The 2023 MDPI Annual Report has
been released!
 
10 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Diabetes Is Associated with Worse Postoperative Mortality and Morbidity in Bariatric Surgery, Regardless of the Procedure
by Omar Khalil, Soha Dargham, Amin Jayyousi, Jassim Al Suwaidi and Charbel Abi Khalil
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113174 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Bariatric surgery is a central cornerstone in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess the impact of diabetes on the postoperative outcomes of bariatric surgery and compare three techniques: sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y, and gastric banding. Methods: We extracted data from the [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Bariatric surgery is a central cornerstone in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess the impact of diabetes on the postoperative outcomes of bariatric surgery and compare three techniques: sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y, and gastric banding. Methods: We extracted data from the National Inpatient Sample (2015–2019) using ICD codes. The primary outcome was postoperative mortality. Secondary outcomes were major bleeding, atrial fibrillation, and acute renal failure. Results: Among patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy, diabetes was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (aOR 2.07 [1.36–3.16]), atrial fibrillation, and acute renal failure, but a similar risk of bleeding. Among patients who underwent Roux-en-Y, diabetes did not increase mortality and bleeding risk. Still, it was associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure. Among patients who underwent gastric banding, diabetes was only associated with a higher risk of bleeding. When comparing the three techniques in diabetes patients, Roux-en-Y was significantly associated with higher mortality and acute renal failure risk when compared to the other procedures. Bleeding was more common in Roux-en-Y than in Sleeve. Conclusions: In total, diabetes is associated with worse postoperative outcomes in bariatric surgery, regardless of the technique. Among diabetes patients, Roux-en-Y was associated with the highest mortality and morbidity. Full article
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19 pages, 2249 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Lane Changing Behavior of Connected Driving Based on Vehicle Interaction Potential
by Juan Li, Dayi Qu, Yicheng Chen, Yuxiang Yang and Shanning Cui
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(11), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14114659 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Aiming at the interactive behavior of vehicles changing lanes in the intelligent network traffic environment, the relative position of vehicle, speed, acceleration, and steering angle are introduced to correct the molecular interaction potential, and the vehicle interaction potential model is established. The spatial [...] Read more.
Aiming at the interactive behavior of vehicles changing lanes in the intelligent network traffic environment, the relative position of vehicle, speed, acceleration, and steering angle are introduced to correct the molecular interaction potential, and the vehicle interaction potential model is established. The spatial distribution map of the vehicle interaction potential field under different motion states was drawn, and the changing law of the vehicle interaction potential field was described. By analyzing the longitudinal critical distance of the lane changing safe critical time, the expression of acceptable clearance for lane changing is defined, and the relationship between acceptable clearance and the speed and acceleration of the interactive vehicle is verified by simulation. Combined with the acceptable clearance of lane changing, a lane changing behavior model based on the vehicle interaction potential is established, and the situation of lane changing vehicles subjected to the interaction potential and potential field forces generated by the surrounding vehicles is analyzed, and the driving decision of lane changing vehicles under the action of different potential field forces is given. Compared with the molecular dynamics lane changing model and LS2015 lane changing model, the results show that the vehicle action potential lane changing model can effectively improve the running speed and stability of traffic flow. The research has theoretical significance for the lane changing behavior decisions of networked autonomous vehicles in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Transportation and Future Mobility)
16 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
On Dynamic Recrystallization during the Friction Stir Processing of Commercially Pure Ti and Its Influence on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
by Michael Regev and Stefano Spigarelli
Metals 2024, 14(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14060644 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process, was applied on commercially pure Ti to obtain an improved microstructure. The process yielded a refined microstructure and higher mechanical properties at room temperature (RT). Yet the microstructure was found to contain bright bands [...] Read more.
Friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process, was applied on commercially pure Ti to obtain an improved microstructure. The process yielded a refined microstructure and higher mechanical properties at room temperature (RT). Yet the microstructure was found to contain bright bands demonstrating high hardness values of about 500 HV. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) as well as electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis indicated that these bands were composed of extra-fine equiaxed α-Ti grains with an average radius of 1–2 microns. In addition, a retained β phase was detected at the boundaries of these α-Ti grains, together with a small quantity of separate β grains. The results of a fractography study conducted on broken tensile specimens showed that the material that underwent FSP was free of defects and that the fracture started at these bands. It is proposed that these bright bands are due to excessive deformation occurring during the processing stage, leading to an accelerated dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process. In turn, these heavy deformation regions act as a strengthening constituent, making the material superior to the parent material as far as its mechanical RT properties are concerned. Consequently, this means that the FSP of CP-Ti has the potential to serve as an industrial means of improving the mechanical properties of the material. Full article
14 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Personalized Setup Optimization Strategies to Improve Clinical Workflow in Image-Guided Pediatric Particle Therapy
by Matteo Pepa, Andrea Pella, Giulia Sellaro, Federica Galante, Alfredo Mirandola, Angelica Ghirelli, Sabina Vennarini, Francesca Colombo, Sara Imparato, Alberto Iannalfi, Mario Ciocca, Chiara Paganelli, Ester Orlandi and Guido Baroni
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(11), 4658; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14114658 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
The purpose of this retrospective study was to simulate a daily pre-alignment strategy to mitigate systematic positioning errors in image-guided pediatric hadron therapy. All pediatric patients (32 patients, 853 fractions) treated from December 2021 and September 2022 at our Institution were retrospectively considered. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to simulate a daily pre-alignment strategy to mitigate systematic positioning errors in image-guided pediatric hadron therapy. All pediatric patients (32 patients, 853 fractions) treated from December 2021 and September 2022 at our Institution were retrospectively considered. For all fractions, daily correction vectors (CVs) resulting from image registration for patient positioning were retrieved in the form of txt files from the hospital database. For each fraction, an adjusted correction vector (V′) was then computed as the difference between the actual one (V) and the algebraic average of the previous ones, as to simulate patient pre-alignment before imaging. The Euclidean norm of each V′ was computed and normalized with respect to that of the corresponding V to derive N. Pre-correcting all the coordinate values led to a 46% average reduction (min 20%, max 60%) in CVs, considering the first 27 fractions (average value in this cohort of patients). Such a potential improvement (N < 1) was observed for the most patients’ fractions (781/853, 91.6%). For the remaining 72/853 cases (8.4%), a remarkable worsening (N > 2) involved only 7/853 (0.82%) fractions. The presented strategy shows promising outcomes in order to ameliorate pediatric patient setup before imaging. However, further investigations to identify patients most likely to benefit from this approach are warranted. Full article
16 pages, 3095 KiB  
Review
CMOS IC Solutions for the 77 GHz Radar Sensor in Automotive Applications
by Giuseppe Papotto, Alessandro Parisi, Alessandro Finocchiaro, Claudio Nocera, Andrea Cavarra, Alessandro Castorina and Giuseppe Palmisano
Electronics 2024, 13(11), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13112104 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
This paper presents recent results on CMOS integrated circuits for automotive radar sensor applications in the 77 GHz frequency band. It is well demonstrated that nano-scale CMOS technologies are the best solution for the implementation of low-cost and high-performance mm-wave radar sensors since [...] Read more.
This paper presents recent results on CMOS integrated circuits for automotive radar sensor applications in the 77 GHz frequency band. It is well demonstrated that nano-scale CMOS technologies are the best solution for the implementation of low-cost and high-performance mm-wave radar sensors since they provide high integration level besides supporting high-speed digital processing. The present work is mainly focused on the RF front-end and summarizes the most stringent requirements of both short/medium- and long-range radar applications. After a brief introduction of the adopted technology, the paper addresses the critical building blocks of the receiver and transmitter chain while discussing crucial design aspects to meet the final performance. Specifically, effective circuit topologies are presented, which concern mixer, variable-gain amplifier, and filter for the receiver, as well as frequency doubler and power amplifier for the transmitter. Moreover, a voltage-controlled oscillator for a PLL efficiently covering the two radar bands is described. Finally, the circuit description is accompanied by experimental results of an integrated implementation in a 28 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar System and Radar Signal Processing)
25 pages, 5922 KiB  
Article
GNSS-Based Narrow-Angle UV Camera Targeting: Case Study of a Low-Cost MAD Robot
by Ntmitrii Gyrichidi, Alexey M. Romanov, Oleg V. Trofimov, Stanislav A. Eroshenko, Pavel V. Matrenin and Alexandra I. Khalyasmaa
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113494 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
One of the key challenges in Multi-Spectral Automatic Diagnostic (MAD) robot design is the precise targeting of narrow-angle cameras on a specific part of the equipment. The paper shows that a low-cost MAD robot, whose navigation system is based on open-source ArduRover firmware [...] Read more.
One of the key challenges in Multi-Spectral Automatic Diagnostic (MAD) robot design is the precise targeting of narrow-angle cameras on a specific part of the equipment. The paper shows that a low-cost MAD robot, whose navigation system is based on open-source ArduRover firmware and a pair of low-cost Ublox F9P GNSS receivers, can inspect the 8 × 4 degree ultraviolet camera bounding the targeting error within 0.5 degrees. To achieve this result, we propose a new targeting procedure that can be implemented without any modifications in ArduRover firmware and outperforms more expensive solutions based on LiDAR SLAM and UWB. This paper will be interesting to the developers of robotic systems for power equipment inspection because it proposes a simple and effective solution for MAD robots’ camera targeting and provides the first quantitative analysis of the GNSS reception conditions during power equipment inspection. This analysis is based on the experimental results collected during the inspection of the overhead power transmission lines and equipment inspections on the open switchgear of different power plants. Moreover, it includes not only satellite, dilution of precision, and positioning/heading estimation accuracy but also the direct measurements of angular errors that could be achieved on operating power plants using GNSS-only camera targeting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Robotics in Mechatronics and Automation)
36 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Marine Cytotoxin Santacruzamate A Derivatives as Potent HDAC1-3 Inhibitors and Their Synergistic Anti-Leukemia Effects with Venetoclax
by Wanting Hao, Leyan Wang, Tongqiang Xu, Geng Jia, Yuqi Jiang, Chong Qin and Xiaoyang Li
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22060250 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by infiltration of the blood and bone marrow, exhibiting a low remission rate and high recurrence rate. Current research has demonstrated that class I HDAC inhibitors can downregulate anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to apoptosis of [...] Read more.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by infiltration of the blood and bone marrow, exhibiting a low remission rate and high recurrence rate. Current research has demonstrated that class I HDAC inhibitors can downregulate anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to apoptosis of AML cells. In the present investigation, we conducted structural modifications of marine cytotoxin Santacruzamate A (SCA), a compound known for its inhibitory activity towards HDACs, resulting in the development of a novel series of potent class I HDACs hydrazide inhibitors. Representative hydrazide-based compound 25c exhibited concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in AML cells as a single agent. Moreover, 25c exhibited a synergistic anti-AML effect when combined with Venetoclax, a clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor employed in AML therapy. This combination resulted in a more pronounced downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, along with a significant upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved-caspase3 and the DNA double-strand break biomarker γ-H2AX compared to monotherapy. These results highlighted the potential of 25c as a promising lead compound for AML treatment, particularly when used in combination with Venetoclax. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Discovery of Marine Antitumor Molecules)
16 pages, 935 KiB  
Article
Impact of Resolvin-E1 and Maresin-1 on Bone Marrow Stem Cell Osteogenesis under Inflammatory Stress
by Shahd AlZahrani, Zakia Shinwari, Ayodele Alaiya and Ahmed Al-Kahtani
Cells 2024, 13(11), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13110932 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation and bone loss. Central to its pathogenesis is the dysregulated inflammatory response, complicating regenerative therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold significant promise in tissue repair and regeneration. This study investigated the effects of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation and bone loss. Central to its pathogenesis is the dysregulated inflammatory response, complicating regenerative therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold significant promise in tissue repair and regeneration. This study investigated the effects of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), Resolvin E1 (RvE1) and Maresin 1 (MaR1), on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs under inflammatory conditions. The stem cells were treated with SPMs in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate an inflammatory environment. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed through alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining. Proteomic analysis was conducted to characterize the protein expression profile changes, focusing on proteins related to osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with RvE1 and MaR1, both individually and in combination, significantly enhanced calcified deposit formation. Proteomic analysis revealed the differential expression of proteins associated with osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, highlighting the modulatory impact of SPMs on bone metabolism. RvE1 and MaR1 promote osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSCs in an inflammatory environment, with their combined application yielding synergistic effects. This study provides insights into the therapeutic potential of SPMs in enhancing bone regeneration, suggesting a promising avenue for developing regenerative therapies for periodontal disease and other conditions characterized by inflammation-induced bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Tissue Stem Cells in Regenerative Dentistry)
16 pages, 1650 KiB  
Article
Development of Allometric Equations to Determine the Biomass of Plant Components and the Total Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Young Mediterranean Argan Trees
by Assma Oumasst, Fatima Ezzahra Tiouidji, Salma Tabi, Abdelaziz Zahidi, Abdelhamid El Mousadik, Aissam El Finti, Abderrahmane Aitlhaj and Jamal Hallam
Sustainability 2024, 16(11), 4592; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16114592 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Morocco’s argan trees, native to forests, are now cultivated in large orchards within the Argan Biosphere Reserve, transforming “Arganiculture”. These orchards are anticipated to bolster carbon storage, but their precise contribution to carbon storage remains unclear. This study introduces for the first time [...] Read more.
Morocco’s argan trees, native to forests, are now cultivated in large orchards within the Argan Biosphere Reserve, transforming “Arganiculture”. These orchards are anticipated to bolster carbon storage, but their precise contribution to carbon storage remains unclear. This study introduces for the first time allometric equations for estimating biomass in different components of argan plants within orchards. A total of 89 plant individuals, aged 2 to 6 years, were collected. Their diameter and total height were measured. The biomass, carbon content, and biomass carbon stock of each component were determined. The best-fit allometric equation incorporates diameter, height, growing years, and root-to-shoot ratio to estimate total biomass (R2 = 0.95). The estimated total carbon biomass stock ranged from 0.01 to 0.82 t CO2 ha−1 for plants, at a density of 200 plants ha−1. Between 2021 and 2023, the average annual carbon sequestration was 0.20 t CO2 ha−1 year−1. This model offers valuable tools for use when species-specific equations during the establishment growing stage are unavailable, enhancing carbon sequestration quantification for more reliable results and informing climate change mitigation strategies. The allometric parameters serve as benchmarks for trees resembling the argan tree. The methodology could be adapted for other forest plants undergoing conversion to orchard cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Emission)
19 pages, 4217 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Regimes of Particle Behavior upon Impact via the Discrete Element Method
by Chanh Nguyen, Jennifer Curtis and Kambiz Salari
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(6), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16060727 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Discrete element method simulations are conducted to probe the various regimes of post-impact behavior of particles with solid surfaces. The impacting particles are described as spherical agglomerates consisting of smaller constituent (or primary) particles held together via surface adhesion. Under the influence of [...] Read more.
Discrete element method simulations are conducted to probe the various regimes of post-impact behavior of particles with solid surfaces. The impacting particles are described as spherical agglomerates consisting of smaller constituent (or primary) particles held together via surface adhesion. Under the influence of a wide range of impact velocities and particle surface energies, five distinct behavioral regimes—rebounding, vibration, fragmentation, pancaking, and shattering—are identified, and force transmission patterns are linked to post-impact behavior. In the rebounding regime, the coefficient of restitution decreases linearly as impact velocity increases and the particle agglomerate experiences compaction. In the fragmentation regime, rebound velocity generally decreases with increasing fragment size. The rebound velocity of fragments decreases with time except for the smallest fragments, which can increase in velocity due to collisions with other fragments of high velocity. Particle breakage in the pancaking regime does not follow common mechanistic models of breakage. Full article
16 pages, 453 KiB  
Article
Sensory Attributes Driving Preference for Wild Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Leaves Tasted as a Single Ingredient and as a Part of a Recipe
by Antonio Raffo, Irene Baiamonte, Gina Rosalinda De Nicola, Valentina Melini, Elisabetta Moneta, Nicoletta Nardo, Marina Peparaio, Eleonora Saggia Civitelli and Fiorella Sinesio
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111699 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Two cultivars of wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), cv. Denver and Marte, were subjected to chemical determination of flavour-related constituents, sensory descriptive analysis, and measurement of liking by consumer test. Consumers evaluated rocket leaves both as a single ingredient and in a [...] Read more.
Two cultivars of wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), cv. Denver and Marte, were subjected to chemical determination of flavour-related constituents, sensory descriptive analysis, and measurement of liking by consumer test. Consumers evaluated rocket leaves both as a single ingredient and in a recipe formed by a roll of bresaola with also Grana Padano cheese. Sensory analyses showed that Marte was characterized by a more intense bitterness, hotness, and pungency, which corresponded to a higher total GSL content, mainly due to a higher level of dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl GSL. Five clusters of consumers were identified based on their liking scores. When tasting rocket leaves as a single ingredient, three clusters showed a higher liking for the milder cultivar, one cluster showed an opposite preference, while flavour attributes, such as bitterness and hotness, appeared as the main drivers of liking. Differences in liking were no longer found between the two cultivars when rocket leaves were evaluated in the recipe. Therefore, as rocket leaves are generally consumed as a part of a recipe with other ingredients instead of as a single ingredient, in the assessment of consumer preferences, it should not be neglected the influence of the way in which the product is consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
25 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Sub-Riemannian Geometry of Curves and Surfaces in Roto-Translation Group Associated with Canonical Connection
by Han Zhang and Haiming Liu
Mathematics 2024, 12(11), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/math12111683 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to obtain the sub-Riemannian properties of the roto-translation group RT. At the same time, we compute the sub-Riemannian limits of Gaussian curvature associated with two kinds of canonical connections for a C2-smooth surface [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to obtain the sub-Riemannian properties of the roto-translation group RT. At the same time, we compute the sub-Riemannian limits of Gaussian curvature associated with two kinds of canonical connections for a C2-smooth surface in the roto-translation group away from characteristic points and signed geodesic curvature associated with two kinds of canonical connections for C2-smooth curves on surfaces. Based on these results, we obtain a Gauss-Bonnet theorem in the RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Algebra, Geometry and Topology)
18 pages, 3159 KiB  
Review
Changing the Landscape of Solid Tumor Therapy from Apoptosis-Promoting to Apoptosis-Inhibiting Strategies
by Razmik Mirzayans
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(6), 5379-5396; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46060322 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
The many limitations of implementing anticancer strategies under the term “precision oncology” have been extensively discussed. While some authors propose promising future directions, others are less optimistic and use phrases such as illusion, hype, and false hypotheses. The reality is revealed by practicing [...] Read more.
The many limitations of implementing anticancer strategies under the term “precision oncology” have been extensively discussed. While some authors propose promising future directions, others are less optimistic and use phrases such as illusion, hype, and false hypotheses. The reality is revealed by practicing clinicians and cancer patients in various online publications, one of which has stated that “in the quest for the next cancer cure, few researchers bother to look back at the graveyard of failed medicines to figure out what went wrong”. The message is clear: Novel therapeutic strategies with catchy names (e.g., synthetic “lethality”) have not fulfilled their promises despite decades of extensive research and clinical trials. The main purpose of this review is to discuss key challenges in solid tumor therapy that surprisingly continue to be overlooked by the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) and numerous other authors. These challenges include: The impact of chemotherapy-induced genome chaos (e.g., multinucleation) on resistance and relapse, oncogenic function of caspase 3, cancer cell anastasis (recovery from late stages of apoptosis), and pitfalls of ubiquitously used preclinical chemosensitivity assays (e.g., cell “viability” and tumor growth delay studies in live animals) that score such pro-survival responses as “lethal” events. The studies outlined herein underscore the need for new directions in the management of solid tumors. Full article
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17 pages, 1237 KiB  
Article
The Hidden Reserve of Nurses in The Netherlands: A Spatial Analysis
by Frits van Merode, Wim Groot, Catharina van Oostveen and Melline Somers
Nurs. Rep. 2024, 14(2), 1353-1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep14020102 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Worldwide, nurse shortages constitute a problem, including in the Netherlands. Every region in the country has a shortage of all types of nurses. At the same time, there are large hidden reserves: persons who have been trained as a nurse but do not [...] Read more.
Worldwide, nurse shortages constitute a problem, including in the Netherlands. Every region in the country has a shortage of all types of nurses. At the same time, there are large hidden reserves: persons who have been trained as a nurse but do not work in the healthcare sector. The size of the hidden reserve exceeds the shortage of nurses. Until now, the literature has not paid much attention to spatial aspects of the nursing shortage problem. In this paper, we analyze the size of the hidden reserves and how they are distributed over the country, across large and smaller cities, and across different nurse categories. We find that especially densely populated areas have relatively small shares of trained nurses as well as large hidden reserves relative to their population. These areas are also facing the largest nurse shortages. As nurse labor markets are local, policies that are more focused on local situations are necessary to activate these hidden reserves. Full article
11 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
Phase II Trial of Romidepsin as Consolidation Therapy after Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, and Cisplatin in Elderly Transplant-Ineligible Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma
by Satoshi Yamasaki, Hiroatsu Iida, Akio Saito, Morio Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Kuroda, Tohru Izumi, Akiko M. Saito, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Koichi Ohshima, Hirokazu Nagai and Hiromi Iwasaki
Hematol. Rep. 2024, 16(2), 336-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/hematolrep16020034 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Romidepsin is an important therapeutic option for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). However, the timing of romidepsin administration remains controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety and efficacy of romidepsin as consolidation therapy after gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin [...] Read more.
Romidepsin is an important therapeutic option for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). However, the timing of romidepsin administration remains controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety and efficacy of romidepsin as consolidation therapy after gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) therapy (GDPR). This study of patients treated between March 2019 and March 2021 was registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (registration number: jRCT0000000519). If complete response, partial response, or stable disease was confirmed after 2–4 GDP cycles, romidepsin was administered every 4 weeks for 1 year. Seven patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) PTCL (T-follicular helper phenotype [n = 1] and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma [n = 6]) were included in this prospective study (PTCL-GDPR). After a median follow-up of 34 months of patients in PTCL-GDPR, the 2-year overall survival rate was 71%, and the overall response rate after treatment was 57%. Common adverse events in patients with PTCL-GDPR included hematological toxicities such as neutropenia, which improved with supportive treatment. There were no treatment-related mortalities. GDPR might be safe and effective in elderly transplant-ineligible patients with R/R PTCL; however, further investigation is required. Full article
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40 pages, 1511 KiB  
Article
TEOS-10 Equations for Determining the Lifted Condensation Level (LCL) and Climatic Feedback of Marine Clouds
by Rainer Feistel and Olaf Hellmuth
Oceans 2024, 5(2), 312-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans5020020 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
At an energy flux imbalance of about 1 W m–2, the ocean stores 90% of the heat accumulating by global warming. However, neither the causes of this nor the responsible geophysical processes are sufficiently well understood. More detailed investigations of the [...] Read more.
At an energy flux imbalance of about 1 W m–2, the ocean stores 90% of the heat accumulating by global warming. However, neither the causes of this nor the responsible geophysical processes are sufficiently well understood. More detailed investigations of the different phenomena contributing to the oceanic energy balance are warranted. Here, the role of low-level marine clouds in the air–sea interaction is analysed. TEOS-10, the International Thermodynamic Equation of State of Seawater—2010, is exploited for a rigorous thermodynamic description of the climatic trends in the lifted condensation level (LCL) of the marine troposphere. Rising sea surface temperature (SST) at a constant relative humidity (RH) is elevating marine clouds, cooling the cloud base, and reducing downward thermal radiation. This LCL feedback effect is negative and counteracts ocean warming. At the current global mean SST of about 292 K, the net radiative heat flux from the ocean surface to the LCL cloud base is estimated to be 24 W m–2. Per degree of SST increase, this net flux is expected to be enhanced by almost 0.5 W m–2. The climatic LCL feedback effect is relevant for the ocean’s energy balance and may be rigorously thermodynamically modelled in terms of TEOS-10 equations. LCL height may serve as a remotely measured, sensitive estimate for the sea surface’s relative fugacity, or conventional relative humidity. Full article
15 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Popularity in Chinese Early Adolescents: A Focus Group Analysis
by Yan Li, Yunyi Long and Cixin Wang
Adolescents 2024, 4(2), 263-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents4020019 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Popularity is of great developmental significance to early adolescents for its implications on behavioral and adjustment outcomes. Although extensive research on popularity has been conducted in Western cultures, little is known about Chinese adolescents’ indigenous understanding of popularity. The current study examined Chinese [...] Read more.
Popularity is of great developmental significance to early adolescents for its implications on behavioral and adjustment outcomes. Although extensive research on popularity has been conducted in Western cultures, little is known about Chinese adolescents’ indigenous understanding of popularity. The current study examined Chinese early adolescents’ understanding of popularity using focus group interviews to explore the characteristics of popularity and unpopularity, as well as popularity determinants for boys and girls. We conducted interviews on six focus groups comprising 37 Chinese fifth and sixth graders (18 boys, 19 girls). Transcriptions were coded and analyzed through developing coding schemes that included emerged codes and categories. The results showed both cross-cultural similarities and culturally specific findings in adolescents’ perceptions of popularity characteristics and determinants. Specifically, sociability, academic performance, and prosocial behaviors served as major characteristics of popularity, whereas aggressive and disruptive behaviors were regarded as typical attributes of unpopularity. More importantly, culturally unique aspects of popularity characteristics were reported by Chinese adolescents, such as a strong sense of collective honor. When responding what would make a peer popular, Chinese early adolescents reported various behavioral, social, and cultural factors. Findings of this study underscore the importance of examining perceptions of popularity in consideration of the cultural context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging and Contemporary Issue in Adolescence)
12 pages, 3494 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Heating Oil and Tyre Pyrolysis Oil Combustion in an Evaporative Combustion Chamber
by István Péter Kondor
Fuels 2024, 5(2), 210-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels5020012 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
This research aims to delve into the intricacies of combustion processes, specifically focusing on heating oil and a blend of heating oil with Tire Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in a self-developed evaporative combustion chamber featuring steam injection. The primary objective is to scrutinize the [...] Read more.
This research aims to delve into the intricacies of combustion processes, specifically focusing on heating oil and a blend of heating oil with Tire Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in a self-developed evaporative combustion chamber featuring steam injection. The primary objective is to scrutinize the impact of steam injection on the combustion dynamics. Conducting a series of tests, the investigation involved the meticulous manipulation of stoichiometric ratios while introducing ambient air through gravity fuel flow. Subsequent iterations of these tests incorporated the introduction of steam into the ambient air stream. The examination encompassed the combustion of both heating oil and the TPO blend within the combustion chamber. The evaluation criteria comprised an in-depth analysis of flame characteristics, temperature distribution within the combustion chamber, and the quantification of emissions such as particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and water vapor (H2O). Throughout the experimentation phase, commercially available diesel fuel served as the primary fuel source. To facilitate the tests, the combustion chamber under scrutiny was seamlessly integrated into an AVL engine test bench system. Essential parameters, including fuel consumption, were meticulously gauged using an AVL 735 fuel flow meter, while fuel temperature was monitored using the AVL 745 fuel temperature conditioning system. The intake air, a crucial element in the combustion process, was quantified with precision using an AVL Flowsonix sensor. Emission measurements were conducted meticulously using state-of-the-art equipment, with gaseous emissions analyzed using an AVL FTIR AMA i60 exhaust gas analyzer. Simultaneously, soot emissions were quantified through employment of an AVL Micro Soot sensor. This comprehensive approach not only delves into the fundamental aspects of combustion but also extends its reach to the exploration of innovative techniques, such as steam injection, to enhance combustion efficiency and reduce emissions. The integration of advanced measurement tools ensures a robust and thorough analysis of the combustion process and its environmental implications. Full article
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15 pages, 987 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparison of Immediate Implantation into the Socket with and without Periapical Pathology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Alma Pranckeviciene, Inga Vaitkeviciene, Jolanta Siudikiene, Skaiste Poskeviciene and Vita Maciulskiene-Visockiene
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060893 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of immediate implants placed into fresh sockets with and without periapical pathology. Materials and Methods: After the search and review of the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of immediate implants placed into fresh sockets with and without periapical pathology. Materials and Methods: After the search and review of the literature in the electronic databases, 109 publications were achieved. The titles and abstracts of 66 publications were screened. After the evaluation of the full text of 22 publications, based on the inclusion criteria, six controlled clinical studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: The statistical calculation showed no heterogeneity among the studies included. The implant survival was 99.6% in the test (socket with periapical pathology) and control (socket without periapical pathology) groups of all the clinical trials. The results of the meta-analysis showed no statistically significant difference between test and control groups regarding the marginal bone level and the width of keratinized mucosa in all the studies. Other parameters indicating plaque level, bleeding on probing, and gingival recession also did not differ between test and control groups at the final follow-up in nearly all studies. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this systemic review and meta-analysis, the obtained data suggest that implants immediately placed into the extraction sockets of teeth exhibiting periapical pathology can be successfully osseointegrated for an extended period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
14 pages, 509 KiB  
Review
Assessing the Impact of Bilingualism on the Linguistic Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Greece: A Scoping Review
by Angelos Papadopoulos, Alexandra Prentza, Louiza Voniati, Dionysios Tafiadis, Nikolaos Trimmis and Panagiotis Plotas
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060894 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
(1) Background and Objectives: This review aims to identify the latest literature on the possible effect of bilingualism on the linguistic skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) residing in Greece. (2) Materials and Methods: The literature was searched in [...] Read more.
(1) Background and Objectives: This review aims to identify the latest literature on the possible effect of bilingualism on the linguistic skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) residing in Greece. (2) Materials and Methods: The literature was searched in the databases of Scopus and PubMed by selecting articles and by reviewing four studies published in peer-reviewed journals. This Scoping Review is based on the standards of PRISMA recommendations for scoping reviews, while the PCC framework was used as a guide to construct clear and meaningful objectives and eligibility criteria. (3) Results: The publications included in the review addressed a variety of language-related skills, including morphology, the syntax–pragmatics interface, narrative ability, as well as both receptive and expressive language skills. (4) Conclusions: Three out of four studies provide evidence that bilingual ASD children are not disadvantaged compared to monolingual peers but rather enjoy some benefits, to a certain extent, due to bilingualism. However, the number of the reviewed studies as well as the limitations of the studies themselves render this conclusion tentative. Additionally, the findings set guidelines that speech therapists, educators, psychologists, and doctors in the Greek context need to follow when treating or educating bilingual children with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atypical Autism: Causes, Diagnosis, and Support)
14 pages, 474 KiB  
Article
Early Intervention in Septic Arthritis of the Hand, Optimizing Patient Outcomes in Hand Infections—A Five-Year Retrospective Study
by Florin-Vlad Hodea, Andreea Grosu-Bularda, Razvan Nicolae Teodoreanu, Andrei Cretu, Vladut-Alin Ratoiu, Ioan Lascar and Sorin-Cristian Hariga
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060895 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Hand septic arthritis is a potentially debilitating condition that can significantly affect patient functionality and quality of life. Understanding the demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of this condition is crucial for its effective treatment and management. : This study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Hand septic arthritis is a potentially debilitating condition that can significantly affect patient functionality and quality of life. Understanding the demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of this condition is crucial for its effective treatment and management. : This study aimed to analyze the demographic and clinical profiles of patients with hand septic arthritis, to identify common microbial pathogens, and to evaluate the impact of various factors on clinical course and treatment outcomes. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study examined patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the hand, focusing on their demographic data, clinical presentation, causative organisms, treatment methods, and outcomes. Data on age, sex, cause of infection, affected sites, surgical interventions, microbiological findings, and patient outcomes were also collected. Results: This study found a higher prevalence of septic arthritis in males and identified bite as the predominant cause. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen. A large number of patients did not exhibit bacterial growth, and bacterial resistance did not significantly affect the outcome. Outcomes were statistically influenced by the timing of medical presentation and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and intervention are critical for effective management of hand septic arthritis. This study underscores the need for a comprehensive approach that considers patient demographic and clinical characteristics to optimize treatment outcomes. Awareness and preventive measures are essential to reduce the incidence and severity of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
26 pages, 1434 KiB  
Review
Hesperidin, a Potential Antiviral Agent against SARS-CoV-2: The Influence of Citrus Consumption on COVID-19 Incidence and Severity in China
by Adam Kowalczyk
Medicina 2024, 60(6), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60060892 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
This review examines hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, as a potential antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 pandemic has demanded an urgent need to search for effective antiviral compounds, including those of natural origin, such as hesperidin. The review provides a comprehensive analysis of [...] Read more.
This review examines hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, as a potential antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2. The COVID-19 pandemic has demanded an urgent need to search for effective antiviral compounds, including those of natural origin, such as hesperidin. The review provides a comprehensive analysis of the chemical properties, bioavailability and antiviral mechanisms of hesperidin, particularly its potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. A review of databases, including PubMedPico, Scopus and Web of Science, was conducted using specific keywords and search criteria in accordance with PRISMA (Re-porting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines between 2020 and 2024. Of the 207 articles, 37 were selected for the review. A key aspect is the correlation of in vitro, in silico and clinical studies on the antiviral effects of hesperidin with epidemiological data on citrus consumption in China during 2020–2024. The importance of integrating laboratory findings with actual consumption patterns to better understand the role of hesperidin in mitigating COVID-19 was highlighted, and an attempt was made to analyze epidemiological studies to examine the association between citrus juice consumption as a source of hesperidin and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 using China as an example. The review identifies consistencies and discrepancies between experimental and epidemiological data, highlighting the need to correlate the two fields to better understand the potential of hesperidin as an agent against SARS-CoV-2. Challenges and limitations in interpreting the results and future research perspectives in this area are discussed. The aim of this comprehensive review is to bridge the gap between experimental studies and epidemiological evidence and to contribute to the understanding of their correlation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
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19 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
Virtual Reality Applied to Heritage in Higher Education—Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate Usability, Learning, and Emotions
by Mario Corrales-Serrano, Pilar Merchán, María José Merchán and Emiliano Pérez
Heritage 2024, 7(6), 2792-2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage7060132 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2024
Abstract
Cultural heritage is one of the areas where Extended Reality is having a significant impact nowadays. Although often associated with entertainment, this technology has enormous educational potential when applied to heritage. Therefore, it is essential to implement monitoring tools in educational practice to [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage is one of the areas where Extended Reality is having a significant impact nowadays. Although often associated with entertainment, this technology has enormous educational potential when applied to heritage. Therefore, it is essential to implement monitoring tools in educational practice to assess its actual effectiveness. This article presents the process of generating and validating a statistical data collection instrument developed to evaluate a virtual reality experience created using the archaeological heritage of the ancient Roman city of Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). It can be easily adapted to evaluate similar experiences. The aim is to gauge the effectiveness of these experiences as a didactic resource. The questionnaire was subjected to an evaluation of its three dimensions. Content validity was analyzed through expert judgments, while applicability was tested by students. Finally, a series of statistical tests were conducted to verify construct reliability and internal consistency. Based on the results obtained and cross-referenced with the data provided by the literature, the suitability of this tool for collecting data on usability, learning, and emotions in virtual reality experiences is confirmed. Full article

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