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Open AccessArticle
Aerosol from Biomass Combustion in Northern Europe: Influence of Meteorological Conditions and Air Mass History
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120789 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Alkali-containing submicron particles were measured continuously during three months, including late winter and spring seasons in Gothenburg, Sweden. The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for [...] Read more.
Alkali-containing submicron particles were measured continuously during three months, including late winter and spring seasons in Gothenburg, Sweden. The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for atmospheric concentrations in the urban background environment. K and Na concentrations in the particulate matter PM1 size range were measured by an Alkali aerosol mass spectrometer (Alkali-AMS) and a cluster analysis was conducted. Local meteorological conditions and trace gas and PM concentrations were also obtained for a nearby location. In addition, back trajectory analyses and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations were included for the evaluation. The Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: (1) biomass burning origin, (2) mixture of other combustion sources, and (3) marine origin. Low temperatures and low wind speed conditions correlated with high concentrations of K-containing particles, mainly owing to local and regional emissions from residential biomass combustion; transport of air masses from continental Europe also contribute to Cluster 1. The CTM results indicate that open biomass burning in the eastern parts of Europe may have contributed substantially to high PM2.5 concentrations (and to Cluster 1) during an episode in late March. According to the CTM results, the mixed cluster (2) is likely to include particles emitted from different source types and no single geographical source region seems to dominate for this cluster. The back trajectory analysis and meteorological conditions indicated that the marine origin cluster was correlated with westerly winds and high wind speed; this cluster had high concentrations of Na-containing particles, as expected for sea salt particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Myelin Sheath Maintains the Spatiotemporal Fidelity of Action Potentials by Eliminating the Effect of Quantum Tunneling of Potassium Ions through the Closed Channels of the Neuronal Membrane
Quantum Reports 2019, 1(2), 287-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum1020026 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
The myelin sheath facilitates action potential conduction along the axons, however, the mechanism by which myelin maintains the spatiotemporal fidelity and limits the hyperexcitability among myelinated neurons requires further investigation. Therefore, in this study, the model of quantum tunneling of potassium ions through [...] Read more.
The myelin sheath facilitates action potential conduction along the axons, however, the mechanism by which myelin maintains the spatiotemporal fidelity and limits the hyperexcitability among myelinated neurons requires further investigation. Therefore, in this study, the model of quantum tunneling of potassium ions through the closed channels is used to explore this function of myelin. According to the present calculations, when an unmyelinated neuron fires, there is a probability of that it will induce an action potential in other unmyelinated neurons, and this probability varies according to the type of channels involved, the channels density in the axonal membrane, and the surface area available for tunneling. The myelin sheath forms a thick barrier that covers the potassium channels and prevents ions from tunneling through them to induce action potential. Hence, it confines the action potentials spatiotemporally and limits the hyperexcitability. On the other hand, lack of myelin, as in unmyelinated neurons or demyelinating diseases, exposes potassium channels to tunneling by potassium ions and induces the action potential. This approach gives different perspectives to look at the interaction between neurons and explains how quantum physics might play a role in the actions occurring in the nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Aspects of Physiology)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Powder Mixture Composition on The Deposition Efficiency in Cold Spay: Modelling and Experimental Validation
Coatings 2019, 9(12), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9120832 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this paper, a new semiempirical probability model, allowing for prediction of the composition of multimaterial cold spray coating in dependence on the initial percentage of blend components, is developed and applied. The proposed modeling approach takes into account the deposition efficiencies and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new semiempirical probability model, allowing for prediction of the composition of multimaterial cold spray coating in dependence on the initial percentage of blend components, is developed and applied. The proposed modeling approach takes into account the deposition efficiencies and the particle sizes of each component of the spraying powder blend. The experimental validation using several Cu/Cr2C3NiCr mixtures with different percentages of copper and cermet powders showed that the simulation results were in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was demonstrated that the deposition efficiency of the Cr2C3NiCr cermet powder strongly decreased when its mass percentage in the Cu/Cr2C3NiCr mixture increased from 5% to 75%. It was also shown that the dependence of the Cr2C3NiCr content in the coating on the initial percentage in the blend was nonlinear and the standard rule of mixtures was not applicable for prediction of copper–cermet coating composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cold Spraying: Recent Trends and Future Views)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of the “BALatrine” Intervention on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Central Java, Indonesia: A Pilot Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040141 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Many latrine campaigns in developing countries fail to be sustained because the introduced latrine is not appropriate to local socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, and there is an inadequate community health education component. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine [...] Read more.
Many latrine campaigns in developing countries fail to be sustained because the introduced latrine is not appropriate to local socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions, and there is an inadequate community health education component. We tested a low-cost, locally designed and constructed all-weather latrine (the “BALatrine”), together with community education promoting appropriate hygiene-related behaviour, to determine whether this integrated intervention effectively controlled soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We undertook a pilot intervention study in two villages in Central Java, Indonesia. The villages were randomly allocated to either control or intervention with the intervention village receiving the BALatrine program and the control village receiving no program. STH-infection status was measured using the faecal flotation diagnostic method, before and eight months after the intervention. Over 8 months, the cumulative incidence of STH infection was significantly lower in the intervention village than in the control village: 13.4% vs. 27.5% (67/244 vs. 38/283, p < 0.001). The intervention was particularly effective among children: cumulative incidence 3.8% (2/53) for the intervention vs. 24.1% (13/54) for the control village (p < 0.001). The integrated BALatrine intervention was associated with a reduced incidence of STH infection. Following on from this pilot study, a large cluster-randomised controlled trial was commenced (ACTRN12613000523707). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Negative Control of Cell Migration by Rac1b in Highly Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Cells Is Mediated by Sequential Induction of Nonactivated Smad3 and Biglycan
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121959 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Expression of the small GTPase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1B (RAC1B), a RAC1-related member of the Rho GTPase family, in tumor tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown previously to correlate positively with patient survival, but the underlying mechanism(s) and [...] Read more.
Expression of the small GTPase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1B (RAC1B), a RAC1-related member of the Rho GTPase family, in tumor tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown previously to correlate positively with patient survival, but the underlying mechanism(s) and the target genes involved have remained elusive. Screening of a panel of established PDAC-derived cell lines by immunoblotting indicated that both RAC1B and Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) were more abundantly expressed in poorly metastatic and well-differentiated lines as opposed to highly metastatic, poorly differentiated ones. Both siRNA-mediated RAC1B knockdown in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-sensitive PDAC-derived cell lines, Panc1 and PaCa3, or CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout of exon 3b of RAC1 in Panc1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in the expression of SMAD3. Unexpectedly, the knockdown of SMAD3 reproduced the promigratory activity of a RAC1B knockdown in Panc1 and PaCa3, but not in TGF-β-resistant BxPC3 and Capan1 cells, while forced expression of SMAD3 alone was able to mimic the antimigratory effect of ectopic RAC1B overexpression in Panc1 cells. Moreover, overexpression of SMAD3 was able to rescue Panc1 cells from the RAC1B knockdown-induced increase in cell migration, while knockdown of SMAD3 prevented the RAC1B overexpression-induced decrease in cell migration. Using pharmacological and dominant-negative inhibition of SMAD3 C-terminal phosphorylation, we further show that the migration-inhibiting effect of SMAD3 is independent of its activation by TGF-β. Finally, we provide evidence that the antimigratory program of RAC1B-SMAD3 in Panc1 cells is executed through upregulation of the migration and TGF-β inhibitor, biglycan (BGN). Together, our data suggest that a RAC1B-SMAD3-BGN axis negatively controls cell migration and that SMAD3 can induce antimigratory genes, i.e., BGN independent of its role as a signal transducer for TGF-β. Therefore, targeting this novel pathway for activation is a potential therapeutic strategy in highly metastatic PDAC to interfere with invasion and metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pancreatic Cancer Research)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Alloying Element Segregation and Grain Boundary Reconstruction, Atomistic Modeling
Metals 2019, 9(12), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9121319 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Grain boundary (GB) segregation is an important phenomenon that affects many physical properties, as well as microstructure of polycrystals. The segregation of solute atoms on GBs and its effect on GB structure in Al were investigated using two approaches: First principles total energy [...] Read more.
Grain boundary (GB) segregation is an important phenomenon that affects many physical properties, as well as microstructure of polycrystals. The segregation of solute atoms on GBs and its effect on GB structure in Al were investigated using two approaches: First principles total energy calculations and the finite temperature large-scale atomistic modeling within hybrid MD/MC approach comprising molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the character of chemical bonding is essential in the solute–GB interaction, and that formation of directed quasi-covalent bonds between Si and Zn solutes and neighboring Al atoms causes a significant reconstruction of the GB structure involving a GB shear-migration coupling. For the solutes that are acceptors of electrons in the Al matrix and have a bigger atomic size (such as Mg), the preferred position is determined by the presence of extra volume at the GB and/or reduced number of the nearest neighbors; in this case, the symmetric GB keeps its structure. By using MD/MC approach, we found that GBs undergo significant structural reconstruction during segregation, which can involve the formation of single- or double-layer segregations, GB splitting, and coupled shear-migration, depending on the details of interatomic interactions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Benzyl Isothiocyanate Induces Apoptosis via Reactive Oxygen Species-Initiated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and DR4 and DR5 Death Receptor Activation in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120839 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is known to inhibit the metastasis of gastric cancer cells but further studies are needed to confirm its chemotherapeutic potential against gastric cancer. In this study, we observed cell shrinkage and morphological changes in one of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell [...] Read more.
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is known to inhibit the metastasis of gastric cancer cells but further studies are needed to confirm its chemotherapeutic potential against gastric cancer. In this study, we observed cell shrinkage and morphological changes in one of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines, the AGS cells, after BITC treatment. We performed 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5- diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, a cell viability assay, and found that BITC decreased AGS cell viability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analyses using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) revealed that BITC-induced cell death involved intracellular ROS production, which resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, cell viability was partially restored when BITC-treated AGS cells were preincubated with glutathione (GSH). Western blotting indicated that BITC regulated the expressions of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cytochrome c (Cyt c). In addition, BITC increased death receptor DR5 expression, and activated the cysteine-aspartic proteases (caspases) cascade. Overall, our results showed that BITC triggers apoptosis in AGS cells via the apoptotic pathways involved in ROS-promoted mitochondrial dysfunction and death receptor activation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Induction of NK Cell Reactivity against B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia by an Fc-Optimized FLT3 Antibody
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121966 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism by which antitumor antibodies mediate therapeutic efficacy. At present, we evaluate an Fc-optimized (amino acid substitutions S239D/I332E) FLT3 antibody termed 4G8-SDIEM (FLYSYN) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (NCT02789254). Here we studied the possibility to [...] Read more.
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism by which antitumor antibodies mediate therapeutic efficacy. At present, we evaluate an Fc-optimized (amino acid substitutions S239D/I332E) FLT3 antibody termed 4G8-SDIEM (FLYSYN) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (NCT02789254). Here we studied the possibility to induce NK cell ADCC against B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) by Fc-optimized FLT3 antibody treatment. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that FLT3 is widely expressed on B-ALL cell lines and leukemic cells of B-ALL patients. FLT3 expression did not correlate with that of CD20, which is targeted by Rituximab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) employed in B-ALL treatment regimens. Our FLT3 mAb with enhanced affinity to the Fc receptor CD16a termed 4G8-SDIE potently induced NK cell reactivity against FLT3-transfectants, the B-ALL cell line SEM and primary leukemic cells of adult B-ALL patients in a target-antigen dependent manner as revealed by analyses of NK cell activation and degranulation. This was mirrored by potent 4G8-SDIE mediated NK cell ADCC in experiments with FLT3-transfectants, the cell line SEM and primary cells as target cells. Taken together, the findings presented in this study provide evidence that 4G8-SDIE may be a promising agent for the treatment of B-ALL, particularly in CD20-negative cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Innate Immunity Cells in Cancer)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Advanced Constraints Management Strategy for Real-Time Optimization of Gas Turbine Engine Transient Performance
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5333; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245333 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Motivated by the growing technology of control and data processing as well as the increasingly complex designs of the new generation of gas turbine engines, a fully automatic control strategy that is capable of dealing with different aspects of operational and safety considerations [...] Read more.
Motivated by the growing technology of control and data processing as well as the increasingly complex designs of the new generation of gas turbine engines, a fully automatic control strategy that is capable of dealing with different aspects of operational and safety considerations is required to be implemented on gas turbine engines. An advanced practical control mode satisfaction method for the entire operating envelope of gas turbine engines is proposed in this paper to achieve the optimal transient performance for the engine. A constraint management strategy is developed to generate different controller settings for short-range fighters as well as long-range intercontinental aircraft engines at different operating conditions by utilizing a model predictive control approach. Then, the designed controller is tuned and modified with respect to different realistic considerations including the practicality, physical limitations, system dynamics, and computational efforts. The simulation results from a verified two-spool turbofan engine model and controller show that the proposed method is capable of maneuverability and/or fuel economy optimization indices while satisfying all the predefined constraints successfully. Based on the parameters, natural frequencies, and dynamic behavior of the system, a set of optimized weighting factors for different engine parameters is also proposed to achieve the optimal and safe operation for the engine at different flight conditions. The paper demonstrates the effects of the prediction length and control horizon; adding new constraints on the computational effort and the controller performance are also discussed in detail to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed approach in developing a fully automatic optimized real-time controller for gas turbine engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Software-Defined Radio for Future Wireless Communication Systems at 60 GHz
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121490 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper reports on a complete end-to-end 5G mmWave testbed fully reconfigurable based on a FPGA architecture. The proposed system is composed of a baseband/low-IF processing unit, and a mmWave RF front-end at both TX/RX ends. In particular, the baseband unit design is [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a complete end-to-end 5G mmWave testbed fully reconfigurable based on a FPGA architecture. The proposed system is composed of a baseband/low-IF processing unit, and a mmWave RF front-end at both TX/RX ends. In particular, the baseband unit design is based on a typical agile digital IF architecture, enabling on-the-fly modulations up to 256-QAM. The real-time 5G mmWave testbed, herein presented, adopts OFDM as the transmission scheme waveform, which was assessed OTA by considering the key performance indicators, namely EVM and BER. A detailed overview of system architecture is addressed together with the hardware considerations taken into account for the mmWave testbed development. Following this, it is demonstrated that the proposed testbed enables real-time multi-stream transmissions of UHD video content captured by nine individual cameras, which is in fact one of the killing applications for 5G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Millimeter-Wave (mmWave) Communications)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Organic Transformations with Silver Carbonate as a Key External Base and Oxidant
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9121032 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Silver carbonate (Ag2CO3), a common transition metal-based inorganic carbonate, is widely utilized in palladium-catalyzed C–H activations as an oxidant in the redox cycle. Silver carbonate can also act as an external base in the reaction medium, especially in organic [...] Read more.
Silver carbonate (Ag2CO3), a common transition metal-based inorganic carbonate, is widely utilized in palladium-catalyzed C–H activations as an oxidant in the redox cycle. Silver carbonate can also act as an external base in the reaction medium, especially in organic solvents with acidic protons. Its superior alkynophilicity and basicity make silver carbonate an ideal catalyst for organic reactions with alkynes, carboxylic acids, and related compounds. This review describes recent reports of silver carbonate-catalyzed and silver carbonate-mediated organic transformations, including cyclizations, cross-couplings, and decarboxylations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Catalysts)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Polysaccharide-Based Systems for Targeted Stem Cell Differentiation and Bone Regeneration
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120840 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering is an ever-changing, rapidly evolving, and highly interdisciplinary field of study, where scientists try to mimic natural bone structure as closely as possible in order to facilitate bone healing. New insights from cell biology, specifically from mesenchymal stem cell differentiation [...] Read more.
Bone tissue engineering is an ever-changing, rapidly evolving, and highly interdisciplinary field of study, where scientists try to mimic natural bone structure as closely as possible in order to facilitate bone healing. New insights from cell biology, specifically from mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and signaling, lead to new approaches in bone regeneration. Novel scaffold and drug release materials based on polysaccharides gain increasing attention due to their wide availability and good biocompatibility to be used as hydrogels and/or hybrid components for drug release and tissue engineering. This article reviews the current state of the art, recent developments, and future perspectives in polysaccharide-based systems used for bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Targets and Strategies in Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Desertification and Short-Term Effectiveness of Differing Treatments on Shifting Sand Dune Stabilization in an Alpine Rangeland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244968 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
: Rangeland desertification is one of the most serious problems threatening the ecological environment and socio-economic development on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. To combat desertification and reduce its adverse effects, some strategies have been undertaken to stabilize the mobile sand dunes [...] Read more.
: Rangeland desertification is one of the most serious problems threatening the ecological environment and socio-economic development on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. To combat desertification and reduce its adverse effects, some strategies have been undertaken to stabilize the mobile sand dunes and restore the desertified land. In this study, rangeland desertification with a gradient degree of none, light, medium, severe and extreme was assessed, and short-term effectiveness of different treatments on stabilizing the shifting sand dunes was evaluated by monitoring selected vegetation and soil properties. Results showed that vegetation became thinner and sparser, and soil environment deteriorated significantly under desertification, leading to a poor and low diversity ecosystem. Applying a checkerboard protection strategy in which herb species were planted and using a shrub vegetation planting method without checkerboard protection on mobile dunes for five years, vegetation growth state and soil properties were improved. Soil particles were finer, vegetation restoration was more rapid, and soil nutrient improvement was more apparent at the lower locations of the sand dunes under the checkerboard protection planted with herbs, which performed slightly better in improving soil properties than the shrub planting method alone. A longer time period would be required for vegetation and soils on the sand dunes to be restored to sustain more intensive land use. These findings provide more insight into dune stabilization, allowing effective management in the ecological restoration of desertified rangeland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Soil Type, Topography, and Land Use Interact to Control the Response of Soil Respiration to Climate Variation
Forests 2019, 10(12), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10121116 (registering DOI) - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
The effects of soil and topography on the responses of soil respiration (Rs) to climatic variables must be investigated in the southeastern mountainous areas of China due to the rapid land-use change from forest to agriculture. In this study, we investigated [...] Read more.
The effects of soil and topography on the responses of soil respiration (Rs) to climatic variables must be investigated in the southeastern mountainous areas of China due to the rapid land-use change from forest to agriculture. In this study, we investigated the response of Rs to soil temperature (ST), precipitation over the previous seven days (AP7), and soil water content (SWC) across two hillslopes that had different land uses: a tea garden (TG) and a bamboo forest (BF). Meanwhile, the roles of soil properties including soil clay content and total nitrogen (TN), and topography including elevation, profile curvature (PRC), and slope on the different responses of Rs to these climatic variables were investigated. Results showed that mean Rs on the BF hillslope (2.21 umol C m−2 s−1) was 1.71 times of that on the TG hillslope (1.29 umol C m−2 s−1). Soil clay content, elevation, and PRC had negative correlations (p < 0.05) with spatial variation of Rs, and ST was positively correlated (p < 0.01) with temporal variation of Rs on both hillslopes. Across both hillslopes ST explained 33%–73% and AP7 explained 24%–38% of the temporal variations in Rs. The mean temperature sensitivities (Q10s) of Rs were 2.02 and 3.22, respectively, on the TG and BF hillslopes. The Q10 was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the temporal mean of SWC and TN, and negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with clay and slope. The mean AP7 sensitivities (a concept similar to Q10) were greatly affected by clay and PRC. When Rs was normalized to that at 10 °C, power or quadratic relationships between Rs and SWC were observed in different sites, and the SWC explained 12%–32% of the temporal variation in Rs. When ST and SWC were integrated and considered, improved explanations (45%–81%) were achieved for the Rs temporal variation. In addition, clay and elevation had vital influences on the responses of Rs to SWC. These results highlight the influences of soil, topographic features, and land use on the spatial variations of the Rs, as well as on the responses of Rs to different climatic variables, which will supplement the understanding of controlling mechanisms of Rs on tea and bamboo land-use types in Southeastern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)

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