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Article
Overestimation of Oxygen Saturation Measured by Pulse Oximetry in Hypoxemia. Part 1: Effect of Optical Pathlengths-Ratio Increase
by , , , , , and
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031434 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
On average, arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is higher in hypoxemia than the true oxygen saturation measured invasively (SaO2), thereby increasing the risk of occult hypoxemia. In the current article, measurements of SpO2 on 17 [...] Read more.
On average, arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is higher in hypoxemia than the true oxygen saturation measured invasively (SaO2), thereby increasing the risk of occult hypoxemia. In the current article, measurements of SpO2 on 17 cyanotic newborns were performed by means of a Nellcor pulse oximeter (POx), based on light with two wavelengths in the red and infrared regions (660 and 900 nm), and by means of a novel POx, based on two wavelengths in the infrared region (761 and 820 nm). The SpO2 readings from the two POxs showed higher values than the invasive SaO2 readings, and the disparity increased with decreasing SaO2. SpO2 measured using the two infrared wavelengths showed better correlation with SaO2 than SpO2 measured using the red and infrared wavelengths. After appropriate calibration, the standard deviation of the individual SpO2-SaO2 differences for the two-infrared POx was smaller (3.6%) than that for the red and infrared POx (6.5%, p < 0.05). The overestimation of SpO2 readings in hypoxemia was explained by the increase in hypoxemia of the optical pathlengths-ratio between the two wavelengths. The two-infrared POx can reduce the overestimation of SpO2 measurement in hypoxemia and the consequent risk of occult hypoxemia, owing to its smaller increase in pathlengths-ratio in hypoxemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors-Recent Advances and Future Challenges 2022)
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Article
Design Hybrid Porous Organic/Inorganic Polymers Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane/Pyrene/Anthracene Moieties as a High-Performance Electrode for Supercapacitor
by , , , and
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032501 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
We synthesized two hybrid organic–inorganic porous polymers (HPP) through the Heck reaction of 9,10 dibromoanthracene (A-Br2) or 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene (P-Br4)/A-Br2 as co-monomers with octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS), in order to afford OVS-A HPP and OVS-P-A HPP, respectively. The chemical structures of [...] Read more.
We synthesized two hybrid organic–inorganic porous polymers (HPP) through the Heck reaction of 9,10 dibromoanthracene (A-Br2) or 1,3,6,8-tetrabromopyrene (P-Br4)/A-Br2 as co-monomers with octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS), in order to afford OVS-A HPP and OVS-P-A HPP, respectively. The chemical structures of these two hybrid porous polymers were validated through FTIR and solid-state 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability and porosity of these materials were measured by TGA and N2 adsorption/desorption analyses, demonstrating that OVS-A HPP has higher thermal stability (Td10: 579 °C) and surface area (433 m2 g−1) than OVS-P-A HPP (Td10: 377 °C and 98 m2 g−1) due to its higher cross-linking density. Furthermore, the electrochemical analysis showed that OVS-P-A HPP has a higher specific capacitance (177 F g −1 at 0.5 A F g−1) when compared to OVS-A HPP (120 F g −1 at 0.5 A F g−1). The electron-rich phenyl rings and Faradaic reaction between the π-conjugated network and anthracene moiety may be attributed to their excellent electrochemical performance of OVS-P-A HPP. Full article
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Review
Biomimetic Construction of Artificial Selenoenzymes
by , , and
Biomimetics 2023, 8(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics8010054 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Selenium exists in the form of selenocysteines in selenoproteins and plays a pivotal role in the catalytic process of the antioxidative enzymes. In order to study the structural and functional properties of selenium in selenoproteins, explore the significance of the role of selenium [...] Read more.
Selenium exists in the form of selenocysteines in selenoproteins and plays a pivotal role in the catalytic process of the antioxidative enzymes. In order to study the structural and functional properties of selenium in selenoproteins, explore the significance of the role of selenium in the fields of biology and chemistry, scientists conducted a series of artificial simulations on selenoproteins. In this review, we sum up the progress and developed strategies in the construction of artificial selenoenzyme. Using different mechanisms from different catalytic angles, selenium-containing catalytic antibodies, semi-synthetic selenonezyme, and the selenium-containing molecularly imprinted enzymes have been constructed. A variety of synthetic selenoenzyme models have been designed and constructed by selecting host molecules such as cyclodextrins, dendrimers, and hyperbranched polymers as the main scaffolds. Then, a variety of selenoprotein assemblies as well as cascade antioxidant nanoenzymes were built by using electrostatic interaction, metal coordination, and host–guest interaction. The unique redox properties of selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) can be reproduced. Full article
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Communication
Parallel Synthesis of Aurones Using a Homogeneous Scavenger
by and
Organics 2023, 4(1), 51-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/org4010004 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
The ability to synthesize arrays of related compounds quickly and with good purity has become critical for a rapid exploration of their properties for biological or material applications. While a number of methods have been developed to enable this combinatorial synthesis, the existing [...] Read more.
The ability to synthesize arrays of related compounds quickly and with good purity has become critical for a rapid exploration of their properties for biological or material applications. While a number of methods have been developed to enable this combinatorial synthesis, the existing options were not readily appliable to the synthesis of aurones using the simple Knoevenagel condensation approach. In order to avoid the time, expense, and lowered yields associated with flash column chromatography, we developed a scavenging approach for their synthesis. This method uses an excess of aldehyde to ensure complete conversion to aurones, followed by selective removal of the remaining aldehyde using a simple, inexpensive scavenger – isoniazid – and subsequent extraction with dilute acid, to produce the desired compounds with good purity under operationally simple conditions. This approach is expected to be applicable to many other reactions involving aldehydes as one of the reactants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advanced Research Papers in Organics)
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Article
The Role of MCM9 in the Etiology of Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome and Premature Ovarian Insufficiency
by , , , , , , , , , , , , and
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(3), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12030990 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Infertility in couples is a common problem, with both female and male factors contributing to similar extents. Severe, congenital disorders affecting fertility are, however, rare. While folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis are generally orchestrated via different mechanisms, some genetic anomalies can impair both female and [...] Read more.
Infertility in couples is a common problem, with both female and male factors contributing to similar extents. Severe, congenital disorders affecting fertility are, however, rare. While folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis are generally orchestrated via different mechanisms, some genetic anomalies can impair both female and male gametogenesis. Minichromosome maintenance complex component 9 (MCM9) is involved in DNA repair and mutations of the MCM9 gene have been previously reported in females with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). MCM9 is also an emerging cancer risk gene. We performed next-generation and Sanger sequencing of fertility and related genes and hormonal and imaging studies in a kindred whose members had POI and disordered spermatogenesis. We identified a homozygous pathogenic MCM9 variant, c.394C>T (p.Arg132*) in three sisters affected by POI due to ovarian dysgenesis and their brother who had normal pubertal development but suffered from non-obstructive azoospermia. Testicular biopsy revealed Sertoli cell-only testicular histopathology. No evidence of early onset cancer was found in the homozygotic family members, but they were all young (<30 years) at the time of the study. In the male patient the homozygous MCM9 variant led to normal pubertal development and hormonal levels but caused a Sertoli-cell-only syndrome with non-obstructive azoospermia. In the homozygous females studied, the clinical, hormonal, and gonadal phenotypes revealed ovarian dysgenesis consistent with previous reports. Active screening for potential colorectal and other cancer risks in the homozygotic MCM9 subjects has been instigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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Review
Prostate Cancer—PET Imaging Update
by , , , , and
Cancers 2023, 15(3), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15030796 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatologic cancer in men, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The incidence of prostate cancer increases precipitously after the age of 65 and demonstrates variable aggressiveness, depending on its grade and stage at diagnosis. [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatologic cancer in men, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. The incidence of prostate cancer increases precipitously after the age of 65 and demonstrates variable aggressiveness, depending on its grade and stage at diagnosis. Despite recent advancements in prostate cancer treatment, recurrence is seen in 25% of patients. Advancements in prostate cancer Positron Emission Tomography (PET) molecular imaging and recent United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals have led to several new options for evaluating prostate cancer. This manuscript will review the commonly used molecular imaging agents, with an emphasis on Fluorine-18 fluciclovine (Axumin) and PSMA-ligand agents, including their protocols, imaging interpretation, and pitfalls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Prostate Imaging and Its Management)
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Article
CD13-Mediated Pegylated Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by , , , , and
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020426 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma, is an important cause of cancer-related death, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Nano drug delivery systems have shown great promise in the treatment of cancers. In order to improve their therapeutic efficacy, it is very important to [...] Read more.
Liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma, is an important cause of cancer-related death, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Nano drug delivery systems have shown great promise in the treatment of cancers. In order to improve their therapeutic efficacy, it is very important to realize the high accumulation and effective release of drugs at the tumor site. In this manuscript, using doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug, CD13-targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles coated with NGR-peptide-modified pegylated carboxymethyl chitosan were constructed (DOX/MSN-CPN). DOX/MSN-CPN comprises a spherical shape with an obvious capping structure and a particle size of 125.01 ± 1.52 nm. With a decrease in pH, DOX/MSN-CPN showed responsive desorption from DOX/MSN-CPN and pH-responsive release of DOX was observed. Meanwhile, DOX/MSN-CPN could be efficiently absorbed through NGR-mediated internalization in vitro and could efficiently deliver DOX to tumor tissues with long accumulation times in vivo, suggesting good active targeting properties. Moreover, significant tumor inhibition has been observed in antitumor studies in vivo. This study provides a strategy of utilizing DOX/MSN-CPN as a nano-platform for drug delivery, which has superb therapeutic efficacy and safety for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma both in vivo and in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drug Delivery and Controlled Release)
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Article
Effect of Optimal Alcohol-Based Hand Rub among Nurse Students Compared with Everyday Practice among Random Adults; Can Water-Based Hand Rub Combined with a Hand Dryer Machine Be an Alternative to Remove E. coli Contamination from Hands?
by , , , and
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020325 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Efficient hand hygiene is essential for preventing the transmission of microorganisms. Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is a recommended method. We compared health personnel (skilled nurse students) with random adults to study the effect of an ABHR procedure. A water-based hand rub (WBHR) procedure, [...] Read more.
Efficient hand hygiene is essential for preventing the transmission of microorganisms. Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is a recommended method. We compared health personnel (skilled nurse students) with random adults to study the effect of an ABHR procedure. A water-based hand rub (WBHR) procedure, using running tap water and a hand-drying machine, was also investigated. The study included 27 nurse students and 26 random adults. Hands were contaminated with Escherichia coli, and concentrations of colony forming units (CFU/mL) were determined before and after ABHR or WBHR. Concentrations after ABHR were 1537 CFU/mL (nurse students) and 13,508 CFU/mL (random adults) (p < 0.001). One-third of participants reported skin irritation from daily ABHR. Concentrations after WBHR were 41 CFU/mL (nurse students) and 115 CFU/mL (random adults) (p < 0.011). The majority of participants (88.5%) preferred the WBHR method. Results from 50 air samples from filtered air from the hand dryer outlet showed no CFU in 47 samples. A significant difference between the two groups was shown for the ABHR method, indicating that training skills are important for efficient hand hygiene. Surprisingly, the WBHR method seemed to have a significant effect in largely removing transient bacteria from hands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Stewardship Strategies to Improve Antimicrobial Use)
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Article
A Comparative Study between Lycorine and Galantamine Abilities to Interact with AMYLOID β and Reduce In Vitro Neurotoxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032500 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Galantamine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the Amaryllidaceae plants and is used as the active ingredient of a drug approved for the treatment of the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. It mainly acts as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, increasing concentrations of the [...] Read more.
Galantamine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the Amaryllidaceae plants and is used as the active ingredient of a drug approved for the treatment of the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. It mainly acts as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, increasing concentrations of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Recent cellular studies have also shown the ability of galantamine to protect SH-SY5Y cell lines against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity. Such investigations have supported and validated further in-depth studies for understanding the chemical and molecular features associated with galantamine-protective abilities. In addition to galantamine, other natural alkaloids are known to possess AChE inhibitory activity; among them lycorine has been extensively investigated for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral activities as well. Despite its interesting biological properties, lycorine’s neuroprotective functions against Aβ-induced damages have not been explored so far. In this research study, the ability of galantamine and lycorine to suppress Aβ-induced in vitro neuronal toxicity was evaluated by investigating the chemical interactions of the two alkaloids with Aβ peptide. A multi-technique spectroscopic analysis and cellular cytotoxicity assays were applied to obtain new insights on these molecular associations. The comparison between the behaviors exhibited by the two alkaloids indicates that both compounds possess analogue abilities to interact with the amyloidogenic peptide and protect cells. Full article
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Article
Relation between Color and Chemical Composition of Dromedary Camel Colostrum
Animals 2023, 13(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030442 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Camel milk industrialization faces technological problems related to the presence of colostrum in milk. The determination of color parameters may serve to differentiate between colostrum and milk. This work aimed to study the relationship between the chemical composition of camel colostrum and milk [...] Read more.
Camel milk industrialization faces technological problems related to the presence of colostrum in milk. The determination of color parameters may serve to differentiate between colostrum and milk. This work aimed to study the relationship between the chemical composition of camel colostrum and milk and their colors. Samples of colostrum were collected at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 360 h postpartum (n = 16), and their physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, viscosity, color, dry matter, ash, protein, and fat) were analyzed. The results show that all the components decreased during the first 3 days except fat. The content of this later increased from zero in the three sampling on the first day (2, 12, and 24 h) to 1.92 ± 0.61% at 48 h postpartum. The amount of total dry matter and protein decreased from 20.95 ± 3.63% and 17.43 ± 4.28% to 13.05 ± 0.81% and 3.71 ± 0.46%, respectively, during the first 7 days postpartum. There was a weak correlation between the brightness (L*) of the camel milk and its contents of dry matter, protein, and fat; however, these parameters were strongly correlated with redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Ash content was poorly correlated with the color parameters. Hence, the measurement of the color parameters of camel colostrum and milk can be a new tool to evaluate their quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Camel Milk Sector: Production, Processing, Market)
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Article
Machine Learning Algorithm for Efficient Design of Separated Buffer Super-Junction IGBT
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020334 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
An improved structure for an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) with a separated buffer layer is presented in order to improve the trade-off between the turn-off loss (Eoff) and on-state voltage (Von). However, it is difficult to [...] Read more.
An improved structure for an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) with a separated buffer layer is presented in order to improve the trade-off between the turn-off loss (Eoff) and on-state voltage (Von). However, it is difficult to set efficient parameters due to the increase in the new buffer doping concentration variable. Therefore, a machine learning (ML) algorithm is proposed as a solution. Compared to the conventional Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tool, it is demonstrated that incorporating the ML algorithm into the device analysis could make it possible to achieve high accuracy and significantly shorten the simulation time. Specifically, utilizing the ML algorithm could achieve coefficients of determination (R2) of Von and Eoff of 0.995 and 0.968, respectively. In addition, it enables the optimized design to fit the target characteristics. In this study, the structure proposed for the trade-off improvement was targeted to obtain the minimum Eoff at the same Von, especially by adjusting the concentration of the separated buffer. We could improve Eoff by 36.2% by optimizing the structure, which was expected to be improved by 24.7% using the ML approach. In another way, it is possible to inversely design four types of structures with characteristics close to the target characteristics (Eoff = 1.64 μJ, Von = 1.38 V). The proposed method of incorporating machine learning into device analysis is expected to be very strategic, especially for power electronics analysis (where the transistor size is comparatively large and requires significant computation). In summary, we improved the trade-off using a separated buffer, and ML enabled optimization and a more precise design, as well as reverse engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Semiconductor Devices and Applications)
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Article
Modeling the Effects of Rice-Vegetable Cropping System Conversion and Fertilization on GHG Emissions Using the DNDC Model
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020379 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
The cropping system conversion, from rice to vegetable, showed various influences on the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission with conversion time and fertilizer/irrigation management. In this study, we evaluated the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model for predicting carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), [...] Read more.
The cropping system conversion, from rice to vegetable, showed various influences on the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission with conversion time and fertilizer/irrigation management. In this study, we evaluated the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model for predicting carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and crop yields as rice converted to vegetable cropping system under conventional or no fertilization from 2012 to 2014. Then, we quantified the long-term (40 years) impacts of rice-vegetable cropping system conversions and fertilization levels (0, 50, 100 and 150% conventional fertilization rate) on GHGs emissions and global warming potentials (GWP) using the calibrated model. The DNDC model-simulated daily GHG emission dynamics were generally consistent with the measured data and showed good predictions of the seasonal CH4 emissions (coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.96), CO2 emissions (R2 = 0.75), N2O emissions (R2 = 0.75) and crop yields (R2 = 0.89) in response to the different cropping systems and fertilization levels across the two years. The overall model performance was better for rice than for vegetable cropping systems. Both simulated and measured two-year data showed higher CH4 and CO2 emissions and lower N2O emissions for rice than for vegetable cropping systems and showed positive responses of the CO2 and N2O emissions to fertilizations. The lowest GWP for vegetable without fertilization and highest the GWP for rice with fertilization were obtained. These results were consistent with the long-term simulation results. In contrast to the two-year experimental data, the simulated long-term CH4 emissions increased with fertilization for the rice-dominant cropping systems. The reasonable cropping systems and fertilization levels were recommended for the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Tillage, Cover Crop and Crop Rotation on Soil)
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Article
Climate-Adapted Potential Vegetation—A European Multiclass Model Estimating the Future Potential of Natural Vegetation
Forests 2023, 14(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020239 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Climate change will alter the site conditions for European vegetation. This is likely to shift the potential distribution of species and habitats outside its current boundaries. To enable future projections on shifts in vegetation potentials, we fitted a multiclass model to the current [...] Read more.
Climate change will alter the site conditions for European vegetation. This is likely to shift the potential distribution of species and habitats outside its current boundaries. To enable future projections on shifts in vegetation potentials, we fitted a multiclass model to the current potential natural vegetation (PNV) of Europe using climatic predictors. The model was then applied to climate data of the time slice 2061–2080 with the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and RCP 8.5. With an accuracy of 0.78, simulations well represented the site-equivalent vegetation types of the current PNV across Europe. Projections show drastic shifts in vegetation potentials in all parts of Europe. Boreal forests could lose up to 75% of their current potential, while Mediterranean Quercus forests and steppes would double their potential area. Deserts are projected to be on the rice, and the potential of currently widespread vegetation such as Fagus forests would be translocated. These estimated alterations of European vegetation potentials could have great effects on the stability of current forests, affecting nature conservation strategies and forest management. Full article
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Study on Cognitive Vulnerability Patterns in Dental Anxiety: The Italian Validation of the Dental Fear Maintenance Questionnaire (DFMQ)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032298 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Dental anxiety is a crucial problem for dentistry because it may represent a significant risk to oral health. Within the framework of the Cognitive Vulnerability Model (CVM), which sheds light on the cognitive vulnerability patterns that may cause dental anxiety, this study aimed [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety is a crucial problem for dentistry because it may represent a significant risk to oral health. Within the framework of the Cognitive Vulnerability Model (CVM), which sheds light on the cognitive vulnerability patterns that may cause dental anxiety, this study aimed to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the Dental Fear Maintenance Questionnaire (DFMQ). The DFMQ is a 32-item questionnaire that assesses four cognitive vulnerability patterns, i.e., dangerousness, disgust, unpredictability, and uncontrollability. In a sample of 200 dental patients who had accessed public-university-hospital dental surgery, this study assessed the model fit of the DFMQ and different types of validity (i.e., predictive, convergent, construct, and discriminant validity). In addition, potential differences between DFMQ dimensions were assessed based on gender (men vs. women) and age ranges. All indicators of cognitive vulnerability were significantly associated with high dental anxiety when each variable was included independently. In contrast, when the DFMQ subscales were considered together, only unpredictability and uncontrollability were found to be associated with high dental anxiety. Women had higher scores for unpredictability, uncontrollability, and general dangerousness than men. In addition, older patients had higher scores for some vulnerability cognitive patterns than younger patients. This study provides Italian dentists and researchers with a valid questionnaire to assess cognitive factors associated with dental anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
Editorial
Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Tissue Regeneration: Mechanisms Mediated by Direct, Paracrine, or Autocrine Effects
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020386 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Among mesenchymal stem cells, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were discovered most recently [...] Full article
Article
Dietary Corn Silk (Stigma maydis) Extract Supplementation Modulate Production Performance, Immune Response and Redox Balance in Corticosterone-Induced Oxidative Stress Broilers
Animals 2023, 13(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030441 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Immunosuppression is a serious consequence of oxidative stress exposure that negatively affects the productivity and profitability of birds, as well as their well-being. Thus, the present investigation was designed to evaluate the potential of corn silk extract (CSE) supplementation to overcome the negative [...] Read more.
Immunosuppression is a serious consequence of oxidative stress exposure that negatively affects the productivity and profitability of birds, as well as their well-being. Thus, the present investigation was designed to evaluate the potential of corn silk extract (CSE) supplementation to overcome the negative impacts of oxidative stress induced by corticosterone administration (CORT) in broiler chickens. A total of 280 one day old Cobb 500 male chicks were divided into four groups in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. The experimental groups included CSE supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg diet, from 20 to 35 days of age) and CORT administration (0 or 25 mg/kg diet, from 22 to 35 days of age) as independent factors. At the end of week five of age, production performance parameters were measured. The humoral and cell-mediated immune response parameters, redox status, and stress markers were determined. Data revealed deleterious effects of CORT administration on the broilers’ body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. Moreover, an exponential increase in stress marker levels, in addition to immunosuppression and redox imbalance, were associated with CORT administration. However, CSE supplementation, with its high total phenols content, partially alleviated the negative impacts of CORT administration, as shown by a significant improvement in immune response parameters and antioxidant activity, as well as a reduction in stress marker levels. Furthermore, CSE supplementation to non-stressed birds even significantly improved total antioxidant activity, total white blood cells (TWBCs) count, T-lymphocyte stimulating index, and wattle thickness. It can be concluded that, under stress conditions in commercial broiler farms, dietary CSE supplementation can strongly be recommended to modulate the negative impacts of stress. Therefore, CSE can be used as an effective immunomodulator and antioxidant agent to increase commercial broiler farm productivity and profitability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second Edition of Stress Management in Poultry)
Article
Hyperpolarized 13C-Pyruvate to Assess Response to Anti-PD1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in YUMMER 1.7 Melanoma Xenografts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032499 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
There is currently no consensus to determine which advanced melanoma patients will benefit from immunotherapy, highlighting the critical need to identify early-response biomarkers to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vivo metabolic spectroscopy using hyperpolarized (HP) 13 [...] Read more.
There is currently no consensus to determine which advanced melanoma patients will benefit from immunotherapy, highlighting the critical need to identify early-response biomarkers to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vivo metabolic spectroscopy using hyperpolarized (HP) 13C-pyruvate and 13C-glucose to assess early response to anti-PD1 therapy in the YUMMER1.7 syngeneic melanoma model. The xenografts showed a significant tumor growth delay when treated with two cycles of an anti-PD1 antibody compared to an isotype control antibody. 13C-MRS was performed in vivo after the injection of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate, at baseline and after one cycle of immunotherapy, to evaluate early dynamic changes in 13C-pyruvate–13C-lactate exchange. Furthermore, ex vivo 13C-MRS metabolic tracing experiments were performed after U-13C-glucose injection following one cycle of immunotherapy. A significant decrease in the ratio of HP 13C-lactate to 13C-pyruvate was observed in vivo in comparison with the isotype control group, while there was a lack of change in the levels of 13C lactate and 13C alanine issued from 13C glucose infusion, following ex vivo assessment on resected tumors. Thus, these results suggest that hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate could be used to assess early response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Targets in Cancers)
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Article
Nur77 Serves as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker That Correlates with Immune Infiltration and May Act as a Good Target for Prostate adenocarcinoma
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031238 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD) is the most frequent malignancy, and is the second leading cause of death due to cancer in men. Thus, new prognostic biomarkers and drug targets for PRAD are urgently needed. As we know, nuclear receptor Nur77 is important in cancer [...] Read more.
Prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD) is the most frequent malignancy, and is the second leading cause of death due to cancer in men. Thus, new prognostic biomarkers and drug targets for PRAD are urgently needed. As we know, nuclear receptor Nur77 is important in cancer development and changes in the tumor microenvironment; whereas, the function of Nur77 in PRAD remains to be elucidated. The TCGA database was used to explore the Nur77 expression and its role in the prognosis of PRAD. It was shown that Nur77 was down regulated in PRAD, and low Nur77 expression was correlated with advanced clinical pathologic characteristics (high grade, histological type, age) and poor prognosis. Furthermore, key genes screening was examined by univariate Cox analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival. Additionally, Nur77 was closely related to immune infiltration and some anti-tumor immune functions. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were presented by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Therefore, the expression level of Nur77 might help predict the survival of PRAD cases, which presents a new insight and a new target for the treatment of PRAD. In vitro experiments verified that natural product malayoside targeting Nur77 exhibited significant therapeutic effects on PRAD and largely induced cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of Nur77 and its mitochondrial localization. Taken together, Nur77 is a prognostic biomarker for patients with PRAD, which may refresh the profound understanding of PRAD individualized treatment. Full article
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Article
The Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Venous Flow Reversal in Patients with Significant Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10020049 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Background: The prognostic significance of pulmonary venous (PV) flow reversal in degenerative mitral regurgitation (dMR) is not well-established. Objective: We aimed to assess whether reversed PV flow is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with significant dMR. Methods: We retrospectively [...] Read more.
Background: The prognostic significance of pulmonary venous (PV) flow reversal in degenerative mitral regurgitation (dMR) is not well-established. Objective: We aimed to assess whether reversed PV flow is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with significant dMR. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center for evaluation of dMR of greater than moderate degree, who had normal sinus rhythm, had a left ventricular ejection fraction of above 60%, and did not suffer from any other major valvular disorders. The primary outcome was the combined rate of all-cause mortality, mitral intervention, or new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) at 5 years following index echocardiogram. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome. Results: Overall, 135 patients (median age 68 (IQR, 58–74) years; 93 (68.9%) males; 89 (65.9%) with severe MR) met the inclusion criteria and were followed for 115.2 (IQR, 60.0–155.0) months. Patients with a reversed PV flow pattern (PVFP) (n = 34) more often presented with severe MR compared to those with a normal (n = 49) and non-reversed PVFP (n = 101) (RR = 2.03 and 1.59, respectively, all p < 0.001). At 5 years, they experienced the highest cumulative incidence of the primary outcome (80.2% vs. 59.2% and 67.3%, p = 0.008 and 0.018, respectively). Furthermore, a reversed PVFP was independently associated with a higher risk of the primary outcome compared to normal PVFP (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.21–5.31, p = 0.011) and non-reversed PVFP (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.12–4.10, p = 0.022). Conclusion: PV flow reversal is associated with a worse 5-year composite of mortality, mitral intervention, or AF in patients with significant dMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echocardiography in Cardiovascular Disease)
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Article
Does Government Purchasing Science and Technology Public Service Promote Regional S&T Innovation Ability? Evidence from China
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032354 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
During the development of scientific and technological innovation, the importance of Government Purchasing Public Services (GPPS) in the field of science and technology (S&T) has become increasingly prominent. To investigate the relationship between Government Purchasing Science and Technology Public Services (GPSTPS) and regional [...] Read more.
During the development of scientific and technological innovation, the importance of Government Purchasing Public Services (GPPS) in the field of science and technology (S&T) has become increasingly prominent. To investigate the relationship between Government Purchasing Science and Technology Public Services (GPSTPS) and regional S&T innovation ability, this paper first constructs a PMC index model to estimate GPSTPS objectively. Then, the spatial econometric model is adopted to explore the impact of GPSTPS policy on the regional S&T innovation ability based on the provincial panel data from 2008 to 2017 in China. Results show that: (1) Regional S&T innovation ability has a significant spatial positive correlation in geographical space from 2008 to 2017. (2) From the overall perspective, the GPSTPS policy does not play a role in improving the regional S&T innovation ability. (3) From the perspective of subregions, there are differences in the impact of GPSTPS on the regional S&T innovation ability between the eastern, central and western regions of China. (4) From the perspective of spatial spillover effect, the policy of GPSTPS has a positive spatial spillover effect on the improvement of regional S&T innovation ability in the eastern region, while the effect is not obvious in central and western regions. Full article
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Brief Report
Safe and Timely Delivery of Essential Surgical Care for Skin Cancer in a Pandemic
COVID 2023, 3(2), 144-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid3020009 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Many surgical practices closed at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented operational changes to safely continue treating patients with cutaneous tumors during the pandemic. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of pandemic-based operational changes on safety, access, and treatment. Here, [...] Read more.
Many surgical practices closed at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented operational changes to safely continue treating patients with cutaneous tumors during the pandemic. This study seeks to evaluate the impact of pandemic-based operational changes on safety, access, and treatment. Here, we report results from a retrospective study from a single academic office-based surgical practice that provided treatment to patients with skin cancer between November 2019 and September 2020. Time to treatment, tumor area, and upstaging after treatment were compared among patients seen “pre-pandemic” (November 2019 to March 2020), during the “pause” (March 2020 to June 2020), and in the “reopening” (June 2020 to September 2020). One-way ANOVA or Fisher Exact analyses were performed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Our study included 691 patients (22–101 years old) with a total of 912 tumors. No cases of COVID-19 transmission occurred during the study period. The time from consultation to treatment was reduced during the pause and reopening periods relative to pre-pandemic (p ≤ 0.002), and the average Mohs post-operative defect size remained unchanged throughout the study period (p = 0.75). Consistent with the prioritization of higher-risk tumors in the pandemic peak, a significant reduction in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma tumors was noted during the pause (p = 0.01), and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tumors were upstaged more frequently after treatment (p < 0.001). Our findings demonstrate that practice modifications can permit essential surgical care to be delivered safely to patients with high-risk skin cancers during a pandemic. Full article
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Article
The Total Dietary Antioxidant Capacity, Its Seasonal Variability, and Dietary Sources in Cardiovascular Patients
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020292 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
The favourable role of dietary antioxidants in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and protection from them is widely discussed, and total dietary antioxidant capacity (TAOX) is perceived as a diet-quality marker. Data concerning TAOX and its dietary sources related to seasonal variability are limited. We [...] Read more.
The favourable role of dietary antioxidants in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and protection from them is widely discussed, and total dietary antioxidant capacity (TAOX) is perceived as a diet-quality marker. Data concerning TAOX and its dietary sources related to seasonal variability are limited. We aimed to analyse the TAOXs, seasonal variability, and sources in the daily diets of CVD patients. A total of 143 subjects (82 men, 61 women) since CVD problems were studied. Seasonal recalls were collected regarding dietary sources of antioxidant compounds in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. A food frequency questionnaire was used. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (in μmolTE/day) was calculated for each season. The primary sources of antioxidants in cardiovascular patients’ diets were drinks (33%), fruits (28%), vegetables (16%), and black tea (14%). The TAOXs of CVD patients’ diets significantly depended on the season (p < 0.001) and were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring. This seasonal variation in consumption was noted. Our findings suggest that a diet characterised with a TAOX might be subjected to fluctuations between seasons. We suggest considering modifications in the dietary recommendations for cardiovascular patients with a low antioxidant capacity between seasons. Full article
Editorial
Remote Sensing Applications to Climate Change
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(3), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030747 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Climate change research remains a challenging task, as it requires vast quantities of long-term data to investigate the past, present, and future scenarios of Earth’s climate system and other biophysical systems at global to local scales [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Climate Change)
Article
Prediction and Analysis of Heart Failure Decompensation Events Based on Telemonitored Data and Artificial Intelligence Methods
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd10020048 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally, taking an estimated 17.9 million lives each year. Heart failure (HF) occurs when the heart is not able to pump enough blood to satisfy metabolic needs. People diagnosed with chronic HF may suffer from [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally, taking an estimated 17.9 million lives each year. Heart failure (HF) occurs when the heart is not able to pump enough blood to satisfy metabolic needs. People diagnosed with chronic HF may suffer from cardiac decompensation events (CDEs), which cause patients’ worsening. Being able to intervene before decompensation occurs is the major challenge addressed in this study. The aim of this study is to exploit available patient data to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) model capable of predicting the risk of CDEs timely and accurately. Materials and Methods: The vital variables of patients (n = 488) diagnosed with chronic heart failure were monitored between 2014 and 2022. Several supervised classification models were trained with these monitoring data to predict CDEs, using clinicians’ annotations as the gold standard. Feature extraction methods were applied to identify significant variables. Results: The XGBoost classifier achieved an AUC of 0.72 in the cross-validation process and 0.69 in the testing set. The most predictive physiological variables for CAE decompensations are weight gain, oxygen saturation in the final days, and heart rate. Additionally, the answers to questionnaires on wellbeing, orthopnoea, and ankles are strongly significant predictors. Full article
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Article
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Symmetry on Evaporation Triggered Elastocapillary Top-Gathering of High Aspect Ratio Micropillars
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020292 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
High-aspect-ratio (HAR) micropillar arrays offer a wide range of applications in micro-contact printing, switchable transparent optical windows, superhydrophobic surfaces, mechanical sensors, and actuators, due to their properties such as large surface area and excellent mechanical compliance. However, owing to their high aspect ratio, [...] Read more.
High-aspect-ratio (HAR) micropillar arrays offer a wide range of applications in micro-contact printing, switchable transparent optical windows, superhydrophobic surfaces, mechanical sensors, and actuators, due to their properties such as large surface area and excellent mechanical compliance. However, owing to their high aspect ratio, these microstructures are prone to lateral deflection by elastocapillary forces in liquid environments, which is known as top-gathering, limiting their manufacturing processes and applications. Here, the impact of symmetry on evaporation triggered top-gathering of micropillars was studied numerically. The initiation of the micropillar deflection due to capillary forces under varying force distributions was simulated using a COMSOL Multiphysics simulation package. The simulation was carried out for the configurations of two, four, and an array of micropillars. For the four micropillar configuration, a new equation was suggested for calculating the micropillar deflection due to elastocapillary forces, using force distributions around the micropillars. The suggested equation was verified by comparison with the experimental observations. The effect of droplet evaporation on deflection/top-gathering of micropillars was also investigated. It was found that initiation of deflection is due to asymmetry at the rim of the droplet, generating domino-like deflection of the other micropillars. This study provides a new equation/criterion for estimating deflection of the micropillars, suggesting array designs that are resistant to such deflections when interacting with liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Superhydrophobic and Icephobic Surfaces)
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Article
Between Buddhist ‘Self-Enlightenment’ and ‘Artificial Intelligence’: South Korea Emerging as a New Balancer
Religions 2023, 14(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14020150 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
As artificial intelligence (AI) outpaces the human brain, it is invoking wide-spread fear that men and machines are moving into a conflicting zone. Some even suspect that AI machines may one day consider human beings as slow and sloppy, and thus worthy of [...] Read more.
As artificial intelligence (AI) outpaces the human brain, it is invoking wide-spread fear that men and machines are moving into a conflicting zone. Some even suspect that AI machines may one day consider human beings as slow and sloppy, and thus worthy of subordination or elimination. A growing challenge to mitigate the looming crisis requires science to expand its artificially augmented intelligence by incorporating elements from the ethical–spiritual and human universe. Our endeavor to bridge the prevailing gap between science and spirituality focuses on Buddhism, which stands out in its ability to achieve a rare fusion between natural, spiritual and human worlds. This unique synthesis is specifically mediated by Buddhist ‘causality’, where one aspect explains reality based on a scientifically proven cause and effect paradigm, but the other aspect interprets it by compassionate humanism. It argues that the missing human–spiritual dimension in artificial intelligence can be remedied by the Buddhist concept of ‘causally’ linked to the idea of ‘self-enlightenment’. Being an integral part of Buddhist heritage and a leading player in cutting-edge science, Korea demonstrates abilities to emerge as a new balancer to incorporate the best of science, spiritually and humanism to build next-generation AI machines with distinct human qualities. Full article
Article
Different Mechanized Fertilization Methods in Nutrient Utilization and Summer Maize Yield
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020310 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
In the production of summer maize, the problems of excessive fertilizer input and low fertilizer utilization rate are common, resulting in the waste of resources and environmental pollution. In order to explore the optimal fertilization mode of summer maize, a field experiment with [...] Read more.
In the production of summer maize, the problems of excessive fertilizer input and low fertilizer utilization rate are common, resulting in the waste of resources and environmental pollution. In order to explore the optimal fertilization mode of summer maize, a field experiment with eight treatments was designed in which sowing and fertilization were carried out by different machines. The effects of the two fertilization methods, i.e., hole fertilization and strip fertilization; two fertilization positions, i.e., side-position fertilization and positive-position fertilization; and two fertilization depths, i.e., 10 cm and 15 cm, on the summer maize yield, plant nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium nutrient accumulation, and aboveground biomass were studied. The results show that different fertilization modes had significant effects on summer maize yield, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium nutrient accumulation, and aboveground biomass. In general, when the strip fertilization method was used, 15 cm deep positive-position fertilization was superior. When the hole fertilization method was used, 15 cm deep side-position fertilization was superior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Fertilizer and Irrigation on Crop Production—Series II)
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Article
A Comprehensive Landscape of Imaging Feature-Associated RNA Expression Profiles in Human Breast Tissue
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031432 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
The expression abundance of transcripts in nondiseased breast tissue varies among individuals. The association study of genotypes and imaging phenotypes may help us to understand this individual variation. Since existing reports mainly focus on tumors or lesion areas, the heterogeneity of pathological image [...] Read more.
The expression abundance of transcripts in nondiseased breast tissue varies among individuals. The association study of genotypes and imaging phenotypes may help us to understand this individual variation. Since existing reports mainly focus on tumors or lesion areas, the heterogeneity of pathological image features and their correlations with RNA expression profiles for nondiseased tissue are not clear. The aim of this study is to discover the association between the nucleus features and the transcriptome-wide RNAs. We analyzed both microscopic histology images and RNA-sequencing data of 456 breast tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and constructed an automatic computational framework. We classified all samples into four clusters based on their nucleus morphological features and discovered feature-specific gene sets. The biological pathway analysis was performed on each gene set. The proposed framework evaluates the morphological characteristics of the cell nucleus quantitatively and identifies the associated genes. We found image features that capture population variation in breast tissue associated with RNA expressions, suggesting that the variation in expression pattern affects population variation in the morphological traits of breast tissue. This study provides a comprehensive transcriptome-wide view of imaging-feature-specific RNA expression for healthy breast tissue. Such a framework could also be used for understanding the connection between RNA expression and morphology in other tissues and organs. Pathway analysis indicated that the gene sets we identified were involved in specific biological processes, such as immune processes. Full article
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Review
Rational Development of Live-Attenuated Zika Virus Vaccines
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020194 (registering DOI) - 28 Jan 2023
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, has caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and, more recently, in the Americas. ZIKV has been associated with the neurological autoimmune disorder Guillain–Barre syndrome in adults and congenital Zika syndrome in fetuses and infants, [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, has caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and, more recently, in the Americas. ZIKV has been associated with the neurological autoimmune disorder Guillain–Barre syndrome in adults and congenital Zika syndrome in fetuses and infants, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. It is considered to be a major threat to global public health due to its unprecedented clinical impact on humans. Currently, there are no specific prophylactics or therapeutics available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. The development of a safe and efficacious ZIKV vaccine remains a global health priority. Since the recent outbreak, multiple platforms have been used in the development of candidate ZIKV vaccines. The candidate vaccines have been shown to elicit strong T cell and neutralization antibody responses and protect against ZIKV infection in animal models. Some candidates have progressed successfully to clinical trials. Live-attenuated vaccines, which induce rapid and durable protective immunity, are one of the most important strategies for controlling flavivirus diseases. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the development of candidate live-attenuated ZIKV vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus and Zika Virus: Re-emerging Mosquito-Borne Pathogens)
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