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Open AccessArticle
Sialic Acid-Binding Lectin from Bullfrog Eggs Exhibits an Anti-Tumor Effect Against Breast Cancer Cells Including Triple-Negative Phenotype Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102714 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Sialic acid-binding lectin from Rana catesbeiana eggs (cSBL) is a multifunctional protein that has lectin and ribonuclease activity. In this study, the anti-tumor activities of cSBL were assessed using a panel of breast cancer cell lines. cSBL suppressed the cell growth of all
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Sialic acid-binding lectin from Rana catesbeiana eggs (cSBL) is a multifunctional protein that has lectin and ribonuclease activity. In this study, the anti-tumor activities of cSBL were assessed using a panel of breast cancer cell lines. cSBL suppressed the cell growth of all cancer cell lines tested here at a concentration that is less toxic, or not toxic at all, to normal cells. The growth suppressive effect was attributed to the cancer-selective induction of apoptosis. We assessed the expressions of several key molecules associated with the breast cancer phenotype after cSBL treatment by western blotting. cSBL decreased the expression level of estrogen receptor (ER) α, while it increased the phosphorylation level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). cSBL also suppressed the expression of the progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2). Furthermore, it was revealed that cSBL decreases the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1) in triple-negative breast cancer cells. These results indicate that cSBL induces apoptosis with decreasing ErbB family proteins and may have great potential for breast cancer chemotherapy, particularly in triple-negative phenotype cells. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Filling of Mater-Bi with Nanoclays to Enhance the Biofilm Rigidity
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040060 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We investigated the efficacy of several nanoclays (halloysite, sepiolite and laponite) as nanofillers for Mater-Bi, which is a commercial bioplastic extensively used within food packaging applications. The preparation of Mater-Bi/nanoclay nanocomposite films was easily achieved by means of the solvent casting method from
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We investigated the efficacy of several nanoclays (halloysite, sepiolite and laponite) as nanofillers for Mater-Bi, which is a commercial bioplastic extensively used within food packaging applications. The preparation of Mater-Bi/nanoclay nanocomposite films was easily achieved by means of the solvent casting method from dichloroethane. The prepared bio-nanocomposites were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order to explore the effect of the addition of the nanoclays on the mechanical behavior of the Mater-Bi-based films. Tensile tests found that filling Mater-Bi with halloysite induced the most significant improvement of the mechanical performances under traction force, while DMA measurements under the oscillatory regime showed that the polymer glass transition was not affected by the addition of the nanoclay. The tensile properties of the Mater-Bi/halloysite nanotube (HNT) films were competitive compared to those of traditional petroleum plastics in terms of the elastic modulus and stress at the breaking point. Both the mechanical response to the temperature and the tensile properties make the bio-nanocomposites appropriate for food packaging and smart coating purposes. Here, we report a preliminary study of the development of sustainable hybrid materials that could be employed in numerous industrial and technological applications within materials science and pharmaceutics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PG-Priming Enhances Doxorubicin Influx to Trigger Necrotic and Autophagic Cell Death in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100375 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Synergistic effects between natural compounds and chemotherapy drugs are believed to have fewer side effects with equivalent efficacy. However, the synergistic potential of prodigiosin (PG) with doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy is still unknown. This study explores the synergistic mechanism of PG and Dox against
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Synergistic effects between natural compounds and chemotherapy drugs are believed to have fewer side effects with equivalent efficacy. However, the synergistic potential of prodigiosin (PG) with doxorubicin (Dox) chemotherapy is still unknown. This study explores the synergistic mechanism of PG and Dox against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Three OSCC cell lines were treated with different PG/Dox combinatory schemes for cytotoxicity tests and were further investigated for cell death characteristics by cell cycle flow cytometry and autophagy/apoptosis marker labelling. When OSCC cells were pretreated with PG, the cytotoxicity of the subsequent Dox-treatment was 30% higher than Dox alone. The cytotoxic efficacy of PG-pretreated was found better than those of PG plus Dox co-treatment and Dox-pretreatment. Increase of Sub-G1 phase and caspase-3/LC-3 levels without poly (ADP-ribose) polymeras (PARP) elevation indicated both autophagy and necrosis occurred in OSCC cells. Dox flux after PG-priming was further evaluated by rhodamine-123 accumulation and Dox transporters analysis to elucidate the PG-priming effect. PG-priming autophagy enhanced Dox accumulation according to the increase of rhodamine-123 accumulation without the alterations of Dox transporters. Additionally, the cause of PG-triggered autophagy was determined by co-treatment with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. PG-induced autophagy was not related to nutrient deprivation and ER stress was proved by co-treatment with specific inhibitor. Taken together, PG-priming autophagy could sensitize OSCC cells by promoting Dox influx without regulation of Dox transporter. The PG-priming might be a promising adjuvant approach for the chemotherapy of OSCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
XPS Analysis of 2- and 3-Aminothiophenol Grafted on Silicon (111) Hydride Surfaces
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102712 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Following on from our previous study on the resonance/inductive structures of ethynylaniline, this report examines similar effects arising from resonance structures with aromatic aminothiophenol with dual electron-donating substituents. In brief, 2- and 3-aminothiophenol were thermally grafted on silicon (111) hydride substrate at 130
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Following on from our previous study on the resonance/inductive structures of ethynylaniline, this report examines similar effects arising from resonance structures with aromatic aminothiophenol with dual electron-donating substituents. In brief, 2- and 3-aminothiophenol were thermally grafted on silicon (111) hydride substrate at 130 °C under nonpolar aprotic mesitylene. From the examination of high resolution XPS Si2p, N1s, and S2p spectrum, it was noticed that there was a strong preference of NH2 over SH to form Si–N linkage on the silicon hydride surface for 2-aminothiophenol. However, for 3-aminothiophenol, there was a switch in reactivity of the silicon hydride toward SH group. This was attributed to the antagonistic and cooperative resonance effects for 2- and 3-aminothiophenol, respectively. The data strongly suggested that the net resonance of the benzylic-based compound could have played an important role in the net distribution of negative charge along the benzylic framework and subsequently influenced the outcome of the surface reaction. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this correlation between dual electron-donating substituents and the outcome of the nucleophilic addition toward silicon hydride surfaces has not been described before in literature. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Immobilizing Polyether Imidazole Ionic Liquids on ZSM-5 Zeolite for the Catalytic Synthesis of Propylene Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102710 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Traditional ionic liquids (ILs) catalysts suffer from the difficulty of product purification and can only be used in homogeneous catalytic systems. In this work, by reacting ILs with co-catalyst (ZnBr2), we successfully converted three polyether imidazole ionic liquids (PIILs), i.e., HO-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl
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Traditional ionic liquids (ILs) catalysts suffer from the difficulty of product purification and can only be used in homogeneous catalytic systems. In this work, by reacting ILs with co-catalyst (ZnBr2), we successfully converted three polyether imidazole ionic liquids (PIILs), i.e., HO-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl), HOOC-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl), and H2N-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (H2N-[PECH-MIM]Cl), to three composite PIIL materials, which were further immobilized on ZSM-5 zeolite by chemical bonding to result in three immobilized catalysts, namely ZSM-5-HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], ZSM-5-HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], and ZSM-5-H2N-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2]. Their structures, thermal stabilities, and morphologies were fully characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amount of composite PIIL immobilized on ZSM-5 was determined by elemental analysis. Catalytic performance of the immobilized catalysts was evaluated through the catalytic synthesis of propylene carbonate (PC) from CO2 and propylene oxide (PO). Influences of reaction temperature, time, and pressure on catalytic performance were investigated through the orthogonal test, and the effect of catalyst circulation was also studied. Under an optimal reaction condition (130 °C, 2.5 MPa, 0.75 h), the composite catalyst, ZSM-5-HOOC- [PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr2], exhibited the best catalytic activity with a conversion rate of 98.3% and selectivity of 97.4%. Significantly, the immobilized catalyst could still maintain high heterogeneous catalytic activity even after being reused for eight cycles. Full article
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Open AccessReview
mTOR Complexes as a Nutrient Sensor for Driving Cancer Progression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103267 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Recent advancement in the field of molecular cancer research has clearly revealed that abnormality of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes causes tumor progression thorough the promotion of intracellular metabolism. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the strategies for cancer cells to ensure their survival
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Recent advancement in the field of molecular cancer research has clearly revealed that abnormality of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes causes tumor progression thorough the promotion of intracellular metabolism. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the strategies for cancer cells to ensure their survival by enabling cancer cells to obtain the macromolecular precursors and energy needed for the rapid growth. However, an orchestration of appropriate metabolic reactions for the cancer cell survival requires the precise mechanism to sense and harness the nutrient in the microenvironment. Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes are known downstream effectors of many cancer-causing mutations, which are thought to regulate cancer cell survival and growth. Recent studies demonstrate the intriguing role of mTOR to achieve the feat through metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Importantly, not only mTORC1, a well-known regulator of metabolism both in normal and cancer cell, but mTORC2, an essential partner of mTORC1 downstream of growth factor receptor signaling, controls cooperatively specific metabolism, which nominates them as an essential regulator of cancer metabolism as well as a promising candidate to garner and convey the nutrient information from the surrounding environment. In this article, we depict the recent findings on the role of mTOR complexes in cancer as a master regulator of cancer metabolism and a potential sensor of nutrients, especially focusing on glucose and amino acid sensing in cancer. Novel and detailed molecular mechanisms that amino acids activate mTOR complexes signaling have been identified. We would also like to mention the intricate crosstalk between glucose and amino acid metabolism that ensures the survival of cancer cells, but at the same time it could be exploitable for the novel intervention to target the metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fly Ash Modified Coalmine Solid Wastes for Stabilization of Trace Metals in Mining Damaged Land Reclamation: A Case Study in Xuzhou Coalmine Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102317 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In China, coalmine wastes, such as gangues, are used for reclamation of mining subsided land. However, as waste rocks, gangues contain several trace metal elements, which could be released under natural weathering and hydrodynamic leaching effects and then migrate into the reclamed soil
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In China, coalmine wastes, such as gangues, are used for reclamation of mining subsided land. However, as waste rocks, gangues contain several trace metal elements, which could be released under natural weathering and hydrodynamic leaching effects and then migrate into the reclamed soil layer. However, it is very difficult to find adequate other backfill materials for substitution of gangues. In this paper, we present a novel method and case study to restrict the migration ability of trace metal elements in gangues by using another kind of coalmine solid waste—fly ashes from coal combustion. In this study, fly ashes were mixed with gangues in different mass proportions 1:0.2, 1:0.4, 1:0.6 and 1:0.8 as new designed backfill materials. Due to the help of fly ash, the occurrence states of studied trace metal elements were greatly changed, and their releasing and migration ability under hydrodynamic leaching effect were also significantly restricted. In this research seven trace metal elements in gangues Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni were studied by using soil column hydrodynamical leaching method and simulated precipitation for one year. The results show that under the driving of natural precipitation trace metal elements were generally transported deep inside the reconstructed land base, i.e., far away from soil layer and most of the trace metal elements were transformed into a bonded state, or combined in inert occurrence states, especially the residual state. With this method, the migration activities of tested trace metal elements were greatly restricted and the environmental potential risk could be significantly reduced. Full article
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