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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Terahertz Time-Domain Reconstruction of Coating Microstratigraphy on Gilded Surfaces
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233822 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Here, a systematic study in order to assess the potential of THz time domain reflectometry for measuring the thicknesses of overpaint layers applied on original gilded surfaces was carried out. The work is part of a thorough characterization campaign, which is going on [...] Read more.
Here, a systematic study in order to assess the potential of THz time domain reflectometry for measuring the thicknesses of overpaint layers applied on original gilded surfaces was carried out. The work is part of a thorough characterization campaign, which is going on at the Rijksmuseum for addressing the conservation problems of a set of 19th century gilded picture frames on which heavy coatings were applied in previous undocumented restoration interventions. To perform such non-invasive thickness measurements, an analytical protocol based on Gaussian fits of the THz pulse-echo temporal profiles was optimized through the preparation of suitable technical samples and the comparison with direct thickness measurements. Finally, the methodology was validated by characterizing the microstratigraphy of an original sculptural element from a gilded picture frame in the Rijksmuseum collection. The results achieved show the effectiveness of the present approach in revealing multi-layered dielectric microstructures with a spatial resolution of about 30 µm when using a spectral range up to 1.5 THz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in THZ Spectroscopy)
Open AccessReview
Targeting STAT3 and STAT5 in Tumor-Associated Immune Cells to Improve Immunotherapy
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121832 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Oncogene-induced STAT3-activation is central to tumor progression by promoting cancer cell expression of pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive factors. STAT3 is also activated in infiltrating immune cells including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) amplifying immune suppression. Consequently, STAT3 is considered as a target for cancer therapy. However, [...] Read more.
Oncogene-induced STAT3-activation is central to tumor progression by promoting cancer cell expression of pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive factors. STAT3 is also activated in infiltrating immune cells including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) amplifying immune suppression. Consequently, STAT3 is considered as a target for cancer therapy. However, its interplay with other STAT-family members or transcription factors such as NF-κB has to be considered in light of their concerted regulation of immune-related genes. Here, we discuss new attempts at re-educating immune suppressive tumor-associated macrophages towards a CD8 T cell supporting profile, with an emphasis on the role of STAT transcription factors on TAM functional programs. Recent clinical trials using JAK/STAT inhibitors highlighted the negative effects of these molecules on the maintenance and function of effector/memory T cells. Concerted regulation of STAT3 and STAT5 activation in CD8 T effector and memory cells has been shown to impact their tumor-specific responses including intra-tumor accumulation, long-term survival, cytotoxic activity and resistance toward tumor-derived immune suppression. Interestingly, as an escape mechanism, melanoma cells were reported to impede STAT5 nuclear translocation in both CD8 T cells and NK cells. Ours and others results will be discussed in the perspective of new developments in engineered T cell-based adoptive therapies to treat cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting STAT3 and STAT5 in Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
JAK/STAT-Activating Genomic Alterations Are a Hallmark of T-PLL
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121833 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and poor-prognostic mature T-cell leukemia. Recent studies detected genomic aberrations affecting JAK and STAT genes in T-PLL. Due to the limited number of primary patient samples available, genomic analyses of the JAK/STAT pathway have been performed [...] Read more.
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and poor-prognostic mature T-cell leukemia. Recent studies detected genomic aberrations affecting JAK and STAT genes in T-PLL. Due to the limited number of primary patient samples available, genomic analyses of the JAK/STAT pathway have been performed in rather small cohorts. Therefore, we conducted—via a primary-data based pipeline—a meta-analysis that re-evaluated the genomic landscape of T-PLL. It included all available data sets with sequence information on JAK or STAT gene loci in 275 T-PLL. We eliminated overlapping cases and determined a cumulative rate of 62.1% of cases with mutated JAK or STAT genes. Most frequently, JAK1 (6.3%), JAK3 (36.4%), and STAT5B (18.8%) carried somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), with missense mutations in the SH2 or pseudokinase domains as most prevalent. Importantly, these lesions were predominantly subclonal. We did not detect any strong association between mutations of a JAK or STAT gene with clinical characteristics. Irrespective of the presence of gain-of-function (GOF) SNVs, basal phosphorylation of STAT5B was elevated in all analyzed T-PLL. Fittingly, a significant proportion of genes encoding for potential negative regulators of STAT5B showed genomic losses (in 71.4% of T-PLL in total, in 68.4% of T-PLL without any JAK or STAT mutations). They included DUSP4, CD45, TCPTP, SHP1, SOCS1, SOCS3, and HDAC9. Overall, considering such losses of negative regulators and the GOF mutations in JAK and STAT genes, a total of 89.8% of T-PLL revealed a genomic aberration potentially explaining enhanced STAT5B activity. In essence, we present a comprehensive meta-analysis on the highly prevalent genomic lesions that affect genes encoding JAK/STAT signaling components. This provides an overview of possible modes of activation of this pathway in a large cohort of T-PLL. In light of new advances in JAK/STAT inhibitor development, we also outline translational contexts for harnessing active JAK/STAT signaling, which has emerged as a ‘secondary’ hallmark of T-PLL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting STAT3 and STAT5 in Cancer)
Open AccessReview
The Role of Lysyl Oxidase Enzymes in Cardiac Function and Remodeling
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121483 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) proteins comprise a family of five copper-dependent enzymes (LOX and four LOX-like isoenzymes (LOXL1–4)) critical for extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and remodeling. The primary role of LOX enzymes is to oxidize lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues from collagen and elastin chains [...] Read more.
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) proteins comprise a family of five copper-dependent enzymes (LOX and four LOX-like isoenzymes (LOXL1–4)) critical for extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and remodeling. The primary role of LOX enzymes is to oxidize lysyl and hydroxylysyl residues from collagen and elastin chains into highly reactive aldehydes, which spontaneously react with surrounding amino groups and other aldehydes to form inter- and intra-catenary covalent cross-linkages. Therefore, they are essential for the synthesis of a mature ECM and assure matrix integrity. ECM modulates cellular phenotype and function, and strikingly influences the mechanical properties of tissues. This explains the critical role of these enzymes in tissue homeostasis, and in tissue repair and remodeling. Cardiac ECM is mainly composed of fibrillar collagens which form a complex network that provides structural and biochemical support to cardiac cells and regulates cell signaling pathways. It is now becoming apparent that cardiac performance is affected by the structure and composition of the ECM and that any disturbance of the ECM contributes to cardiac disease progression. This review article compiles the major findings on the contribution of the LOX family to the development and progression of myocardial disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cells in Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessReview
Overcoming Ibrutinib Resistance in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121834 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Ibrutinib is the first Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, which showed significant clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patients regardless of cytogenetic risk factors. Recent results of phase III clinical trials in treatment-naïve CLL patients shift the [...] Read more.
Ibrutinib is the first Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, which showed significant clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patients regardless of cytogenetic risk factors. Recent results of phase III clinical trials in treatment-naïve CLL patients shift the importance of the agent to frontline therapy. Nevertheless, beside its clinical efficacy, ibrutinib possesses some off-target activity resulting in ibrutinib-characteristic adverse events including bleeding diathesis and arrhythmias. Furthermore, acquired and primary resistance to the drug have been described. As the use of ibrutinib in clinical practice increases, the problem of resistance is becoming apparent, and new methods of overcoming this clinical problem arise. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of BTK inhibitors’ resistance and discuss the post-ibrutinib treatment options. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Risk of Optic Pathway Glioma in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: No Evidence of Genotype–Phenotype Correlations in A Large Independent Cohort
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121838 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
The occurrence of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) still raises many questions regarding screening and surveillance because of the lack of robust prognostic factors. Recent studies of an overall cohort of 381 patients have suggested that the [...] Read more.
The occurrence of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) still raises many questions regarding screening and surveillance because of the lack of robust prognostic factors. Recent studies of an overall cohort of 381 patients have suggested that the genotype may be the main determinant of the development of OPG, with the risk being higher in patients harbouring NF1 mutations in the 5’ tertile and the cysteine/serine-rich domain. In an attempt to confirm this hypothesis, we used strict criteria to select a large independent cohort of 309 NF1 patients with defined constitutional NF1 mutations and appropriate brain images (255 directly enrolled and 54 as a result of a literature search). One hundred and thirty-two patients had OPG and 177 did not. The association of the position (tertiles and functional domains) and type of NF1 mutation with the development of OPG was analysed using the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact probability test; odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and Bonferroni’s correction for multiple comparisons was applied; multiple logistic regression was also used to study genotype–phenotype associations further. Our findings show no significant correlation between the site/type of NF1 mutation and the risk of OPG, and thus do not support the hypothesis that certain constitutional mutations provide prognostic information in this regard. In addition, we combined our cohort with a previously described cohort of 381 patients for a total of 690 patients and statistically re-analysed the results. The re-analysis confirmed that there were no correlations between the site (tertile and domain) and the risk of OPG, thus further strengthening our conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Neurofibromatosis)
Open AccessEditorial
Health Benefits of Physical Activity: A Strengths-Based Approach
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122044 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Our special series on Cardiac Rehabilitation outlined the importance of routine physical activity and/or exercise participation in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and many other chronic medical conditions. The evidence is overwhelming, demonstrating that nearly everyone can benefit from becoming [...] Read more.
Our special series on Cardiac Rehabilitation outlined the importance of routine physical activity and/or exercise participation in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and many other chronic medical conditions. The evidence is overwhelming, demonstrating that nearly everyone can benefit from becoming more physically active. This messaging has been widely disseminated at regional, national, and international levels. Often, this messaging highlights a physical inactivity crisis and the health perils of not engaging in sufficient amounts of physical activity. This deficits-based messaging often includes generic threshold-based recommendations stating that health benefits can only be accrued with specific volumes or intensities of physical activity. In this Editorial, we argue that the current generic and deficits-based messaging misses a great opportunity to focus on the positive and to facilitate hope and real change at the individual, community, and population levels. We advocate a strengths-based approach to health and wellness promotion that focuses on the innate strengths of individuals, families, and communities to enable self-empowerment and self-determination related to health and wellness. By taking a strengths-based approach, we can build hope, promoting the positive aspects of routine physical activity and exercise participation and providing a greater opportunity to enhance health and wellbeing for everyone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Rehabilitation)
Open AccessArticle
Role of the YAP-1 Transcriptional Target cIAP2 in the Differential Susceptibility to Chemotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients with Tumor RASSF1A Gene Methylation from the Phase 3 IFCT-0002 Trial
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121835 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
RASSF1 gene methylation predicts longer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer treated using paclitaxel-based neo-adjuvant chemotherapy compared to patients receiving a gemcitabine-based regimen, according to the randomized Phase 3 IFCT (Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique)-0002 [...] Read more.
RASSF1 gene methylation predicts longer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer treated using paclitaxel-based neo-adjuvant chemotherapy compared to patients receiving a gemcitabine-based regimen, according to the randomized Phase 3 IFCT (Intergroupe Francophone de Cancérologie Thoracique)-0002 trial. To better understand these results, this study used four human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) models (HBEC-3, HBEC-3-RasV12, A549, and H1299) and modulated the expression of RASSF1A or YAP-1. Wound-healing, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis assays were then carried out and the expression of YAP-1 transcriptional targets was quantified using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study reports herein that gemcitabine synergizes with RASSF1A, silencing to increase the IAP-2 expression, which in turn not only interferes with cell proliferation but also promotes cell migration. This contributes to the aggressive behavior of RASSF1A-depleted cells, as confirmed by a combined knockdown of IAP-2 and RASSF1A. Conversely, paclitaxel does not increase the IAP-2 expression but limits the invasiveness of RASSF1A-depleted cells, presumably by rescuing microtubule stabilization. Overall, these data provide a functional insight that supports the prognostic value of RASSF1 gene methylation on survival of early-stage lung cancer patients receiving perioperative paclitaxel-based treatment compared to gemcitabine-based treatment, identifying IAP-2 as a novel biomarker indicative of YAP-1-mediated modulation of chemo-sensitivity in lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Ras/RASSF in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
Cancer Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles for Cancer Management
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121836 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Cancer is a global health problem in need of transformative treatment solutions for improved patient outcomes. Many conventional treatments prove ineffective and produce undesirable side effects because they are incapable of targeting only cancer cells within tumors and metastases post administration. There is [...] Read more.
Cancer is a global health problem in need of transformative treatment solutions for improved patient outcomes. Many conventional treatments prove ineffective and produce undesirable side effects because they are incapable of targeting only cancer cells within tumors and metastases post administration. There is a desperate need for targeted therapies that can maximize treatment success and minimize toxicity. Nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable physicochemical properties have potential to meet the need for high precision cancer therapies. At the forefront of nanomedicine is biomimetic nanotechnology, which hides NPs from the immune system and provides superior targeting capabilities by cloaking NPs in cell-derived membranes. Cancer cell membranes expressing “markers of self” and “self-recognition molecules” can be removed from cancer cells and wrapped around a variety of NPs, providing homotypic targeting and circumventing the challenge of synthetically replicating natural cell surfaces. Compared to unwrapped NPs, cancer cell membrane-wrapped NPs (CCNPs) provide reduced accumulation in healthy tissues and higher accumulation in tumors and metastases. The unique biointerfacing capabilities of CCNPs enable their use as targeted nanovehicles for enhanced drug delivery, localized phototherapy, intensified imaging, or more potent immunotherapy. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art in CCNP technology and provides insight to the path forward for clinical implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessReview
Spatiotemporal Control of Intracellular Membrane Trafficking by Rho GTPases
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121478 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
As membrane-associated master regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling, Rho GTPases coordinate a wide range of biological processes such as cell adhesion, motility, and polarity. In the last years, Rho GTPases have also been recognized to control intracellular membrane sorting and trafficking steps directly; however, [...] Read more.
As membrane-associated master regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling, Rho GTPases coordinate a wide range of biological processes such as cell adhesion, motility, and polarity. In the last years, Rho GTPases have also been recognized to control intracellular membrane sorting and trafficking steps directly; however, how Rho GTPase signaling is regulated at endomembranes is still poorly understood. In this review, we will specifically address the local Rho GTPase pools coordinating intracellular membrane trafficking with a focus on the endo- and exocytic pathways. We will further highlight the spatiotemporal molecular regulation of Rho signaling at endomembrane sites through Rho regulatory proteins, the GEFs and GAPs. Finally, we will discuss the contribution of dysregulated Rho signaling emanating from endomembranes to the development and progression of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Traffic in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
A Study for the Access to a Semi-synthetic Regioisomer of Natural Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate with Fucosyl Branches on N-acetyl-Galactosamine Units
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120655 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is a glycosaminoglycan found up to now exclusively in the body wall of sea cucumbers. It shows several interesting activities, with the anticoagulant and antithrombotic as the most attractive ones. Its different mechanism of action on the blood coagulation [...] Read more.
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is a glycosaminoglycan found up to now exclusively in the body wall of sea cucumbers. It shows several interesting activities, with the anticoagulant and antithrombotic as the most attractive ones. Its different mechanism of action on the blood coagulation cascade with respect to heparin and the retention of its activity by oral administration make fCS a very promising anticoagulant drug candidate for heparin replacement. Nonetheless, its typically heterogeneous structure, the detection of some adverse effects and the preference for new drugs not sourced from animal tissues, explain how mandatory is to open an access to safer and less heterogeneous non-natural fCS species. Here we contribute to this aim by investigating a suitable chemical strategy to obtain a regioisomer of the natural fCS polysaccharide, with sulfated l-fucosyl branches placed at position O-6 of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) units instead of O-3 of d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) ones, as in natural fCSs. This strategy is based on the structural modification of a microbial sourced chondroitin polysaccharide by regioselective insertion of fucosyl branches and sulfate groups on its polymeric structure. A preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anticoagulant activity of three of such semi-synthetic fCS analogues is also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Marine Natural Products and Analogues)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Small Molecular Polypeptides from the Mantle of Pinctada Martensii on Promoting Skin Wound Healing in Mice
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234231 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Skin wound healing, especially chronic wound healing, is a common challenging clinical problem. It is urgent to broaden the sources of bioactive substances that can safely and efficiently promote skin wound healing. This study aimed to observe the effects of small molecular peptides [...] Read more.
Skin wound healing, especially chronic wound healing, is a common challenging clinical problem. It is urgent to broaden the sources of bioactive substances that can safely and efficiently promote skin wound healing. This study aimed to observe the effects of small molecular peptides (SMPs) of the mantle of Pinctada martensii on wound healing. After physicochemical analysis of amino acids and mass spectrometry of SMPs, the effect of SMPs on promoting healing was studied through a whole cortex wound model on the back of mice for 18 consecutive days. The results showed that SMPs consisted of polypeptides with a molecular weight of 302.17–2936.43 Da. The content of polypeptides containing 2–15 amino acids accounted for 73.87%, and the hydrophobic amino acids accounted for 56.51%. Results of in vitro experimentation showed that SMPs possess a procoagulant effect, but no antibacterial activity. Results of in vivo experiments indicated that SMPs inhibit inflammatory response by secretion of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 during the inflammatory phase; during the proliferative phase, SMPs promote the proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 and cyclin D1 accelerates the epithelialization and contraction of wounds. In the proliferative phase, SMPs effectively promote collagen deposition and partially inhibit superficial scar hyperplasia. These results show that SMPs promotes dermal wound healing in mice and have a tremendous potential for development and utilization in skin wound healing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Pomace Oil Catalyzed by Zinc Stearate: A Kinetic Study of the Transesterification and Esterification Reactions
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9120978 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this work, the simultaneous transesterification and esterification reactions of olive pomace oil with methanol catalyzed by zinc stearate were studied. This catalyst is a crystalline solid at room temperature, but it is soluble in the reaction medium at reaction temperature. Zinc stearate [...] Read more.
In this work, the simultaneous transesterification and esterification reactions of olive pomace oil with methanol catalyzed by zinc stearate were studied. This catalyst is a crystalline solid at room temperature, but it is soluble in the reaction medium at reaction temperature. Zinc stearate has surfactant properties that cause the formation of an emulsion in the reaction system. The stability of the emulsion formed in the oil–methanol–catalyst system was compared to that in the FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)–methanol–catalyst system. It was observed that the emulsion formed in the presence of high amounts of FAME is much more unstable, which makes the catalyst easy to separate from the reaction products. The kinetics of esterification and transesterification were also studied. All the kinetic and equilibrium constants were determined with a complete model, considering the three stepwise reactions corresponding to the transesterification of triglycerides and the esterification of free fatty acids. The parameters obtained were used to model the operating conditions that would allow obtaining biodiesel that meets the quality standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Hugo de Lasa)
Open AccessArticle
Amplified Spontaneous Emission and Optical Gain in Organic Single Crystal Quinquethiophene
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120609 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we report optical characteristics of an organic single crystal oligomer 5,5⁗-diphenyl-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2‴:5‴,2⁗-quinquethiophene (P5T). P5T crystal is a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer that possesses better charge mobility as well as photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) as compared to other organic materials. Stimulated emission in P5T [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report optical characteristics of an organic single crystal oligomer 5,5⁗-diphenyl-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2‴:5‴,2⁗-quinquethiophene (P5T). P5T crystal is a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer that possesses better charge mobility as well as photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) as compared to other organic materials. Stimulated emission in P5T is investigated via amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) measurements within broad pump energies ranging from 35.26 to 163.34 µJ/cm2. An Nd-YAG femtosecond-tunable pulsed laser is used as a pump energy source for the ASE measurements of P5T crystals at an excitation wavelength of 445 nm. The ASE spectra exhibit optical amplification in P5T crystals at a 625 nm peak wavelength with a lower threshold energy density (Eth) ≈ 52.64 μJ/cm2. P5T also demonstrates higher optical gain with a value of 72 cm−1, that is calculated by using the variable stripe-length method. The value of PLQE is measured to be 68.24% for P5T. This study proposes potential applications of P5T single crystals in organic solid state lasers, photodetectors, and optical amplifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crystalline Materials)
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