoring scheme is designed to correct the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new type censoring scheme named a generalized adaptive progressive hybrid censoring scheme (GenAdPrHyCS). In this new type censoring scheme, the experiment is assured to stop at a pre-assigned time. This censoring scheme is designed to correct the drawbacks in the AdPrHyCS. Furthermore, we discuss inference for one parameter exponential distribution (ExD) under GenAdPrHyCS. We derive the moment generating function of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of scale parameter of ExD and the resulting lower confidence bound under GenAdPrHyCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematics and Symmetry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Numerical Modeling of Marine Circulation with 4D Variational Data Assimilation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(7), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8070503 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
The technology is presented for modeling and prediction of marine hydrophysical fields based on the 4D variational data assimilation technique developed at the Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The technology is based on solving equations of marine [...] Read more.
The technology is presented for modeling and prediction of marine hydrophysical fields based on the 4D variational data assimilation technique developed at the Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The technology is based on solving equations of marine hydrodynamics using multicomponent splitting, thereby solving an optimality system that includes adjoint equations and covariance matrices of observation errors. The hydrodynamic model is described by primitive equations in the sigma-coordinate system, which is solved by finite-difference methods. The technology includes original algorithms for solving the problems of variational data assimilation using modern iterative processes with a special choice of iterative parameters. The methods and technology are illustrated by the example of solving the problem of circulation of the Baltic Sea with 4D variational data assimilation of sea surface temperature information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Open AccessReview
Biocrystals in Plants: A Short Review on Biomineralization Processes and the Role of Phototropins into the Uptake of Calcium
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070591 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
The biomineralization process is a mechanism inherent to all organisms of the Earth. Throughout the decades, diverse works have reported that the origin of life is tied to crystals, specifically to biominerals of silica that catalyzed RNA, and had some influence in [...] Read more.
The biomineralization process is a mechanism inherent to all organisms of the Earth. Throughout the decades, diverse works have reported that the origin of life is tied to crystals, specifically to biominerals of silica that catalyzed RNA, and had some influence in the homochirality. Although the mechanism by which crystals surfaces (minerals) gave origin to life has not yet been proven, the truth is that, up to the present, biominerals are being synthetized by the organisms of different kingdoms in two basic ways: biologically induced and biologically controlled biomineralization. Paradoxically, this fact makes a fundamental difference between inorganic materials and those formed by living organisms, as the latter are associated with macromolecules that are bound to the mineral phase. Conserving growth and formation of these biogenic organic crystals inside cells is a fascinating subject that has been studied mainly in some of the kingdoms, like Monera (bacteria), Fungi (yeasts), and Animalia (Homo sapiens). Notwithstanding in the Plantae kingdom, the formation, conservation, and functions of crystals has not yet been completely elucidated and described, which is of particular relevance because life on Earth, as we know it, would not be possible without plants. The aim of the present work is to revise the different crystals of calcium oxalate synthetized inside the cells of plants, as well as to identify the mechanism of their formation and their possible functions in plants. The last part is related to the existence of certain proteins called phototropins, which not only work as the blue-light sensors, but they also play an important role on the accumulation of calcium in vacuoles. This new trend is shortly reviewed to explain the characteristics and their plausible role in the calcium uptake along with the biomineralization processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Examining the Mediating Role of Motivation in the Relationship between Multidimensional Perfectionism and Well-and Ill-Being in Vocational Dancers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144945 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Perfectionism is considered to be an important personality factor within the dance context given the high number of dancers whose psychological health is influenced by its consequences. The relationship between perfectionism and dancers’ well- and ill-being can be mediated by a range of [...] Read more.
Perfectionism is considered to be an important personality factor within the dance context given the high number of dancers whose psychological health is influenced by its consequences. The relationship between perfectionism and dancers’ well- and ill-being can be mediated by a range of variables. The present study explores the role of forms of motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation) as mediators in the relationship between perfectionism (i.e., self-oriented and socially prescribed) and an indicator of well-being (i.e., subjective vitality) and ill-being (i.e., burnout). Participants of the study were 146 male and female Spanish vocational dancers aged between 12 and 26 years old (Mean age = 15.40 ± 2.96) who completed questionnaires measuring the variables of interest. Results of multiple mediator regression analyses showed that amotivation mediated the relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism with burnout and subjective vitality. Self-oriented perfectionism was negatively correlated, and socially prescribed perfectionism positively associated with amotivation. Amotivation of dancers was a positive predictor of burnout and a negative predictor of subjective vitality. Overall, the findings corroborate the importance of amotivation in the relationship between perfectionism dimensions and well-being and ill-being in dancers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analyses of Hybrid Viability across a Hybrid Zone between Two Alnus Species Using Microsatellites and cpDNA Markers
Genes 2020, 11(7), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11070770 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Diploid Alnus glutinosa s. str. and autotetraploid A. rohlenae form a narrow hybrid zone in a study area in southern Serbia, which results in triploid hybrid formation. The vast majority of previous studies have been focused on studies of maternal plants, but the [...] Read more.
Diploid Alnus glutinosa s. str. and autotetraploid A. rohlenae form a narrow hybrid zone in a study area in southern Serbia, which results in triploid hybrid formation. The vast majority of previous studies have been focused on studies of maternal plants, but the offspring resulting from their crossing have not been much studied. Here, we use the variability of microsatellites and chloroplast DNA between these species and their putative hybrids to create an overall picture of the development of the hybrid zone and its predicted type. To elucidate the gene transfer within both species, the origins of individual ploidies and especially the role of triploid hybrids, a germination experiment was carried out linked with a flow cytometry study of the resulting seedlings. The tension zone model seems to offer the most adequate explanation of our observations, with selection against triploid hybrids and the spatial positioning of the hybrid zone. Despite selection against them, the triploid hybrids play an important role in the exchange of genes between the two species and therefore serve as a bridge for introgression. The presence of fertile triploids is essential for enriching the haplotype diversity between these species and for the development of new genetic lineages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress and Application Prospects of Microsatellites)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Pet Health Insurance on Dog Owners’ Spending for Veterinary Services
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071162 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
The U.S. pet population is increasing, but access to veterinary care continues to be a concern. One method of alleviating barriers that prevent access to care is the presence of pet health insurance for a pet. Dog owners were surveyed to see the [...] Read more.
The U.S. pet population is increasing, but access to veterinary care continues to be a concern. One method of alleviating barriers that prevent access to care is the presence of pet health insurance for a pet. Dog owners were surveyed to see the impact of pet health insurance on dog owners’ visits and expenditures at the veterinarian. Using several logit models, it was found that pet health insurance had a significant and positive impact on the amount spent at the veterinarian. Other dog and dog owner characteristics were found significant in impacting expenditures and visits at the veterinarian. Findings from this study can help address the accessibility issue facing Americans across the country in obtaining affordable pet care. This research is the first which seeks to identify the driving factors behind dog owners’ choices regarding health care for their dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Impulsivity and the Experience of Desire in the Choice of Erotic Stimuli
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144943 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: the relationship between erotic desire and personality factors is still relatively understudied. (2) Objective: to study the influence of the experience of desire, as well as impulsivity in the choice of videos, as the behavioral variable in the experimental trial. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the relationship between erotic desire and personality factors is still relatively understudied. (2) Objective: to study the influence of the experience of desire, as well as impulsivity in the choice of videos, as the behavioral variable in the experimental trial. (2) Method: the sample consisted of 48 adult subjects, who took part in an experimental study that involved watching videos. (3) Results: the linear regression analysis revealed that the behavior involved in choosing videos is predicted by the sexual desire felt at the time of the trial, and not by stable personality factors, such as impulsivity or general self-report levels of sexual desire. (4) Conclusion: it is observed that the specific moment or situation and the behavior have a bigger impact on the erotic desire experienced at the time of the test than certain personality traits, as well as the previous and habitual levels of erotic desire of which an individual reports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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Open AccessReview
Interplay between Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Development—A Focus on Ulcerative Colitis
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071647 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are defined by the continuous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. During inflammation, the number of pathogens in the intestinal epithelium increases, leading to inflammasome assembly. Inflammasome activation is meant to protect the intestinal epithelial barrier from further damage by [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are defined by the continuous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. During inflammation, the number of pathogens in the intestinal epithelium increases, leading to inflammasome assembly. Inflammasome activation is meant to protect the intestinal epithelial barrier from further damage by maintaining homeostasis. Although its purpose is to protect the cells, excessive nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome assembly is responsible for the synthesis of a high number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The activation of two crucial pathways, autophagy process, and unfolded protein response, is initiated for restoring homeostasis. Aberrant expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs also interfere with the pathogenic mechanisms of IBD, as these non-coding transcripts play key roles in regulation of biological processes, such as inflammation and immunity. This review thoroughly describes the cellular and molecular mechanism that trigger and perpetuate inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Built Environment with Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in Men and Women Living inside the City Wall of Xi’an, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144940 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
This study was to investigate the association of built environment (BE) with physical activity (PA) and physical fitness of residents inside the city wall of Xi’an, one of the most historic cities in China. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 728 adults in [...] Read more.
This study was to investigate the association of built environment (BE) with physical activity (PA) and physical fitness of residents inside the city wall of Xi’an, one of the most historic cities in China. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 728 adults in this area. BE and PA were measured by Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, blood pressure (BP), lung capacity, curl up, sit and reach, reaction time, balance, and grip strength were also measured. The results showed, for men, aesthetics was positively associated with total and leisure-time PA, and curl-up tests, respectively. Walking/cycling facilities were positively associated with leisure-time PA. Street connectivity was negatively associated with leisure-time PA and BMI. Residential density was positively correlated with BMI. Access to service was positively associated with lung capacity. Crime safety was negatively correlated with reaction time. For women, residential density was negatively associated with transportation PA and BP. Street connectivity was positively associated with curl-up test. The results suggest some BE attributes are positively related to PA and physical fitness in this population. Creating more PA-supportive BEs is recommended in this historic area along with urban conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exercise and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Tide Gate Modulation on Ammonia Transport in a Semi-closed Estuary during the Dry Season—A Case Study at the Lianjiang River in South China
Water 2020, 12(7), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071945 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Recovery of tide-receiving is considered to improve the water quality in the Lianjiang River, a severely polluted and tide-influenced river connected to the South China Sea. A tide-receiving scenario, i.e., keeping the tide gate open, is compared with the other scenario representing the [...] Read more.
Recovery of tide-receiving is considered to improve the water quality in the Lianjiang River, a severely polluted and tide-influenced river connected to the South China Sea. A tide-receiving scenario, i.e., keeping the tide gate open, is compared with the other scenario representing the non-tide-receiving condition, i.e., blocking the tide flow during the flood phase, by numerical simulations based on the EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) model. The impacts of tide receiving were evaluated by the variation in the concentration of ammonia and its exporting fluxes, mainly in the downstream part of the river. With more water mass coming into the river, in the tide-receiving scenario, the averaged concentration of ammonia reduced by 20–40%, with the most significant decrease of 0.64 g m−3. However, the exporting flux of ammonia has decreased in the tide-receiving scenario, as the consequence of the back–forth oscillation of tidal current. In the tide-receiving scenario, the time series of ammonia concentration approximately followed the tidal oscillation, with increased concentration during the ebb tide and reduction in the flood tide. In the non-tide-receiving scenario, the ammonia concentration decreases when the tide gate is open which results in further intrusion of seawater. This was followed by an increase in ammonia concentration again after the currents shift seaward and water mass with higher concentration from the upstream part is transported downstream. Given the identical ammonia input and river runoff, the ammonia concentration stays lower in the tide-receiving scenario, except for short periods after the tide gate opening and neap tides in the downstream part which lasts for around half a day. This study highlights the importance of hydrodynamic condition, specifically tidal oscillation, in the semi-diurnal and fortnight cycles, for the transportation of waterborne materials. Furthermore, the operation of the tide gate was additionally discussed based on potential varied practical conditions and evaluation criteria. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Probabilistic Study of the Effect of Anti-Epileptic Drugs Under Uncertainty: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Mathematics 2020, 8(7), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8071120 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Epilepsy is one of the most ancient diseases. Despite the efforts of scientists and doctors to improve the quality of live of epileptic patients, the disease is still a mystery in many senses. Anti-epileptic drugs are fundamental to reduce epileptic seizures but it [...] Read more.
Epilepsy is one of the most ancient diseases. Despite the efforts of scientists and doctors to improve the quality of live of epileptic patients, the disease is still a mystery in many senses. Anti-epileptic drugs are fundamental to reduce epileptic seizures but it have some adverse effects, which influence the quality of life outcomes of the patients. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of anti-epileptic drugs taking into account the inherent uncertainty. We establish a model, which allows to represent the natural history of epilepsy, using Markov chains. After randomizing the mathematical model, we compute the first probability density function of the solution stochastic process applying the random variable transformation technique. We also take advantage of this method to determine the distribution of some key quantities in medical decision, such as the time until a certain proportion of the population remains in each state and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The study is completed computing all these quantities using data available in the literature. In addition, regarding the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, different third generation anti-epileptic treatments are compared with the Brivaracetam, a new third generation anti-epileptic drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Uncertainty Quantification: Theory and Modelling)
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Open AccessPerspective
Size-Regulated Symmetry Breaking in Reaction-Diffusion Models of Developmental Transitions
Cells 2020, 9(7), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9071646 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
The development of multicellular organisms proceeds through a series of morphogenetic and cell-state transitions, transforming homogeneous zygotes into complex adults by a process of self-organisation. Many of these transitions are achieved by spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanisms, allowing cells and tissues to acquire pattern [...] Read more.
The development of multicellular organisms proceeds through a series of morphogenetic and cell-state transitions, transforming homogeneous zygotes into complex adults by a process of self-organisation. Many of these transitions are achieved by spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanisms, allowing cells and tissues to acquire pattern and polarity by virtue of local interactions without an upstream supply of information. The combined work of theory and experiment has elucidated how these systems break symmetry during developmental transitions. Given that such transitions are multiple and their temporal ordering is crucial, an equally important question is how these developmental transitions are coordinated in time. Using a minimal mass-conserved substrate-depletion model for symmetry breaking as our case study, we elucidate mechanisms by which cells and tissues can couple reaction–diffusion-driven symmetry breaking to the timing of developmental transitions, arguing that the dependence of patterning mode on system size may be a generic principle by which developing organisms measure time. By analysing different regimes of our model, simulated on growing domains, we elaborate three distinct behaviours, allowing for clock-, timer- or switch-like dynamics. Relating these behaviours to experimentally documented case studies of developmental timing, we provide a minimal conceptual framework to interrogate how developing organisms coordinate developmental transitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry Breaking in Cells and Tissues)
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Open AccessArticle
New Dihydroxytyrosyl Esters from Dicarboxylic Acids: Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity In Vitro (ABTS) and in Cell-Cultures (DCF Assay)
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143135 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
New dihydroxytyrosyl esters 2a, 2c–2j of dicarboxylic acids were synthesized from methyl orthoformate protected hydroxytyrosol 3 and diacyl chlorides. New compounds were characterized (HRMS, FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR), and tested for antioxidant activity both in vitro (ABTS) and on L6 myoblasts [...] Read more.
New dihydroxytyrosyl esters 2a, 2c–2j of dicarboxylic acids were synthesized from methyl orthoformate protected hydroxytyrosol 3 and diacyl chlorides. New compounds were characterized (HRMS, FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR), and tested for antioxidant activity both in vitro (ABTS) and on L6 myoblasts and THP1 leukemic monocytes cell culture by DCF assay. According to the ABTS assay, compounds 2a, 2c–2j showed a TEAC value of antioxidant capacity up to twice that of Trolox. Very high or complete ROS protections were obtained in the cell environment where lipophilicity and rigidity of dicarboxylic structure seem to facilitate the antioxidant effect. MTT assay and proliferation test were used for assessment of cell viability. These compounds can be envisaged as a new class of preservatives for food or cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Clustering Stock Performance Considering Investor Preferences Using a Fuzzy Inference System
Symmetry 2020, 12(7), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071148 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
The fact that many stocks are traded in the marketplace makes the selection process of choosing the right stocks for investment crucial and challenging. In the literature on stock selection, cluster analysis-based methods have usually been used to group and to determine the [...] Read more.
The fact that many stocks are traded in the marketplace makes the selection process of choosing the right stocks for investment crucial and challenging. In the literature on stock selection, cluster analysis-based methods have usually been used to group and to determine the best stock for investment. Many established cluster analysis-based methods often cluster stocks under consideration using the average of the variables, where stocks with similar scores are concluded as having the same performances. Nevertheless, the performance results obtained do not reflect the actual performance of the stocks. Depending only on the average score of each variable is inefficient, as market situations usually involve uncertain extreme values. Moreover, when grouping stock performance, the established clustering methods assume that investors’ selection preferences are single and unclear, when actually, in reality, investors’ selection preferences vary; some investors are pessimistic, while others may be more optimistic. Due to this issue, this paper presents a novel fuzzy clustering method using a fuzzy inference system to flexibly assess the consistent evaluations given to stock performance that differentiate between pessimistic and optimistic investors that are symmetrical in nature. All variables considered in this study were defined in terms of linguistic inputs, where the consensus among them was aggregated using rule bases. These rule bases provide assistance in obtaining the linguistic output, which is the actual performance of the stock. Next, each stock under consideration was ranked using the proposed novel stock selection strategy based on investors’ confidence levels and preferences. The proposed method was then applied to a case study of 30 Syariah stocks listed on the Malaysian stock exchange, where the results obtained were empirically validated with established cluster analysis-based methods. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Insight into the Role of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Regenerative Therapy
Biology 2020, 9(7), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9070160 (registering DOI) - 09 Jul 2020
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential, and are considered a promising cell population for cell-based therapy and tissue regeneration. MSCs are isolated from various organs including dental pulp, which originates from cranial neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme. Recently, [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential, and are considered a promising cell population for cell-based therapy and tissue regeneration. MSCs are isolated from various organs including dental pulp, which originates from cranial neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme. Recently, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have been isolated from dental pulp tissue of adult permanent teeth and deciduous teeth, respectively. Because of their MSC-like characteristics such as high growth capacity, multipotency, expression of MSC-related markers, and immunomodulatory effects, they are suggested to be an important cell source for tissue regeneration. Here, we review the features of these cells, their potential to regenerate damaged tissues, and the recently acquired understanding of their potential for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Full article
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