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Open AccessArticle
Real-World Efficacy of Midostaurin in Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051109 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
In April 2017 midostaurin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM). So far, very limited real world data on its efficacy is available. Thirteen patients aged from 48 to 79 years, [...] Read more.
In April 2017 midostaurin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM). So far, very limited real world data on its efficacy is available. Thirteen patients aged from 48 to 79 years, who received midostaurin in the early access program, were included in the study. Midostaurin was used both in first (n = 5) and subsequent lines of treatment (n = 8). The median duration of exposure was 9 months. Most patients (77%, n = 10) had a clinical improvement already as soon as the second month of therapy. Objective response was noted in 4 (50%) of eight evaluated patients. Among responders, we observed a decrease in serum tryptase level (median 74.14%) and bone marrow infiltration by mast cells (median 50%) in the sixth month of treatment. In one case, in the 10th month of treatment, allogenic stem cell transplantation was performed, achieving complete remission. Five patients died, three due to progression of disease, one in the course of secondary acute myeloid leukemia and one due to reasons not related to mastocytosis. Treatment is ongoing in seven patients. We found that midostaurin therapy is beneficial to patients with ASM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in the Field of Myeloid Neoplasms)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Preparation of W-Plated Diamond and Improvement of Thermal Conductivity of Diamond-WC-Cu Composite
Metals 2021, 11(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030437 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
The tungsten (W)-plated diamond process was explored and optimized. A dense and uniform tungsten coating with a thickness of 900 nm was successfully prepared by the powder covering sintering method. The Diamond-WC-Cu composite with high density and high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared [...] Read more.
The tungsten (W)-plated diamond process was explored and optimized. A dense and uniform tungsten coating with a thickness of 900 nm was successfully prepared by the powder covering sintering method. The Diamond-WC-Cu composite with high density and high thermal conductivity were successfully prepared by cyclic vacuum pressure infiltration. The microstructure and composition of the W-plated diamond particles were analyzed. The effect of tungsten coating on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of the Diamond-WC-Cu composite was investigated. After calculation, the interface thermal resistance of the composite forming the tungsten carbide transition layer is 2.11 × 10−8 m2∙K∙W−1. The thermal conductivity average value of the Diamond-WC-Cu composite with a diamond volume fraction of 60% reaches 874 W∙m−1∙K−1, which is close to the theoretical prediction value of Hasselman-Johnson (H-J) model and differential effective medium (DEM) model. Moreover, the Maxwell-Eucken (M-E) model, H-J model, and DEM model were used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the Diamond-WC-Cu composite. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials as Novel Cardiovascular Theranostics
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(3), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13030348 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions associated with heart and blood vessels and are considered the leading cause of death globally. Coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction represents the CVDs. Since CVDs are associated with a series of pathophysiological conditions with [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions associated with heart and blood vessels and are considered the leading cause of death globally. Coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction represents the CVDs. Since CVDs are associated with a series of pathophysiological conditions with an alarming mortality and morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic approaches are critical for saving patients’ lives. Conventionally, diagnostic tools are employed to detect disease conditions, whereas therapeutic drug candidates are administered to mitigate diseases. However, the advent of nanotechnological platforms has revolutionized the current understanding of pathophysiology and therapeutic measures. The concept of combinatorial therapy using both diagnosis and therapeutics through a single platform is known as theranostics. Nano-based theranostics are widely used in cancer detection and treatment, as evident from pre-clinical and clinical studies. Nanotheranostics have gained considerable attention for the efficient management of CVDs. The differential physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles have been exploited for early diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and aneurysms. Herein, we provided the information on the evolution of nano-based theranostics to detect and treat CVDs such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis. The review also aims to provide novel avenues on how nanotherapeutics’ trending concept could transform our conventional diagnostic and therapeutic tools in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of a DC-DC Flyback Converter Variant for Thermoelectric Generators with Partial Energy Processing
Electronics 2021, 10(5), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10050619 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a DC-DC flyback converter variant applied in energy harvesting based on thermoelectric generators. The main contribution of the article is the analysis and obtaining the equations of the behavior of the converter with a rearrangement of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a DC-DC flyback converter variant applied in energy harvesting based on thermoelectric generators. The main contribution of the article is the analysis and obtaining the equations of the behavior of the converter with a rearrangement of the elements of the traditional flyback converter in such a way that the converter only processes part of the energy while the other part is delivered directly to the load. This is achieved by connecting the secondary of the flyback in series with the load, and this assembly, in turn, is placed in parallel with the primary and the voltage source. This configuration means that the topology can only be a boost topology; however, there are benefits such as partial power processing (R2P2) and reduced stress on converter components in both voltage and current; all this leads to increase the efficiency. A Low Frequency Averaging Analysis (LFAA) was used to determine the behavior of the proposed circuit, and a simple equivalent circuit to analyze was obtained. In order to validate the theoretical analysis, a circuit was simulated in Spice and implemented in an 18 W prototype. Experimental results showed that the converter has an efficiency of 92.65%. Moreover, the rearranged flyback processed only 56% of the input power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Power Converters)
Open AccessArticle
Input Parallel Output Series Structure of Planar Medium Frequency Transformers for 200 kW Power Converter: Model and Parameters Evaluation
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051450 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Nowadays, the demand for high power converters for DC applications, such as renewable sources or ultra-fast chargers for electric vehicles, is constantly growing. Galvanic isolation is mandatory in most of these applications. In this context, the Solid State Transformer (SST) converter plays a [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the demand for high power converters for DC applications, such as renewable sources or ultra-fast chargers for electric vehicles, is constantly growing. Galvanic isolation is mandatory in most of these applications. In this context, the Solid State Transformer (SST) converter plays a fundamental role. The adoption of the Medium Frequency Transformers (MFT) guarantees galvanic isolation in addition to high performance in reduced size. In the present paper, a multi MFT structure is proposed as a solution to improve the power density and the modularity of the system. Starting from 20kW planar transformer model, experimentally validated, a multi-transformer structure is analyzed. After an analytical treatment of the Input Parallel Output Series (IPOS) structure, an equivalent electrical model of a 200kW IPOS (made by 10 MFTs) is introduced. The model is validated by experimental measurements and tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converters: Modeling, Design and Applications)
Open AccessEditorial
Bee Venom and Its Sub-Components: Characterization, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030191 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Bee venom, which is a complex substance produced by Apis mellifera, is widely used to treat various diseases, such as pain [...] Full article
Open AccessCase Report
A Knowledge-Based Algorithm for Automatic Monitoring of Orthodontic Treatment: The Dental Monitoring System. Two Cases
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051856 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Background: In the dental field, digital technology has created new opportunities for orthodontists to integrate their clinical practice, and for patients to collect information about orthodontics and their treatment, which is called “teledentistry.” Dental monitoring (DM) is a recently introduced orthodontic application that [...] Read more.
Background: In the dental field, digital technology has created new opportunities for orthodontists to integrate their clinical practice, and for patients to collect information about orthodontics and their treatment, which is called “teledentistry.” Dental monitoring (DM) is a recently introduced orthodontic application that combines safe teledentistry with artificial intelligence (AI) using a knowledge-based algorithm, allowing an accurate semi-automatic monitoring of the treatment. Dental Monitoring is the world’s first SaaS (Software as a Service) application designed for remote monitoring of dental treatment, developed in Paris, France, with Philippe Salah as the Co-founder and CEO. Cases presentation: This report describes two cases in which DM system was essential to achieve the control of certain movements: it was possible to follow the movement, even if complex, such as the anterior cross of an adult patient and a lack of space in the canine of the growing patient. The software analyzed the fit and retention of the aligner, thus ensuring correct biomechanics. They were treated during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown with aligners. The first case is a growing patient who was monitored during an interceptive orthodontic treatment to manage a retained upper canine. The second case is an adult patient forced to finalize his treatment of upper lateral incisor crossbite. The software analyzed the fit and retention of the aligner, thus ensuring correct biomechanics. Conclusions: DM system appears to be a promising method, useful for improving the interaction between doctor and patient, generally acceptable and useful to patients, even in critical clinical situations, at least in cases with optimal compliance and ability to use the tool properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare Monitoring and Management with Artificial Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle
A Note on Causation Versus Correlation in an Extreme Situation
Entropy 2021, 23(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23030316 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Recently, it has been shown that the information flow and causality between two time series can be inferred in a rigorous and quantitative sense, and, besides, the resulting causality can be normalized. A corollary that follows is, in the linear limit, causation implies [...] Read more.
Recently, it has been shown that the information flow and causality between two time series can be inferred in a rigorous and quantitative sense, and, besides, the resulting causality can be normalized. A corollary that follows is, in the linear limit, causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation. Now suppose there is an event A taking a harmonic form (sine/cosine), and it generates through some process another event B so that B always lags A by a phase of π/2. Here the causality is obviously seen, while by computation the correlation is, however, zero. This apparent contradiction is rooted in the fact that a harmonic system always leaves a single point on the Poincaré section; it does not add information. That is to say, though the absolute information flow from A to B is zero, i.e., TAB=0, the total information increase of B is also zero, so the normalized TAB, denoted as τAB, takes the form of 00. By slightly perturbing the system with some noise, solving a stochastic differential equation, and letting the perturbation go to zero, it can be shown that τAB approaches 100%, just as one would have expected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is Trade Credit a Sustainable Resource for Medium-Sized Italian Green Companies?
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052872 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Medium-sized Enterprises (MEs) are a limited number of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in EU-28 countries, but they contribute greatly to value added and employment. They are also key to pursuing sustainable local development in terms of green economic growth. Because trade credit [...] Read more.
Medium-sized Enterprises (MEs) are a limited number of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in EU-28 countries, but they contribute greatly to value added and employment. They are also key to pursuing sustainable local development in terms of green economic growth. Because trade credit is a crucial financial source for SMEs, this article investigates the importance of trade credit for Italian MEs, and particularly for ‘green’ MEs, rather than ‘non-green’ MEs. A panel analysis is applied to 101,250 observations over the period 2010–2019. We find that green MEs rely more on trade credit than non-green MEs. Moreover, trade credit is more important for younger, smaller, less profitable, and less liquid MEs. We further show that a substitution effect between trade and banking credit exists, and that the local development level affects the demand for trade credit. Our results demonstrate that trade credit supports sustainable development more than banking credit. Financial intermediaries should therefore include green parameters in the assessment of the creditworthiness of MEs, and policymakers should consider that trade credit and financial inclusion may be important in pursuing sustainable local development and economic growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance Assessment of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Restoration Experiment on Dead matte Twelve Years after Planting—Structural and Functional Meadow Features
Water 2021, 13(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050724 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Following the restoration of natural conditions by reducing human pressures, reforestation is currently considered a possible option to accelerate the recovery of seagrass habitats. Long-term monitoring programs theoretically represent an ideal solution to assess whether a reforestation plan has produced the desired results. [...] Read more.
Following the restoration of natural conditions by reducing human pressures, reforestation is currently considered a possible option to accelerate the recovery of seagrass habitats. Long-term monitoring programs theoretically represent an ideal solution to assess whether a reforestation plan has produced the desired results. Here, we report on the performance of a 20 m2 patch of Posidonia oceanica transplanted on dead matte twelve years after transplantation in the Gulf of Palermo, northwestern Sicily. Photo mosaic performed in the area allowed us to detect 23 transplanted patches of both regular and irregular shape, ranging from 0.1 to 2.7 m2 and an overall surface close to 19 m2. Meadow density was 331.6 ± 17.7 shoot m−2 (currently five times higher than the initial value of 66 shoots m−2), and it did not show statistical differences from a close by natural meadow (331.2 ± 14.9). Total primary production, estimated by lepidochronology, varied from 333.0 to 332.7 g dw m2/year, at the transplanted and natural stand, respectively. These results suggest that complete restoration of P. oceanica on dead matte is possible in a relatively short time (a decade), thus representing a good starting point for upscaling the recovery of the degraded meadows in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Restore Degraded Marine Coastal Areas in the Mediterranean Sea)
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Open AccessArticle
Weight Gain in Adults with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Compared to Restrictive Anorexia Nervosa—Pilot Findings from a Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030871 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Background: Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by persistent failure to meet nutritional needs, absence of body image distortion and often low body weight. Weight restorative treatment in ARFID-adults is provided for as in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), while the effect is unknown. [...] Read more.
Background: Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by persistent failure to meet nutritional needs, absence of body image distortion and often low body weight. Weight restorative treatment in ARFID-adults is provided for as in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), while the effect is unknown. The aim was to compare weight gain between ARFID and restrictive subtype of AN (AN-R), including exploring impact of medical factors and psychopathology. Methods: Individuals with ARFID (n = 7; all cases enrolled over 5 years) and AN-R (n = 80) were recruited from the Prospective Longitudinal All-comers inclusion study in Eating Disorders (PROLED) during 5 years. All underwent weight restorative inpatient treatment. Clinical characteristics at baseline and weekly weight gain were recorded and compared. Results: There were no significant differences at baseline weight, nor in weight gain between groups. Anxiety was statistically significantly higher in AN-R at baseline. Conclusions: Although there were differences in several clinical measures at baseline (Autism Quotient, symptom checklist, mood scores and Morgan Russel Outcome Scale), only anxiety was higher in AN-R. No differences in weight gain were observed, although mean values indicate a faster weight gain in the ARFID group. Standard weight restorative treatment in this study in adults with ARFID has similar weight gaining effect as in AN-R. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating and Feeding Disorders with Restrictive Food Intake)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Quasi-Petal Heat Transfer Tube on the Melting Process of the Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Substance in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052871 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
The melting heat transfer of nano-enhanced phase change materials was addressed in a thermal energy storage unit. A heated U-shape tube was placed in a cylindrical shell. The cross-section of the tube is a petal-shape, which can have different amplitudes and wave numbers. [...] Read more.
The melting heat transfer of nano-enhanced phase change materials was addressed in a thermal energy storage unit. A heated U-shape tube was placed in a cylindrical shell. The cross-section of the tube is a petal-shape, which can have different amplitudes and wave numbers. The shell is filled with capric acid with a fusion temperature of 32 °C. The copper (Cu)/graphene oxide (GO) type nanoparticles were added to capric acid to improve its heat transfer properties. The enthalpy-porosity approach was used to model the phase change heat transfer in the presence of natural convection heat transfer effects. A novel mesh adaptation method was used to track the phase change melting front and produce high-quality mesh at the phase change region. The impacts of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, the amplitude and number of petals, the distance between tubes, and the angle of tube placements were investigated on the thermal energy rate and melting-time in the thermal energy storage unit. An average charging power can be raised by up to 45% by using petal shape tubes compared to a plain tube. The nanoadditives could improve the heat transfer by 7% for Cu and 11% for GO nanoparticles compared to the pure phase change material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Materials and Building Systems Dynamics)
Open AccessArticle
Elevated Serum Amyloid a Levels Are Not Specific for Sarcoidosis but Associate with a Fibrotic Pulmonary Phenotype
Cells 2021, 10(3), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030585 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Elevated Serum Amyloid A (SAA) levels have been found in several inflammatory diseases, including sarcoidosis. SAA is suggested to be involved in sarcoidosis pathogenesis by involvement in granuloma formation and maintenance. We hypothesized that SAA serum levels would be higher in sarcoidosis compared [...] Read more.
Elevated Serum Amyloid A (SAA) levels have been found in several inflammatory diseases, including sarcoidosis. SAA is suggested to be involved in sarcoidosis pathogenesis by involvement in granuloma formation and maintenance. We hypothesized that SAA serum levels would be higher in sarcoidosis compared to other non-infectious granulomatous and non-granulomatous diseases. SAA levels were measured in serum from sarcoidosis, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and (eosinophilic) granulomatosis with polyangiitis ((E)GPA) patients. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients were included as non-granulomatous disease group. SAA levels of patients with sarcoidosis (31.0 µg/mL), HP (23.4 µg/mL), (E)GPA (36.9 µg/mL), and IPF (22.1 µg/mL) were all higher than SAA levels of healthy controls (10.1 µg/mL). SAA levels did not differ between the diagnostic groups. When SAA serum levels were analyzed in sarcoidosis subgroups, fibrotic sarcoidosis patients showed higher SAA levels than sarcoidosis patients without fibrosis (47.8 µg/mL vs. 29.4 µg/mL, p = 0.005). To conclude, the observation that fibrotic sarcoidosis patients have higher SAA levels, together with our finding that SAA levels were also increased in IPF patients, suggests that SAA may next to granulomatous processes also reflect the process of fibrogenesis. Further studies should clarify the exact role of SAA in fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Headache as an Adverse Reaction to the Use of Medication in the Elderly: A Pharmacovigilance Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2674; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052674 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
There is a consensus that elderly individuals are quite vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and headaches are one of the most frequent clinical presentations of central nervous system problems in the general population, which can be an ADR. The purpose of our [...] Read more.
There is a consensus that elderly individuals are quite vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and headaches are one of the most frequent clinical presentations of central nervous system problems in the general population, which can be an ADR. The purpose of our work was to analyze reports of “headache” associated ADRs in the elderly sent to the Portuguese Pharmacovigilance System (PPS), and also which drugs were more frequently associated with this adverse reaction. A retrospective analysis of suspected ADR reports involving patients aged 65 years or older received by the PPS in the last 10 years was conducted. A search of all the terms associated with the High Level Term “headache” was performed. All duplicate reports were excluded from the analysis. A total of 155 ADRs reports were included, in which 15 reported isolated “headache” as suspected ADR, while the remaining 140 ADRs reports reported “headache” together with several other adverse reactions. Most reports of “headache” ADR occurred in women (74.8%; n = 116). About half (46.5%; n = 72) of the ADR reports were considered serious. Anti-viral medication, anti-depressants, anti-dyslipidemic agents and central nervous system-acting analgesics were the most frequent drugs associated with “headache” ADR reports in this population. In elderly patients, most ADR reports involving headaches occurred in women and a high percentage (46.5%) were considered serious. Thus, it is important that healthcare professionals pay more attention to headaches reported as ADRs in the elderly and drugs suspected to cause them, in order to increase knowledge about this type of reaction and contribute towards safely using drugs in this age group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship Between the Geotourism Potential and Function in the Polish Part of the Roztocze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve
Geosciences 2021, 11(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11030120 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
The Polish part of the Roztocze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve area is characterized by diversified geotourism resources with relatively high value. However, their potential seems not to be fully used in the current product offer. The aim of the study was therefore to assess [...] Read more.
The Polish part of the Roztocze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve area is characterized by diversified geotourism resources with relatively high value. However, their potential seems not to be fully used in the current product offer. The aim of the study was therefore to assess the spatial variability of the geotourism potential and function and to determine their interrelations in view of further development of geotourism in the Roztocze TBR and the perspective of creation of the “Kamienny Las na Roztoczu” geopark. The study was carried out with the use of the taxonomic method of multidimensional comparative analysis consisting of calculation and analysis of general, total, and partial indices of the geotourism potential and function in 22 communes. The results showed the highest total indicator of geotourism potential in two communes, i.e. Józefów and Krasnobród, and the highest value of the total geotourism function index in Krasnobród. The results of the analysis of the relationships between the geotourism potential and function indicate that the geotourism resources and products are fully used in terms of the development of the function only in Krasnobród commune. In turn, the value of the total geotourism function index in the Zwierzyniec commune exceeds the geotourism potential indicator, which implies that this area is overloaded by tourist movement. The total indicators of geotourism potential in the other communes, especially Józefów, Krasnobród, Lubycza Królewska, and Susiec, indicate the possibility of more intensive exploitation of geotourism resources in preparation of interesting products in compliance with the principles of sustainable development and, consequently, the development of the geotourism function. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Role of Preoperative Assessment in Predicting Tumor-Induced Plasticity in Patients with Diffuse Gliomas
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051108 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
When diffuse gliomas (DG) affect the brain’s potential to reorganize functional networks, patients can exhibit seizures and/or language/cognitive impairment. The tumor–brain interaction and the individual connectomic organization cannot be predicted preoperatively. We aimed to, first, investigate the relationship between preoperative assessment and intraoperative [...] Read more.
When diffuse gliomas (DG) affect the brain’s potential to reorganize functional networks, patients can exhibit seizures and/or language/cognitive impairment. The tumor–brain interaction and the individual connectomic organization cannot be predicted preoperatively. We aimed to, first, investigate the relationship between preoperative assessment and intraoperative findings of eloquent tumors in 36 DG operated with awake surgery. Second, we also studied possible mechanisms of tumor-induced brain reorganization in these patients. FLAIR-MRI sequences were used for tumor volume segmentation and the Brain-Grid system (BG) was used as an overlay for infiltration analysis. Neuropsychological (NPS) and/or language assessments were performed in all patients. The distance between eloquent spots and tumor margins was measured. All variables were used for correlation and logistic regression analyses. Eloquent tumors were detected in 75% of the patients with no single variable able to predict this finding. Impaired NPS functions correlated with invasive tumors, crucial location (A4C2S2/A3C2S2-voxels, left opercular-insular/sub-insular region) and higher risk of eloquent tumors. Epilepsy was correlated with larger tumor volumes and infiltrated A4C2S2/A3C2S2 voxels. Language impairment was correlated with infiltrated A3C2S2 voxel. Peritumoral cortical eloquent spots reflected an early compensative mechanism with age as possible influencing factor. Preoperative NPS impairment is linked with high risk of eloquent tumors. A systematic integration of extensive cognitive assessment and advanced neuroimaging can improve our comprehension of the connectomic brain organization at the individual scale and lead to a better oncological/functional balance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shipborne Mobile Photogrammetry for 3D Mapping and Landslide Detection of the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13051007 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
The water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir is a serious landslide-prone area. However, current remote sensing methods for landslide mapping and detection in the WLFZ are insufficient because of difficulties in data acquisition and lack of facade information. We proposed [...] Read more.
The water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir is a serious landslide-prone area. However, current remote sensing methods for landslide mapping and detection in the WLFZ are insufficient because of difficulties in data acquisition and lack of facade information. We proposed a novel shipborne mobile photogrammetry approach for 3D mapping and landslide detection in the WLFZ for the first time, containing a self-designed shipborne hardware platform and a data acquisition and processing workflow. To evaluate the accuracy and usability of the resultant 3D models in the WLFZ, four bundle block adjustment (BBA) control configurations were developed and adopted. In the four configurations, the raw Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data, the raw GNSS data and fixed camera height, the GCPs extracted from aerial photogrammetric products, and the mobile Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud were used. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the 3D models was conducted, and the comparative results indicated the BBA with GCPs extracted from the aerial photogrammetric products was the most practical configuration (RMSE 2.00 m in plane, RMSE 0.46 m in height), while the BBA with the mobile LiDAR point cloud as a control provided the highest georeferencing accuracy (RMSE 0.59 m in plane, RMSE 0.40 m in height). Subsequently, the landslide detection ability of the proposed approach was compared with multisource remote sensing images through visual interpretation, which showed that the proposed approach provided the highest landslide detection rate and unique advantages in small landslide detection as well as in steep terrains due to the more detailed features of landslides provided by the shipborne 3D models. The approach is an effective and flexible supplement to traditional remote sensing methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New, Catchment-Scale Integrated Water Quality Model of Phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Phytoplankton: INCA-Phosphorus Ecology (PEco)
Water 2021, 13(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050723 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Process-based models are commonly used to design management strategies to reduce excessive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia. However, management targets typically focus on phosphorus control, under the assumption that successful nutrient reduction will solve hypoxia issues. Algal responses to nutrient drivers are not [...] Read more.
Process-based models are commonly used to design management strategies to reduce excessive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia. However, management targets typically focus on phosphorus control, under the assumption that successful nutrient reduction will solve hypoxia issues. Algal responses to nutrient drivers are not linear and depend on additional biotic and abiotic controls. In order to generate a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of nutrient control strategies, independent nutrient, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and algal models must be coupled, which can increase overall uncertainty. Here, we extend an existing process-based phosphorus model (INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics) to include biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and algal growth and decay (INCA-PEco). We applied the resultant model in two eutrophied mesoscale catchments with continental and maritime climates. We assessed effects of regional differences in climate and land use on parameter importance during calibration using a generalised sensitivity analysis. We successfully reproduced in-stream total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment, DO, BOD and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations across a range of temporal scales, land uses and climate regimes. While INCA-PEco is highly parameterized, model uncertainty can be significantly reduced by focusing calibration and monitoring efforts on just 18 of those parameters. Specifically, calibration time could be optimized by focusing on hydrological parameters (base flow, Manning’s n and river depth). In locations with significant inputs of diffuse nutrients, e.g., in agricultural catchments, detailed data on crop growth and nutrient uptake rates are also important. The remaining parameters provide flexibility to the user, broaden model applicability, and maximize its functionality under a changing climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Catchment Biogeochemical and Hydrological Modelling)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Smeared Constitutive Laws for Tensile Concrete to Predict the Cracking of RC Beams under Torsion with Smeared Truss Model
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051260 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
In this study, the Generalized Softened Variable Angle Truss-Model (GSVATM) is used to predict the response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams under torsion at the early loading stages, namely the transition from the uncracked to the cracked stage. Being a 3-dimensional smeared truss [...] Read more.
In this study, the Generalized Softened Variable Angle Truss-Model (GSVATM) is used to predict the response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams under torsion at the early loading stages, namely the transition from the uncracked to the cracked stage. Being a 3-dimensional smeared truss model, the GSVATM must incorporate smeared constitutive laws for the materials, namely for the tensile concrete. Different smeared constitutive laws for tensile concrete can be found in the literature, which could lead to different predictions for the torsional response of RC beams at the earlier stages. Hence, the GSVATM is used to check several smeared constitutive laws for tensile concrete proposed in previous studies. The studied parameters are the cracking torque and the corresponding twist. The predictions of these parameters from the GSVATM are compared with the experimental results from several reported tests on RC beams under torsion. From the obtained results and the performed comparative analyses, one of the checked smeared constitutive laws for tensile concrete was found to lead to good predictions for the cracking torque of the RC beams regardless of the cross-section type (plain or hollow). Such a result could be useful to help with choosing the best constitutive laws to be incorporated into the smeared truss models to predict the response of RC beams under torsion. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Crystal Structure and Solid-State Conformational Analysis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Venetoclax
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030261 (registering DOI) - 07 Mar 2021
Abstract
Venetoclax is an orally bioavailable, B-cell lymphoma-2 selective inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. Venetoclax’s crystal structure was until now determined only when it was bound to a B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) protein, while [...] Read more.
Venetoclax is an orally bioavailable, B-cell lymphoma-2 selective inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. Venetoclax’s crystal structure was until now determined only when it was bound to a B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) protein, while the crystal structure of this active pharmaceutical ingredient alone has not been reported yet. Herein, we present the first successful crystallization, which provided crystals of venetoclax suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal structure of venetoclax hydrate was successfully determined. The asymmetric unit is composed of two crystallographically independent molecules of venetoclax and two molecules of interstitial water. Intramolecular N–H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in both molecules, and a molecular overlay shows differences in their molecular conformations, which is also observed in respect to venetoclax molecules from known crystal structures of BCL-2:venetoclax complexes. A supramolecular structure is achieved through various N–H⋯N, O–H⋯O, C–H⋯O, C–H⋯π, C–Cl⋯π, ONO⋯π, and π⋯π interactions. The obtained crystals were additionally characterized with spectroscopic techniques, such as IR and Raman, as well as with thermal analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Crystals (Volume II))
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