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Article
Flow Characteristics of Fibrous Gas Diffusion Layers Using Machine Learning Methods
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12193; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312193 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The material characteristics of gas diffusion layers are relevant for the efficient operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The current state-of-the-art calculates these using transport simulations based on their micro-structures, either reconstructed or generated by means of stochastic geometry models. Such transport simulations [...] Read more.
The material characteristics of gas diffusion layers are relevant for the efficient operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The current state-of-the-art calculates these using transport simulations based on their micro-structures, either reconstructed or generated by means of stochastic geometry models. Such transport simulations often require high computational resources. To support material characterization using artificial-intelligence-based methods, in this study, a convolutional neural network was developed. It was trained with results from previous transport simulations and validated using five-fold cross-validation. The neural network enables the permeability of paper-type gas diffusion layers to be predicted. A stochastic arrangement of the fibers, four types of binder distributions, and compression of up to 50% are also considered. The binder type and compression level were features inherent to the material but were not the subject of the training. In this regard, they can be seen as features hidden from the training process. Nevertheless, these characteristics were reproduced with the proposed machine learning model. With a trained machine learning model, the prediction of permeability can be performed on a standard computer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
Article
Atom-to-Device Simulation of MoO3/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234240 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Metal oxides are commonly used in optoelectronic devices due to their transparency and excellent electrical conductivity. Based on its physical properties, each metal oxide serves as the foundation for a unique device. In this study, we opt to determine and assess the physical [...] Read more.
Metal oxides are commonly used in optoelectronic devices due to their transparency and excellent electrical conductivity. Based on its physical properties, each metal oxide serves as the foundation for a unique device. In this study, we opt to determine and assess the physical properties of MoO3 metal oxide. Accordingly, the optical and electronic parameters of MoO3 are evaluated using DFT (Density Functional Theory), and PBE and HSE06 functionals were mainly used in the calculation. It was found that the band structure of MoO3 calculated using PBE and HSE06 exhibited indirect semiconductor properties with the same line quality. Its band gap was 3.027 eV in HSE06 and 2.12 eV in PBE. Electrons and holes had effective masses and mobilities of 0.06673, −0.10084, 3811.11 cm2V−1s−1 and 1630.39 cm2V−1s−1, respectively. In addition, the simulation determined the dependence of the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index and permittivity of MoO3 on the wavelength of light, and a value of 58 corresponds to the relative permittivity. MoO3 has a refractive index of between 1.5 and 3 in the visible spectrum, which can therefore be used as an anti-reflection layer for solar cells made from silicon. In addition, based on the semiconducting properties of MoO3, it was estimated that it could serve as an emitter layer for a solar cell containing silicon. In this work, we calculated the photoelectric parameters of the MoO3/Si heterojunction solar cell using Sentaurus TCAD (Technology Computing Aided Design). According to the obtained results, the efficiency of the MoO3/Si solar cell with a MoO3 layer thickness of 100 nm and a Si layer thickness of 9 nm is 8.8%, which is 1.24% greater than the efficiency of a homojunction silicon-based solar cell of the same size. The greatest short-circuit current for a MoO3/Si heterojunction solar cell was observed at a MoO3 layer thickness of 60 nm, which was determined by studying the dependency of the heterojunction short-circuit current on the thickness of the MoO3 layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanotechnology of Perovskite and Silicon Solar Cells)
Article
Flexural Properties of Textile-Reinforced Concrete with Nonorthogonal Grids
Polymers 2022, 14(23), 5185; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14235185 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a cement-based composite material that uses textile as a reinforcement material. The weft-direction fiber bundles in the traditional orthogonally arranged warp–weft textile hardly bear force, and its bonding strength with the weft fiber bundle is not ideal. Under the [...] Read more.
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a cement-based composite material that uses textile as a reinforcement material. The weft-direction fiber bundles in the traditional orthogonally arranged warp–weft textile hardly bear force, and its bonding strength with the weft fiber bundle is not ideal. Under the action of force, a small included angle between the stressed fiber bundle and the stressed direction can effectively increase the anchoring effect of their fibers in the matrix, resulting in higher bonding and reinforcement efficiency. To improve the utilization rate of fibers and the bonding strength between the textile and the concrete matrix, an arrangement along the diagonal of the grids was proposed in this paper. The flexural properties of basalt TRC plates with orthogonal grids (OG-BTRC) and plates with nonorthogonal grids (NOG-BTRC) with different grid angles and grid sizes with different laying methods, namely, a side layout (SL) and diagonal layout (DL), were studied through four-point bending tests. A comparative analysis was carried out with an ABAQUS simulation and the test results. The results showed that with a decrease in the grid angle, the BTRC specimens gradually showed a failure mode of multiple cracks, and most of the cracks appeared in the pure bending area; as the grid angle decreased, the BTRC specimens exhibited excellent flexural bearing capacity, good ductility, and high toughness. The total number of cracks on the specimen increased when it failed, while the spacing of the cracks decreased, and the fracture morphology appeared as fine and uniform features. The toughness of the specimen with a small grid angle using the DL laying method was greater than that using the SL laying method. The software simulation value matched the test data well, which proved that the test result was reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Fibers)
Article
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Dentists in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2022, 58(12), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58121744 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Background and Objectives: A dental environment possesses a serious ergonomic health issue on the dental team members which in turn contributes to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The present research is aimed at evaluating the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders and their [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: A dental environment possesses a serious ergonomic health issue on the dental team members which in turn contributes to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The present research is aimed at evaluating the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders and their associated sociodemographic and work environment risk factors among dentists in the United Arab Emirates. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a pretested and validated questionnaire was sent via email as well as on different social media platforms to a total of 497 dentists. A total of 179 dentists completed the study survey, with a total response rate of 36%. A binary logistic regression model was conducted to identify significant risk factors associated with WMSDs. Results: Dentists in the United Arab Emirates experience a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (90.4%) which were associated with high levels of stress in the work environment. Furthermore, dentists in the private sector worked more clinical hours per day (p = 0.000) and had more financial stress (p = 0.007) as compared to those in the governmental sector. Gender (p = 0.007), age (p = 0.01), monthly income (p = 0.073), work experience (p = 0.037), number of patients treated per day (p = 0.049), and the use of an ergonomic dental chair (p = 0.005) were all factors associated with a greater number of affected body regions by WMSDs. Multivariate binary logistic regression for the number of regions affected by WMSDs revealed that not using an ergonomic dental chair (OR 2.70, 95% CI, 1.14–6.36) and high stress in the work environment (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02 to1.67) were associated with more body regions being affected by WMSDs. Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence rate of WMSDs among dentists in the UAE. Future research should be directed towards reducing stress in the work environment, increasing awareness regarding the importance of an ergonomic dental chair, and reducing gaps between private and governmental practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Article
Human Randomness in the Rock-Paper-Scissors Game
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12192; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312192 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the human capacity to generate randomness in decision-making processes using the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. The randomness of the time series was evaluated using the time-series data of RPS moves made by 500 subjects who played 50 consecutive RPS [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the human capacity to generate randomness in decision-making processes using the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. The randomness of the time series was evaluated using the time-series data of RPS moves made by 500 subjects who played 50 consecutive RPS games. The indices used for evaluation were the Lempel–Ziv complexity and a determinism index obtained from a recurrence plot, and these indicators represent the complexity and determinism of the time series, respectively. The acquired human RPS time-series data were compared to a pseudorandom RPS sequence generated by the Mersenne Twister and the RPS time series generated by the RPS game’s strategy learned using the human RPS time series acquired via genetic programming. The results exhibited clear differences in randomness among the pseudorandom number series, the human-generated series, and the AI-generated series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence in Natural and Digital Computing)
Article
HyPRP1, A Tomato Multipotent Regulator, Negatively Regulates Tomato Resistance to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity and Can Also Reduce Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Escherichia coli and Tobacco
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121118 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Abiotic stresses have led to an extensive decline in global crop production and quality. As one of the abiotic stress factors, sulfur dioxide (SO2) causes severe oxidative damage to plant tissues. Based on our previous study, a tomato hybrid-proline-rich protein 1 [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses have led to an extensive decline in global crop production and quality. As one of the abiotic stress factors, sulfur dioxide (SO2) causes severe oxidative damage to plant tissues. Based on our previous study, a tomato hybrid-proline-rich protein 1 (HyPRP1) was found to be involved in abiotic stress and SO2 metabolism, though the gene functions remained largely unknown. In this study, the function analysis of the HyPRP1 gene was extended, and DNA methylation analysis, subcellular localization, and cis-element analysis were performed to investigate the features of this gene. The DNA methylation analysis implied that the HyPRP1 gene was hypermethylated and the methylation density in the leaf differed from that in the flower and fruit. Subcellular localization analysis identified HyPRP1 localized in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane in vivo. The E. coli cells harboring SlHyPRP1 showed reduced salt and drought resistance. In tomato, when SO2 toxicity occurred, the HyPRP1 RNAi knockdown lines accumulated more sulfates and less hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and showed minimal leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. In tobacco, the overexpression of HyPRP1 reduced tolerance against salt stresses exerted by NaCl. We conclude that the heterologous expression of tomato HyPRP1 in E. coli and tobacco reduces abiotic stress tolerance and negatively regulates the resistance to sulfur dioxide toxicity by scavenging H2O2 and sulfite in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes, Genetics and Breeding of Tomato)
Article
Response Mechanism of Farmers’ Livelihood Capital to the Compensation for Rural Homestead Withdrawal—Empirical Evidence from Xuzhou City, China
Land 2022, 11(12), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122149 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The Chinese government has implemented a homestead withdrawal policy to improve the efficiency of rural construction land use. The compensation for rural homestead withdrawal (CRHW) is crucial to the reconstruction and sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods. This paper analyzed the response mechanisms of [...] Read more.
The Chinese government has implemented a homestead withdrawal policy to improve the efficiency of rural construction land use. The compensation for rural homestead withdrawal (CRHW) is crucial to the reconstruction and sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods. This paper analyzed the response mechanisms of farmers’ livelihoods to the CRHW with the combined application of the logistic regression, the mediation effect model, and the moderating effect model. The results indicated that CRHW had a significant positive impact on the sustainable livelihoods of rural households, mainly by improving the physical capital and social capital. In addition, adaptability and livelihood diversity played intermediary and regulatory roles in the positive impacts of the CRHW on sustainable livelihoods, respectively. The conclusions may provide insight into the demand for more reasonable compensation policies to ensure the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Land Reform)
Article
Mechanism of [CO2] Enrichment Alleviated Drought Stress in the Roots of Cucumber Seedlings Revealed via Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314911 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Cucumber is one of the most widely cultivated greenhouse vegetables, and its quality and yield are threatened by drought stress. Studies have shown that carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) enrichment can alleviate drought stress in cucumber seedlings; however the mechanism of this [...] Read more.
Cucumber is one of the most widely cultivated greenhouse vegetables, and its quality and yield are threatened by drought stress. Studies have shown that carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) enrichment can alleviate drought stress in cucumber seedlings; however the mechanism of this [CO2] enrichment effect on root drought stress is not clear. In this study, the effects of different drought stresses (simulated with 0, 5% and 10% PEG 6000, i.e., no, moderate, and severe drought stress) and [CO2] (400 μmol·mol−1 and 800 ± 40 μmol·mol−1) on the cucumber seedling root proteome were analyzed using the tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics method. The results showed that after [CO2] enrichment, 346 differentially accumulating proteins (DAPs) were found only under moderate drought stress, 27 DAPs only under severe drought stress, and 34 DAPs under both moderate and severe drought stress. [CO2] enrichment promoted energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and secondary metabolism, induced the expression of proteins related to root cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, effectively maintained the balance of protein processing and degradation, and enhanced the cell wall regulation ability. However, the extent to which [CO2] enrichment alleviated drought stress in cucumber seedling roots was limited under severe drought stress, which may be due to excessive damage to the seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response to Environmental Stress in Plants)
Article
Effects of Dietary Quinoa Seeds on Cecal Microorganisms and Muscle Fatty Acids of Female Luhua Chickens
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233334 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
To study the effects of adding quinoa seed (raw grain) to the diet of the Luhua chicken on the cecal microorganism abundance and fatty acid composition of muscle, 120 49-day-old healthy female dewormed Luhua chickens (body weight 1476.21 ± 101.39 g) were randomly [...] Read more.
To study the effects of adding quinoa seed (raw grain) to the diet of the Luhua chicken on the cecal microorganism abundance and fatty acid composition of muscle, 120 49-day-old healthy female dewormed Luhua chickens (body weight 1476.21 ± 101.39 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 3 replicates in each group and 10 chickens in each repetition. The control group (CK group) was fed a basal diet and the experimental groups were fed with 4% (Q4), 8% (Q8), and 12% (Q12) quinoa seed (raw grain) added to the basal diet for 75 days. After 121 days of age, the animals were slaughtered and the 16S rRNA characteristics of cecal flora, as well as composition and content of fatty acids in muscle, were determined and analyzed. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the breast and leg muscles significantly increased in the experimental groups supplemented with quinoa seeds (p < 0.05). However, the content of saturated fatty acids (SAFs) and ratio of n-6/n-3 in breast muscle and leg muscle significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In addition, adding a certain percentage of quinoa seeds in the diet can also affect the community composition and content of microorganisms in the ceca of Luhua chickens. At the phylum level, the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Synergistetes and Melainabacteria ??in experimental groups (Q4, Q8 and Q12) were significantly lower than those in the CK group (p < 0.05). At the genus level, Desulfovibrio, Synergistes, Olsenella, Parabacteroides, Mailhella, Sutterella and Ruminiclostridiu in group Q4 were significantly lower than those in group CK (p < 0.05) while Faecalibacterium in Q8 group, and Lawsonia and Faecalibacterium in Q12 group were significantly higher than those in the CK group (p < 0.05). Enrichment analysis of the microbial function showed that compared with the CK group, Metabolism and Enzyme Families were significantly enriched in the Q4 group (p < 0.05). Cellular Processes and Signaling were significantly enriched in the Q8 group (p < 0.05). The association analysis of fatty acids with microorganisms showed that the abundance of Faecalibacterium, Lawsonia and Meagmonas was significantly correlated with partial SFAs and UFAs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, adding quinoa seeds to diets significantly increased the content of muscle DHA, UFAs and n-3 PUFAs. The content of SAFs and the n-6/n-3 ratio were significantly reduced. Taken together, quinoa can effectively improve the cecal microbiota structure, inhibit the number of harmful bacteria and increase the number of beneficial bacteria, regulating the intestinal environment and promoting the body health of female Luhua chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Communication
Evaluating Germplasm of Cultivated Oat Species from the VIR Collection under the Russian Northwest Conditions
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233280 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Oat is one of the most widespread and important cereal crops in the global agricultural production. Searching for new high-yielding and nutritious forms continues to be relevant, especially under the global trend of climate change, when most local oat cultivars may become economically [...] Read more.
Oat is one of the most widespread and important cereal crops in the global agricultural production. Searching for new high-yielding and nutritious forms continues to be relevant, especially under the global trend of climate change, when most local oat cultivars may become economically inefficient. Spring oat accessions from VIR collection served as the material for this study; their origin is diverse, as they came from 11 countries. The basic nutritional value (the content of protein, oil, starch, and β-glucans) and characters important for breeding (plant height, panicle length, number of spikelets, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight, and grain yield) were analyzed in 49 accessions of the cultivated covered oat species: Avena sativa L., A. strigosa Schreb., A. abyssinica Hochst., and A. byzantina Coch., grown under the conditions of the Russian Northwest (Leningrad Province) for two years. Variability parameters, interspecific and intervarietal differences, and the effect of weather conditions were assessed. Sources of useful agronomic traits were identified; they can be used to expand the range of the source material for the development of new high-yielding and highly nutritious oat cultivars adapted to local cultivation conditions. It is demonstrated that the VIR collection has a great potential for contemporary food and feed production and for the breeding of new oat cultivars for various purposes. Thus, the contribution of Nikolai Vavilov to the plant genetic resources investigation for the benefit of humanity is invaluable. Full article
Article
A State of Charge Estimation Approach for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the Optimized Metabolic EGM(1,1) Algorithm
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120260 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) for lithium-ion batteries’ performance prediction and durability evaluation is of paramount importance, which is significant to ensure reliability and stability for electric vehicles. The SOC estimation approaches based on big data collection and offline [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) for lithium-ion batteries’ performance prediction and durability evaluation is of paramount importance, which is significant to ensure reliability and stability for electric vehicles. The SOC estimation approaches based on big data collection and offline adjustment could result in imprecision for SOC estimation under various driving conditions at different temperatures. In the traditional GM(1,1), the initialization condition and the identifying parameter could not be changed as soon as they are confirmed. Aiming at the requirements of battery SOC estimation with non-linear characteristics of a dynamic battery system, the paper presents a method of battery state estimation based on Metabolic Even GM(1,1) to expand battery state data and introduce temperature factors in the estimation process to make SOC estimation more accurate. The latest information data used in the optimized rolling model is introduced through the data cycle updating. The experimental results show that the optimized MEGM(1,1) effectively considers the influence of initial data, and has higher accuracy than the traditional GM(1,1) model in the application of data expansion. Furthermore, it could effectively solve the problem of incomplete battery information and battery capacity fluctuation, and the dynamic performance is satisfactory to meet the requirements of fast convergence. The SOC estimation based on the presented strategy for power batteries at different temperatures could reach the goal of the overall error within 1% under CLTC conditions with well robustness and accuracy. Full article
Article
Simulations of Organic Aerosol with CAMx over the Po Valley during the Summer Season
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13121996 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
A new sensitivity analysis with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) using a traditional two-product scheme (SOAP) and the newer Volatility Basis Set (VBS) algorithm for organic aerosol (OA) calculations is presented. The sensitivity simulations include the default versions of the [...] Read more.
A new sensitivity analysis with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) using a traditional two-product scheme (SOAP) and the newer Volatility Basis Set (VBS) algorithm for organic aerosol (OA) calculations is presented. The sensitivity simulations include the default versions of the SOAP and VBS schemes, as well as new parametrizations for the VBS scheme to calculate emissions and volatility distributions of semi- and intermediate-volatile organic compounds. The focus of the simulations is the summer season (May to July 2013), in order to quantify the sensitivity of the model in a period with relatively large photochemical activity. In addition to the model sensitivity, we validate the results with ad hoc OA measurements obtained from aerosol mass spectrometers at two monitoring sites. Unlike winter cases previously published, the comparison with experimental data showed limited sensitivity to total OA amount, with an estimated increase in OA concentrations limited to a few tenths of µg m−3, for both the primary and secondary components. We show that the lack of pronounced sensitivity is related to the effect of the new parametrizations on different emissions sectors. Furthermore, the minor sensitivity to the new parametrizations could be related to the greater partitioning of OA towards the gaseous phase in the summer period, thus reducing the organic fraction in the aerosol phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Air Quality)
Article
Molecular Doping of CVD-Graphene Surfaces by Perfluoroalkyl-Substituted Perylene Diimides Derivatives
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234239 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Non-covalent π-π and dipolar interactions with small aromatic molecules have been widely demonstrated to be a valid option to tune graphene work functions without adding extrinsic scattering centers for charge carriers. In this work, we investigated the interaction between a CVD-graphene monolayer and [...] Read more.
Non-covalent π-π and dipolar interactions with small aromatic molecules have been widely demonstrated to be a valid option to tune graphene work functions without adding extrinsic scattering centers for charge carriers. In this work, we investigated the interaction between a CVD-graphene monolayer and a thermally evaporated sub-monolayer and the following few-layer thin films of similar perylene diimide derivatives: PDI8-CN2 and PDIF-CN2. The molecular influence on the graphene work function was estimated by XPS and UPS analysis and by investigating the surface potentials via scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy. The perfluorinated decoration and the steric interaction in the early stages of the film growth determined a positive work function shift as high as 0.7 eV in the case of PDIF-CN2, with respect to the value of 4.41 eV for the intrinsic graphene. Our results unambiguously highlight the absence of valence band shifts in the UPS analysis, indicating the prevalence of dipolar interactions between the graphene surface and the organic species enhanced by the presence of the fluorine-enriched moieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Applications of Graphene-Based Composites)
Article
Consistency of Approximation of Bernstein Polynomial-Based Direct Methods for Optimal Control
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121132 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Bernstein polynomial approximation of continuous function has a slower rate of convergence compared to other approximation methods. “The fact seems to have precluded any numerical application of Bernstein polynomials from having been made. Perhaps they will find application when the properties of the [...] Read more.
Bernstein polynomial approximation of continuous function has a slower rate of convergence compared to other approximation methods. “The fact seems to have precluded any numerical application of Bernstein polynomials from having been made. Perhaps they will find application when the properties of the approximant in the large are of more importance than the closeness of the approximation.”—remarked P.J. Davis in his 1963 book, Interpolation and Approximation. This paper presents a direct approximation method for nonlinear optimal control problems with mixed input and state constraints based on Bernstein polynomial approximation. We provide a rigorous analysis showing that the proposed method yields consistent approximations of time-continuous optimal control problems and can be used for costate estimation of the optimal control problems. This result leads to the formulation of the Covector Mapping Theorem for Bernstein polynomial approximation. Finally, we explore the numerical and geometric properties of Bernstein polynomials, and illustrate the advantages of the proposed approximation method through several numerical examples. Full article
Article
Eplet-Predicted Antigens: An Attempt to Introduce Eplets into Unacceptable Antigen Determination and Calculated Panel-Reactive Antibody Calculation Facilitating Kidney Allocation
Diagnostics 2022, 12(12), 2983; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12122983 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
(1) Calculated panel-reactive antibody (CPRA) is a measure of sensitization based on unacceptable antigens (UAs). Determination of UAs based on single-antigen bead assays at allele or antigen levels may be inappropriate. We aimed to introduce eplets for better assessment of sensitization; (2) 900 [...] Read more.
(1) Calculated panel-reactive antibody (CPRA) is a measure of sensitization based on unacceptable antigens (UAs). Determination of UAs based on single-antigen bead assays at allele or antigen levels may be inappropriate. We aimed to introduce eplets for better assessment of sensitization; (2) 900 recipients and 1427 donors were enrolled for candidate or donor pools, respectively. Eplets were from the HLA Epitope Registry. UAs were determined by anti-HLA antibodies identified using LIFECODES Single Antigen (LSA) kits. CPRA values were calculated using a simplified method of donor filtering; (3) HLA antigens containing all eplets of an HLA antigen in LSA kits (LSA antigen) were defined as eplet-predicted (EP) antigens, the reactivity of which could be predicted by that LSA antigen. High reactivity concordance was found between LSA and EP antigens. More HLA antigens were covered by EP antigens in the population than LSA antigens. CPRA values at the EP level were higher than at the allele level and lower than at the antigen level. The EP antigens facilitated UA determination for non-LSA antigens and avoided acute rejection; (4) UA determination using EP antigens can lead to more accurate assessment of sensitization, enabling a high probability of compatible organs and a low risk of adverse outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Acute Kidney Injury)
Article
A Single-Event-Hardened Scheme of Phase-Locked Loop Microsystems for Aerospace Applications
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122102 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
In order to improve the ability of the phase-locked loop (PLL) microsystem applied in the aerospace environment to suppress the irradiation effect, this study presents an efficient charge pump hardened scheme by using the radiation-hardened-by-design (RHBD) technology. In this study, the sensitivity analysis [...] Read more.
In order to improve the ability of the phase-locked loop (PLL) microsystem applied in the aerospace environment to suppress the irradiation effect, this study presents an efficient charge pump hardened scheme by using the radiation-hardened-by-design (RHBD) technology. In this study, the sensitivity analysis of the single-event transient (SET) at different nodes of charge pump and different bombardment energies is carried out. Without changing the original structure and loop parameters, a hardened scheme of phase-locked loop to suppress the single-event effect is proposed. A digital control circuit is added between the charge pump and low-pass filter, which greatly reduces the sensitivity of the charge pump to the SET. The classical double-exponential current pulse model is used to simulate the SET effect on the unreinforced and reinforced phase-locked loops, and the reliability of the proposed reinforcement scheme is verified. The simulation results based on the SMIC 130 nm standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process show that the peak value of the transient response fluctuation of the phase-locked loop using the proposed single-event-hardened scheme decreased by 94.2%, the lock recovery time increased by 75.3%, and the maximum phase shift decreased by 90.8%. This shows that the hardened scheme can effectively reduce the sensitivity of the PLL microsystems to the SET effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MEMS for Aerospace Applications, Volume II)
Article
Correlation between Eye Movements and Asthenopia: A Prospective Observational Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7043; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237043 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Purpose: To analyze the correlation between eye movements and asthenopia so as to explore the possibility of using eye-tracking techniques for objective assessment of asthenopia. Methods: This prospective observational study used the computer visual syndrome questionnaire to assess the severity of asthenopia in [...] Read more.
Purpose: To analyze the correlation between eye movements and asthenopia so as to explore the possibility of using eye-tracking techniques for objective assessment of asthenopia. Methods: This prospective observational study used the computer visual syndrome questionnaire to assess the severity of asthenopia in 93 enrolled college students (age 20–30) who complained about asthenopia. Binocular accommodation and eye movements during the reading task were also examined. The correlations between questionnaire score and accommodation examination results and eye movement parameters were analyzed. Differences in eye movement parameters between the first and last reading paragraphs were compared. The trends in eye movement changes over time were observed. Results: About 81.7% of the subjects suffered from computer visual syndrome. Computer visual syndrome questionnaire total score was positively correlated with positive relative accommodation (p < 0.05). In the first reading paragraph, double vision was positively correlated with unknown saccades (all p < 0.05). Difficulty focusing at close range was positively correlated with total fixation duration, total visit duration, and reading speed (all p < 0.05). Feeling that sight was worsening was positively correlated with regressive saccades (p < 0.05). However, visual impairment symptoms were not significantly correlated with any accommodative function. In a total 20 min reading, significantly reduced eye movement parameters were: total fixation duration, fixation count, total visit duration, visit count, fixation duration mean, and reading speed (all p < 0.01). The eye movement parameters that were significantly increased were: visit duration mean and unknown saccades (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Eye tracking could be used as an effective assessment for asthenopia. Among the various eye movement parameters, a decrease in fixation duration and counts may be one of the potential indicators related to asthenopia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
Article
Karyotypes and COI Gene Sequences of Chironomus agilis2, Ch. balatonicus, and Camptochironomus tentans (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Kurchatskoe Lake, Tyumen Region, Russia
Diversity 2022, 14(12), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/d14121044 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Chironomids can inhabit a large variety of water bodies. They contribute to the process of biological purification of water bodies, and they are a high-quality food for commercial fish. Any comprehensive study of biodiversity in water bodies begins with the investigation of chironomids, [...] Read more.
Chironomids can inhabit a large variety of water bodies. They contribute to the process of biological purification of water bodies, and they are a high-quality food for commercial fish. Any comprehensive study of biodiversity in water bodies begins with the investigation of chironomids, which are typically variable and difficult to identify through morphology. Similar species are called sibling-species. For precise identification, we used a comprehensive approach, including morphology, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics. In one sample from Kurchatskoe Lake (Tyumen reg.), with mineralized water of 7‰, we found three Chironomus species. Karyological analysis revealed seven banding sequences in Chironomus agilis2, eight in Ch. balatonicus, and seven in Camptochironomus tentans. The combination of balD1.2 was found in all Ch. balatonicus larvae. All the found banding sequences are typical for the studied region, and have previously been recorded in European and Altai populations. All the estimated genetic distances of COI gene sequences in the studied larvae of each species are much lower than the commonly accepted threshold of 3% in species of the genus Chironomus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity: Evolution, Taxonomy and Conservation)
Article
Assessment of Agricultural Land Suitability for Surface Irrigation Using Geospatial Techniques in the Lower Omo Gibe Basin, Ethiopia
Water 2022, 14(23), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233887 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Land suitability assessment for irrigation is critical to inform as well as manage current and future irrigated agriculture production systems. Land suitability analysis determines whether a given land area could potentially be used for specific crop production. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Land suitability assessment for irrigation is critical to inform as well as manage current and future irrigated agriculture production systems. Land suitability analysis determines whether a given land area could potentially be used for specific crop production. The objective of this study was to identify the availability of suitable land for surface irrigation systems for the production of millet, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production in the Lower Omo Gibe plain, Southern Ethiopia. Land suitability analysis was performed by a parametric method using factors such as soil texture, effective soil depth, Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), soil electrical conductivity (ECe), drainage class, and slope. Five land suitability classes were identified that include highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), currently not suitable (N1), and permanently not suitable (N2). Results showed that 6.6, 7.5, 6.6, and 6.6% of the study area mostly located in the western part of the basin, were highly suitable (S1) for irrigated millets, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat crops production, respectively. However, the mountainous areas in the central part of the basin were classified as N2 due to the steep slope and shallow soil depth. Overall, the results of the study revealed that the use of various suitability analysis techniques could assist in identifying suitable land for irrigated agriculture. Full article
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Article
Parenteral Nanoemulsions Loaded with Combined Immuno- and Chemo-Therapy for Melanoma Treatment
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(23), 4233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12234233 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
High-grade melanoma remains a major life-threatening illness despite the improvement in therapeutic control that has been achieved by means of targeted therapies and immunotherapies in recent years. This work presents a preclinical-level test of a multi-pronged approach that includes the loading of immunotherapeutic [...] Read more.
High-grade melanoma remains a major life-threatening illness despite the improvement in therapeutic control that has been achieved by means of targeted therapies and immunotherapies in recent years. This work presents a preclinical-level test of a multi-pronged approach that includes the loading of immunotherapeutic (ICOS-Fc), targeted (sorafenib), and chemotherapeutic (temozolomide) agents within Intralipid®, which is a biocompatible nanoemulsion with a long history of safe clinical use for total parenteral nutrition. This drug combination has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis with the involvement of the immune system, and a key role is played by ICOS-Fc. The inhibition of tumor growth in subcutaneous melanoma mouse models has been achieved using sub-therapeutic drug doses, which is most likely the result of the nanoemulsion’s targeting properties. If translated to the human setting, this approach should therefore allow therapeutic efficacy to be achieved without increasing the risk of toxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanomaterials in Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
Article
Effect of BIO-PLYTM, a Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Biologic on PRRSV-2-infected macrophages
Viruses 2022, 14(12), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14122666 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the one of the most devastating diseases impacting the swine industry worldwide. Control and prevention methods rely on biosafety measures and vaccination. As an RNA virus with a high rate of mutation, vaccines are only partially [...] Read more.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the one of the most devastating diseases impacting the swine industry worldwide. Control and prevention methods rely on biosafety measures and vaccination. As an RNA virus with a high rate of mutation, vaccines are only partially effective against circulating and newly emerging strains. To reduce the burden of this disease, research on alternative control methods is needed. Here, we assess the in vitro antiviral effect of a novel platelet-rich plasma-derived biologic termed BIO-PLYTM (for the BIOactive fraction of Platelet-rich plasma LYsate) from both swine and equine origin. Our results show that BIO-PLYTM significantly reduces the amount of PRRSV viral load determined by RT-qPCR and the number of infectious viral particles measured by TCID50 in infected porcine alveolar and parenchymal macrophages. This study also showed limited toxicity of BIO-PLYTM in vitro and aspects of its immunomodulatory capacity evaluating the regulation of reactive oxygen species and cytokines production in infected cells. Finally, this study presents promising data on the effect of BIO-PLYTM on other RNA viruses such as human A influenza viruses and coronavirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PRRSV: Vaccinology and Immunology)
Article
Insight into Population Structure and Evolutionary Analysis of the Emerging Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233279 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
A total of 112 symptomatic tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and 83 symptomatic pepper (Capsicum spp.) samples were collected in Ankara, Eskişehir, Bartın, and Zonguldak provinces of Turkey during 2020–2021. Six tomatoes and one pepper sample (3.6%) tested positive for tomato brown [...] Read more.
A total of 112 symptomatic tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and 83 symptomatic pepper (Capsicum spp.) samples were collected in Ankara, Eskişehir, Bartın, and Zonguldak provinces of Turkey during 2020–2021. Six tomatoes and one pepper sample (3.6%) tested positive for tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV, genus Tobamovirus) infection by DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. ToBRFV-positive tomato and pepper plants were removed from greenhouses as soon as possible, and the greenhouses and tools were disinfected completely. Phylogenetic analysis on the complete CP sequences suggested the clustering of 178 GenBank isolates and 7 novel isolates into three groups. A study using DnaSP software showed very low genetic variation among current global ToBRFV isolates. All four ORFs of the virus genome were under strong negative evolutionary constraints, with a ω value range of 0.0869–0.2066. However, three neutrality tests indicated that most populations of the newly identified ToBRFV are currently expanding by assigning statistically significant negative values to them. The very low FST values (0.25 or less) obtained by all comparisons of the isolates from Europe, the Middle East, China, and America concluded that there is no clear genetic separation among currently known isolates from different geographic origins. The divergence time of ToBRFV was estimated to be in the middle of the course of the evolution of 11 tested tobamoviruses. The time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of ToBRFV were calculated to be 0.8 and 1.87 with the genetically closest members of Tobamovirus. The results of this study could improve our understanding on the population structure of the emerging ToBRFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Virus)
Article
Territories of Contention: The Importance of Project Location in Mining-Related Disputes in Finland from the Geosystem Services Perspective
Resources 2022, 11(12), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11120109 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Geosystem services produced by geological processes are the abiotic equivalents of ecosystem services. Geosystems also contribute to satisfying human needs and produce welfare in the form of, e.g., mineral deposits, landscapes for recreation and tourism, and habitats for rare species that require protection. [...] Read more.
Geosystem services produced by geological processes are the abiotic equivalents of ecosystem services. Geosystems also contribute to satisfying human needs and produce welfare in the form of, e.g., mineral deposits, landscapes for recreation and tourism, and habitats for rare species that require protection. Geosystems are inherently linked to ecosystems, which causes overlap between provided services. This overlap may in turn cause conflicts over land-use needs and interests. Such controversies can be manifested as mining and mineral exploration disputes (MMEDs). Six MMEDs from Finland were selected for a closer examination. The MMEDs are described and spatially analyzed from the geosystem services perspective. The main causes for the examined MMEDs are land-use issues, i.e., the location of a project in a sensitive context (a protected area (PA), tourism destination, reindeer herding area, or lake area with vacation homes), and/or association with uranium. There have been attempts to block some of the projects through land-use planning by expanding PAs or excluding mining from the municipality. Conversely, one of the projects is an example of the safeguarding of mineral deposits by province-level land-use planning. A more comprehensive consideration of geosystem services by land-use planning may help to accommodate and reconciliate diverse interests and alleviate disputes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals and Land-Use Planning: Sustainable Narratives and Practices)
Article
Cytotoxicity of V-Prep Versus Phosphoric Acid Etchant on Oral Gingival Fibroblasts
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040266 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The most used etchant in dental daily practice is the phosphoric acid (P.A.; 37%). However, acid etchants can induce necrosis on the oral mucosa and cause the ulceration of periodontal tissue when a rubber dam is not used. V-prep is a new practical [...] Read more.
The most used etchant in dental daily practice is the phosphoric acid (P.A.; 37%). However, acid etchants can induce necrosis on the oral mucosa and cause the ulceration of periodontal tissue when a rubber dam is not used. V-prep is a new practical alternative, and it has satisfactory results. It is used as a preparation before the application of a resin-modified glass ionomer composite (RMGIC) to bond the orthodontic brackets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the V-prep on oral gingival fibroblasts cells by comparing the cell damage and cell viability after the use of V-prep and a conventional phosphoric acid etchant with different application times and concentrations. Therefore, Gingival fibroblasts passage 6 (GFP6) was grown and treated with an acid etchant and V-prep at three different concentrations (1:1, 1:2 and 1:10) for two different application durations (30 s and 1 min). The morphological changes, cell death and cell viability were assessed. Pyknosis, karyolysis, nucleus reversible and irreversible damages and membrane destruction were observed for both of the etchants at the higher concentrations and longer application durations. Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analyses. The application of the V-prep for 30 s showed better values than the acid etchant did in the cell damage analysis and cell viability analysis (p = 0.03). V-prep at a 1:10 concentration applied for a 30 s duration can preserve the viability of gingival fibroblasts cells up to 100%. The toxicity of V-prep is equal or lower than the toxicity of the acid etchant that is commonly used in dentistry. Thus, the V-prep can be used with precautions intra-orally, and it should be applied on the enamel as a gel for 30 s only before it is rinsed and removed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Clinical Endodontic Applications)
Article
Intratesticular Versus Intrafunicular Lidocaine to Reduce Perioperative Nociception and Immunological Response in Ponies Undergoing Field Castration
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120664 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intratesticular or intrafunicular lidocaine to reduce perioperative nociception and cytokine release in ponies undergoing field castration under total intravenous anaesthesia. Before castration, one group was injected with intrafunicular (FL) lidocaine and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intratesticular or intrafunicular lidocaine to reduce perioperative nociception and cytokine release in ponies undergoing field castration under total intravenous anaesthesia. Before castration, one group was injected with intrafunicular (FL) lidocaine and the other received intratesticular (TL) lidocaine. All ponies were premedicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after the administration of acepromazine, xylazine (1 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg) were administered intravenously. Lidocaine 2% was given 1 ml/100 kg intrafunicularly in the FL groups or 2 ml/100 kg intratesticularly on each testicular side for TL. Surgery was performed by the same team of two experienced surgeons using Serra’s emasculator and an open technique was used for all ponies in order to promote postoperative drainage. In this study, we focused on the plasmatic levels of TNF-a and IL-6. The results from this study showed a significant difference in plasmatic concentrations of TNF-a and IL-6 between the two different locoregional anaesthetic protocols. Taken together, the results suggest that the intrafunicular lidocaine locoregional anaesthesia could be a useful technique in the anaesthesia protocol for field pony castration. Full article
Article
Genotoxic and Toxic Effects of The Flame Retardant Tris(chloropropyl) Phosphate (TCPP) in Human Lymphocytes, Microalgae and Bacteria
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120736 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) is a characteristic and widely used organophosphorus flame retardant. TCPP is comprised of four isomers and the most abundant is tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. TCPP can be released into the environment, with potential impacts on living organisms and humans due to its [...] Read more.
Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) is a characteristic and widely used organophosphorus flame retardant. TCPP is comprised of four isomers and the most abundant is tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. TCPP can be released into the environment, with potential impacts on living organisms and humans due to its extensive industrial use. Aiming to assess the potential risks of TCPP on human health and the environment, its toxic and genotoxic effects—using organisms from different trophic levels, i.e., bacteria, green microalgae, and human cells—were investigated. TCPP exposure at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 μg mL−1 was studied to identify the potential risk of inducing genotoxic effects in cultured human lymphocytes. Treatment with 30 and 40 μg mL−1 of TCPP induced marginally significant micronuclei (MN) frequencies as well as cytotoxic effects. Freshwater microalgae species treated with TCPP (0.5, 1, 10, 20 and 50 μg L−1) showed different growth rates over time. All the tested microalgae species were adversely affected after exposure to TCPP during the first 24 h. However, differences among the microalgae species’ sensitivities were observed. In the case of the freshwater species, the most sensitive was found to be Chlorococcum sp. The marine algal species Dunaliella tertiolecta and Tisochrysis lutea were significantly affected after exposure to TCPP. The effects of TCPP on Aliivibrio fischeri that were observed can classify this flame retardant as a “harmful” compound. Our results suggest a potential risk to aquatic organisms and humans from the wide utilization of TCPP and its consequent release into the environment. These results highlight that further research should be conducted to investigate the effects of TCPP individually and in combination with other organophosphorus flame retardants in various organisms. In addition, the concern induced by TCPP points out that measures to control the introduction of TCPP into the environment should be taken. Full article
Article
Multivariate Fence: Using Parallel Coordinates to Locate and Compare Attributes of Adjacency Matrix Nodes in Immersive Environment
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12182; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312182 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
Adjacency matrix visualization is a common method for presenting graph data, and the Focus+Context technique can be used to explore the details of the ROI (region of interest). Embedded views and multi-view approaches are usually applied when locating and comparing attributes among multiple [...] Read more.
Adjacency matrix visualization is a common method for presenting graph data, and the Focus+Context technique can be used to explore the details of the ROI (region of interest). Embedded views and multi-view approaches are usually applied when locating and comparing attributes among multiple nodes. However, the embedded view has an issue of edge occlusion, while the multi-view would cause repeated perspective switching. In this paper, we propose a Multivariate Fence (MVF) model as a focus view of the adjacency matrix to locate and compare attributes among nodes. An additional spatial parallel coordinate is added to the 2D adjacency matrix in an immersive environment so that the attribute information can be shown in a single view without blocking edge information. We also conduct a user study to evaluate the performance of the MVF. The results show that the MVF has better efficiency and accuracy in locating and comparing the multivariate adjacency matrix in the immersive environment against the existing focus model. Moreover, the MVF model is easier to understand and is preferred by users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidimensional Data Visualization: Methods and Applications)
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Article
Residual Characteristics of Atrazine and Its Metabolites in the Liaoning Province of China
Separations 2022, 9(12), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9120397 (registering DOI) - 28 Nov 2022
Abstract
The simultaneous determination of atrazine residue and its metabolites was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in Liaoning Province, China. To ensure agricultural production and environmental safety, their contamination level was assessed. A total of 2142 samples were collected between 2014 and 2020, [...] Read more.
The simultaneous determination of atrazine residue and its metabolites was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in Liaoning Province, China. To ensure agricultural production and environmental safety, their contamination level was assessed. A total of 2142 samples were collected between 2014 and 2020, including 1213 soil samples, 190 surface water samples, and 739 groundwater samples. The overall pollution level and detectable level of the herbicides in Liaoning Province was found to be the highest in soil followed by surface water and groundwater. The residual level of the analytes in the collected samples decreased in the following order: atrazine > hydroxyatrazine > desethylatrazine > desisopropylatrazine. From 2014 to 2020, atrazine was detected in soil and surface water, whereas hydroxyatrazine was found in soil without the selected analytes detected in groundwater. The pollution of atrazine in soil was higher than that of hydroxyatrazine, desethylatrazine, and desisopropylatrazine. To maintain sustainable agricultural development, it is critical to pay attention to the residual determination of atrazine in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technology Research)

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