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Article
Prediction of Drug–Target Interaction Using Dual-Network Integrated Logistic Matrix Factorization and Knowledge Graph Embedding
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5131; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165131 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Nowadays, drug–target interactions (DTIs) prediction is a fundamental part of drug repositioning. However, on the one hand, drug–target interactions prediction models usually consider drugs or targets information, which ignore prior knowledge between drugs and targets. On the other hand, models incorporating priori knowledge [...] Read more.
Nowadays, drug–target interactions (DTIs) prediction is a fundamental part of drug repositioning. However, on the one hand, drug–target interactions prediction models usually consider drugs or targets information, which ignore prior knowledge between drugs and targets. On the other hand, models incorporating priori knowledge cannot make interactions prediction for under-studied drugs and targets. Hence, this article proposes a novel dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization DTIs prediction scheme (Ro-DNILMF) via a knowledge graph embedding approach. This model adds prior knowledge as input data into the prediction model and inherits the advantages of the DNILMF model, which can predict under-studied drug–target interactions. Firstly, a knowledge graph embedding model based on relational rotation (RotatE) is trained to construct the interaction adjacency matrix and integrate prior knowledge. Secondly, a dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization prediction model (DNILMF) is used to predict new drugs and targets. Finally, several experiments conducted on the public datasets are used to demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the single base-line model and some mainstream methods on efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Artificial Intelligence-Based Drug Discovery)
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Review
A Tale of Native American Whole-Genome Sequencing and Other Technologies
Diversity 2022, 14(8), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14080647 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Indigenous people from the American continent, or Native Americans, are underrepresented in the collective genomic knowledge. A minimal percentage of individuals in international databases belong to these important minority groups. Yet, the study of native American genomics is a growing field. In this [...] Read more.
Indigenous people from the American continent, or Native Americans, are underrepresented in the collective genomic knowledge. A minimal percentage of individuals in international databases belong to these important minority groups. Yet, the study of native American genomics is a growing field. In this work, we reviewed 56 scientific publications where ancient or contemporary DNA of Native Americans across the continent was studied by array, whole-exome, or whole-genome technologies. In total, 13,706 native Americans have been studied with genomic technologies, of which 1292 provided whole genome samples. Data availability is lacking, with barely 3.6% of the contemporary samples clearly accessible for further studies; in striking contrast, 96.3% of the ancient samples are publicly available. We compiled census data on the home countries and found that 607 indigenous groups are still missing representation in genomic datasets. By analyzing authorship of the published works, we found that there is a need for more involvement of the home countries as leads in indigenous genomic studies. We provide this review to aid in the design of future studies that aim to reduce the missing diversity of indigenous Americans. Full article
Article
A π-Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating Partial Discharge Sensor toward Power Transformers
Energies 2022, 15(16), 5849; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165849 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Partial discharge (PD) ultrasonic detection is an early sign of the insolation defects of power transformers. The early diagnosis of PD requires the high sensitivity and reliability of ultrasonic sensing systems. For this purpose, a reformative PD ultrasonic sensing system based on phase-shifted [...] Read more.
Partial discharge (PD) ultrasonic detection is an early sign of the insolation defects of power transformers. The early diagnosis of PD requires the high sensitivity and reliability of ultrasonic sensing systems. For this purpose, a reformative PD ultrasonic sensing system based on phase-shifted FBG (PS-FBG) was demonstrated. By using PS-FBG as the ultrasonic sensing unit, the ultrasonic sensing system improved the response to the ultrasonic signal and overcame the electromagnetic noise. To compensate for the influence of temperature change on the ultrasonic sensing system, an automatic wavelength scanning demodulating method was carried out. The wavelength spanning strategy was optimized based on the principle of cross-correlation, in order to quicken the spanning. A PD detection test in the transformer oil was conducted, and the result shows that PS-FBG was 17.5 times more sensitive than PZT. Because of the better ultrasonic response, the proposed system was able to achieve the early diagnosis of insolation faults in a power transformer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Condition Monitoring of Power Apparatuses)
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Review
Biomass Production and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Different Agroforestry Systems in India: A Critical Review
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081274 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Agroforestry systems (AFS) and practices followed in India are highly diverse due to varied climatic conditions ranging from temperate to humid tropics. The estimated area under AFS in India is 13.75 million ha with the highest concentration being in the states of Uttar [...] Read more.
Agroforestry systems (AFS) and practices followed in India are highly diverse due to varied climatic conditions ranging from temperate to humid tropics. The estimated area under AFS in India is 13.75 million ha with the highest concentration being in the states of Uttar Pradesh (1.86 million ha), followed by Maharashtra (1.61 million ha), Rajasthan (1.55 million ha) and Andhra Pradesh (1.17 million ha). There are many forms of agroforestry practice in India ranging from intensified simple systems of monoculture, such as block plantations and boundary planting, to far more diverse and complex systems, such as home gardens. As a result, the biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of AFS are highly variable across different agro-climatic zones of India. Studies pertaining to the assessment of biomass and carbon storage in different agroforestry systems in the Indian sub-continent are scanty and most of these studies have reported region and system specific carbon stocks. However, while biomass and carbon stock data from different AFS at national scale has been scanty hitherto, such information is essential for national accounting, reporting of C sinks and sources, as well as for realizing the benefits of carbon credit to farmers engaged in tree-based production activities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to collate and synthesize the existing information on biomass carbon and SOC stocks associated with agroforestry practices across agro-climatic zones of India. The results revealed considerable variation in biomass and carbon stocks among AFS, as well as between different agro-climatic zones. Higher total biomass (>200 Mg ha−1) was observed in the humid tropics of India which are prevalent in southern and northeastern regions, while lower total biomass (<50 Mg ha−1) was reported from Indo-Gangetic, western and central India. Total biomass carbon varied in the range of 1.84 to 131 Mg ha−1 in the agrihorticulture systems of western and central India and the coffee agroforests of southern peninsular India. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged between 12.26–170.43 Mg ha−1, with the highest SOC in the coffee agroforests of southern India and the lowest in the agrisilviculture systems of western India. The AFS which recorded relatively higher SOC included plantation crop-based practices of southern, eastern and northeastern India, followed by the agrihorticulture and agrisilviculture systems of the northern Himalayas. The meta-analysis indicated that the growth and nature of different agroforestry tree species is the key factor affecting the carbon storage capacity of an agroforestry system. The baseline data obtained across various regions could be useful for devising policies on carbon trading or financing for agroforestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Estimation and Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems)
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Review
Critical Minerals for Zero-Emission Transportation
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165539 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Fundamentals of critical minerals and their paramount role in the successful deployment of clean energy technologies in future transportation are assessed along with current global efforts to satisfy the needs of automotive supply chains and environmental concerns. An implementation of large quantities of [...] Read more.
Fundamentals of critical minerals and their paramount role in the successful deployment of clean energy technologies in future transportation are assessed along with current global efforts to satisfy the needs of automotive supply chains and environmental concerns. An implementation of large quantities of minerals, in particular metals, into the manufacturing of strategic components of zero-emission vehicles will bring new challenges to energy security. As a result, a reduced dependency on conventional hydrocarbon resources may lead to new and unexpected interdependencies, including dependencies on raw materials. It is concluded that to minimize the impact of a metal-intensive transition to clean transportation, in addition to overcoming challenges with minerals mining and processing, further progress in understanding the properties of critical materials will be required to better correlate them with intended applications, to identify potential substitutions and to optimize their use through the sustainable exploration of their resources and a circular economy. Full article
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Article
Effect of Sintering Temperatures, Reinforcement Size on Mechanical Properties and Fortification Mechanisms on the Particle Size Distribution of B4C, SiC and ZrO2 in Titanium Metal Matrix Composites
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165525 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Titanium metal matrix composites/TMMCs are reinforced ceramic reinforcements that have been developed and used in the automotive, biological, implants, and aerospace fields. At high temperatures, TMMCs can provide up to 50% weight reduction compared to monolithic super alloys while maintaining comparable quality or [...] Read more.
Titanium metal matrix composites/TMMCs are reinforced ceramic reinforcements that have been developed and used in the automotive, biological, implants, and aerospace fields. At high temperatures, TMMCs can provide up to 50% weight reduction compared to monolithic super alloys while maintaining comparable quality or state of strength. The objective of this research was the analysis and evaluation of the effect/influence of different sintering temperatures, reinforcement size dependence of mechanical properties, and fortification mechanisms on the particle size distribution of B4C, SiC, and ZrO2 reinforced TMMCs that were produced and fabricated by powder metallurgy/PM. SEM, XRD, a Rockwell hardness tester, and the Archimedes principle were used in this analysis. The composites’ hardness, approximation, tensile, yielding, and ultimate strength were all increased. As the composite was reinforced with low-density ceramics material and particles, its density decreased. The volume and void content in all the synthesized specimens is below 1%; this is the result of good sample densification, mechanical properties and uniform distribution of the reinforced particle samples; 5% B4C, 12.5% SiC, 7.5% ZrO2, 75% Ti develop higher mechanical properties, such as higher hardness, approximation tensile, yielding, and ultimate strength and low porosity. Full article
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Review
Exosomes: Small Vesicles with Important Roles in the Development, Metastasis and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Membranes 2022, 12(8), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12080775 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) has now overtaken lung cancer as the most common cancer, while no biopredictive marker isolated from biological fluids has yet emerged clinically. After traditional chemotherapy, with the huge side effects brought by drugs, patients also suffer from the double affliction [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) has now overtaken lung cancer as the most common cancer, while no biopredictive marker isolated from biological fluids has yet emerged clinically. After traditional chemotherapy, with the huge side effects brought by drugs, patients also suffer from the double affliction of drugs to the body while fighting cancer, and they often quickly develop drug resistance after the drug, leading to a poor prognosis. And the treatment of some breast cancer subtypes, such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), is even more difficult. Exosomes (Exos), which are naturally occurring extracellular vesicles (EVs) with nanoscale acellular structures ranging in diameter from 40 to 160 nm, can be isolated from various biological fluids and have been widely studied because they are derived from the cell membrane, have extremely small diameter, and are widely involved in various biological activities of the body. It can be used directly or modified to make derivatives or to make some analogs for the treatment of breast cancer. This review will focus on the involvement of exosomes in breast cancer initiation, progression, invasion as well as metastasis and the therapeutic role of exosomes in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Analysis)
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Article
Outcome of Open Reduction Alone or with Concomitant Bony Procedures for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)
Children 2022, 9(8), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081213 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Introduction: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is commonly managed in a tertiary centre and regularly involves surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the surgical outcome of DDH patient treated with either open reduction alone or combined with bony [...] Read more.
Introduction: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is commonly managed in a tertiary centre and regularly involves surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the surgical outcome of DDH patient treated with either open reduction alone or combined with bony procedures in our institution. Methods: Medical records of DDH patients treated surgically were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A: underwent open reduction (OR) only; and Group B: underwent open reduction with additional bony procedures (ORB), such as pelvic or femoral osteotomy. Modified McKay classification was used to evaluate the clinical outcome, and Severin classification for the radiological outcome. Presence of avascular necrosis and other post-operative complications were recorded. Results: A total of 66 patients (76 hips) were reviewed with the mean age of 11.9 ± 4.8 years. Mean duration of follow up was 8.6 ± 4.7 years (ranged 2 to 23 years). From our sample, 50/66 patients (75.8%) achieved satisfactory clinical outcome, whereas 48/66 patients (72.7%) had satisfactory radiological outcome. A higher proportion of patients achieved satisfactory outcomes in the OR group compared to the ORB group (p < 0.05), but no difference was seen in terms of radiological outcome (p = 0.80). Overall, 23 hips (34.8%) developed radiographic evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN). Nineteen hips had undergone ORB, although they were mainly (63.2%) Grade I AVN. Incidence of AVN was comparable in both groups (p = 0.63), but presence of AVN led to a higher proportion of unsatisfactory clinical and radiological outcome (p < 0.05). Other complications included redislocation/subluxation (13.6%) and bleeding (0.1%). Conclusions: Good overall outcome of DDH surgery was achieved in our centre. The OR group may produce a better clinical outcome, but with similar radiological results and AVN rate with the ORB group. The presence of AVN is associated with unsatisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopedics and Trauma in Children)
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Short Note
4-Amino-3-(1-{[amino(3-methyl-2-oxido-1,2,5-oxadiazol-4-yl)methylene]hydrazinylidene}ethyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-Oxide
Molbank 2022, 2022(3), M1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/M1425 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Functionally substituted 1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxides (furoxans) are important pharmaceutical scaffolds used for the preparation of various pharmacologically active substances. Furoxans bearing hydrazone functionality are considered as promising drug candidates for the treatment of neglected diseases. However, pharmacologically oriented hydrazones derived from (furoxanyl)amidrazones and acetylfuroxans [...] Read more.
Functionally substituted 1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxides (furoxans) are important pharmaceutical scaffolds used for the preparation of various pharmacologically active substances. Furoxans bearing hydrazone functionality are considered as promising drug candidates for the treatment of neglected diseases. However, pharmacologically oriented hydrazones derived from (furoxanyl)amidrazones and acetylfuroxans have remained unknown so far. In this communication, a simple method for the synthesis of 4-amino-3-(1-{[amino(3-methyl-2-oxido-1,2,5-oxadiazol-4-yl)methylene]hydrazinylidene}ethyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxide is described. The structure of the synthesized compound was established by elemental analysis, high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heteroatom Rich Organic Heterocycles)
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Article
Psychomotor Skills Activities in the Classroom from an Early Childhood Education Teachers’ Perspective
Children 2022, 9(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081214 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Psychomotricity is a tool that allows the development of different capacities, skills and corporal abilities of people. Currently, it is included in early childhood education programmes due to its importance in children’s development, but, even so, it is not always given the role [...] Read more.
Psychomotricity is a tool that allows the development of different capacities, skills and corporal abilities of people. Currently, it is included in early childhood education programmes due to its importance in children’s development, but, even so, it is not always given the role they deserve. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the perceptions of early childhood education teachers towards the needs and current state of psychomotor skills in the educational context of Extremadura schools and compare the information provided by teachers that work in rural and urban areas. A questionnaire was administered using a tablet and a Google Forms application. The sample consisted of 216 teachers, selected using a non-probability sampling method based on coexistence sampling. The Mann–Whitney U test was applied to determine the relationships between the different items and dimensions according to the location of the school, and Spearman’s Rho test was used to find out if there is any relationship between the age of the teachers and their responses in the different dimensions. The results showed that psychomotor skills do not receive the place they deserve, with insufficient material and facilities, inadequate training, few sessions and inappropriate programming, together with the rest of the components of the cycle. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is necessary to include psychomotor skills in the training of teachers and that the centres should be concerned about providing teachers with the necessary material and spaces for their work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Psychomotricity: Development, Assessment, and Intervention)
Article
Processing of Transitivity Alternations and Frequency-Based Accounts in Greek Adult Language
Languages 2022, 7(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030216 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
The processing and resolution of syntactically ambiguous structures is accounted for by serial autonomous and multiple constraint satisfaction models differently. We investigated the extent to which frequency affects native speakers’ processing and interpretation of ‘voice (non)-alternating’ anticausative Greek verbs which differ in the [...] Read more.
The processing and resolution of syntactically ambiguous structures is accounted for by serial autonomous and multiple constraint satisfaction models differently. We investigated the extent to which frequency affects native speakers’ processing and interpretation of ‘voice (non)-alternating’ anticausative Greek verbs which differ in the availability or lack of voice alternation on the verb when it appears in intransitive structures. The accessibility of interpretations was measured with an online self-paced reading (SPR) task and an offline acceptability judgment (AJ) task addressed to 45 monolingual Greek-speaking adults. In order to investigate whether processing load is affected by statistical records in the parser, we compared empirical data with the frequency of the available readings that these verbs receive in formal and informal registers (ILSP, Web-Based Corpus). The online processing study indicated that the parser is sensitive to morphological cues ((N)ACT voice marking), while semantic factors such as animacy are integrated in subsequent stages of processing. A frequency effect was found in accordance with ‘coarse-grained’ models of sentence processing, while more ‘fine-grained’ models could not be validated with respect to frequency alone. The majority of acceptability judgements attributed to the verbs investigated correlated with the most frequent interpretations of verb forms in intransitive structures in corpora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Glances at the Morphosyntax of Greek)
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Article
Analysis on Risk Characteristics of Traffic Accidents in Small-Spacing Expressway Interchange
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 9938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19169938 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Many small-spacing interchanges (SSI) appear when the density of the expressway interchanges increases. However, the characteristics of traffic accidents in SSI have not been explained clearly. Therefore, this paper systematically takes the G3001 expressway in Xi’an as the research object to explore the [...] Read more.
Many small-spacing interchanges (SSI) appear when the density of the expressway interchanges increases. However, the characteristics of traffic accidents in SSI have not been explained clearly. Therefore, this paper systematically takes the G3001 expressway in Xi’an as the research object to explore the accident characteristics of SSI. Firstly, the expressway is divided into four sections. Furthermore, their safety can be evaluated by the number of accidents per unit distance of 100 million vehicles (NAP). Subsequently, eight indexes, such as mean spacing distance (MSD), are selected to explain the cause affecting expressway safety by developing the least square support vector machine (LSSVM). Secondly, the difference between SSI and normal-spacing interchanges (NSI) is clarified by statistical analysis. Finally, LSSVM, random forest, and logistic regression models are built using 12 indicators, such as the time spent exploring the causes of serious accidents. The results show that the inner ring NAP in Sections I and II with SSI is 27.2 and 33.7, higher than in other sections. The density, annual average daily traffic, and MSD adversely affect expressway traffic safety. The road condition mainly influences the serious traffic accidents in the SSI. This study can provide the theoretical basis for traffic management and accident prevention in the SSI of the expressway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety)
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Article
Bibliometric Analysis of Studies on Whole Body Electromyostimulation
Biology 2022, 11(8), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11081205 (registering DOI) - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Whole Body Electromyostimulation [WB-EMS] is a training methodology that applies electrostimulation in the main muscle groups of the human body superimposed with active training exercises. This study aims to carry out a bibliometric analysis on WB-EMS to provide an overview of the state [...] Read more.
Whole Body Electromyostimulation [WB-EMS] is a training methodology that applies electrostimulation in the main muscle groups of the human body superimposed with active training exercises. This study aims to carry out a bibliometric analysis on WB-EMS to provide an overview of the state of research and provide new insights for research in the field. Method: One hundred and two citations extracted were examined using a bibliometric approach based on data stored in the Web of Science Core Collection, applying traditional bibliometric laws, and using VOSviewer and excel for data and metadata processing. Results: Among the results, this study points out that Germany is the country that produces more scientific knowledge on WB-EMS. Wolfgang Kemmler is the most relevant author in this field. Moreover, Frontier of Physiology is the journal where the authors publish the most. Conclusion: Research on WB-EMS has been growing in recent years. German and Spanish researchers lead two clusters where most studies and collaborations in this field are carried out. These findings will provide a better understanding of the state of WB-EMS research and may guide the emergence of new lines of investigation and research ideas. Full article
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Article
Numerical Analysis of the Seismic Behavior of a Steel Beam-to-Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Column Connection Using External Diaphragms
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081217 - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
The seismic behavior of a novel steel beam-to-concrete-filled steel tubular column connection with external diaphragms was evaluated numerically by using a model based on the finite element method. The model was validated against experimental results performed in previous work, which revealed that this [...] Read more.
The seismic behavior of a novel steel beam-to-concrete-filled steel tubular column connection with external diaphragms was evaluated numerically by using a model based on the finite element method. The model was validated against experimental results performed in previous work, which revealed that this type of connection is suitable for use in special moment frame structures located in areas of high seismic threat. The comparison included the hysteresis curve, plasticization mechanism, and plastic hinge location. Then, the model was used to study the behavior of the connection for a monotonic test. It was observed that the monotonic test can be used for the qualification of the connection, avoiding the excessive time required for the solution of the cyclic load test. In addition, two stages of simplifications were conducted in the model, showing satisfactory results and significant reductions in computational time. For the first stage, the lateral support beam was removed and replaced by a connection with an infinite lateral rigidity. Second, beam-type elements were implemented in the remote areas of the plastic hinge location. Finally, the simplified model was used in a parametric study that examined the behavior of the connection under four different European type I profiles. It was observed that all the profiles meet the requirements for seismic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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Article
Effect of Electrolysis Temperature on the Preparation of FeO by Molten Salt Electrolysis
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081130 - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
FeO is a low-price material with high charge storage capacity, biocompatibility and other characteristics. It has been applied in the fields of catalysts, capacitors, electrodes and composite materials. However, the current method of preparing FeO needs to control the temperature and reducing atmosphere, [...] Read more.
FeO is a low-price material with high charge storage capacity, biocompatibility and other characteristics. It has been applied in the fields of catalysts, capacitors, electrodes and composite materials. However, the current method of preparing FeO needs to control the temperature and reducing atmosphere, which increase the production difficulty and cost. In this experiment, the molten salt electrolysis method was used to prepare FeO by using the NaCl-KCl molten salt system and Fe2O3 and Al2O3 as raw materials, and the influence of temperature on the preparation process was explored. The results showed that the electrolysis process of Fe2O3 to FeO is mainly divided into the following three stages: the electric double-layer charging process, Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 process and Fe3O4 to FeO process. The increase in temperature can improve the reaction speed and strengthen the electrolysis effect. The higher the temperature, the less Fe3O4 and more FeO in the sample. Through analysis, it was found that the increase in temperature will affect the theoretical voltage of the electrolytic reaction in thermodynamics, resulting in the increase in the overall potential provided by the power supply. In terms of kinetics, the increase in temperature will affect the viscosity of molten salt, so that O2− transport has better kinetic conditions. Full article
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Article
Study on Deposition Conditions in Coupled Polysilicon CVD Furnaces by Simulations
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081129 - 12 Aug 2022
Abstract
Electronic-grade polysilicon is the cornerstone of the information industry. Considering the demand for this material in the semiconductor industry, any technological improvement has great potential benefits. Due to the quality requirements of electronic polysilicon, its preparation process is characterized by low raw material [...] Read more.
Electronic-grade polysilicon is the cornerstone of the information industry. Considering the demand for this material in the semiconductor industry, any technological improvement has great potential benefits. Due to the quality requirements of electronic polysilicon, its preparation process is characterized by low raw material utilization and high cost. Simply increasing the deposition rate by increasing the chemical reaction rate will easily lead to a reduction in the proportion of dense materials. For the first time, a coupled furnace scheme is proposed to improve the utilization of raw materials while maintaining the same deposition quality. The deposition conditions on the surface of silicon rods with different base plate designs were modeled and analyzed using the software PolySim, and a design characterized by a high flow rate and the use of 9 mm and 15 mm nozzles was selected for the coupling scheme. In coupling mode, the simulation results show that the utilization of raw materials is increased by 17.5%, and the deposition rate is increased by 44.9%, while the deposition quality and uniformity remain approximately unchanged. The results show that the coupling scheme with high feed flow is beneficial for significantly improving the deposition conditions and the utilization rate of raw materials, which also provides guidance for material preparation processes with similar principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallization Process and Simulation Calculation)
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Article
Traffic Flow Speed Prediction in Overhead Transport Systems for Semiconductor Fabrication Using Dense-UNet
Processes 2022, 10(8), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10081580 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
To improve semiconductor productivity, efficient operation of the overhead hoist transport (OHT) system, which is an automatic wafer transfer device in a semiconductor fabrication plant (“fab”), is very important. A large amount of data is being generated in real time on the production [...] Read more.
To improve semiconductor productivity, efficient operation of the overhead hoist transport (OHT) system, which is an automatic wafer transfer device in a semiconductor fabrication plant (“fab”), is very important. A large amount of data is being generated in real time on the production line through the recent production plan of a smart factory. This data can be used to increase productivity, which in turn enables companies to increase their production efficiency. In this study, for the efficient operation of the OHT, the problem of OHT congestion prediction in the fab is addressed. In particular, the prediction of the OHT transport time was performed by training the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) using the layout image. The data obtained from the simulation of the fab and the actual logistics schedule data of a Korean semiconductor factory were used. The data obtained for each time unit included statistics on volume and speed. In the experiment, a layout image was created and used based on the statistics. The experiment was conducted using only the layout image without any other feature extraction, and it was shown that congestion prediction in the fab is effective. Full article
Article
Study on the Weldability of Copper—304L Stainless Steel Dissimilar Joint Performed by Robotic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165535 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
The welding process of dissimilar metals, with distinct chemical, physical, thermal, and structural properties, needs to be studied and treated with special attention. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the weldability of the dissimilar joint made between the 99.95% Cu [...] Read more.
The welding process of dissimilar metals, with distinct chemical, physical, thermal, and structural properties, needs to be studied and treated with special attention. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the weldability of the dissimilar joint made between the 99.95% Cu pipe and the 304L stainless steel plate by robotic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), without filler metal and without preheating of materials, and to find the optimum welding regime. Based on repeated adjustments of the main process parameters—welding speed, oscillation frequency, pulse frequency, main welding current, pulse current, and decrease time of welding current at the process end—it was determined the optimum process and, further, it was possible to carry out joints free of cracks and porosity, with full penetration, proper compactness, and sealing properties, that ensure safety in operating conditions. The microstructure analysis revealed the fusion zone as a multi-element alloy with preponderant participation of Cu that has resulted from mixing the non-ferrous elements and iron. Globular Cu- or Fe-rich compounds were developed during welding, being detected by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Moreover, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) recorded the existence of a narrow double mixing zone formed at the interface between the fusion zone and the 304L stainless steel that contains about 66 wt.% Fe, 18 wt.% Cr, 8 wt.% Cu, and 4 wt.% Ni. Due to the formation of Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-rich compounds, a hardness increase up to 127 HV0.2 was noticed in the fusion zone, in comparison with the copper material, where the average measured microhardness was 82 HV0.2. The optimization of the robotic welding regime was carried out sequentially, by adjusting the parameters values, and, further, by analyzing the effects of welding on the geometry and on the appearance of the weld bead. Finally, employing the optimum welding regime—14 cm/min welding speed, 125 A main current, 100 A pulse current, 2.84 Hz oscillation frequency, and 5 Hz pulse frequency—appropriate dissimilar joints, without imperfections, were achieved. Full article
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Article
Method for Direct Localization of Multiple Impulse Acoustic Sources in Outdoor Environment
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162509 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
A method for the direct outdoor localization of multiple impulse acoustic sources by a distributed microphone array is proposed. This localization problem is of great interest for gunshot, firecracker and explosion detection localization in a civil environment, as well as for gun, mortar, [...] Read more.
A method for the direct outdoor localization of multiple impulse acoustic sources by a distributed microphone array is proposed. This localization problem is of great interest for gunshot, firecracker and explosion detection localization in a civil environment, as well as for gun, mortar, small arms, artillery, sniper detection localization in military battlefield monitoring systems. Such a kind of localization is a complicated technical problem in many aspects. In such a scenario, the permutation of impulse arrivals on distributed microphones occurs, so the application of classical two-step localization methods, such as time-of-arrival (TOA), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), angle-of-arrival (AOA), fingerprint methods, etc., is faced with the so-called association problem, which is difficult to solve. The association problem does not exist in the proposed method for direct (one-step) localization, so the proposed method is more suitable for localization in a given acoustic scenario than the mentioned two-step localization methods. Furthermore, in the proposed method, direct localization is performed impulse by impulse. The observation interval used for the localization could not be arbitrarily chosen; it is limited by the duration of impulses. In the mathematical model formulated in the paper, atmospheric factors in acoustic signal propagation (temperature, pressure, etc.) are included. The results of simulations show that by using the proposed method, centimeter localization accuracy can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Audio and Acoustic Signal)
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Article
Silver-Neodymium Codoped Lithium Aluminum Metaphosphate Glasses for Radio-Photoluminescence Dosimeter
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165527 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
Commercial radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters generally use Ag single-doped phosphate glass as a single-wavelength sensor. Now, a novel type of Ag–Nd-codoped phosphate glass has been developed, which can be applied to dual-wavelength or multi-wavelength RPL sensors, and can thus improve the accuracy and [...] Read more.
Commercial radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters generally use Ag single-doped phosphate glass as a single-wavelength sensor. Now, a novel type of Ag–Nd-codoped phosphate glass has been developed, which can be applied to dual-wavelength or multi-wavelength RPL sensors, and can thus improve the accuracy and stability of RPL dosimeters. An anhydrous 99.5 (0.7LiPO3–0.3Al (PO3)3) −0.25Ag2O–0.25Nd2O3 glass was prepared and irradiated at different doses, and then the absorption, fluorescence, infrared transmission spectra, as well as fluorescence lifetimes were tested and analyzed. The results show that there is an energy transfer between the Ag defect center and Nd3+ ions, and the transfer efficiency using 380 nm excitation is greater than that using 310 nm excitation. Aside from the 650 nm fluorescence of the Ag defect center, strong 882 nm and 1054 nm fluorescences of Nd ions are exhibited. It is possible that these fluorescences would allow the developed Ag–Nd-codoped phosphate glass to be applied to new RPL glass sensors and dosimeters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Glass: Preparation, Properties, and Applications)
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Article
Visible and Near-Infrared Broadband Absorber Based on Ti3C2Tx MXene-Wu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(16), 2753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162753 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
A high absorption broadband absorber based on MXene and tungsten nanospheres in visible and near-infrared bands is proposed. The absorber has a maximum absorption of 100% and an average absorption of 95% in the wavelength range of 400–2500 nm. The theoretical mechanism and [...] Read more.
A high absorption broadband absorber based on MXene and tungsten nanospheres in visible and near-infrared bands is proposed. The absorber has a maximum absorption of 100% and an average absorption of 95% in the wavelength range of 400–2500 nm. The theoretical mechanism and parameter adjustability of the absorber are analyzed by FDTD solutions. The results show that the structural parameters can effectively adjust the absorption performance. The good absorption performance is due to the action of the local surface plasmon resonance coupling with the gap surface plasmon resonance and Fabry–Perot resonance. The simulation results show that the absorber is insensitive to the polarization and oblique incidence angle of incident light, and that high absorption and broadband can be maintained when the oblique incidence angle is up to 60°. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Materials)
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Article
Burden of Lung Cancer Attributable to Occupational Carcinogens from 1990 to 2019 and Projections until 2044 in China
Cancers 2022, 14(16), 3883; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14163883 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
Background: Little is known about trends in the lung cancer burden from the disease that can be attributed to occupational carcinogens in China. Methods: Data regarding the lung cancer burden that can be attributed to occupational carcinogens in China were extracted from the [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about trends in the lung cancer burden from the disease that can be attributed to occupational carcinogens in China. Methods: Data regarding the lung cancer burden that can be attributed to occupational carcinogens in China were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2019. Joinpoint regression analysis and an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis were conducted to estimate the trend of lung cancer burden as a result of occupational carcinogens from 1990 to 2019. A Bayesian APC model was used to predict the disease burden until 2044. Results: The average annual percentage changes of age-standardized summary exposure values (SEVs) of occupational lung carcinogens, as well as the age-standardized population attributable fraction (PAF) of lung cancer due to occupational carcinogens, were 0.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4–0.5%) and 0.1% (95% CI: 0–0.2%), respectively. In addition, both the joinpoint regression analysis and APC analysis demonstrated significantly increased trends of age-standardized lung cancer mortality (ASMR) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (ASDR) as a result of occupational carcinogens. Asbestos and silica accounted for the two most important occupational lung carcinogens in China. The absolute burden is expected to increase, mainly due to population aging and the age-specific rate of illness. Conclusions: The lung cancer burden that could be attributed to occupational carcinogens significantly increased from 1990 to 2019 in China, and the absolute burden will continue to increase in the next 25 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Cancers)
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Short Note
Diethyl(benzamido(diisopropoxyphosphoryl)methyl)phosphonate
Molbank 2022, 2022(3), M1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/M1424 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
Bisphosphonates are widely used in medicine and related areas, mainly for the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. However, their synthesis is usually performed under harsh reaction conditions. In order to overcome this limitation, the present work illustrates a new synthetic route [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates are widely used in medicine and related areas, mainly for the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. However, their synthesis is usually performed under harsh reaction conditions. In order to overcome this limitation, the present work illustrates a new synthetic route to access the title α-aminobisphosphonate in milder reaction conditions using α-phosphorylated imines as key intermediates. Full article
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Article
Snakebite Envenomation, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Snakes in Banten, Indonesia
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162051 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
Snakes are commonly associated with feelings of anxiety or disgust, and snake conservation is often hindered by negative attitudes and perceptions. Although global snake populations are generally in decline, snakebite envenomation (SBE) continues to be recognized as a serious public health issue, particularly [...] Read more.
Snakes are commonly associated with feelings of anxiety or disgust, and snake conservation is often hindered by negative attitudes and perceptions. Although global snake populations are generally in decline, snakebite envenomation (SBE) continues to be recognized as a serious public health issue, particularly in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Data on SBE, a neglected tropical disease, are lacking, and Indonesia, a hotspot of venomous snake diversity, has no snake bite reporting system. We analyzed 127 survey results in Banten, Indonesia with the aim of documenting SBE and exploring the relationships between respondents’ experiences, attitudes, and behaviors toward snakes. Nine percent of respondents had experienced SBE, and knowledge of SBE incidents was associated with negative attitudes toward snake populations, with negative attitudes toward snakes associated with a higher likelihood of anti-conservation behavior. Women were more fearful than men, and women and those with lower education levels were more negative toward pythons (Malayopython reticulatus), suggesting that increased knowledge may aid in snake conservation efforts. Universally negative risk beliefs and attitudes toward venomous snakes indicate a need to reduce the threat of SBE in our study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
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Article
Active Teaching Methodologies Improve Cognitive Performance and Attention-Concentration in University Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080544 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
The scientific literature shows a beneficial association between active methodologies and cognitive variables in university students. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between active methodologies in Physical Education and attention and concentration in a group of university students A [...] Read more.
The scientific literature shows a beneficial association between active methodologies and cognitive variables in university students. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between active methodologies in Physical Education and attention and concentration in a group of university students A total of forty-four undergraduate students from Pontifical University of Comillas of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, participated in the present investigation (age: 20.48 ± 1.37 years; height: 170.77 ± 9.11 cm; weight: 68.84 ± 8.29 kg; body mass index: 23.51 ± 1.54). A D2 attention test was used to analyse their selective attention and concentration. Active methodologies were used to improve the students’ physical fitness, reflected in their VO2max, which was evaluated using an incremental cycloergometer test. A correlation analysis performed between the active methodologies used to improve physical fitness measures and the D2 test revealed a negative moderate correlation between HRmax and TR, TA and TR- (r = −0.30, p = 0.04; r = −0.38, p = 0.01; and r = −0.35, p = 0.02, respectively), and a positive moderate correlation between HRmax and C (r = −0.32, p = 0.03). Finally, a negative moderate correlation was found between VT and C (r = −0.48, p = 0.001). This correlation analysis was reinforced by the results of a regression analysis. In summary, the present research revealed that university students with better aerobic fitness, achieved through active methodologies and reflected in VT and higher HRmax, obtained better values in TA, TR and C. University students should be encouraged to engage in regular physical activity through active methodologies that tend to increase physical fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Methodologies and Educative Resources Mediated by Technology)
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