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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Covalently Functionalized DNA Duplexes and Quadruplexes as Hybrid Catalysts in an Enantioselective Friedel–Crafts Reaction
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143121 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
The precise site-specific positioning of metal–ligand complexes on various DNA structures through covalent linkages has gained importance in the development of hybrid catalysts for aqueous-phase homogeneous catalysis. Covalently modified double-stranded and G-quadruplex DNA-based hybrid catalysts have been investigated separately. To understand the role [...] Read more.
The precise site-specific positioning of metal–ligand complexes on various DNA structures through covalent linkages has gained importance in the development of hybrid catalysts for aqueous-phase homogeneous catalysis. Covalently modified double-stranded and G-quadruplex DNA-based hybrid catalysts have been investigated separately. To understand the role of different DNA secondary structures in enantioselective Friedel–Crafts alkylation, a well-known G-quadruplex-forming sequence was covalently modified at different positions. The catalytic performance of this modified DNA strand was studied in the presence and absence of a complementary DNA sequence, resulting in the formation of two different secondary structures, namely duplex and G-quadruplex. Indeed, the secondary structures had a tremendous effect on both the yield and stereoselectivity of the catalyzed reaction. In addition, the position of the modification, the topology of the DNA, the nature of the ligand, and the length of the linker between ligand and DNA were found to modulate the catalytic performance of the hybrid catalysts. Using the optimal linker length, the quadruplexes formed the (−)-enantiomer with up to 65% ee, while the duplex yielded the (+)-enantiomer with up to 62% ee. This study unveils a new and simple way to control the stereochemical outcome of a Friedel–Crafts reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic DNA)
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Open AccessArticle
Survival and Growth in Innovative Technology Entrepreneurship: A Mixed-Methods Investigation
Adm. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci10030039 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Innovative technology enterprises are recognized internationally as an important pillar in modern economic activity. This paper presents the findings from a research combining qualitative and quantitative methods, with the specific goal of identifying and verifying the characteristics that affect their survival and growth. [...] Read more.
Innovative technology enterprises are recognized internationally as an important pillar in modern economic activity. This paper presents the findings from a research combining qualitative and quantitative methods, with the specific goal of identifying and verifying the characteristics that affect their survival and growth. Results from an in-depth longitudinal qualitative case study, that examines a mature and constantly growing (in its 10-year operation) technologically innovative enterprise, reveal that a number of characteristics pertaining to both the profile of the entrepreneurial team, as well as of the employees, significantly affect company survival and growth in this context. Moreover, we recognize and analyze three stages in its evolution: an initial “evolutionary” growth (infancy and youth), followed by a “revolutionary” (crisis), and a second “evolutionary” (maturity) stage. Our findings are further corroborated and enriched through a survey with N = 27 entrepreneurs in innovative technology startups. We contribute to existing literature on innovative technology entrepreneurship, by identifying characteristics that entrepreneurs and employees should bear, towards its survival and growth. Moreover, a practical application of the life cycle approach is described for technologically innovative companies. Finally, a specific prescription that can help guide future theoretical and practical endeavors in innovative technology entrepreneurship is also provided accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship)
Open AccessArticle
A Concise Paradigm on Radical Hysterectomy: The Comprehensive Anatomy of Parametrium, Paracolpium and the Pelvic Autonomic Nerve System and Its Surgical Implication
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071839 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
The current understanding of radical hysterectomy is more centered on the uterus and little is discussed regarding the resection of the vaginal cuff and the paracolpium as an essential part of this procedure. The anatomic dissections of two fresh and 17 formalin-fixed female [...] Read more.
The current understanding of radical hysterectomy is more centered on the uterus and little is discussed regarding the resection of the vaginal cuff and the paracolpium as an essential part of this procedure. The anatomic dissections of two fresh and 17 formalin-fixed female pelvis cadavers were utilized to understand and decipher the anatomy of the pelvic autonomic nerve system (PANS) and its connections to the surrounding anatomical structures, especially the paracolpium. The study mandates the recognition of the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic template of the parametrium and paracolpium and provides herewith an enhanced scope during a nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy procedure by precise description of the paracolpium and its close anatomical relationships to the components of the PANS. This enables the medical fraternity to distinguish between direct infiltration of the paracolpium, where the nerve sparing technique is no longer possible, and the affected lymph node in the paracolpium, where nerve sparing is still an option. This study gives rise to a tailored surgical option that allows for abandoning the resection of the paracolpium by FIGO stage IB1, where less than 2 cm vaginal vault resection is demanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapies in Cervical Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of Entanglement between Two Two-Level Atoms Coupled to a Microtoroidal Cavity Via Thermal Field
Quantum Reports 2020, 2(3), 343-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030024 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a system comprising a pair of two-level
dipole-dipole interacting atoms coupled to a microtoroidal resonator. Each atom is individually
coupled with the two counter-propagating whispering gallery modes of the resonator through their
evanescent fields. The atom-atom entanglement [...] Read more.
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a system comprising a pair of two-level
dipole-dipole interacting atoms coupled to a microtoroidal resonator. Each atom is individually
coupled with the two counter-propagating whispering gallery modes of the resonator through their
evanescent fields. The atom-atom entanglement shown for several parameter sets of the system was
obtained using the negativity. For ideal resonators, it is seen that the entanglement is correlated to
the dipole-dipole interaction and the average number of photons when the modes of the resonator
are prepared in a thermal state even at high temperatures. Further, for the non-ideal resonator case,
where there is a small structural deformation of the microtoroidal structure that allows a direct
coupling between the modes, a counter-intuitive result is presented. The imperfections also offer
the advantage of generating maximally entangled states for a two-atom subsystem with maximum
fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Feature Papers of Quantum Reports)
Open AccessCommunication
Oxidant–Antioxidant Status in Canine Multicentric Lymphoma and Primary Cutaneous Mastocytoma
Processes 2020, 8(7), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070802 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a prominent event in several acute and chronic diseases including neoplasia. Although its direct involvement in carcinogenesis still remains to be clearly defined, a deeper knowledge of oxidative stress in oncologic patients could help to monitor their clinical outcome and [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a prominent event in several acute and chronic diseases including neoplasia. Although its direct involvement in carcinogenesis still remains to be clearly defined, a deeper knowledge of oxidative stress in oncologic patients could help to monitor their clinical outcome and to develop new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore redox status in blood of neoplastic dogs affected either by multicentric lymphoma or by primary cutaneous mastocytoma. Superoxide anion (O2 •−), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroperoxides (ROOH) were measured. Detoxifying enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP)) were assessed. The oxidative stress index (OSi) both for enzymatic (OSiE) and non-enzymatic (OSiNE) scavengers were evaluated. Both pathologies, showed a reduced NO generation, while O2 •− levels were decreased only in mastocytoma. The oxidative stress indexes showed a significant decrease in mastocytoma patients, only for OSiE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Redox Status in Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Local Drag of Completion String with Packers in Horizontal Wells
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070657 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
The multistage stimulation technology of horizontal wells has brought huge benefits to the development of oil and gas fields. However, the completion string with packers often encounters stuck due to the large drag in the horizontal section, causing huge economic losses. The local [...] Read more.
The multistage stimulation technology of horizontal wells has brought huge benefits to the development of oil and gas fields. However, the completion string with packers often encounters stuck due to the large drag in the horizontal section, causing huge economic losses. The local drag of the completion string with packers in the horizontal section is very complicated, and it has not been fully understood by theoretical calculations. A local drag experiment is designed to simulate the influence of microsteps and cuttings on the local drag of the completion string with packers in the inclined and horizontal sections. An obvious increase of the local drag of the packer is found at microsteps of the horizontal section, and the local drag is greatly affected by the amount of sand. In addition, the string with packers will vibrate during the tripping process in the deviated section, and the local drag is different when different amounts of sand are in the hole, but the change law is similar. The experimental results show that the friction coefficients of the packers with different materials in the horizontal section vary greatly, resulting in different local drags. It indicates that the local drag of the completion string not only depends on the microsteps and sand quantity in the wellbore, but also on the material difference of the packers. Only if microsteps and cuttings are removed can the completion string be tripped into horizontal wells smoothly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation and Characterization of Surface)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tardigrades from Iztaccíhuatl Volcano (Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt), with the Description of Minibiotus citlalium sp. nov. (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae)
Diversity 2020, 12(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/d12070271 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
The study of tardigrade diversity in Mexico is at early stage of development, to date, 56 extant species have been reported. To identify the tardigrade fauna associated with mosses in the Iztaccíhuatl volcano, we performed a systematic sampling along an altitudinal and multi-habitat [...] Read more.
The study of tardigrade diversity in Mexico is at early stage of development, to date, 56 extant species have been reported. To identify the tardigrade fauna associated with mosses in the Iztaccíhuatl volcano, we performed a systematic sampling along an altitudinal and multi-habitat gradient. A total of 57 moss samples were collected, 233 adults, 20 exuviae, and 40 free-laid tardigrade eggs were extracted from them. Five species were identified, and three putative species were determined. Diphascon mitrense and Minibiotus sidereus represents new records for Mexico and North America, while Adropion scoticum is a new record for Mexico. Additionally, one new species, Minibiotus citlalium sp. nov. was discovered; it resembles to Min. constellatus, Min. sidereus and Min. pentannulatus by the presence of a similar distribution pattern of star-shaped pores in the dorsal cuticle arranged in 11 transverse rows, which become double in the segments of the legs I–III, and by a very large star-shaped pore (5–6 tips) on each leg of the fourth pair. Minibiotus citlalium sp. nov. differs from other Minibiotus species mainly by macroplacoid length sequence, presence of both small and large star-shaped pores on the external surface on all legs, and by egg processes with inconspicuous ornamentation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biquaternionic Dirac Equation Predicts Zero Mass for Majorana Fermions
Symmetry 2020, 12(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071144 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
A biquaternionic version of the Dirac Equation is introduced, with a procedure for converting four-component spinors to elements of the Pauli algebra. In this version, mass appears as a coefficient between the 4-gradient of a spinor and its image under an outer automorphism [...] Read more.
A biquaternionic version of the Dirac Equation is introduced, with a procedure for converting four-component spinors to elements of the Pauli algebra. In this version, mass appears as a coefficient between the 4-gradient of a spinor and its image under an outer automorphism of the Pauli algebra. The charge conjugation operator takes a particulary simple form in this formulation and switches the sign of the mass coefficient, so that for a solution invariant under charge conjugation the mass has to equal zero. The multiple of the charge conjugation operator by the imaginary unit turns out to be a complex Lorentz transformation. It commutes with the outer automorphism, while the charge conjugation operator itself anticommutes with it, providing a second more algebraic proof of the main theorem. Considering the Majorana equation, it is shown that non-zero mass of its solution is imaginary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in High Energy Physics)
Open AccessArticle
Synthetic Mono-Rhamnolipids Display Direct Antifungal Effects and Trigger an Innate Immune Response in Tomato against Botrytis Cinerea
Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3108; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143108 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Natural rhamnolipids are potential biocontrol agents for plant protection against bacterial and fungal diseases. In this work, we synthetized new synthetic mono-rhamnolipids (smRLs) consisting in a rhamnose connected to a simple acyl chain and differing by the nature of the link and the [...] Read more.
Natural rhamnolipids are potential biocontrol agents for plant protection against bacterial and fungal diseases. In this work, we synthetized new synthetic mono-rhamnolipids (smRLs) consisting in a rhamnose connected to a simple acyl chain and differing by the nature of the link and the length of the lipid tail. We then investigated the effects of these ether, ester, carbamate or succinate smRL derivatives on Botrytis cinerea development, symptoms spreading on tomato leaves and immune responses in tomato plants. Our results demonstrate that synthetic smRLs are able to trigger early and late immunity-related plant defense responses in tomato and increase plant resistance against B. cinerea in controlled conditions. Structure-function analysis showed that chain length of the lipidic part and type of acyl chain were critical to smRLs immune activity and to the extent of symptoms caused by the fungus on tomato leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
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Open AccessArticle
Presenting Features and Early Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Cancer Patients during the Initial Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071841 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
We describe the outcomes in cancer patients during the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 in Europe from the retrospective, multi-center observational OnCovid study. We identified 204 cancer patients from eight centers in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain aged > 18 (mean = [...] Read more.
We describe the outcomes in cancer patients during the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 in Europe from the retrospective, multi-center observational OnCovid study. We identified 204 cancer patients from eight centers in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain aged > 18 (mean = 69) and diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 26th and April 1st, 2020. A total of 127 (62%) were male, 184 (91%) had a diagnosis of solid malignancy, and 103 (51%) had non-metastatic disease. A total of 161 (79%) had > 1 co-morbidity. A total of 141 (69%) patients had > 1 COVID-19 complication. A total of 36 (19%) were escalated to high-dependency or intensive care. A total of 59 (29%) died, 53 (26%) were discharged, and 92 (45%) were in-hospital survivors. Mortality was higher in patients aged > 65 (36% versus 16%), in those with > 2 co-morbidities (40% versus 18%) and developing > 1 complication from COVID-19 (38% versus 4%, p = 0.004). Multi-variable analyses confirmed age > 65 and > 2 co-morbidities to predict for patient mortality independent of tumor stage, active malignancy, or anticancer therapy. During the early outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Europe co-morbid burden and advancing age predicted for adverse disease course in cancer patients. The ongoing OnCovid study will allow us to compare risks and outcomes in cancer patients between the initial and later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
Open AccessReview
Coffee Flavor: A Review
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030044 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and [...] Read more.
Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and aspects such as environment, processing, and preparation that influence flavor. This summary of research studies employed sensory analysis (either descriptive and discrimination testing and or consumer testing) and chemical analysis to determine the impact aspects on coffee flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Short-Term Effect of a New Oral Sodium Hyaluronate Formulation on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Diseases 2020, 8(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases8030026 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Objective: the aim of this pilot study was to test the short-term effect of oral supplementation with a sodium hyaluronate with a large spectrum of molecular weights (FS-HA®) on the symptoms and functionality of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 60 subjects affected [...] Read more.
Objective: the aim of this pilot study was to test the short-term effect of oral supplementation with a sodium hyaluronate with a large spectrum of molecular weights (FS-HA®) on the symptoms and functionality of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 60 subjects affected by clinical and/or radiological diagnosis of symptomatic knee OA were consecutively enrolled in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. At randomization visit, at day 28 (visit 2), and day 56 (visit 3), the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Lequesne Functional Index (LFI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain (VAS-p) were administered to the enrolled patients. Then, patients were asked how many times they used rescue medications (non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs – NSAIDs and/or anti-pain drugs) during the previous 4 weeks. Finally, the range of knee joint motion (ROM) was also instrumentally measured. Results: In FS-HA® treated subjects, VAS-p, pain and total WOMAC score, LFI and ROM significantly improved compared to the baseline values (p < 0.05). At 60 days, the VAS-p and the pain WOMAC score were significantly lower after FS-HA® treatment when compared with placebo as well (p < 0.05). The FS-HA® treated subjects significantly reduced the weekly use of NSAIDs and/or antipain drugs when compared to the placebo-treated ones (p < 0.05). Conclusion: the oral supplementation with a FS-HA® characterized by a large spectrum of molecular weight was associated with a short-term improvement in symptomatology and functionality of osteoarthritis-affected knees, and associated with a reduction in the use of NSAIDS and anti-pain drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Behavior of a Large Diameter Bored Pile in Drained and Undrained Conditions: Comparative Analysis
Geosciences 2020, 10(7), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070261 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Despite the difficulties in obtaining the ultimate capacity of the large diameter bored piles (LDBP) using the in situ loading test, this method is the most recommended by several codes and design standards. However, several settlement-based approaches, alongside the conventional capacity-based design approach [...] Read more.
Despite the difficulties in obtaining the ultimate capacity of the large diameter bored piles (LDBP) using the in situ loading test, this method is the most recommended by several codes and design standards. However, several settlement-based approaches, alongside the conventional capacity-based design approach for LDBP, are proposed in the event of the impossibility of performing a pile-loading test during the design phase. With that in mind, natural clays usually involve some degree of over consolidation; there is considerable debate among the various approaches on how to represent the behavior of the overconsolidated (OC)stiff clay and its design parameters, whether drained or undrained, in the pile-load test problems. In this paper, field measurements of axial loaded to failure LDBP load test installed in OC stiff clay (Alzey Bridge Case Study, Germany) have been used to assess the quality of two numerical models established to simulate the pile behavior in both drained and undrained conditions. After calibration, the load transfer mechanism of the LDBP in both drained and undrained conditions has been explored. Results of the numerical analyses showed the main differences between the soil pile interaction in both drained and undrained conditions. Also, field measurements have been used to assess the ultimate pile capacity estimated using different methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil-Structure Interaction)
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Co3O4/Al2O3 Catalysts for Lean Methane Combustion
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070757 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Spinel-type cobalt oxide is a highly active catalyst for oxidation reactions owing to its remarkable redox properties, although it generally exhibits poor mechanical, textural and structural properties. Supporting this material on a porous alumina can significantly improve these characteristics. However, the strong cobalt–alumina [...] Read more.
Spinel-type cobalt oxide is a highly active catalyst for oxidation reactions owing to its remarkable redox properties, although it generally exhibits poor mechanical, textural and structural properties. Supporting this material on a porous alumina can significantly improve these characteristics. However, the strong cobalt–alumina interaction leads to the formation of inactive cobalt aluminate, which limits the activity of the resulting catalysts. In this work, three different strategies for enhancing the performance of alumina-supported catalysts are examined: (i) surface protection of the alumina with magnesia prior to the deposition of the cobalt precursor, with the objective of minimizing the cobalt–alumina interaction; (ii) coprecipitation of cobalt along with nickel, with the aim of improving the redox properties of the deposited cobalt and (iii) surface protection of alumina with ceria, to provide both a barrier effect, minimizing the cobalt–alumina interaction, and a redox promoting effect on the deposited cobalt. Among the examined strategies, the addition of ceria (20 wt % Ce) prior to the deposition of cobalt resulted in being highly efficient. This sample was characterized by a notable abundance of both Co3+ and oxygen lattice species, derived from the partial inhibition of cobalt aluminate formation and the insertion of Ce4+ cations into the spinel lattice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles by Microorganisms
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070589 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Metal nanoparticles (NPs), with sizes ranging from 1–100 nm, are of great scientific interest because their functions and features differ greatly from those of bulk metal. Chemical or physical methods are used to synthesize commercial quantities of NPs, and green, energy-efficient approaches generating [...] Read more.
Metal nanoparticles (NPs), with sizes ranging from 1–100 nm, are of great scientific interest because their functions and features differ greatly from those of bulk metal. Chemical or physical methods are used to synthesize commercial quantities of NPs, and green, energy-efficient approaches generating byproducts of low toxicity are desirable to minimize the environmental impact of the industrial methods. Some microorganisms synthesize metal NPs for detoxification and metabolic reasons at room temperature and pressure in aqueous solution. Metal NPs have been prepared via green methods by incubating microorganisms or cell-free extracts of microorganisms with dissolved metal ions for hours or days. Metal NPs are analyzed using various techniques, such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Numerous publications have focused on microorganisms that synthesize various metal NPs. For example, Ag, Au, CdS, CdSe, Cu, CuO, Gd2O3, Fe3O4, PbS, Pd, Sb2O3, TiO2, and ZrO2 NPs have been reported. Herein, we review the synthesis of metal NPs by microorganisms. Although the molecular mechanisms of their synthesis have been investigated to some extent, experimental evidence for the mechanisms is limited. Understanding the mechanisms is crucial for industrial-scale development of microorganism-synthesized metal NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biominerals: Formation, Function, Properties)
Open AccessArticle
EM-detwin: A Program for Resolving Indexing Ambiguity in Serial Crystallography Using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070588 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Serial crystallography (SX), first used as an application of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), is becoming a useful method to determine atomic-resolution structures of proteins from micrometer-sized crystals with bright X-ray sources. Because of unknown orientations of crystals in SX, indexing ambiguity issue arises [...] Read more.
Serial crystallography (SX), first used as an application of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), is becoming a useful method to determine atomic-resolution structures of proteins from micrometer-sized crystals with bright X-ray sources. Because of unknown orientations of crystals in SX, indexing ambiguity issue arises when the symmetry of Bravais lattice is higher than the space group symmetry, making some diffraction signals wrongly merged to the total intensity in twinned orientations. In this research, we developed a program within the CrystFEL framework, the EM-detwin, to resolve this indexing ambiguity problem based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. Testing results on the performance of the EM-detwin have demonstrated its usefulness in correctly indexing diffraction data as a valuable tool for SX data analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystallography at X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs))
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bioactive, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties as well as Microstructure of Organic Strawberry Powders Obtained by Various Drying Methods
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4706; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144706 (registering DOI) - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
Abstract:This study compared the quality of organic strawberry powders, obtained by convective drying (CD), freeze drying (FD) and spray drying (SD) methods [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Food)

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