Advancing Open Science
for more than 25 years
Supporting academic communities
since 1996
 
15 pages, 1111 KiB  
Article
Effect of Carrier Materials for Active Silver in Antibacterial Powder Coatings
Coatings 2024, 14(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings14030297 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Environmentally friendly powder coatings which have the advantages of being VOC-free, low-cost, and high-efficiency with a high recovery rate have been attracting increasing research attention. The introduction of antibacterial agents into the powder coatings endows them with a capacity to kill bacteria and [...] Read more.
Environmentally friendly powder coatings which have the advantages of being VOC-free, low-cost, and high-efficiency with a high recovery rate have been attracting increasing research attention. The introduction of antibacterial agents into the powder coatings endows them with a capacity to kill bacteria and viruses on the surface of objects; additionally, this enables them to inhibit the indirect transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Silver, possessing broad-spectrum, strong, and stable antibacterial properties, is considered to be a promising antibacterial material for use in coating applications. Carrier materials for active silver play an important role in its activity and stability. However, there is a lack of systematic studies on the effects of different types of carriers in such coating systems, especially in green powder coating systems. In this paper, we investigated two types of carriers for active silver agents: zeolite, i.e., Linde type A (LTA) zeolite and Y-type zeolite; clay-based materials, i.e., montmorillonite and vermiculite. All the agents showed high antibacterial activity, with antibacterial rates of over 99% as compared to commercial agents. Among the four agents, the Ag-LTA zeolite antimicrobial agent showed a reduction rate of over 99.99%; additionally, it maintained a reduction rate of 99% after seven washing cycles. Thus, this agent was demonstrated to have the highest effectiveness and high durability; these features can be attributed to the high silver content and small particle size. The LTA zeolite also provides a protective effect for silver ions, protecting them from reduction, due to the restriction of elemental silver formation within the confined interior space of the α-cage structure. The Y-type zeolite antimicrobial agent exhibited a slightly lower antimicrobial performance due to its higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio and its lower cation exchange capacity. Comparatively, antimicrobial agents utilizing clay-based carriers have lower cation exchange capacity, resulting in poorer antimicrobial effectiveness than zeolite carriers. In addition, silver loaded on clay-based materials is prone to detach from the carrier and undergo a reduction reaction, making the coating yellowish in color. This study first provides information on the roles of different types of carriers in powder coating systems; then, this information guides the selection of carriers for active silver for the development of efficient antimicrobial agents and coatings. Full article
5 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Emergency Medicine: Clinical Advances and Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment
J. Pers. Med. 2024, 14(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm14030263 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
The development of Emergency Medicine brings various challenges [...] Full article
6 pages, 1230 KiB  
Short Note
(N,N′-Di-tert-butyl-S-phenylsulfinimidamidato-κNN′)-chlorogermanium-κGe-chloro(η2,η2-cycloocta-1,5-diene)rhodium
Molbank 2024, 2024(1), M1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/M1781 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
The title complex [{PhS(tBuN)2}(Cl)Ge:→RhCl(cod)] (2) was synthesized by the reaction of three-coordinated chlorogermylene, [PhS(tBuN)2]GeCl (1), supported by a diimidosulfinate ligand with a half equivalent of [RhCl(cod)]2 in benzene. The molecular [...] Read more.
The title complex [{PhS(tBuN)2}(Cl)Ge:→RhCl(cod)] (2) was synthesized by the reaction of three-coordinated chlorogermylene, [PhS(tBuN)2]GeCl (1), supported by a diimidosulfinate ligand with a half equivalent of [RhCl(cod)]2 in benzene. The molecular structure of 2 was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) analysis. The electronic property of germylene 1 was assessed by determining the Tolman electronic parameter of the corresponding cis-dicarbonyl Rh(I) complex, [{PhS(tBuN)2}(Cl)Ge:→RhCl(CO)2] (3), that was prepared by the treatment of 2 with carbon monoxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Determination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1107 KiB  
Review
The Evolution and Complications of Long-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices
Hearts 2024, 5(1), 105-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/hearts5010008 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Heart failure, a common clinical syndrome caused by functional and structural abnormalities of the heart, affects 64 million people worldwide. Long-term mechanical circulatory support can offer lifesaving treatment for end-stage systolic heart failure patients. However, this treatment is not without complications. This review [...] Read more.
Heart failure, a common clinical syndrome caused by functional and structural abnormalities of the heart, affects 64 million people worldwide. Long-term mechanical circulatory support can offer lifesaving treatment for end-stage systolic heart failure patients. However, this treatment is not without complications. This review covers the major complications associated with implantable mechanical circulatory support devices, including strokes, pump thrombosis and gastrointestinal bleeding. These complications were assessed in patients implanted with the following devices: Novacor, HeartMate XVE, CardioWest, Jarvik 2000, HeartMate II, EVAHEART, Incor, VentrAssist, HVAD and HeartMate 3. Complication rates vary among devices and remain despite the introduction of more advanced technology, highlighting the importance of device design and flow patterns. Beyond clinical implications, the cost of complications was explored, highlighting the difference in costs and the need for equitable healthcare, especially with the expected rise in the use of mechanical circulatory support. Future directions include continued improvement through advancements in design and technology to reduce blood stagnation and mitigate high levels of shear stress. Ultimately, these alterations can reduce complications and enhance cost-effectiveness, enhancing both the survival and quality of life for patients receiving mechanical circulatory support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanical Circulatory Support in Heart Failure)
23 pages, 4181 KiB  
Article
Application of Complex Neutrosophic Graphs in Hospital Infrastructure Design
Mathematics 2024, 12(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/math12050719 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Complex neutrosophic graphs are created by combining complex neutrosophic sets with graph theory ideas. This provides a flexible framework for tackling complex problem-solving circumstances. Various processes, such as union, join, and composition, are thoroughly investigated to improve the administration of complicated neutrosophic graphs. [...] Read more.
Complex neutrosophic graphs are created by combining complex neutrosophic sets with graph theory ideas. This provides a flexible framework for tackling complex problem-solving circumstances. Various processes, such as union, join, and composition, are thoroughly investigated to improve the administration of complicated neutrosophic graphs. This research also looks into the area of complicated neutrosophic graph homeomorphisms, investigating the transformations and mappings that occur inside these structures. This investigation advances our knowledge of the intrinsic features and linkages found in complicated neutrosophic graphs. Finally, our methodology’s practical usefulness is demonstrated by its use in the design of hospital infrastructure. We illustrate the effectiveness of complicated neutrosophic graphs in addressing difficult design concerns and optimizing infrastructure solutions for practical deployment in this real-world scenario. Full article
12 pages, 6175 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Mechanics and Valvular and Vascular Abnormalities in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051403 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is considered to be a rare myeloproliferative disease that is characterized by persistent eosinophilia with associated multiple-organ damage. The heart is often involved in HES, representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality. HES is a heterogeneous group of disorders; [...] Read more.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is considered to be a rare myeloproliferative disease that is characterized by persistent eosinophilia with associated multiple-organ damage. The heart is often involved in HES, representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality. HES is a heterogeneous group of disorders; the majority of the cases are idiopathic. Summarizing the findings regarding myocardial, valvular, and vascular abnormalities in a series of patients with HES, most studies found normal left ventricular (LV) volumes with reduced LV global longitudinal strain and LV apical rotation and twist in HES cases, accompanied by increased left atrial (LA) volumes and stroke volumes, reduced peak LA circumferential strain (representing systolic abnormalities), and mitral annular dilation and functional deterioration. Regarding the right heart, preserved right ventricular volumes and functional properties, increased right atrial volumes, mild RA functional abnormalities, and dilated tricuspid annular dimensions without functional impairment could be seen in these studies. Aortic and pulmonary valves showed no specific disease-related alterations. Vascular abnormalities included increased aortic stiffness without dilation of the aorta and pulmonary hypertension in some cases. These results suggest disease-specific but relatively mild myocardial, valvular, and vascular abnormalities in HES. The present review aimed to summarize the available clinical data about cardiac mechanics and valvular and vascular abnormalities in a series of patients with HES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Six-Hour Light–Dark Cycle on Wheat Ear Emergence, Grain Yield, and Flour Quality in Future Plant-Growing Systems
Foods 2024, 13(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050750 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Cultivating wheat (Triticum aestivum) in a closed environment offers applications in both indoor farming and in outer-space farming. Tailoring the photoperiod holds potential to shorten the growth cycle, thereby increasing the annual number of cycles. As wheat is a long-day plant, [...] Read more.
Cultivating wheat (Triticum aestivum) in a closed environment offers applications in both indoor farming and in outer-space farming. Tailoring the photoperiod holds potential to shorten the growth cycle, thereby increasing the annual number of cycles. As wheat is a long-day plant, a night shorter than a critical length is required to induce flowering. In growth chambers, experiments were conducted to examine the impact of a 6 h light–dark cycle on the timing of wheat ear emergence, grain yield, and flour quality. Under equal daily light-integral conditions, the 6 h light–dark cycle promoted growth and development, resulting in accelerated ear emergence when compared to a 12 h cycle, additionally indicating that 12 h of darkness was excessive. To further stimulate heading and increase yield, the 6 h cycle was changed at the onset of stem elongation to a 14 h–10 h, mimicking spring conditions, and maintained until maturity. This successful transition was then combined with two levels of light intensity and nutrient solution, which did not significantly impact yield, while tillering and grain ripening did increase under higher light intensities. Moreover, it enabled manipulation of the baking quality, although lower-end falling numbers were observed. In conclusion, combining a 6 h light–dark cycle until stem elongation with a 14 h–10 h cycle presents a promising strategy for increasing future wheat production in closed environments. The observation of low falling numbers underscores the importance of factoring in flour quality when designing the wheat-growing systems of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
17 pages, 5167 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Tribological Behaviour in Cutting Operations Using a Modified Ball-on-Disc Open Tribotester
Lubricants 2024, 12(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12030077 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Predicting the tribological behaviour in the secondary shear zone in the metal-cutting processes is considered a significant challenge in contemporary research. This work investigated the frictional performance in the secondary shear zone of a planing process using a modified ball-on-disc open tribometer. The [...] Read more.
Predicting the tribological behaviour in the secondary shear zone in the metal-cutting processes is considered a significant challenge in contemporary research. This work investigated the frictional performance in the secondary shear zone of a planing process using a modified ball-on-disc open tribometer. The values of the coefficient of friction (COF) were tracked between an AISI4140 + QT disc (chip) and a cemented carbide ball (cutting tool) coated with TiAlN under three contact pressures of 0.5, 1, and 2 GPa at a range of sliding speeds starting from 0.2 m/s to 1.6 m/s. The tests were conducted under both dry and lubricated conditions using three commercial cutting fluids of CSF 35 straight oil, Vasco 6000, and Zubora 67H emulsions. Also, the MWFs were tested for their rheological properties and wettability. The tribometer results validated the same COF trend as that in the actual metal-cutting experiments, particularly at 0.5 and 1 GPa in dry conditions. Moreover, Zubora 67H emulsion is proven to be the optimal choice due to it reducing the COF between the rubbing contacts by up to 78%. Furthermore, it showed the lowest contact angle and viscosity index, revealing its ability to easily penetrate, especially at higher temperatures, within the secondary cutting zone. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 759 KiB  
Review
Current Understanding of Equine Gut Dysbiosis and Microbiota Manipulation Techniques: Comparison with Current Knowledge in Other Species
Animals 2024, 14(5), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14050758 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Understanding the importance of intestinal microbiota in horses and the factors influencing its composition have been the focus of many studies over the past few years. Factors such as age, diet, antibiotic administration, and geographic location can affect the gut microbiota. The intra- [...] Read more.
Understanding the importance of intestinal microbiota in horses and the factors influencing its composition have been the focus of many studies over the past few years. Factors such as age, diet, antibiotic administration, and geographic location can affect the gut microbiota. The intra- and inter-individual variability of fecal microbiota in horses complicates its interpretation and has hindered the establishment of a clear definition for dysbiosis. Although a definitive causal relationship between gut dysbiosis in horses and diseases has not been clearly identified, recent research suggests that dysbiosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of various conditions, such as colitis and asthma. Prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation to modulate the horse’s gastrointestinal tract may eventually be considered a valuable tool for preventing or treating diseases, such as antibiotic-induced colitis. This article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the importance of intestinal microbiota in horses and factors influencing its composition, and also to review the published literature on methods for detecting dysbiosis while discussing the efficacy of gut microbiota manipulation in horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Equids)
20 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
The Role of Sulfuric Acid, Abiotic–Organic Acids, and Biotic Acids on Serpentinite Dissolution and Trace Metal Release
Minerals 2024, 14(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14030256 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Organic acids produced by biota have been shown to accelerate the dissolution of minerals, possibly creating biosignatures in either reacting solutions or the solid materials. We tested aqueous alteration of serpentinite in three groups of solutions: inorganic acids, organic acids created through abiotic [...] Read more.
Organic acids produced by biota have been shown to accelerate the dissolution of minerals, possibly creating biosignatures in either reacting solutions or the solid materials. We tested aqueous alteration of serpentinite in three groups of solutions: inorganic acids, organic acids created through abiotic processes (termed “abiotic–organics”), and organic acids created through biotic processes (termed “biotic acids”) over a range of temperatures relevant to conditions on Mars and Europa. A total of 48 batch reactor experiments were carried out at 0 °C, 22 °C, and 62 °C in 16 different acids at pH 2.6 over 28 days. Additional experiments were conducted in sulfuric acid solutions to assess aqueous alteration in sulfate-rich environments. These results show that biotic acids accelerate serpentinite dissolution compared to the control inorganic acid, whereas abiotic–organic acids have little or no effect. Sulfuric acid enhances serpentinite dissolution over nitric acid. Secondary precipitates found in the presence of biotic acids were consistently enhanced in Mn, Ti, and W. We propose that these preferentially released elements and secondary minerals may be potential biosignatures. We also show that the release of the rock-forming elements Mg and Si is correlated with stability constants for the metal–acid aqueous complex, providing a possible mechanistic interpretation of the observed results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Serpentinization)
36 pages, 2078 KiB  
Review
MXene-Based Chemo-Sensors and Other Sensing Devices
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14050447 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
MXenes have received worldwide attention across various scientific and technological fields since the first report of the synthesis of Ti3C2 nanostructures in 2011. The unique characteristics of MXenes, such as superior mechanical strength and flexibility, liquid-phase processability, tunable surface functionality, [...] Read more.
MXenes have received worldwide attention across various scientific and technological fields since the first report of the synthesis of Ti3C2 nanostructures in 2011. The unique characteristics of MXenes, such as superior mechanical strength and flexibility, liquid-phase processability, tunable surface functionality, high electrical conductivity, and the ability to customize their properties, have led to the widespread development and exploration of their applications in energy storage, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, and environmental technologies. The significant growth in publications related to MXenes over the past decade highlights the extensive research interest in this material. One area that has a great potential for improvement through the integration of MXenes is sensor design. Strain sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, biosensors (both optical and electrochemical), gas sensors, and environmental pollution sensors targeted at volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could all gain numerous improvements from the inclusion of MXenes. This report delves into the current research landscape, exploring the advancements in MXene-based chemo-sensor technologies and examining potential future applications across diverse sensor types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
19 pages, 4443 KiB  
Article
Bioleaching of Mine Tailings by Mesophilic: Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum Ferrooxidans, and Thermophilic: Sulfobacillus Thermosulfidooxidans Cultures with the Addition of Ag+ Additive
Minerals 2024, 14(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14030255 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
This research focused on applying and comparing the performance of microorganisms with different temperature preferences, assessing the overall percentage recovery of elements (copper, zinc, arsenic, and iron) from mine tailings in the Staré Ransko region (Czech Republic). The study examined the solubilisation process [...] Read more.
This research focused on applying and comparing the performance of microorganisms with different temperature preferences, assessing the overall percentage recovery of elements (copper, zinc, arsenic, and iron) from mine tailings in the Staré Ransko region (Czech Republic). The study examined the solubilisation process using a mesophilic mixed bacterial culture, including Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (AF), Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (AT), Leptospirillum ferrooxidans (LF), and the thermophilic species Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (ST). Under biotic conditions, constant process parameters were maintained, including a particle size of 71–100 µm, a pH value of 1.8, agitation at 150 rpm, and a pulp density of 10% (w/v). The only exception was the temperature, which varied for optimal multiplication of cultures (30 °C/50 °C). Additionally, the research examined the impact of AgNO3 additive at a concentration of Ag+ ions of 5 mg·L−1. The research focused on the solubilisation of Cu, Zn, Fe, and As and the results demonstrated that the application of microorganisms ST, combined with the action of Ag+ ions, enhanced the kinetics of the extraction process, leading to the highest final recovery of all elements (Cu 91.93%, Zn 85.67%, As 69.16%, and Fe 71.72%) under the specified conditions. The study observed that the most significant increase in solubilisation can be attributed to the additive cation in the case of copper (AF, AT, LF/Ag+ by 40.33%; ST/Ag+ by 44.39%) and arsenic (AF, AT, LF/Ag+ by 23.79%; ST/Ag+ by 26.08%). Notably, the intensification of leaching using thermophilic bacteria at a constant suspension temperature of 50 °C was primarily determined for Zn (ST by 18.36%, ST/Ag+ by 14.24%). After 24 days of extraction, the emergence of secondary minerals, namely CaSO4·2H2O and KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, was identified. The study highlighted a significant increase in the extraction mechanism kinetics due to the influence of microorganisms, contrasting with the low solubilities observed under abiotic conditions (Cu 9.00%, Zn 14.17%, As 4.28%, Fe 6.23%). Full article
17 pages, 621 KiB  
Review
Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(5), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13051401 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
In Japan, the aging of the population is rapidly accelerating, with an increase in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those undergoing dialysis. As a result, the number of individuals with cognitive impairment (CI) is rising, and addressing this issue has become [...] Read more.
In Japan, the aging of the population is rapidly accelerating, with an increase in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those undergoing dialysis. As a result, the number of individuals with cognitive impairment (CI) is rising, and addressing this issue has become an urgent problem. A notable feature of dementia in CKD patients is the high frequency of vascular dementia, making its prevention through the management of classical risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, etc., associated with atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Other effective measures, including the use of renin–angiotensin system inhibitors, addressing anemia, exercise therapy, and lifestyle improvements, have been reported. The incidence and progression of CI may also be influenced by the type of kidney replacement therapy, with reports suggesting that long-duration dialysis, low-temperature hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation can have a preferable effect on the preservation of cognitive function. In conclusion, patients with CKD are at a higher risk of developing CI, with brain atrophy being a contributing factor. Despite the identification of various preventive measures, the evidence substantiating their efficacy remains limited across all studies. Future expectations lie in large-scale randomized controlled trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Brain Injury)
36 pages, 5127 KiB  
Article
High Aspect Ratio Composite Wings: Geometrically Nonlinear Aeroelasticity, Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization, Manufacturing, and Experimental Testing
Aerospace 2024, 11(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11030193 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
In the field of aerospace engineering, the design and manufacturing of high aspect ratio composite wings has become a focal point of innovation and efficiency. These long, slender wings, constructed with advanced materials such as carbon fiber and employing efficient manufacturing methods such [...] Read more.
In the field of aerospace engineering, the design and manufacturing of high aspect ratio composite wings has become a focal point of innovation and efficiency. These long, slender wings, constructed with advanced materials such as carbon fiber and employing efficient manufacturing methods such as vacuum bagging, hold the promise of significantly lighter aircraft, reduced fuel consumption, and enhanced overall performance. However, to fully realize these benefits, it is imperative to address a multitude of structural and aeroelastic constraints. This research presents a novel aeroelastically tailored Multi-objective, Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) approach that seamlessly integrates numerical optimization techniques to minimize weight and ensure structural integrity. The optimized wing configuration is then manufactured, and a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) and static deflection analysis using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system are used to validate and correlate with the numerical model. Within the fully automated in-house Nonlinear Aeroelastic Simulation Software (NAS2) package (version v1.0), the integration of analytical tools offers a robust numerical approach for enhancing aeroelastic and structural performance in the design of composite wings. Nonlinear aeroelastic analyses and tailoring are included, and a population-based stochastic optimization is used to determine the optimum design within NAS2. These analytical tools contribute to a comprehensive and efficient methodology for designing composite wings with improved aeroelastic and structural characteristics. This comprehensive methodology aims to produce composite wings that not only meet rigorous safety and performance standards but also drive cost-efficiency in the aerospace industry. Through this multidisciplinary approach, the authors seek to underscore the pivotal role of tailoring aeroelastic solutions in the advanced design and manufacturing of high aspect ratio composite wings, thereby contributing to the continued evolution of aerospace technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerostructural Analysis, Design, and Optimization)
23 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
The Cocktail Effects on the Acute Cytotoxicity of Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals Frequently Detected in the Environment
Toxics 2024, 12(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12030189 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Xenobiotics never appear as single, isolated substances in the environment but instead as multi-component mixtures. However, our understanding of the ecotoxicology of mixtures is far from sufficient. In this study, three active pharmaceutical ingredients (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) and three pesticides (S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine, [...] Read more.
Xenobiotics never appear as single, isolated substances in the environment but instead as multi-component mixtures. However, our understanding of the ecotoxicology of mixtures is far from sufficient. In this study, three active pharmaceutical ingredients (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) and three pesticides (S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine, and tebuconazole) from the most frequently detected emerging micropollutants were examined for their acute cytotoxicity, both individually and in combination, by bioluminescence inhibition in Aliivibrio fischeri (NRRL B-11177). Synergy, additive effects, and antagonism on cytotoxicity were determined using the combination index (CI) method. Additionally, PERMANOVA was performed to reveal the roles of these chemicals in binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary, and senary mixtures influencing the joint effects. Statistical analysis revealed a synergistic effect of diclofenac and carbamazepine, both individually and in combination within the mixtures. Diclofenac also exhibited synergy with S-metolachlor and when mixed with ibuprofen and S-metolachlor. S-metolachlor, whether alone or paired with ibuprofen or diclofenac, increased the toxicity at lower effective concentrations in the mixtures. Non-toxic terbuthylazine showed great toxicity-enhancing ability, especially at low concentrations. Several combinations displayed synergistic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. The application of PERMANOVA was proven to be unique and successful in determining the roles of compounds in synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects in mixtures at different effective concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
19 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Antioxidant Activity of Ascorbic Acid-Containing Gelatin Nanoparticles in Simulated Chronic Wound Conditions
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030299 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Chronic wounds differ from acute wounds by remaining in the inflammatory phase for a long time. This chronic inflammation confers a high concentration of inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and ROS. Likewise, the pH environment of chronic wounds has been recorded within the range of [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds differ from acute wounds by remaining in the inflammatory phase for a long time. This chronic inflammation confers a high concentration of inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and ROS. Likewise, the pH environment of chronic wounds has been recorded within the range of 7.2–8.9 due to the alkaline by-products of bacterial proliferation. In this work, differences in pH between healthy skin and chronic cutaneous wounds have been used for the design and development of pH-responsive gelatin-based nanoparticles (NPs). Ascorbic acid (AA), as an antioxidant compound that can neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been the therapeutic model compound included in these NPs. The goal of the present work has been the preparation and characterization (physicochemical and biological properties) of NPs for the effective release of AA under simulated chronic wound conditions. In vitro experiments demonstrated total AA release at pH corresponding to the chronic wounds. The biocompatible character of these gelatin-based NPs based on their hemolytic and cytotoxicity responses has been highlighted under in vitro conditions. The reversible and protective antioxidant properties of the AA-including NPs in erythrocytes and skin cell lines, respectively, have been confirmed to be modulated by the gelatin A gel strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles with Antioxidant Activity)
21 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Effects of Blood-Derived Products on Cellular Senescence and Inflammatory Response: A Study on Skin Rejuvenation
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(3), 1865-1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46030122 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Blood-derived products, such as citrate platelet-rich plasma (CPRP) and hyperacute serum (HAS), are recognized for their rich growth factor content. When human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are exposed to combined mitogenic and DNA-damaging stimuli, it can lead to an increased burden of senescent [...] Read more.
Blood-derived products, such as citrate platelet-rich plasma (CPRP) and hyperacute serum (HAS), are recognized for their rich growth factor content. When human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are exposed to combined mitogenic and DNA-damaging stimuli, it can lead to an increased burden of senescent cells and a modified senescence-associated secretory phenotype. In this study, the senescent state was comprehensively assessed through various methods, including phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) staining, p21 and p16 q-PCR, p21-western blot, growth curves, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase staining. Two primary treatments with blood products were administered, one early (immediately after etoposide) and the other late (11 days after etoposide treatment). The effects of the blood product treatment were evaluated by measuring interleukin 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8) levels, as well as collagen 1 (COL1) and p21 mRNA expression. Additionally, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assays, cell size measurements, viability assays, and cell number calculations were conducted. The results revealed that cells treated with hyperacute serum in the early treatment phase exhibited the lowest observed IL-6 and IL-8 levels. In contrast, a clear inflammatory response for IL-8 was observed in cells treated with hyperacute serum and citrate platelet-rich plasma during the late treatment. Furthermore, an upregulation of COL1 expression was observed in the early treatment, while cells in the late treatment group remained unaffected. Notably, citrate platelet-rich plasma-treated cells showed a decrease in COL1 expression. Overall, the treatment with blood products appears to have slightly positive effects on skin rejuvenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
13 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antimycotic Activity and Structural Damage against Canine Malassezia pachydermatis Strains Caused by Mexican Stingless Bee Propolis
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030106 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
This work describes the antimycotic activity of propolis from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana and Tetragonisca angustula, collected from two Mexican regions (Veracruz and Chiapas, respectively), against three clinical isolates and the reference strain ATCC 14522 of Malassezia pachydermatis, the causative [...] Read more.
This work describes the antimycotic activity of propolis from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana and Tetragonisca angustula, collected from two Mexican regions (Veracruz and Chiapas, respectively), against three clinical isolates and the reference strain ATCC 14522 of Malassezia pachydermatis, the causative agent of canine otitis. The chemical components of the ethanolic extracts of propolis were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and sesquiterpenes were the predominant compounds. The antimycotic activity was evaluated by plate microdilution. The induced changes in the yeasts were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and staining with calcofluor white and propidium iodide. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 7.11 mg/mL, and the minimum fungicidal concentration was 21.33 mg/mL for both extracts. The EPPs of Scaptotrigona mexicana and Tetragonisca angustula caused substantial damage to yeast morphology, where the propidium iodide staining of the yeasts treated with both EEPs revealed the penetration of this marker, which indicates the destruction of the cell wall and plasma membrane of the fungi. This result suggests that these types of propolis could be used as alternative treatments for canine external otitis. To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first scientific report that has demonstrated structural damage in Malassezia pachydermatis by Mexican stingless bee propolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use in Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
Non-Necroptotic Roles of MLKL in Diet-Induced Obesity, Liver Pathology, and Insulin Sensitivity: Insights from a High-Fat, High-Fructose, High-Cholesterol Diet Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052813 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Chronic inflammation is a key player in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) progression. Necroptosis, an inflammatory cell death pathway, is elevated in MAFLD patients and mouse models, yet its role is unclear due to the diverse mouse models and inhibition strategies. In [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation is a key player in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) progression. Necroptosis, an inflammatory cell death pathway, is elevated in MAFLD patients and mouse models, yet its role is unclear due to the diverse mouse models and inhibition strategies. In our study, we inhibited necroptosis by targeting mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), the terminal effector of necroptosis, in a high-fat, high-fructose, high-cholesterol (HFHFrHC) mouse model of diet-induced MAFLD. Despite the HFHFrHC diet upregulating MLKL (2.5-fold), WT mice livers showed no increase in necroptosis markers or associated proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, Mlkl−/− mice experienced exacerbated liver inflammation without protection from diet-induced liver damage, steatosis, or fibrosis. In contrast, Mlkl+/− mice showed a significant reduction in these parameters that was associated with elevated Pparα and Pparγ levels. Both Mlkl−/− and Mlkl+/− mice on the HFHFrHC diet resisted diet-induced obesity, attributed to the increased beiging, enhanced oxygen consumption, and energy expenditure due to adipose tissue, and exhibited improved insulin sensitivity. These findings highlight the tissue-specific effects of MLKL on the liver and adipose tissue, and they suggest a dose-dependent effect of MLKL on liver pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7016 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Rewiring and Altered Glial Differentiation in an iPSC-Derived Astrocyte Model Derived from a Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia Patient
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052814 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
The pathophysiology of nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), a rare neuro-metabolic disorder associated with severe brain malformations and life-threatening neurological manifestations, remains incompletely understood. Therefore, a valid human neural model is essential. We aimed to investigate the impact of GLDC gene variants, which cause NKH, [...] Read more.
The pathophysiology of nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), a rare neuro-metabolic disorder associated with severe brain malformations and life-threatening neurological manifestations, remains incompletely understood. Therefore, a valid human neural model is essential. We aimed to investigate the impact of GLDC gene variants, which cause NKH, on cellular fitness during the differentiation process of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into iPSC-derived astrocytes and to identify sustainable mechanisms capable of overcoming GLDC deficiency. We developed the GLDC27-FiPS4F-1 line and performed metabolomic, mRNA abundance, and protein analyses. This study showed that although GLDC27-FiPS4F-1 maintained the parental genetic profile, it underwent a metabolic switch to an altered serine–glycine–one-carbon metabolism with a coordinated cell growth and cell cycle proliferation response. We then differentiated the iPSCs into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and astrocyte-lineage cells. Our analysis showed that GLDC-deficient NPCs had shifted towards a more heterogeneous astrocyte lineage with increased expression of the radial glial markers GFAP and GLAST and the neuronal markers MAP2 and NeuN. In addition, we detected changes in other genes related to serine and glycine metabolism and transport, all consistent with the need to maintain glycine at physiological levels. These findings improve our understanding of the pathology of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and offer new perspectives for therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Inherited Metabolic Disorders 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 12681 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of the Hillside Iron Oxide–Copper–Gold Deposit
Minerals 2024, 14(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14030254 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
We conduct an exploration-scale ambient noise tomography (ANT) survey over the Hillside Iron Oxide–Copper–Gold (IOCG) deposit in South Australia, leveraging Fleet’s direct-to-satellite technology for real-time data analysis. The acquisition array consisted of 100 sensors spaced 260 m apart which recorded continuous vertical-component seismic [...] Read more.
We conduct an exploration-scale ambient noise tomography (ANT) survey over the Hillside Iron Oxide–Copper–Gold (IOCG) deposit in South Australia, leveraging Fleet’s direct-to-satellite technology for real-time data analysis. The acquisition array consisted of 100 sensors spaced 260 m apart which recorded continuous vertical-component seismic ambient noise for 14 days. High quality Rayleigh wave signals, with a mean signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40, were recovered in the frequency band 1–4 Hz after processing the recorded data between 0.1–9 Hz. Our modelling results capture aspects of the deposit’s known geology, including depth of cover, structures linked to mineralisation, and the mineralised host rock, down to approximately 1 km depth. We compare our velocity model with existing magnetic, gravity, induced polarisation and drilling data, showing strong correlation with each. We identify several new features of the local geology, including the behaviour of key structures down to 1 km, and highlight the significance of a Cambrian-age dolomite that cuts across the main structural corridor that hosts the Hillside deposit. An analysis of model convergence rates with respect to Rayleigh wave SNRs shows that real-time data analysis can reduce recording duration at the site by 65% compared to traditional deployment durations, from ∼14 days to ∼5 days. Finally, we conclude by commenting on the efficacy of the ANT technique for the exploration of IOCG systems more broadly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismics in Mineral Exploration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5116 KiB  
Article
Classification of Plant Leaf Disease Recognition Based on Self-Supervised Learning
Agronomy 2024, 14(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14030500 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Accurate identification of plant diseases is a critical task in agricultural production. The existing deep learning crop disease recognition methods require a large number of labeled images for training, limiting the implementation of large-scale detection. To overcome this limitation, this study explores the [...] Read more.
Accurate identification of plant diseases is a critical task in agricultural production. The existing deep learning crop disease recognition methods require a large number of labeled images for training, limiting the implementation of large-scale detection. To overcome this limitation, this study explores the application of self-supervised learning (SSL) in plant disease recognition. We propose a new model that combines a masked autoencoder (MAE) and a convolutional block attention module (CBAM) to alleviate the harsh requirements of large amounts of labeled data. The performance of the model was validated on the CCMT dataset and our collected dataset. The results show that the improved model achieves an accuracy of 95.35% and 99.61%, recall of 96.2% and 98.51%, and F1 values of 95.52% and 98.62% on the CCMT dataset and our collected dataset, respectively. Compared with ResNet50, ViT, and MAE, the accuracies on the CCMT dataset improved by 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively, and the accuracy of our collected dataset improved by 1.3%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Through experiments on 21 leaf diseases (early blight, late blight, leaf blight, leaf spot, etc.) of five crops, namely, potato, maize, tomato, cashew, and cassava, our model achieved accurate and rapid detection of plant disease categories. This study provides a reference for research work and engineering applications in crop disease detection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 420 KiB  
Article
Evidence of a Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) Phase in B. abortus S19 under Oxidative stress (H2O2, -Fe2+, Bleach) and under Non-Oxidative Inhibitory Conditions (Isopropanol, Erythritol, Selenite)
Microorganisms 2024, 12(3), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12030491 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
The effect of oxidative stress on the survival of various Brucella species has not been fully investigated yet. We here conducted a study in which we investigated the effect of different types of oxidative stress (Fe2+, H2O2, [...] Read more.
The effect of oxidative stress on the survival of various Brucella species has not been fully investigated yet. We here conducted a study in which we investigated the effect of different types of oxidative stress (Fe2+, H2O2, bleach) versus non-oxidative inhibitory effects (selenite, erythritol, and isopropanol) on the survival of B. abortus S19, B. abortus S19 ∆mglA 3.14, and B. neotomae 5k33. The work focuses on the appearance of ATP–CFU quotient imbalances indicating the existence of a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) form of B. abortus S19, as has previously been shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Control Strategies for Brucellosis)
14 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Developmental and Nutritional Changes in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Provided with n-3 Fatty Acids Improved Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food and Psychosocial Support: A Pilot Study in Tanzania
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050692 (registering DOI) - 28 Feb 2024
Abstract
Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are at high risk of impaired development. Contributing causes include the inadequate intake of specific nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a lack of adequate stimulation. We conducted a pilot study assessing developmental and nutritional [...] Read more.
Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are at high risk of impaired development. Contributing causes include the inadequate intake of specific nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a lack of adequate stimulation. We conducted a pilot study assessing developmental and nutritional changes in children with SAM provided with a modified ready-to-use therapeutic food and context-specific psychosocial intervention in Mwanza, Tanzania. We recruited 82 children with SAM (6–36 months) and 88 sex- and age-matched non-malnourished children. We measured child development, using the Malawi Development Assessment Tool (MDAT), measures of family and maternal care for children, and whole-blood PUFA levels. At baseline, the mean total MDAT z-score of children with SAM was lower than non-malnourished children; −2.37 (95% confidence interval: −2.92; −1.82), as were their total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. After 8 weeks of intervention, MDAT z-scores improved in all domains, especially fine motor, among children with SAM. Total n-3 and EPA levels increased, total n-6 fatty acids decreased, and DHA remained unchanged. Family and maternal care also improved. The suggested benefits of the combined interventions on the developmental and nutritional status of children with SAM will be tested in a future trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Collection: Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)

Open Access Journals

Browse by Indexing Browse by Subject Selected Journals
Back to TopTop