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Open AccessArticle
Considering Patients’ Empowerment in Chronic Care Management: A Cross-Level Approach
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2020, 10(1), 134-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10010012 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper consists of an analysis of the concept of empowerment—which is often defined as a key issue in health care—at the macro, meso, and micro levels by focusing on health care reform in Belgium. Three research teams collected data and combined them [...] Read more.
This paper consists of an analysis of the concept of empowerment—which is often defined as a key issue in health care—at the macro, meso, and micro levels by focusing on health care reform in Belgium. Three research teams collected data and combined them in an inductive secondary analysis. Our preliminary results demonstrate that patient empowerment does not always encompass the same scientific reality. At the macro level, this concept is linked to the authorities’ wish to support at-home care for chronic patients. At the meso level, the role of caregivers in maintaining patients’ autonomy, but also the social conditions of their lives, is a salient component of empowerment. At the micro level, individual and personal features such as identity can influence patient empowerment and behavior in the health care system. This cross-level research suggests that patient empowerment is not sufficiently clearly defined at each level of the care production chain, which could impede the reform of health care. This paper underlines the polysemy of a concept viewed as a milestone in European health care policy and the necessity of a clear, collective definition to operationalize and implement it. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Series of Field-Induced Single-Ion Magnets Based on the Seven-Coordinate Co(II) Complexes with the Pentadentate (N3O2) H2dapsc Ligand
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040058 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
A series of five new mononuclear pentagonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes with the equatorial 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semicarbazone) ligand (H2dapsc) and various axial pseudohalide ligands (SCN, SeCN, N(CN)2, C(CN)3, and N3) was prepared and structurally characterizated: [Co(H2 [...] Read more.
A series of five new mononuclear pentagonal bipyramidal Co(II) complexes with the equatorial 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semicarbazone) ligand (H2dapsc) and various axial pseudohalide ligands (SCN, SeCN, N(CN)2, C(CN)3, and N3) was prepared and structurally characterizated: [Co(H2dapsc)(SCN)2]∙0.5C2H5OH (1), [Co(H2dapsc)(SeCN)2]∙0.5C2H5OH (2), [Co(H2dapsc)(N(CN)2)2]∙2H2O (3), [Co(H2dapsc)(C(CN)3)(H2O)](NO3)∙1.16H2O (4), and {[Co(H2dapsc)(H2O)(N3)][Co(H2dapsc)(N3)2]}N3∙4H2O (5). The combined analyses of the experimental and AC magnetic data of the complexes (1–5) and two other earlier described those of this family [Co(H2dapsc)(H2O)2)](NO3)2∙2H2O (6) and [Co(H2dapsc)(Cl)(H2O)]Cl∙2H2O (7), their theoretical description and the ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations reveal large easy-plane magnetic anisotropies for all complexes (D = + 35 − 40 cm1). All complexes under consideration demonstrate slow magnetic relaxation with dominant Raman and direct spin–phonon processes at static magnetic field and so they belong to the class of field-induced single-ion magnets (SIMs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Magnetochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
PdMFS1 Transporter Contributes to Penicilliun digitatum Fungicide Resistance and Fungal Virulence during Citrus Fruit Infection
J. Fungi 2019, 5(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5040100 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
A new Penicillium digitatum major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter (PdMFS1) was identified and functionally characterized in order to shed more light on the mechanisms underlying fungicide resistance. PdMFS1 can play an important role in the intensification of resistance to fungicides normally [...] Read more.
A new Penicillium digitatum major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter (PdMFS1) was identified and functionally characterized in order to shed more light on the mechanisms underlying fungicide resistance. PdMFS1 can play an important role in the intensification of resistance to fungicides normally used in P. digitatum postharvest treatments. In the PdMFS1 disrupted mutants, a slight effect in response to chemical fungicides was observed, but fungicide sensitivity was highly affected in the overexpression mutants which became resistant to wide range of chemical fungicides. Moreover, P. digitatum knock-out mutants exhibited a lower rate of fungal virulence when infected oranges were stored at 20 °C. Disease symptoms were higher in the PdMFS1 overexpression mutants coming from the low-virulent P. digitatum parental strain. In addition, the gene expression analysis showed an induction of PdMFS1 transcription in all overexpression mutants regardless from which progenitor came from, and four-time intensification of the parental wild type strain during citrus infection reinforcing PdMFS1 role in fungal virulence. The P. digitatum MFS transporter PdMFS1 contributes not only to the acquisition of wide range of fungicide resistance but also in fungal virulence during citrus infection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PT Achievement in Public Hospitals and Its Effect on Outcomes
Geriatrics 2019, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics4040058 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
The demand for TKA continues to rise within the United States, while increasing quality measures and cost containment became the basis of reimbursement for hospital systems. Length of stay is a major driver in the cost of TKA. Early mobilization with physical therapy [...] Read more.
The demand for TKA continues to rise within the United States, while increasing quality measures and cost containment became the basis of reimbursement for hospital systems. Length of stay is a major driver in the cost of TKA. Early mobilization with physical therapy has been shown to increase range of motion and decrease complications, but with mixed results in regards to length of stay. We postulate that initiating physical therapy on post-operative day zero will decrease length of stay in an urban public hospital. Retrospective chart review was performed at a large, urban, public academic medical center to identify patients who have had a primary TKA over the course of a 3-year period. Groups who underwent post-operative day zero therapy were compared with those who initiated physical therapy on post-operative day one. Length of stay was the primary outcome. Patient demographic characteristics and discharge disposition were also collected. There were 98 patients in the post-operative day-one physical therapy cohort and 58 in the post-operative day zero physical therapy group. Hospital length of stay was significantly decreased in the post-operative day zero physical therapy group. (p < 0.01) There was no difference in discharge disposition between the two groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation in the Aging Population)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a HILIC UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Amino Acid Profiling in Triticum Species Wheat Flours
Foods 2019, 8(10), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100514 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) [...] Read more.
Amino acids are essential nutritional components as they occur in foods either in free form or as protein constituents. An ultra-high-performance (UHPLC) hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 17 amino acids (AA) in wheat flour samples after acid hydrolysis with 6 M HCl in the presence of 4% (v/v) thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. The developed method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on the AA profile of cereal flours. The method has been applied and tested in 10 flour samples of spelt, emmer, and common wheat flours of organic or conventional cultivation and with different extraction rates (70%, 90%, and 100%). All the aforementioned allowed us to study and evaluate the variation of the AA profile among the studied flours, in relation to other quality characteristics, such as protein content, wet gluten, and gluten index. Significant differences were observed in the AA profiles of the studied flours. Moreover, AA profiles exhibited significant interactions with quality characteristics that proved to be affected based mainly on the type of grain. A statistical and multivariate analysis of the AA profiles and quality characteristics has been performed, as to identify potential interactions between protein content, amino acids, and quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Analytical Chemistry to Foods and Food Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Metabolic Profiles of Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Muscle during Cold Storage as a Freshness Evaluation Tool Based on GC-MS Metabolomics
Foods 2019, 8(10), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100511 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas [...] Read more.
We applied metabolomics to the evaluation of yellowtail muscle as a new freshness evaluation method for fish meat. Metabolites from yellowtail ordinary and dark muscle (DM) stored at 0 °C and 5 °C were subjected to metabolomics for primary metabolites based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the annotated metabolites, we created statistically significant models for storage time prediction for all storage conditions by orthogonal partial least squares analysis, using storage time as the y-variable. DM is difficult to evaluate using the K value method, the predominant existing freshness evaluation method. However, in the proposed method, the metabolic component profiles of DM changed depending on storage time. Important metabolites determined from variables important for prediction (VIP) values included various metabolites, such as amino acids and sugars, in addition to nucleic-acid-related substances, especially inosine and hypoxanthine. Therefore, metabolomics, which comprehensively analyses different molecular species, has potential as a new freshness evaluation method that can objectively evaluate conditions of stored fish meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of a Dynamic Injection Flow Rate on Slug Generation in a Cross-Junction Square Microchannel
Processes 2019, 7(10), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100765 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
The injection flow rates of two liquid phases play a decisive role in the slug generation of the liquid-liquid slug flow. However, most injection flow rates so far have been constant. In order to investigate the effects of dynamic injection flow rates on [...] Read more.
The injection flow rates of two liquid phases play a decisive role in the slug generation of the liquid-liquid slug flow. However, most injection flow rates so far have been constant. In order to investigate the effects of dynamic injection flow rates on the slug generation, including the slug size, separation distance and slug generation cycle time, a transient numerical model of a cross-junction square microchannel is established. The Volume of Fluid method is adopted to simulate the interface between two phases, i.e., butanol and water. The model is validated by experiments at a constant injection flow rate. Three different types of dynamic injection flow rates are applied for butanol, which are triangle, rectangular and sine wave flow rates. The dynamic injection flow rate cycles, which are related to the constant slug generation cycle time t0, are investigated. Results show that when the cycle of the disperse phase flow rate is larger than t0, the slug generation changes periodically, and the period is influenced by the cycle of the disperse phase flow rate. Among the three kinds of dynamic disperse flow rate, the rectangular wave influences the slug size most significantly, while the triangle wave influences the separation distance and the slug generation time more prominently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Flow Control Processes in Micro Scale)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energetic Analysis of Different Configurations of Power Plants Connected to Liquid Chemical Looping Gasification
Processes 2019, 7(10), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100763 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this article, a thermodynamic study was conducted on the energetic and exergy performance of a new configuration of liquid chemical looping gasification (LCLG) plant integrated with a power block to assess the overall performance of the system including exergy partitioned in syngas [...] Read more.
In this article, a thermodynamic study was conducted on the energetic and exergy performance of a new configuration of liquid chemical looping gasification (LCLG) plant integrated with a power block to assess the overall performance of the system including exergy partitioned in syngas and first law efficiency (FLE). LCLG is a relatively new concept for the production of high-quality synthetic gas from solid feedstock such as biomass. As the temperature and pressure of the looping system are high, there is thermodynamic potential to co-produce chemical products, power and heat. Hence, in the present work, three different configurations of a power cycle were thermodynamically assessed. In the first proposed power cycle, the produced syngas from the gasifier was combusted in a combustion chamber and the exhausted gases were fed into a gas turbine. In the second and third proposed power cycles, the hot air was directly fed into a gas turbine or was used to produce steam for the steam turbine combined cycle. The processes were simulated with Aspen Plus and Outotec HSC chemistry software packages. The influence of different operating parameters including temperature and pressure of the air reactor and type of oxygen carrier on the first law and exergy efficiency (exergy partitioned in synthetic gas) was assessed. Results showed that the FLE for the proposed gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycles was ~33% to 35%, which is within the range of the efficiency obtained for the state-of-the-art power cycles reported in the literature. Results also showed that lead oxide was a suitable oxygen carrier for the LCLG system, which can be integrated into a steam turbine combined cycle with an FLE of 0.45, while copper oxide showed an FLE of 0.43 for the gas turbine combined cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics: Modeling and Simulation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Profiling of Australian Mango Peel By-Product Polyphenols and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities
Processes 2019, 7(10), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100764 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is effectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential [...] Read more.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits in the world. Mango peel is an important by-product that is rich in polyphenols and it could have high economic value if it is effectively utilized. Phenolic characterization is an essential step in the commercial utilization of mango peel by-products as food ingredients. Herein, qualitative and quantitative analyses of two Australian mango peel “Keitt” and “Kensington Pride” (K&P) by-products were conducted while using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). A total of 98 polyphenols compounds were tentatively identified in both Keitt peel and K&P peel extracts, with greater concentrations of these compounds being detected in Keitt peel. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and a total tannin content (TTC) were determined. The antioxidant activity of mango peel by-products was determined while using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Keitt peel contained higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins and had higher antioxidant capacity in DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays as compared to K&P peel. In HPLC-PDA quantification, the predominant phenolic compounds in Keitt peel and K&P peel were catechin (62.32 ± 0.01 mg/gd.w.) and syringic acid (17.78 ± 0.01 mg/gd.w). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Food Processing Waste)
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Open AccessArticle
Satisfaction Level of Tuberculosis Patients Regarding Their Access to TB Care and Prevention Services, Delivered Through a Public–Private Mix Model in Pakistan
Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040119 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Objective: The private healthcare providers (PHCP) are believed to improve access to healthcare services in public–private mix (PPM) projects, as they are considered first point of contact for healthcare. The purpose of this study was to determine the satisfaction level of tuberculosis (TB) [...] Read more.
Objective: The private healthcare providers (PHCP) are believed to improve access to healthcare services in public–private mix (PPM) projects, as they are considered first point of contact for healthcare. The purpose of this study was to determine the satisfaction level of tuberculosis (TB) patients. Design: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out during November and December 2017 for 572 under-treatment patients registered with PHCPs in the PPM project. Lot quality assurance sampling technique was used to randomly select 19 districts from a sample frame of 75 districts. In each selected district, the data collector retrieved a TB register of 8 months (January–August 2017) and systematically selected patients by fixed periodic interval. SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corp, Amonk, NY, USA) was used to analyze the data. Results: This study included 53% (n = 301) males and 47% (n = 271) females, with mean age of 38 years (SD, ±18). Almost half of the participants were illiterate (51%, n = 289), and 64% (n = 365) were non-earning members of the family. In practice, most of the participants visit private providers (71%, n = 407), including private hospitals/clinics (44%) and traditional practitioners (27%; n = 153); 55% of participants visited their current doctor because of the clinic’s proximity to their residence. Of the participants, 82% (n = 469) were satisfied with TB care services and 85% (n = 488) said that they would recommend this clinic to others. Conclusion: PHCPs are preferred providers for individuals, which is consistent with findings of other studies. Though they are satisfied with TB care and services, interventions should be introduced to reduce the financial burden on the patient. Partnering PHCP is a way forward to ensure universal health coverage and better health outcomes of the population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Radiotherapy for the Palliation of Advanced Sarcomas—The Effectiveness of Radiotherapy in Providing Symptomatic Improvement for Advanced Sarcomas in a Single Centre Cohort
Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040120 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background: Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous tumours with a large proportion of patients requiring palliative intervention. They are regarded as relatively radioresistant and therefore achieving good palliation with radiation may require larger doses than for more common solid tumour types. Limited data [...] Read more.
Background: Sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous tumours with a large proportion of patients requiring palliative intervention. They are regarded as relatively radioresistant and therefore achieving good palliation with radiation may require larger doses than for more common solid tumour types. Limited data is available regarding appropriate palliative radiotherapy dose fractionation. This case series aims to assess the effectiveness of radiotherapy in providing symptomatic improvement for advanced sarcomas. Method: Data was retrospectively collected for patients treated with palliative radiotherapy between July 2010 and April 2019 at one institution. The primary outcome was documented symptomatic improvement following radiotherapy. Secondary outcome was overall survival. Results: One hundred and five patients had a total of 137 sites treated using 25 different dose fractionation schedules. The median patient age was 54 (range 8–90) years. Treated sites included 114 soft tissue and 23 bone sarcomas. Data on symptomatic improvement was available in 56% and 67% of cases respectively. A total of 70% of soft tissue and 55% of bone sarcoma patients reported symptomatic improvement. Symptomatic response rates appeared to increase to a biological effective dose (BED) of 50Grey4 (Gy4) (alpha beta ratio (α/β) = 4 for tumour) but did not continue to improve with further rises in dose beyond this. Conclusion: Palliative radiotherapy offers symptomatic improvement for sarcoma patients with two-thirds of patients reporting reduction in symptoms. These results are limited by the heterogeneous study population including different sarcoma subtypes each with a probable different radio-sensitivity, treated with different radiotherapy schedules. Further prospective data collection is needed considering sarcoma subtype radio-sensitivity, to determine appropriate palliative dose fractionation schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiotherapy and Cancer)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Do No Harm: Efficacy of a Single Herbicide Application to Control an Invasive Shrub While Minimizing Collateral Damage to Native Species
Plants 2019, 8(10), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100426 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Control of invasive exotic species in restorations without compromising the native plant community is a challenge. Efficacy of exotic species control needs to consider collateral effects on the associated plant community. We asked (1) if short-term control of a dominant exotic invasive, Lespedeza [...] Read more.
Control of invasive exotic species in restorations without compromising the native plant community is a challenge. Efficacy of exotic species control needs to consider collateral effects on the associated plant community. We asked (1) if short-term control of a dominant exotic invasive, Lespedeza cuneata in grassland restorations allows establishment of a more diverse native plant community, and (2) if control of the exotic and supplemental seed addition allows establishment of native species. A manipulative experiment tested the effects of herbicide treatments (five triclopyr and fluroxypyr formulations plus an untreated control) and seed addition (and unseeded control) on taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, and community composition of restored grasslands in three sites over three years. We assessed response of L. cuneata through stem density counts, and response of the plant community through estimates of canopy cover. Herbicide treatments reduced the abundance of the exotic in the first field season leading to a less dispersed community composition compared with untreated controls, with the exotic regaining dominance by the third year. Supplemental seed addition did not provide extra resistance of the native community to reinvasion of the exotic. The communities were phylogenetically over-dispersed, but there was a short-term shift to lower phylogenetic diversity in response to herbicides consistent with a decrease in biotic filtering. Native plant communities in these grassland restorations were resilient to short-term reduction in abundance of a dominant invasive even though it was insufficient to provide an establishment window for native species establishment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Cross-Polarization Improved-Gain Rectangular Patch Antenna
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101189 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this paper, a low cross-polarization improved-gain rectangular patch antenna is presented. A patch-ground shorting pin with defected patch structure (DPS) is introduced to suppress the cross-polarization level. A High Reflective Frequency Selective Surface (HRFSS) superstrate is designed and placed over the proposed [...] Read more.
In this paper, a low cross-polarization improved-gain rectangular patch antenna is presented. A patch-ground shorting pin with defected patch structure (DPS) is introduced to suppress the cross-polarization level. A High Reflective Frequency Selective Surface (HRFSS) superstrate is designed and placed over the proposed antenna at an optimized position to intensify the gain. To characterize the unit-cell of the superstrate, its transmission characteristics are extracted and discussed. Integration of the superstrate achieves a beam contraction resulting in a gain enhancement to 10.65 dBi. The proposed antenna has perfect broadside radiation with a cross-polarization level of below −30 dB in the entire half power beamwidth. The prototype of the antenna exhibits good agreement between experimental and simulated results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
Open AccessArticle
Study of Full-Duplex Communication with Excellent Security by 3-Level Communication Method
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101186 (registering DOI) - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
Currently, the industry is using the MODBUS communication method, utilizing RS485 for the distributed equipment and network construction. This method has a rather good transmission and reception distance but has a disadvantage in that it is a half-duplex communication method that cannot simultaneously [...] Read more.
Currently, the industry is using the MODBUS communication method, utilizing RS485 for the distributed equipment and network construction. This method has a rather good transmission and reception distance but has a disadvantage in that it is a half-duplex communication method that cannot simultaneously transmit and receive. Therefore, there is a great need for a full-duplex communication system that can simultaneously transmit and receive two-wire communications. Therefore, in this paper, we propose new communication hardware equipment that can implement a full-duplex communication method by communication signal level in order to overcome the disadvantage of communication speed when using a full-duplex communication method by time division method. The proposed communication hardware is a structure that can transmit and receive at the same time in such a way that two pieces of equipment communicating by two-wire communication can apply the outgoing signal to the same communication line and detect the received signal at the same time. Therefore, the receiving side can analyze the received signal based on the information on the current transmission signal. This signal can only be analyzed by the two communicating devices, indicating that communication security is very good. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Circuit and Signal Processing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Control Strategies for Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Challenges and Trends
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101185 - 18 Oct 2019
Abstract
The offshore wind resource has huge energy potential. However, wind turbine floating structures have to withstand harsh conditions. Strong wind and wave effects combine to generate vibrations, fatigue, and heavy loads on the structure and other elements of the wind turbine. These structural [...] Read more.
The offshore wind resource has huge energy potential. However, wind turbine floating structures have to withstand harsh conditions. Strong wind and wave effects combine to generate vibrations, fatigue, and heavy loads on the structure and other elements of the wind turbine. These structural problems increase maintenance requirements and risk of failure, while reducing availability and energy production. Another challenge for wind energy is to reduce production costs in order to be competitive with other alternatives. From the control point of view, the objective of lowering costs can be achieved by operating the turbine close to its optimum point of operation under partial load, guaranteeing reliability by reducing structural loads and regulating the power generated in strong wind regimes. In this typical and challenging context, this paper proposes a critical state-of-the-art review, discussing challenges and trends on floating offshore wind turbines control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems & Control Engineering)
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