Latest Articles

Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Degradation Conditions with PRG, a Polysaccharide from Phellinus ribis, by RSM and the Neuroprotective Activity in PC12 Cells Damaged by Aβ25–35
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24163010 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In the previous work, we found PRG, a polysaccharide from Phellinus ribis, exhibited neurotrophic activity. To obtain an active structural unit with lower molecular weight, PRG was degraded to prepare the degraded PRG (DPRG) using ascorbic acid and H2O2 [...] Read more.
In the previous work, we found PRG, a polysaccharide from Phellinus ribis, exhibited neurotrophic activity. To obtain an active structural unit with lower molecular weight, PRG was degraded to prepare the degraded PRG (DPRG) using ascorbic acid and H2O2. The aim of the paper was to obtain DPRG by optimizing the degradation conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and to study its protective effects of PC12 cells induced by Aβ25–35. The optimum conditions were as follows; the concentration of H2O2-Vc was 17 mM and degradation temperature was 50 °C; when degradation time was 1.6 h, the experimental response value of PC12 cell viability was 83.4 ± 0.15%, which was in accordance with the predicted value (83.5%). We also studied the protective effects of DPRG against the Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity and explored the underlying mechanism. The results showed that treatment with DPRG could attenuate PC12 cells death. The mechanism was relative to the inhibition of cell apoptosis by increasing the MMP level and decreasing the protein expression of cytochrome C (Cytc) in PC12 cells. In conclusion, DPRG with lower molecular weight was obtained successfully. It possessed neuroprotective properties and might be a candidate for neurodegenerative disease treatment. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Syncope as Initial Presentation in an Undifferentiated Type Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient with Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080207 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a catastrophic complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML cells, especially in the acute promyelocytic leukemia subtype, may release microparticles (MPs), tissue factor (TF), and cancer procoagulant (CP) to promote coagulopathy. Hyperfibrinolysis is also triggered via release [...] Read more.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a catastrophic complication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML cells, especially in the acute promyelocytic leukemia subtype, may release microparticles (MPs), tissue factor (TF), and cancer procoagulant (CP) to promote coagulopathy. Hyperfibrinolysis is also triggered via release of annexin II, t-PA, u-PA, and u-PAR. Various inflammatory cytokines from cancer cells, such as IL-1β and TNF-α, activate endothelial cells and promote leukostasis. This condition may increase the ICH risk and lead to poor clinical outcomes. Here, we present a case under a unique situation with acute ICH detected prior to the diagnosis of AML. The patient initially presented with two episodes of syncope. Rapidly progressive ICH was noted in follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans. Therefore, we highlight that AML should be among the differential diagnoses of the etiologies of ICH. Early diagnosis and timely intervention are very important for AML patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fiber Ring Laser Directional Torsion Sensor with Ultra-Wide Linear Response
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3613; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163613 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a comprehensive passive torsion measurement is performed firstly in a 40-cm-long polarization maintaining fiber-based Sagnac interferometer (PMF-SI), and the non-linear torsion response is found and investigated. Then, a fiber laser torsion sensor (FLTS) with a dual-ring-cavity structure is proposed and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comprehensive passive torsion measurement is performed firstly in a 40-cm-long polarization maintaining fiber-based Sagnac interferometer (PMF-SI), and the non-linear torsion response is found and investigated. Then, a fiber laser torsion sensor (FLTS) with a dual-ring-cavity structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, in which the PMF-SI is utilized as the optical filter as well as the sensing unit. In particular, the highly sensitive linear range is adjusted through fine phase modulation, and owing to the flat-top feature of fringes, an ~83.6% sensitivity difference is effectively compressed by the generated lasing. The experimental results show that, without any pre-twisting, the ultra-wide linear response from –175 to 175 rad/m is gained, and the torsion sensitivities are 2.46 and 1.55 nm/rad with high linearity (>0.99) in the clockwise and anti-clockwise directions, respectively. Additionally, a high extinction ratio (>42 dB) and small line-width (~0.14 nm) are obtained in the proposed FLTS, and the corresponding detection limit reaches 0.015 rad/m. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perinatal Micro-Bleeds and Neuroinflammation in E19 Rat Fetuses Exposed to Utero-Placental Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20164051 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Offspring of preeclampsia patients have an increased risk of developing neurological deficits and cognitive impairment. While low placental perfusion, common in preeclampsia and growth restriction, has been linked to neurological deficits, a causative link is not fully established. The goal of this study [...] Read more.
Offspring of preeclampsia patients have an increased risk of developing neurological deficits and cognitive impairment. While low placental perfusion, common in preeclampsia and growth restriction, has been linked to neurological deficits, a causative link is not fully established. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that placental ischemia induces neuroinflammation and micro-hemorrhages in utero. Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were weight-matched for sham surgery (abdominal incision only) or induced placental ischemia (surgical reduction of utero-placental perfusion (RUPP)); n = 5/group on gestational day 14. Fetal brains (n = 1–2/dam/endpoint) were collected at embryonic day (E19). Placental ischemia resulted in fewer live fetuses, increased fetal demise, increased hematocrit, and no difference in brain water content in exposed fetuses. Additionally, increased cerebral micro-bleeds (identified with H&E staining), pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18, eotaxin (CCL11), LIX (CXCL5), and MIP-2 (CXCL2) were observed in RUPP-exposed fetuses. Microglial density in the sub-ventricular zone decreased in RUPP-exposed fetuses, with no change in cortical thickness. Our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to placental ischemia contributes to microvascular dysfunction (increased micro-bleeds), fetal brain inflammation, and reduced microglial density in proliferative brain areas. Future studies will determine whether in utero abnormalities contribute to long-term behavioral deficits in preeclampsia offspring through impaired neurogenesis regulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue in Panama: 25 Years of Circulation
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080764 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent arbovirus in terms of human public health importance globally. In addition to DENV epidemiological surveillance, genomic surveillance may help investigators understand the epidemiological dynamics, geographic distribution, and temporal patterns of DENV circulation. Herein, we aimed to [...] Read more.
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent arbovirus in terms of human public health importance globally. In addition to DENV epidemiological surveillance, genomic surveillance may help investigators understand the epidemiological dynamics, geographic distribution, and temporal patterns of DENV circulation. Herein, we aimed to reconstruct the molecular epidemiology and phylogeny of DENV in Panama to connect the epidemiological history of DENV dispersal and circulation in Latin America. We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiological data obtained during 25 years of DENV surveillance in Panama. DENV was reintroduced in Panama in 1993 after a 35 year absence of autochthonous transmission. The increase in the number of total dengue cases has been accompanied by an increase in severe and fatal cases, with the highest case fatality rate recorded in 2011. All four serotypes were detected in Panama, which is characterized by serotype replacement and/or co-circulation of multiple serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of datasets collected from envelope (E) gene sequences obtained from viruses isolated from human sera demonstrated that circulating viruses were highly diverse and clustered in distinct clades, with co-circulation of clades from the same genotype. Our analyses also suggest that Panamanian strains were related to viruses from different regions of the Americas, suggesting a continuous exchange of viruses within the Americas. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Parameterized and Consistency Tests of Gravity with GravitationalWaves: Current and Future
Proceedings 2019, 17(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019017005 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Gravitational wave observations offer unique opportunities to probe gravity in the strong and dynamical regime, which was difficult to access previously. We here review two theory-agnostic ways to carry out tests of general relativity with gravitational waves, namely (i) parameterized waveform tests and [...] Read more.
Gravitational wave observations offer unique opportunities to probe gravity in the strong and dynamical regime, which was difficult to access previously. We here review two theory-agnostic ways to carry out tests of general relativity with gravitational waves, namely (i) parameterized waveform tests and (ii) consistency tests between the inspiral and merger-ringdown portions. For each method, we explain the formalism, followed by results from existing events, and finally we discuss future prospects with upgraded detectors, including the possibility of using multi-band gravitational-wave observations with ground-based and space-borne interferometers. We show that such future observations have the potential to improve upon current bounds on theories beyond general relativity by many orders of magnitude. We conclude by listing several open questions that remain to be addressed. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Selective Activity-Based Probes Targeting Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP)
Proceedings 2019, 22(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019022084 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a type II transmembrane serine protease that belongs to
the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) family. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reflection, Ritual, and Memory in the Late Roman Painted Hypogea at Sardis
Arts 2019, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030103 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wall painting in the Sardis hypogea expresses a regional visual language situated within the context of Late Antique approaches to decorative surfaces and multivalent motifs of indeterminate religious affiliation. Iconographic ambivalence and a typically Late Antique absence of illusionism creates a supranatural world [...] Read more.
Wall painting in the Sardis hypogea expresses a regional visual language situated within the context of Late Antique approaches to decorative surfaces and multivalent motifs of indeterminate religious affiliation. Iconographic ambivalence and a typically Late Antique absence of illusionism creates a supranatural world that is grounded in the familiar imagery of home and gardens but does not quite reflect the natural world. Ubiquitous and mundane motifs were thus elevated and potentially charged with polysemic allusions to funerary practice and belief. Twelve fourth century C.E. hypogea form a distinctive corpus with a largely homogenous decorative program of scattered flowers, garlands, baskets, and birds. Related imagery is common throughout the larger Roman world, but compositional parallels from Western Anatolia suggest a particularly local visual vocabulary. The chronologically, geographically, and typologically discrete nature of the Sardis corpus set it apart from the standard of Rome while underscoring commonalities in late Roman funerary decoration and ritual. The painted imagery evoked funerary processes and ongoing social negotiation between the living and the deceased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Sentinel-3A OLCI Products Derived Using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour Processor over the Baltic Sea
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163609 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this study, the Level-2 products of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) data on Sentinel-3A are derived using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour (C2RCC) processor for the SentiNel Application Platform (SNAP) whilst adjusting the specific scatter of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) for [...] Read more.
In this study, the Level-2 products of the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) data on Sentinel-3A are derived using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour (C2RCC) processor for the SentiNel Application Platform (SNAP) whilst adjusting the specific scatter of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) for the Baltic Sea in order to improve TSM retrieval. The remote sensing product “kd_z90max” (i.e., the depth of the water column from which 90% of the water-leaving irradiance are derived) from C2RCC-SNAP showed a good correlation with in situ Secchi depth (SD). Additionally, a regional in-water algorithm was applied to derive SD from the attenuation coefficient Kd(489) using a local algorithm. Furthermore, a regional in-water relationship between particle scatter and bench turbidity was applied to generate turbidity from the remote sensing product “iop_bpart” (i.e., the scattering coefficient of marine particles at 443 nm). The spectral shape of the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) data extracted from match-up stations was evaluated against reflectance data measured in situ by a tethered Attenuation Coefficient Sensor (TACCS) radiometer. The L2 products were evaluated against in situ data from several dedicated validation campaigns (2016–2018) in the NW Baltic proper. All derived L2 in-water products were statistically compared to in situ data and the results were also compared to results for MERIS validation from the literature and the current S3 Level-2 Water (L2W) standard processor from EUMETSAT. The Chl-a product showed a substantial improvement (MNB 21%, RMSE 88%, APD 96%, n = 27) compared to concentrations derived from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), with a strong underestimation of higher values. TSM performed within an error comparable to MERIS data with a mean normalized bias (MNB) 25%, root-mean square error (RMSE) 73%, average absolute percentage difference (APD) 63% n = 23). Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption retrieval has also improved substantially when using the product “iop_adg” (i.e., the sum of organic detritus and Gelbstoff absorption at 443 nm) as a proxy (MNB 8%, RMSE 56%, APD 54%, n = 18). The local SD (MNB 6%, RMSE 62%, APD 60%, n = 35) and turbidity (MNB 3%, RMSE 35%, APD 34%, n = 29) algorithms showed very good agreement with in situ data. We recommend the use of the SNAP C2RCC with regionally adjusted TSM-specific scatter for water product retrieval as well as the regional turbidity algorithm for Baltic Sea monitoring. Besides documenting the evaluation of the C2RCC processor, this paper may also act as a handbook on the validation of Ocean Colour data. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Hazardous Medications in Children with Egg, Red Meat, Gelatin, Fish, and Cow’s Milk Allergy
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080501 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Childhood food allergies are a growing public health problem. Once the offending food allergens have been identified, a strict elimination diet is necessary in treatment or prevention of most of the allergic reactions. Accidental food ingestion can lead to severe anaphylaxis. Food- derived [...] Read more.
Childhood food allergies are a growing public health problem. Once the offending food allergens have been identified, a strict elimination diet is necessary in treatment or prevention of most of the allergic reactions. Accidental food ingestion can lead to severe anaphylaxis. Food- derived substances can be used in medications at various stages of the manufacturing process. In this review, the possible roles of medications which may contain egg, red meat, gelatin, and fish allergens on allergic reactions in children with food allergy were evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Crack Growth Tests in Air Plasma-Sprayed Yttria Coatings for Alumina Ceramic Matrix Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(3), 514-524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2030039 -
Abstract
Yttria coatings for all-oxide combustor walls were tested for their crack-growth behavior. These environmental and thermal barrier Y2O3-coatings were processed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The stiffness and strength were measured for as-received and aged samples that were heat [...] Read more.
Yttria coatings for all-oxide combustor walls were tested for their crack-growth behavior. These environmental and thermal barrier Y2O3-coatings were processed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The stiffness and strength were measured for as-received and aged samples that were heat treated at 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C for a 10 h dwell time. The results show a clear development with respect to the aging conditions. The changes of the modulus and the bending strength indicate that the microstructural changes are not completed, even after aging at 1200 °C for 10 h. The fracture toughness was tested for different orientations on samples aged at 1200 °C. Bending tests as well as indentation experiments were conducted. Furthermore, a bending device was designed to observe the crack-growth in situ. The device had to be rigid and is driven by a piezo stack. The crack growth resistance shows differences in the rise of the R-curves for different orientations of the crack propagation. This is in agreement with the microstructure that results from the plasma spray process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Coordinating Solvents on the Structure of Cu(II)-4,4′-bipyridine Coordination Polymers
Inorganics 2019, 7(8), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7080103 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Solvent can play a crucial role in the synthesis of coordination polymers (CPs). Here, this study reports how the coordinating solvent approach (CSA) can be used as an effective tool to control the nature of the final CP. This study exploited the system [...] Read more.
Solvent can play a crucial role in the synthesis of coordination polymers (CPs). Here, this study reports how the coordinating solvent approach (CSA) can be used as an effective tool to control the nature of the final CP. This study exploited the system Cu(II)-4,4′-bipyridine coupled to different coordinating solvents, such as DMA, DMF and DMSO. This allowed the isolation and structurally characterization of four new CPs: three 2D layered networks and one 1D chain. Moreover, it was evidenced that even adventitious water can play the role of the coordinating solvent in the final CP. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Control Scheme for Projective Lag Synchronization of Riemann–Liouville Sense Fractional Order Memristive BAM NeuralNetworks with Mixed Delays
Mathematics 2019, 7(8), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/math7080759 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This sequel is concerned with the analysis of projective lag synchronization of Riemann–Liouville sense fractional order memristive BAM neural networks (FOMBNNs) with mixed time delays via hybrid controller. Firstly, a new type of hybrid control scheme, which is the combination of open loop [...] Read more.
This sequel is concerned with the analysis of projective lag synchronization of Riemann–Liouville sense fractional order memristive BAM neural networks (FOMBNNs) with mixed time delays via hybrid controller. Firstly, a new type of hybrid control scheme, which is the combination of open loop control and adaptive state feedback control is designed to guarantee the global projective lag synchronization of the addressed FOMBNNs model. Secondly, by using a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and Barbalet’s lemma, a new brand of sufficient criterion is proposed to ensure the projective lag synchronization of the FOMBNNs model considered. Moreover, as special cases by using a hybrid control scheme, some sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the global projective synchronization, global complete synchronization and global anti-synchronization for the FOMBNNs model considered. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to check the accuracy and validity of our obtained synchronization results. Full article
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