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Open AccessArticle
New 20 m Progressive Shuttle Test Protocol and Equation for Predicting the Maximal Oxygen Uptake of Korean Adolescents Aged 13–18 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132265 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Although several equations for predicting VO2max in children and adolescents have been reported, the validity of application of these equations to the Korean population has not been verified. The purpose of study was to develop and validate regression models to [...] Read more.
Background: Although several equations for predicting VO2max in children and adolescents have been reported, the validity of application of these equations to the Korean population has not been verified. The purpose of study was to develop and validate regression models to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using a newly developed 20 m progressive shuttle test (20 m PST) protocol in Korean male (n = 80, 15.3 ± 1.86 years) and female (n = 81, 15.5 ± 1.73 years) adolescents aged 13–18 years. Methods: The modified 20 m PST was performed and the VO2max was assessed in a sample of 161 participants. The participants underwent a treadmill test (TT) in the laboratory and the modified 20 m PST in a gymnasium. For the validation study, the participants performed the TT with a stationary metabolic cart and the 20 m PST with a portable metabolic cart once. In addition, they performed the 20 m PST two more times to establish test–retest reliability. Results: The mean VO2max (49.6 ± 8.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) measured with the potable metabolic cart was significantly higher than that measured in the graded exercise test with the stationary metabolic cart (46.6 ± 8.9 mL·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001) using the new 20 m PST protocol. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) between these two measurements was 1.35 mL·kg−1·min−1. However, the VO2max derived from the newly developed equation was 46.7 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1 (p > 0.05) and the SEE was 2.90 mL·kg−1·min−1. The test and retest trials of the 20 m PST yielded comparable results (laps, r = 0.96; last speed, r = 0.93). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the new 20 m PST protocol is valid and reliable and that the equation developed in this study provides a valid estimate of VO2max in Korean male and female adolescents aged 13–18 years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Selection of Level-Dependent Hearing Protectors for Use in An Indoor Shooting Range
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132266 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The high sound pressure level generated by impulse noise produced in an indoor shooting range makes it necessary to protect the hearing of the people it affects. Due to the need for verbal communication during training at a shooting range, level-dependent hearing protectors [...] Read more.
The high sound pressure level generated by impulse noise produced in an indoor shooting range makes it necessary to protect the hearing of the people it affects. Due to the need for verbal communication during training at a shooting range, level-dependent hearing protectors are useful. The objective of this study was to answer the question of whether it is possible to properly protect the hearing of a shooting instructor using level-dependent hearing protectors. The noise parameters were measured in the places where the instructor was present at the shooting range. The division of a specific group of trained shooters into subgroups consisting of three or six simultaneously shooting individuals did not significantly affect the exposure of the shooting instructor to the noise. An assessment of noise reduction was carried out for eight models of earmuffs and two variants of earplugs, using computational methods for the selection of hearing protectors. Among the noise parameters, both the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level and the C-weighted peak sound pressure level were taken into account. Depending on the assessment criterion adopted, a sufficient reduction in impulse noise was provided by either four or six out of the 10 hearing protectors included in the study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Validity of a Food and Beverage Preference Questionnaire to Characterize Taste Phenotypes in Children Adolescents and Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071453 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
To assess the relative validity of our food and beverage preference questionnaire we investigated the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores (assessed using a food and beverage preference questionnaire) and sweet and fatty food propensity scores (derived from a food frequency [...] Read more.
To assess the relative validity of our food and beverage preference questionnaire we investigated the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores (assessed using a food and beverage preference questionnaire) and sweet and fatty food propensity scores (derived from a food frequency questionnaire). In I.Family, a large European multi-country cohort study, 12,207 participants from Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden, including 5291 adults, 3082 adolescents, and 3834 children, completed a food and beverage preference questionnaire with 63 items. Cumulative preference scores for sweet and fatty taste were calculated from the single item ranking ranging from 1 to 5. The relative consumption frequency of foods classified as sweet and fatty was used to calculate the corresponding consumption propensities, a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 100. We conducted regression analyses to investigate the association between sweet and fatty taste preference scores and sweet and fatty food propensity scores, respectively, separately for adults, adolescents ≥12 years, and for children <12 years. The overall sweet taste preference score was positively associated with the sweet food consumption propensity score (β = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.1;2.7) and the fatty taste preference score was positively associated with the fatty food consumption propensity score (β = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.8;2.2). After stratification for age (children <12 years, adolescents ≥12 years, and adults), the effect remained significant in all age groups and was strongest in adolescents and adults. We conclude that our food and beverage preference questionnaire is a useful instrument for epidemiological studies on sensory perception and health outcomes and for the characterization of sensory taste phenotypes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The DOAJ Spring Cleaning 2016 and What Was Removed—Tragic Loss or Good Riddance?
Publications 2019, 7(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/publications7030045 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In December 2012, DOAJ’s (The Directory of Open Access Journals) parent company, IS4OA, announced they would introduce new criteria for inclusion in DOAJ and that DOAJ would collect vastly more information from journals as part of the accreditation process—journals already included would need [...] Read more.
In December 2012, DOAJ’s (The Directory of Open Access Journals) parent company, IS4OA, announced they would introduce new criteria for inclusion in DOAJ and that DOAJ would collect vastly more information from journals as part of the accreditation process—journals already included would need to reapply in order to be kept in the registry. My working hypothesis was that the journals removed from DOAJ on May 9th 2016 would chiefly be journals from small publishers (mostly single journal publishers) and that DOAJ journal metadata information would reveal that they were journals with a lower level of publishing competence than those that would remain in the DOAJ. Among indicators of publishing competence could be the use of APCs (Article Processing Charges), permanent article identifiers, journal licenses, article level metadata deposited with DOAJ, archiving policy/solutions and/or having a policy in SHERPA/RoMEO, the database containing self-archiving policies for more than 30,000 journals. The analysis shows my concerns to be correct. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Features of the Molecular Structure and Luminescence of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes with Perfluorinated (Benzothiazolyl)phenolate Ligands
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132376 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A set of Sc, Nd, Sm, Eu, Ho, Gd, Er, Yb complexes with perfluorinated 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenolate ligands Ln(SONF)3(DME) were synthesized by the reactions of silylamides Ln[N(SiMe3)2]3 with phenol H(SONF). The structure of the [...] Read more.
A set of Sc, Nd, Sm, Eu, Ho, Gd, Er, Yb complexes with perfluorinated 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenolate ligands Ln(SONF)3(DME) were synthesized by the reactions of silylamides Ln[N(SiMe3)2]3 with phenol H(SONF). The structure of the initial phenol, Sc, and Er complexes was established using X-ray analysis, which revealed that the obtained compounds are mononuclear, in contrast to the binuclear non-fluorinated analogues [Ln(SON)3]2 synthesized earlier. All the obtained complexes, both in solid state and in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions, upon excitation by light with λex 395 or 405 nm show intense luminance of the ligands at 440–470 nm. The Eu complex also exhibits weak metal-centered emission in the visible region, while the derivatives of Sm luminesces both in the visible and in the infrared region, and Nd, Er, and Yb complexes emit in the near IR (NIR) region of high intensity. DFT (density functional theory) calculation revealed that energy of frontier orbitals of the fluorinated complexes is lower than that of the non-fluorinated counterparts. The level of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) decreases to a greater extent than the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decreased Conflict Control in Overweight Chinese Females: Behavioral and Event-Related Potentials Evidence
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071450 -
Abstract
Overweight or obesity is related to a decrease in cognitive control, especially conflict control. However, research on conflict control in overweight/obese individuals are still controversial. This study was conducted to explore general and food-related conflict control in overweight Chinese females (OWs) with a [...] Read more.
Overweight or obesity is related to a decrease in cognitive control, especially conflict control. However, research on conflict control in overweight/obese individuals are still controversial. This study was conducted to explore general and food-related conflict control in overweight Chinese females (OWs) with a color–word Stroop task and a food-related conflict task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the food-related conflict task. Behavioral results showed that, OWs had a longer reaction time (RT) than normal-weight Chinese females (NWs), in both tasks. ERP results in the food-related conflict task showed that there was a reduction of N2 and N450 response strength in OWs, and the P3 and late positive component (LPC) response strength was enhanced. Results indicated that OWs might be less efficient in monitoring and resolving conflict, and OWs tended to have a higher motivational or emotional involvement in processing food-related stimuli, which was likely to contribute to their difficulty in losing weight. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Multicomponent Reactions
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132372 -
Abstract
Multicomponent Reactions appear to be ideal for any form of synthesis, because of their numerous advantages in terms of sustainability and selectivity in building up complex molecular architectures, with high molecular diversity. This Special Issue collects seven contributions which expand our knowledge about [...] Read more.
Multicomponent Reactions appear to be ideal for any form of synthesis, because of their numerous advantages in terms of sustainability and selectivity in building up complex molecular architectures, with high molecular diversity. This Special Issue collects seven contributions which expand our knowledge about Multicomponent Reactions, providing a good overview about innovative reactivities and applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Salinity Stress Alters Root Morphology and Root Hair Traits in Brassica napus
Plants 2019, 8(7), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8070192 -
Abstract
Plant roots show morphological plasticity and play a substantial role in tolerance to various edaphic stresses. The aim of this study was to explore salinity-induced morphogenic responses of root traits and root hairs of two rapeseed varieties, BARI Sarisha-8 and Binasarisha-5, at the [...] Read more.
Plant roots show morphological plasticity and play a substantial role in tolerance to various edaphic stresses. The aim of this study was to explore salinity-induced morphogenic responses of root traits and root hairs of two rapeseed varieties, BARI Sarisha-8 and Binasarisha-5, at the reproductive stage and perceive the effects on their reproductive growth. The experiment was conducted in a hydroponic culture. Two treatments, 0 mM NaCl as control and 100 mM NaCl, were imposed 55 d after germination. Plants exposed to 100 mM NaCl for seven days displayed greater damage in the leaves, flowers, and siliquae compared to control. Length of root hairs on first-order and third-order lateral roots, density of root hairs on first-order lateral roots, and length of third-order lateral roots were significantly greater by 91%, 22%, 29%, and 48%, respectively, in the treated condition compared to the control. An increase in estimated root surface area by 20% under salt stress conditions indicated that the spontaneous responses of plants to uptake more water and nutrients allowed a plant to cope with stressful conditions. The results of this study suggest that any future stress breeding programs should consider plasticity of root traits intensively. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Research of the Equipment Self-Calibration Methods for Different Shape Fertilizers Particles Distribution by Size Using Image Processing Measurement Method
Symmetry 2019, 11(7), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11070838 -
Abstract
The fourth digital revolution of industry makes substantive changes to the rate and methodology of work performance. Machines and robots do the majority of work in robotized and automated factories, while people only supervise them. After an increase of production efficiency, quality control [...] Read more.
The fourth digital revolution of industry makes substantive changes to the rate and methodology of work performance. Machines and robots do the majority of work in robotized and automated factories, while people only supervise them. After an increase of production efficiency, quality control became a critical point. Therefore, quality control systems of computer visions are increasingly installed. The branch of chemical industry requires measurements of quality at as great a frequency as possible. Consequently, indirect measurements are effectively used at this point. This research presents the method of indirect particle measurement. Particles are measured using digital image processing. The algorithm is used for particle measurement to automatically adjust the measurement results. Numerical intelligence is added to the algorithm to increase the accuracy of correction results. The research deals with the problem of matching the results of indirect measurements and the results of the control equipment. For data analysis, fertilizer diameter, mean diameter, aspect ratio, symmetry, sphericity, convexity and some other parameters are used. The mismatch of the artificial neural network results with the control equipment results is slightly higher than 1%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aberrant Expression of Intracellular let-7e, miR-146a, and miR-155 Correlates with Severity of Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Is Ameliorated after Antidepressant Treatment
Cells 2019, 8(7), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070647 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Chronic inflammation and abnormalities in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous work reported that impaired negative regulators for the TLR pathways are associated with MDD. This study aimed to assess the association between the severity [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation and abnormalities in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous work reported that impaired negative regulators for the TLR pathways are associated with MDD. This study aimed to assess the association between the severity of depression and the intracellular microRNAs that regulate TLR4 signaling in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocytes from MDD patients. The severity of MDD before and after antidepressant treatment was determined by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the levels of intracellular regulatory microRNAs, including let-7e, miR-21-5p miR-145, miR-223, miR-146a, and miR-155, in PBMCs and monocytes isolated from 43 healthy controls and 84 patients with MDD before and after treatment with antidepressants. Assays of PBMCs showed that the levels of let-7e, miR-146a, and miR-155 were lower in MDD patients than in healthy controls and were significantly higher after than before treatment in the 69 patients who completed treatment with antidepressants for four weeks. Levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in monocytes were lower in MDD patients than in controls and were increased in the former after antidepressant treatment. Multiple linear regression analyses found that let-7e and miR-146a expression before treatment was inversely correlated with severity of depression, whereas miR-155 before treatment was directly correlated with severity of depression. These findings suggest that intracellular regulatory microRNAs which regulate TLR4 signaling are aberrantly expressed in patients with MDD and that these levels are ameliorated by antidepressant treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
From G-Completeness to M-Completeness
Symmetry 2019, 11(7), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11070839 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to obtain a sufficient condition for a G-Cauchy sequence to be an M-Cauchy sequence in fuzzy metric spaces. Our main result provides a partial answer to the open question posed by V. Gregori and A. Sapena. For [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to obtain a sufficient condition for a G-Cauchy sequence to be an M-Cauchy sequence in fuzzy metric spaces. Our main result provides a partial answer to the open question posed by V. Gregori and A. Sapena. For application, we give a new fuzzy version of the Banach fixed point theorem. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fine-Tuning the Activation Mode of an 1,3-Indandione-Based Ruthenium(II)-Cymene Half-Sandwich Complex by Variation of Its Leaving Group
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132373 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fine-tuning of the properties of a recently reported 1,3-indandione-based organoruthenium complex is attempted to optimize the stability under physiological conditions. Previous work has shown its capacity of inhibiting topoisomerase IIα; however, fast aquation leads to undesired reactions and ligand cleavage in the blood [...] Read more.
Fine-tuning of the properties of a recently reported 1,3-indandione-based organoruthenium complex is attempted to optimize the stability under physiological conditions. Previous work has shown its capacity of inhibiting topoisomerase IIα; however, fast aquation leads to undesired reactions and ligand cleavage in the blood stream before the tumor tissue is reached. Exchange of the chlorido ligand for six different N-donor ligands resulted in new analogs that were stable at pH 7.4 and 8.5. Only a lowered pH level, as encountered in the extracellular space of the tumor tissue, was capable of aquating the complexes. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in three human cancer cell lines differed only slightly, and their dependence on the utilized leaving group was smaller than what would be expected from their differences in cellular accumulation, but in accordance with the very minor variation revealed in measurements of the complexes’ lipophilicity. Full article
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