Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Mi Wang
State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
School of Resources and Environment, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
School of Automation, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205, China

High-Resolution Earth Observation Systems, Technologies, and Applications

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (20 June 2022)
Viewed by
408721

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past 20 years, many countries have attached great importance to the high-resolution Earth observation system (EOS), technology, and application. In particular, recent China’s Gaofen series satellites, from Gaofen-1 to Gaofen-13, had been successfully launched into space from 2013 to 2020. Until now, the global high-resolution EOS has covered panchromatic, multispectral, hyperspectral, visible, and microwave wavebands. It is fair to say that various high-resolution EOSs constitute the Earth observation with high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and high spectral resolution, which have provided strong support for improving the Earth observation capability.

From the perspective of development trend, the application prospect of high-resolution EOS is very extensive. We believe that more and more new high-resolution EOSs will be launched in the near future. Moreover, the application achievements of high-resolution EOS have been very rich at this stage. Therefore, this multidisciplinary topic aims to invite scholars to publish articles on the latest progress and the development trends of high-resolution EOSs, technologies, and applications.

Potential topics for this Topic include, but are not limited to:

  • Current and future high-resolution EOS and missions
  • Innovative Earth observation sensors, concepts, and techniques
  • Artificial intelligence in EOS remote sensing applications
  • On-board real-time processing of EOS remote sensing images
  • EOS remote sensing image recognition and interpretation
  • Quality improvement of EOS remote sensing images
  • High-precision geometric positioning of EOS remote sensing image
  • Super-resolution processing of EOS remote sensing image
  • Multi-source EOS image fusion
  • Other related topics

Prof. Dr. Mi Wang
Prof. Dr. Hanwen Yu
Dr. Jianlai Chen
Dr. Ying Zhu
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (180 papers)

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21 pages, 15965 KiB  
Article
Range Spectral Filtering in SAR Interferometry: Methods and Limitations
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8696; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228696 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
A geometrical decorrelation constitutes one of the sources of noise present in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferograms. It comes from the different incidence angles of the two images used to form the interferograms, which cause a spectral (frequency) shift between them. A geometrical [...] Read more.
A geometrical decorrelation constitutes one of the sources of noise present in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferograms. It comes from the different incidence angles of the two images used to form the interferograms, which cause a spectral (frequency) shift between them. A geometrical decorrelation must be compensated by a specific filtering technique known as range filtering, the goal of which is to estimate this spectral displacement and retain only the common parts of the images’ spectra, reducing the noise and improving the quality of the interferograms. Multiple range filters have been proposed in the literature. The most widely used methods are an adaptive filter approach, which estimates the spectral shift directly from the data; a method based on orbital information, which assumes a constant-slope (or flat) terrain; and slope-adaptive algorithms, which consider both orbital information and auxiliary topographic data. Their advantages and limitations are analyzed in this manuscript and, additionally, a new, more refined approach is proposed. Its goal is to enhance the filtering process by automatically adapting the filter to all types of surface variations using a multi-scale strategy. A pair of RADARSAT-2 images that mapped the mountainous area around the Etna volcano (Italy) are used for the study. The results show that filtering accuracy is improved with the new method including the steepest areas and vegetation-covered regions in which the performance of the original methods is limited. Full article
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17 pages, 4988 KiB  
Article
A Height Nonlinear Velocity Field Algorithm for CORS Station Based on GARCH Model
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7589; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197589 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
In this study, the basic concept of height nonlinear velocity field modeling in the CORS station is described. The noise results in a large deviation between the observation and predicted height. An ARCH testing method for heteroscedasticity of CORS height residual square series [...] Read more.
In this study, the basic concept of height nonlinear velocity field modeling in the CORS station is described. The noise results in a large deviation between the observation and predicted height. An ARCH testing method for heteroscedasticity of CORS height residual square series was proposed and the non-stationary characteristic of CORS height residual square time series was proved. A CORS height nonlinear velocity field reconstruction method based on the GARCH model was proposed. First, a nonlinear LS periodic fitting model was established for CORS height series data. Then, a GARCH model was established for the fitted non-stationary residual series. Finally, the signal term, linear trend term, and GARCH model noise term of nonlinear LS modeling were combined to reconstruct the nonlinear velocity field of the CORS height. The RMSE of nonlinear LS cycle modeling for 25 CORS stations worldwide ranged from 5 to 10 mm. The differences between the velocity, approximate annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and SOPAC results were 0.73 mm/a, 0.94 mm, and 0.51 mm, respectively. Compared with the centimeter amplitude of the CORS station height, the accuracy of the nonlinear model established in this study met the requirements. The results of height nonlinear velocity field reconstruction at 25 CORS stations worldwide showed that the mean square error of prediction of the one-year height movement reached 9 mm, and the average prediction accuracy of the semi-annual was 7 mm. Compared with the calculation accuracy of the current global CORS elevation component of 3–5 mm, the prediction error in this study was about 3 mm. The expected goal was achieved regarding the accuracy of the CORS station height nonlinear velocity field model. Full article
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20 pages, 18545 KiB  
Article
An Automatic Drift-Measurement-Data-Processing Method with Digital Ionosondes
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(19), 4710; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14194710 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Drift detection is one of the important detection modes in a digital ionosonde system. In this paper, a new data processing method is presented for boosting the automatic and high-quality drift measurement, which is helpful for long-term ionospheric observation, and has been successfully [...] Read more.
Drift detection is one of the important detection modes in a digital ionosonde system. In this paper, a new data processing method is presented for boosting the automatic and high-quality drift measurement, which is helpful for long-term ionospheric observation, and has been successfully applied to the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Digital Ionosonde (CAS-DIS). Based on Doppler interferometry principle, this method can be successively divided into four constraint steps: extracting the stable echo data; restricting the ionospheric detection region; extracting the reliable reflection cluster, including Doppler filtering and coarse clustering analysis; and calculating the drift velocity. Ordinary wave (O-wave) data extraction, complementary code pulse compression and other data preprocessing techniques are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echo data. For the purpose of eliminating multiple echoes, the ionospheric region is determined by combining the optimal height range and detection frequencies obtained from the ionogram. Successively, Doppler filtering and coarse clustering analysis extract reliable reflection clusters. Finally, the weighting factor is brought in, and then weighted least-squares (WLS) is used to fit the drift velocity. The entire data processing process can be implemented automatically without constantly changing parameter settings due to changes in external conditions. This is the first time coarse clustering analysis has been used to extract the paracentral reflection cluster to eliminate scattered reflection points and outer reflection clusters, which further reduces the impacts of external conditions on parameter settings and improves the ability of automatic drift measurement. Compared with the previous method possessed by Digisonde Protable Sounder 4D (DPS4D), the new method can achieve comparable drift detection precision and results even with fewer reflection points. In 2021–2022, several experiments on F region drift detection were carried out in Hainan, China. Results indicate that drift velocities fitted by the new method have diurnal variation and change more gently; the trends of drift velocities fitted by the new method and the previous method are semblable; and this new method can be widely applied to digital ionosondes. Full article
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19 pages, 11871 KiB  
Article
A Ship Detection and Imagery Scheme for Airborne Single-Channel SAR in Coastal Regions
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(18), 4670; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14184670 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Ship detection and management in coastal regions are challenging tasks due to the complex appearances of ships and the background. For further applications in the context of fisheries monitoring and vessel traffic services, a single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is mounted on a [...] Read more.
Ship detection and management in coastal regions are challenging tasks due to the complex appearances of ships and the background. For further applications in the context of fisheries monitoring and vessel traffic services, a single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is mounted on a number of maneuvering and inexpensive rotor platforms, which are utilized according to the consideration of flexible observation, cost savings, weight, and space constraints. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme of ship detection, ship imaging, and classification is proposed. It mainly includes three parts. First, a mixture statistical model of semi-parametric K-lognormal distribution based on adaptive background windows with a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) is proposed for ship prescreening in SAR imagery. Then, the discrimination stage, combined with ship imaging via the difference between the true ship targets and the false ones in the aspects of micro-Doppler motion properties, is performed. Finally, the simulation and field data processing results are presented to validate the proposed scheme. Full article
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10 pages, 3250 KiB  
Communication
A Truck-Borne System Based on Cold Atom Gravimeter for Measuring the Absolute Gravity in the Field
Sensors 2022, 22(16), 6172; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22166172 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
The cold atom gravimeter (CAG) has proven to be a powerful quantum sensor for the high-precision measurement of gravity field, which can work stably for a long time in the laboratory. However, most CAGs cannot operate in the field due to their complex [...] Read more.
The cold atom gravimeter (CAG) has proven to be a powerful quantum sensor for the high-precision measurement of gravity field, which can work stably for a long time in the laboratory. However, most CAGs cannot operate in the field due to their complex structure, large volume and poor environmental adaptability. In this paper, a home-made, miniaturized CAG is developed and a truck-borne system based on it is integrated to measure the absolute gravity in the field. The measurement performance of this system is evaluated by applying it to measurements of the gravity field around the Xianlin reservoir in Hangzhou City of China. The internal and external coincidence accuracies of this measurement system were demonstrated to be 35.4 μGal and 76.7 μGal, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical values of the measured eight points are calculated by using a forward modeling of a local high-resolution digital elevation model, and the calculated values are found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The results of this paper show that this home-made, truck-borne CAG system is reliable, and it is expected to improve the efficiency of gravity surveying in the field. Full article
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18 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Crop Mapping Using the Historical Crop Data Layer and Deep Neural Networks: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5853; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155853 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Machine learning combined with satellite image time series can quickly, and reliably be implemented to map crop distribution and growth monitoring necessary for food security. However, obtaining a large number of field survey samples for classifier training is often time-consuming and costly, which [...] Read more.
Machine learning combined with satellite image time series can quickly, and reliably be implemented to map crop distribution and growth monitoring necessary for food security. However, obtaining a large number of field survey samples for classifier training is often time-consuming and costly, which results in the very slow production of crop distribution maps. To overcome this challenge, we propose an ensemble learning approach from the existing historical crop data layer (CDL) to automatically create multitudes of samples according to the rules of spatiotemporal sample selection. Sentinel-2 monthly composite images from 2017 to 2019 for crop distribution mapping in Jilin Province were mosaicked and classified. Classification accuracies of four machine learning algorithms for a single-month and multi-month time series were compared. The results show that deep neural network (DNN) performed the best, followed by random forest (RF), then decision tree (DT), and support vector machine (SVM) the least. Compared with other months, July and August have higher classification accuracy, and the kappa coefficients of 0.78 and 0.79, respectively. Compared with a single phase, the kappa coefficient gradually increases with the growth of the time series, reaching 0.94 in August at the earliest, and then the increase is not obvious, and the highest in the whole growth cycle is 0.95. During the mapping process, time series of different lengths produced different classification results. Wetland types were misclassified as rice. In such cases, authors combined time series of two lengths to correct the misclassified rice types. By comparing with existing products and field points, rice has the highest consistency, followed by corn, whereas soybeans have the least consistency. This shows that the generated sample data set and trained model in this research can meet the crop mapping accuracy and simultaneously reduce the cost of field surveys. For further research, more years and types of crops should be considered for mapping and validation. Full article
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15 pages, 4628 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Imaging Processing of Squint Spaceborne SAR with High-Resolution Based on Nonuniform PRI Design
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153725 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The real-time imaging research of squint spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with high resolution has significant value in both military and civil fields, which makes it a hot issue in SAR research. It is necessary to solve the contradictory problems of nonlinear trajectory [...] Read more.
The real-time imaging research of squint spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with high resolution has significant value in both military and civil fields, which makes it a hot issue in SAR research. It is necessary to solve the contradictory problems of nonlinear trajectory and efficient imaging at the same time in order to achieve the two goals, high-resolution and real-time imaging. A large number of complex operations are required in the accurate correction algorithms for nonlinear trajectory, which will reduce the imaging efficiency, and this problem becomes more prominent with the improvement of resolution. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a new real-time imaging processing of squint high-resolution SAR, which eliminates the velocity–azimuth variation caused by nonlinear trajectory in the data acquisition stage through nonuniform pulse repetition interval (PRI) design. The imaging efficiency has been greatly improved because the new method avoids the complex azimuth resampling operation. Simulation experiments verify the effectiveness of the method. Full article
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19 pages, 6043 KiB  
Article
Translational Compensation Algorithm for Ballistic Targets in Midcourse Based on Template Matching
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153678 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
The high-speed movement of a ballistic target will cause folding and translation of the micro-Doppler, which will affect the extraction of micro-motion features. To address the adverse effects of high-speed movement of ballistic targets in midcourse on the extraction of micro-motion features, a [...] Read more.
The high-speed movement of a ballistic target will cause folding and translation of the micro-Doppler, which will affect the extraction of micro-motion features. To address the adverse effects of high-speed movement of ballistic targets in midcourse on the extraction of micro-motion features, a novel translational compensation algorithm based on template matching is proposed. Firstly, a 512 × 512 time-frequency map is obtained by binarization and down-sampling. The matching template then convolves the time-frequency map to obtain contour-like points. Then, the upper and lower contour points are preliminarily determined by the extreme value, and all actual contour points are screened out through structural similarity. Lastly, the upper and lower trend lines are determined and translation parameters for compensation by polynomial fitting are estimated. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has lower requirements for time-frequency resolution, higher precision and lower time complexity as a whole. Furthermore, it is also applicable to spectral aliasing. Full article
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20 pages, 3876 KiB  
Article
Expandable On-Board Real-Time Edge Computing Architecture for Luojia3 Intelligent Remote Sensing Satellite
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3596; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153596 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Since the data generation rate of high-resolution satellites is increasing rapidly, to relieve the stress of data downloading and processing systems while enhancing the time efficiency of information acquisition, it is important to deploy on-board edge computing on satellites. However, the volume, weight, [...] Read more.
Since the data generation rate of high-resolution satellites is increasing rapidly, to relieve the stress of data downloading and processing systems while enhancing the time efficiency of information acquisition, it is important to deploy on-board edge computing on satellites. However, the volume, weight, and computability of on-board systems are strictly limited by the harsh space environment. Therefore, it is very difficult to match the computability and the requirements of diversified intelligent applications. Currently, this problem has become the first challenge of the practical deployment of on-board edge computing. To match the actual requirements of the Luojia3 satellite of Wuhan University, this manuscript proposes a three-level edge computing architecture based on a System-on-Chip (SoC) for low power consumption and expandable on-board processing. First, a transfer level is designed to focus on hardware communications and Input/Output (I/O) works while maintaining a buffer to store image data for upper levels temporarily. Second, a processing framework that contains a series of libraries and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) is designed for the algorithms to easily build parallel processing applications. Finally, an expandable level contains multiple intelligent remote sensing applications that perform data processing efficiently using base functions, such as instant geographic locating and data picking, stream computing balance model, and heterogeneous parallel processing strategy that are provided by the architecture. It is validated by the performance improvement experiment that following this architecture, using these base functions can help the Region of Interest (ROI) system geometric correction fusion algorithm to be 257.6 times faster than the traditional method that processes scene by scene. In the stream computing balance experiment, relying on this architecture, the time-consuming algorithm ROI stabilization production can maintain stream computing balance under the condition of insufficient computability. We predict that based on this architecture, with the continuous development of device computability, the future requirements of on-board computing could be better matched. Full article
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19 pages, 47342 KiB  
Article
An Advanced Echo Separation Scheme for Space-Time Waveform-Encoding SAR Based on Digital Beamforming and Blind Source Separation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(15), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14153585 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
To achieve high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS) imaging, a space-time waveform-encoding (STWE) spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is adopted. In rugged terrain, the beam-pointing mismatch problem will appear when the traditional digital beamforming (DBF) technique is used to separate the received echoes. This [...] Read more.
To achieve high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS) imaging, a space-time waveform-encoding (STWE) spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is adopted. In rugged terrain, the beam-pointing mismatch problem will appear when the traditional digital beamforming (DBF) technique is used to separate the received echoes. This problem leads to decreasing the received echo’s gain, deteriorating the quality of the image product and making the interpretation of SAR image difficult. To address this problem, an advanced echo separation scheme for STWE spaceborne SAR based on the DBF and blind source separation (BSS) is put forward in this paper. In the scheme, the echoes are transmitted within the adjacent pulse repetition intervals to simulate multiple beams, and the scattered echoes are received by the sixteen-channel antennas in elevation simultaneously. In post-processing, a detailed flow is adopted. In the method, the DBF is firstly performed on received echoes. Due to the error caused by terrain undulation, the degree of echo separation is not enough. Then, the BSS is performed on the multiple echoes obtained after the DBF processing. Finally, the highly separated echo signal can be obtained. In this scheme, there is no need to perform the direction of arrival (DOA) estimation before the DBF processing, which saves valuable computing resources. In addition, to verify the proposed scheme, point target and distributed target simulations based on the 16-channel data of an elevation X-band DBF-SAR system are carried out. The results of point targets indicate that the residual echo caused by rough terrain can be reduced by more than 14 dB using the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme can be directly implemented into existing SAR systems; thus, it does not increase the complexity of the system design. The scheme has the potential to be applied to future spaceborne SAR missions. Full article
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17 pages, 4389 KiB  
Article
A Transmission Efficiency Evaluation Method of Adaptive Coding Modulation for Ka-Band Data-Transmission of LEO EO Satellites
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5423; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145423 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Nowadays low Earth orbit (LEO) Earth observation (EO) satellites commonly use constant coding modulation (CCM) or variable coding modulation (VCM) schemes for data transmission to ground stations (G/S). Compared with CCM and VCM, the adaptive coding modulation (ACM) could further improve the data [...] Read more.
Nowadays low Earth orbit (LEO) Earth observation (EO) satellites commonly use constant coding modulation (CCM) or variable coding modulation (VCM) schemes for data transmission to ground stations (G/S). Compared with CCM and VCM, the adaptive coding modulation (ACM) could further improve the data throughput of the link by making full use of link resource and the time-varying characteristics of atmospheric attenuation. In order to comprehensively study the data transmission performance, one new index which could be utilized as a quantitative index for the satellite-to-ground data transmission scheme selection, the transmission efficiency factor (TEF) of LEO satellites is proposed and defined as “the product of the link availability and the average useful data rate”. Then, the transmission efficiency of CCM, VCM and ACM at typical G/S with different weather characteristics at Ka-band is compared and analyzed. The results show that ACM is more suitable for the G/S with moderate and abundant rainfall. Compared with the CCM of MCS 28, for Beijing G/S and Sanya G/S, ACM not only improves the transmission efficiency with the TEF increased by 3.62% and 24.51%, respectively, but also improves the link availability with the outage period reduced by 82.47% and 75.18%, respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 3750 KiB  
Article
Generating Daily Soil Moisture at 16 m Spatial Resolution Using a Spatiotemporal Fusion Model and Modified Perpendicular Drought Index
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5366; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145366 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Soil moisture (SM) is an important parameter in land surface processes and the global water cycle. Remote sensing technologies are widely used to produce global-scale SM products (e.g., European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI)). However, the current spatial resolutions of such [...] Read more.
Soil moisture (SM) is an important parameter in land surface processes and the global water cycle. Remote sensing technologies are widely used to produce global-scale SM products (e.g., European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI)). However, the current spatial resolutions of such products are low (e.g., >3 km). In recent years, using auxiliary data to downscale the spatial resolutions of SM products has been a hot research topic in the remote sensing research area. A new method, which spatially downscalesan SM product to generate a daily SM dataset at a 16 m spatial resolution based on a spatiotemporal fusion model (STFM) and modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI), was proposed in this paper. (1) First, a daily surface reflectance dataset with a 16 m spatial resolution was produced based on an STFM. (2) Then, a spatial scale conversion factor (SSCF) dataset was obtained by an MPDI dataset, which was calculated based on the dataset fused in the first step. (3) Third, a downscaled daily SM product with a 16 m spatial resolution was generated by combining the SSCF dataset and the original SM product. Five cities in southern Hebei Province were selected as study areas. Two 16 m GF6 images and nine 500 m MOD09GA images were used as auxiliary data to downscale a timeseries 25 km CCI SM dataset for nine dates from May to June 2019. A total of 151 in situ SM observations collected on 1 May, 21 May, 1 June, and 11 June were used for verification. The results indicated that the downscaled SM data with a 16 m spatial resolution had higher correlation coefficients and lower RMSE values compared with the original CCI SM data. The correlation coefficients between the downscaled SM data and in situ data ranged from 0.45 to 0.67 versus 0.33 to 0.54 for the original CCI SM data; the RMSE values ranged from 0.023 to 0.031 cm3/cm3 versus 0.027 to 0.032 cm3/cm3 for the original CCI SM data. The findings described in this paper can ensure effective farmland management and other practical production applications. Full article
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11 pages, 3254 KiB  
Article
GRACE Combined with WSD to Assess the Change in Drought Severity in Arid Asia
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(14), 3454; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143454 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data are widely used in drought studies. In this study, we quantified drought severity based on land terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in GRACE data. We used the water storage deficit (WSD) and water storage deficit [...] Read more.
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data are widely used in drought studies. In this study, we quantified drought severity based on land terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in GRACE data. We used the water storage deficit (WSD) and water storage deficit index (WSDI) to identify the drought events and evaluate the drought severity. The WSDI calculated by GRACE provides an effective assessment method when assessing the extent of drought over large areas under a lack of site data. The results show a total of 22 drought events in the central Asian dry zone during the study period. During spring and autumn, the droughts among these incidents occurred more frequently and severely. The longest and most severe drought occurred near the Caspian Sea. In the arid area of central Asia, the north of the region tended to be moist (the WSDI value was 0.04 year−1), and the south, east, and Caspian Sea area tended to be drier (the WSDI values were −0.07 year−1 in the south, −0.11 year−1 in the east, and −0.19 year−1 in the Caspian Sea). These study results can provide a key scientific basis for agricultural development, food security, and climate change response in the Asian arid zone. Full article
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21 pages, 9641 KiB  
Article
Microseismic Monitoring and Analysis Using Cutting-Edge Technology: A Key Enabler for Reservoir Characterization
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(14), 3417; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143417 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Microseismic monitoring is a useful enabler for reservoir characterization without which the information on the effects of reservoir operations such as hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide, or natural gas geological storage would be obscured. This research provides a new breakthrough in [...] Read more.
Microseismic monitoring is a useful enabler for reservoir characterization without which the information on the effects of reservoir operations such as hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide, or natural gas geological storage would be obscured. This research provides a new breakthrough in the tracking of the reservoir fracture network and characterization by detecting the microseismic events and locating their sources in real-time during reservoir operations. The monitoring was conducted using fiber optic distributed acoustic sensors (DAS) and the data were analyzed by deep learning. The use of DAS for microseismic monitoring is a game changer due to its excellent temporal and spatial resolution as well as cost-effectiveness. The deep learning approach is well-suited to dealing in real-time with the large amounts of data recorded by DAS equipment due to its computational speed. Two convolutional neural network based models were evaluated and the best one was used to detect and locate microseismic events from the DAS recorded field microseismic data from the FORGE project in Milford, United States. The results indicate the capability of deep neural networks to simultaneously detect and locate microseismic events from the raw DAS measurements. The results showed a small percentage error. In addition to the high spatial and temporal resolution, fiber optic cables are durable and can be installed permanently in the field and be used for decades. They are also resistant to high pressure, can withstand considerably high temperature, and therefore can be used even during field operations such as a flooding or hydraulic fracture stimulation. Deep neural networks are very robust; need minimum data pre-processing, can handle large volumes of data, and are able to perform multiple computations in a time- and cost-effective way. Once trained, the network can be easily adopted to new conditions through transfer learning. Full article
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20 pages, 13868 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Rotor Drone Micro-Motion Parameter Estimation Method Based on CVMD and SVD
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(14), 3326; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143326 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
It is of great significance to detect drones in airspace due to the substantial increase and regrettable misuse in the consumer market. In this paper, we establish a micro-motion theoretical model of a drone and analyze the micro-Doppler signature of rotor targets and [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to detect drones in airspace due to the substantial increase and regrettable misuse in the consumer market. In this paper, we establish a micro-motion theoretical model of a drone and analyze the micro-Doppler signature of rotor targets and the flicker mechanisms of the multi-rotor targets. Hence, for the target recognition problem of multi-rotor drones, a multi-rotor target micro-Doppler parameter estimation method is proposed. Firstly, a signal frequency domain segmentation method is proposed based on the complex variational mode decomposition (CVMD) to separate the high-frequency part of the high-frequency flicker in the frequency domain. Secondly, for the signal after frequency domain segmentation, a flicker time domain position method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. Finally, by integrating CVMD frequency domain segmentation and SVD time domain positioning, the reconstruction of multi-rotor target scintillation at different speeds is realized, and the micro-motion parameters of rotor blades are successfully estimated. The simulation results show that the method has high accuracy in estimating the micro-motion parameters of a multi-rotor, which makes up for the shortage of the traditional method in estimating the micro-motion parameters of the multi-rotor target. Full article
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19 pages, 4650 KiB  
Article
Using InSAR and PolSAR to Assess Ground Displacement and Building Damage after a Seismic Event: Case Study of the 2021 Baicheng Earthquake
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(13), 3009; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14133009 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
During unexpected earthquake catastrophes, timely identification of damaged areas is critical for disaster management. On the 24 March 2021, Baicheng county was afflicted by a Mw 5.3 earthquake. The disaster resulted in three deaths and many human injuries. As an active remote sensing [...] Read more.
During unexpected earthquake catastrophes, timely identification of damaged areas is critical for disaster management. On the 24 March 2021, Baicheng county was afflicted by a Mw 5.3 earthquake. The disaster resulted in three deaths and many human injuries. As an active remote sensing technology independent of light and weather, the increasingly accessible Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an attractive data for assessing building damage. This paper aims to use Sentinel-1A radar images to rapidly assess seismic damage in the early phases after the disaster. A simple and robust method is used to complete the task of surface displacement analysis and building disaster monitoring. In order to obtain the coseismic deformation field, differential interferometry, filtering and phase unwrapping are performed on images before and after the earthquake. In order to detect the damage area of buildings, the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) techniques are used. A simple and fast method combining coherent change detection and polarimetric decomposition is proposed, and the complete workflow is introduced in detail. In our experiment, we compare the detection results with the ground survey data using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) after the earthquake to verify the performance of the proposed method. The results indicate that the experiment can accurately obtain the coseismic deformation field and identify the damaged and undamaged areas of the buildings. The correct identification accuracy of collapsed and severely damaged areas is 86%, and that of slightly damaged and undamaged areas is 84%. Therefore, the proposed method is extremely effective in monitoring seismic-affected areas and immediately assessing post-earthquake building damage. It provides a considerable prospect for the application of SAR technology. Full article
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22 pages, 6525 KiB  
Article
PolSAR Ship Detection Based on a SIFT-like PolSAR Keypoint Detector
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(12), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122900 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The detection of ships on the open sea is an important issue for both military and civilian fields. As an active microwave imaging sensor, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a useful device in marine supervision. To extract small and weak ships precisely in [...] Read more.
The detection of ships on the open sea is an important issue for both military and civilian fields. As an active microwave imaging sensor, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a useful device in marine supervision. To extract small and weak ships precisely in the marine areas, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data have been used more and more widely. We propose a new PolSAR ship detection method which is based on a keypoint detector, referred to as a PolSAR-SIFT keypoint detector, and a patch variation indicator in this paper. The PolSAR-SIFT keypoint detector proposed in this paper is inspired by the SAR-SIFT keypoint detector. We improve the gradient definition in the SAR-SIFT keypoint detector to adapt to the properties of PolSAR data by defining a new gradient based on the distance measurement of polarimetric covariance matrices. We present the application of PolSAR-SIFT keypoint detector to the detection of ship targets in PolSAR data by combining the PolSAR-SIFT keypoint detector with the patch variation indicator we proposed before. The keypoints extracted by the PolSAR-SIFT keypoint detector are usually located in regions with corner structures, which are likely to be ship regions. Then, the patch variation indicator is used to characterize the context information of the extracted keypoints, and the keypoints located on the sea area are filtered out by setting a constant false alarm rate threshold for the patch variation indicator. Finally, a patch centered on each filtered keypoint is selected. Then, the detection statistics in the patch are calculated. The detection statistics are binarized according to the local threshold set by the detection statistic value of the keypoint to complete the ship detection. Experiments on three data sets obtained from the RADARSAT-2 and AIRSAR quad-polarization data demonstrate that the proposed detector is effective for ship detection. Full article
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21 pages, 3620 KiB  
Article
Hyperspectral Image Classification Based on Class-Incremental Learning with Knowledge Distillation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(11), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14112556 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
By virtue of its large-covered spatial information and high-resolution spectral information, hyperspectral images make lots of mapping-based fine-grained remote sensing applications possible. However, due to the inconsistency of land-cover types between different images, most hyperspectral image classification methods keep their effectiveness by training [...] Read more.
By virtue of its large-covered spatial information and high-resolution spectral information, hyperspectral images make lots of mapping-based fine-grained remote sensing applications possible. However, due to the inconsistency of land-cover types between different images, most hyperspectral image classification methods keep their effectiveness by training on every image and saving all classification models and training samples, which limits the promotion of related remote sensing tasks. To deal with the aforementioned issues, this paper proposes a hyperspectral image classification method based on class-incremental learning to learn new land-cover types without forgetting the old ones, which enables the classification method to classify all land-cover types with one final model. Specially, when learning new classes, a knowledge distillation strategy is designed to recall the information of old classes by transferring knowledge to the newly trained network, and a linear correction layer is proposed to relax the heavy bias towards the new class by reapportioning information between different classes. Additionally, the proposed method introduces a channel attention mechanism to effectively utilize spatial–spectral information by a recalibration strategy. Experimental results on the three widely used hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method can identify both new and old land-cover types with high accuracy, which proves the proposed method is more practical in large-coverage remote sensing tasks. Full article
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16 pages, 7538 KiB  
Article
High-Precision Joint Magnetization Vector Inversion Method of Airborne Magnetic and Gradient Data with Structure and Data Double Constraints
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102508 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Airborne magnetic and gradient measurements are commonly used geophysical remote sensing tools to obtain the distribution features of ore mineral bodies. It is known that ore mineral bodies generally contain remanent magnetization, and magnetization vector inversion (MVI) can produce the magnetization intensity and [...] Read more.
Airborne magnetic and gradient measurements are commonly used geophysical remote sensing tools to obtain the distribution features of ore mineral bodies. It is known that ore mineral bodies generally contain remanent magnetization, and magnetization vector inversion (MVI) can produce the magnetization intensity and direction of the source, which is more suitably used to interpret measured airborne magnetic and gradient data. To accurately reveal the underground magnetization vector distribution, we proposed a high-precision method with double constraints on the data and physical structure, and we used the cross-gradient inversion of airborne magnetic anomalies and the combination matrix of airborne magnetic and gradient (CMG) data to recover the physical parameters of the sources with different depths. We used the combination matrix to produce the different component data constraints and the cross-gradient function to finish the inversion to provide structural constraints. For anomaly sources at similar depths, joint inversion based on the cross-gradient of magnetic gradient data and CMG data is more suitably used. The superiority of the double constraints method is proven by theoretical model tests. We apply the proposed method to interpret airborne magnetic and gradient data in Shandong Province to detect iron mineral resources, and we select the cross-gradient inversion of airborne magnetic anomalies and CMG data depending on the nonlinear features of the power spectrum. The main ore bodies have a northeast distribution with a depth range of 1048–1800 m, successfully giving the distribution range of the high-magnetic bodies; a better mineral potential is in the northern part of the survey area. Full article
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21 pages, 12969 KiB  
Article
A Morphological Feature-Oriented Algorithm for Extracting Impervious Surface Areas Obscured by Vegetation in Collaboration with OSM Road Networks in Urban Areas
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102493 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Remote sensing is the primary way to extract the impervious surface areas (ISAs). However, the obstruction of vegetation is a long-standing challenge that prevents the accurate extraction of urban ISAs. Currently, there are no general and systematic methods to solve the problem. In [...] Read more.
Remote sensing is the primary way to extract the impervious surface areas (ISAs). However, the obstruction of vegetation is a long-standing challenge that prevents the accurate extraction of urban ISAs. Currently, there are no general and systematic methods to solve the problem. In this paper, we present a morphological feature-oriented algorithm, which can make use of the OSM road network information to remove the obscuring effects when the ISAs are extracted. Very high resolution (VHR) images of Wuhan, China, were used in experiments to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy and completeness of ISA extraction by our previous deep learning-based algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, the overall accuracy (OA) is 86.64%. The results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and can extract the vegetation-obscured ISAs effectively and precisely. Full article
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20 pages, 13332 KiB  
Article
A Real-Time GNSS-R System for Monitoring Sea Surface Wind Speed and Significant Wave Height
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3795; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103795 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
This paper presents a monitoring system based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflected signals to provide real-time observations of sea conditions. Instead of a computer, the system uses a custom-built hardware platform that incorporates Radio Frequency (RF), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), [...] Read more.
This paper presents a monitoring system based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflected signals to provide real-time observations of sea conditions. Instead of a computer, the system uses a custom-built hardware platform that incorporates Radio Frequency (RF), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Digital Signal Processing (DSP), and Raspberry Pi for real-time signal processing. The suggested structure completes the navigation signal’s positioning as well as the reflected signal’s feature extraction. Field tests are conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the system and the retrieval algorithm described in this research. The entire system collects and analyzes signals at a coastal site in the field experiment, producing sea surface wind speed and significant wave height (SWH) that are compared to local weather station data, demonstrating the system’s practicality. The system can allow the centralized monitoring of many sites, as well as field experiments and real-time early warning at sea. Full article
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19 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Challenges in Diurnal Humidity Analysis from Cellular Microwave Links (CML) over Germany
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102353 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Near-surface humidity is a crucial variable in many atmospheric processes, mostly related to the development of clouds and rain. The humidity at the height of a few tens of meters above ground level is highly influenced by surface characteristics. Measuring the near-surface humidity [...] Read more.
Near-surface humidity is a crucial variable in many atmospheric processes, mostly related to the development of clouds and rain. The humidity at the height of a few tens of meters above ground level is highly influenced by surface characteristics. Measuring the near-surface humidity at high resolution, where most of the humidity’s sinks and sources are found, is a challenging task using classical tools. A novel approach for measuring the humidity is based on commercial microwave links (CML), which provide a large part of the cellular networks backhaul. This study focuses on employing humidity measurements with high spatio–temporal resolution in Germany. One major goal is to assess the errors and the environmental influence by comparing the CML-derived humidity to in-situ humidity measurements at weather stations and reanalysis (COSMO-Rea6) products. The method of retrieving humidity from the CML has been improved as compared to previous studies due to the use of new data at high temporal resolution. The results show a similar correlation on average and generally good agreement between both the CML retrievals and the reanalysis, and 32 weather stations near Siegen, West Germany (CML—0.84, Rea6—0.85). Higher correlations are observed for CML-derived humidity during the daytime (0.85), especially between 9–17 LT (0.87) and a maximum at 12 LT (0.90). During the night, the correlations are lower on average (0.81), with a minimum at 3 LT (0.74). These results are discussed with attention to the diurnal boundary layer (BL) height variation which has a strong effect on the BL humidity temporal profile. Further metrics including root mean square errors, mean values and standard deviations, were also calculated. Full article
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15 pages, 5637 KiB  
Article
Influence of Open-Pit Coal Mining on Ground Surface Deformation of Permafrost in the Muli Region in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102352 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is the largest mid-to low latitude and high-altitude permafrost. Open-pit coal mining and other activities have caused serious damage to the alpine ecological environment and have accelerated the degradation of permafrost on the QTP. In this study, the influence [...] Read more.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is the largest mid-to low latitude and high-altitude permafrost. Open-pit coal mining and other activities have caused serious damage to the alpine ecological environment and have accelerated the degradation of permafrost on the QTP. In this study, the influence of open-pit coal mining on the time series ground surface deformation of the permafrost in the Muli region of the QTP was analyzed from 19 January 2018 to 22 December 2020 based on Landsat, Gaofen, and Sentinel remote sensing data. The primary methods include human-computer interactive visual interpretation and the small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SBAS-InSAR) method. The results showed that the spatial distribution of displacement velocity exhibits a considerably different pattern in the Muli region. Alpine meadow is the main land use/land cover (LULC) in the Muli region, and the surface displacement was mainly subsidence. The surface subsidence trend in alpine marsh meadows was obvious, with a subsidence displacement velocity of 10–30 mm/a. Under the influence of changes in temperature, the permafrost surface displacement was characteristics of regular thaw subsidence and freeze uplift. Surface deformation of the mining area is relatively severe, with maximum uplift displacement velocity of 74.31 mm/a and maximum subsidence displacement velocity of 167.51 mm/a. Open-pit coal mining had resulted in the destruction of 48.73 km2 of natural landscape in the Muli region. Mining development in the Muli region had increased the soil moisture of the alpine marsh meadow around the mining area, resulting in considerable cumulative displacement near the mining area and the acceleration of permafrost degradation. Full article
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18 pages, 44999 KiB  
Technical Note
Investigating the Magnetotelluric Responses in Electrical Anisotropic Media
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2328; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102328 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
When interpreting magnetotelluric (MT) data, because of the inherent anisotropy of the earth, considering electrical anisotropy is crucial. Accordingly, using the edge-based finite element method, we calculated the responses of MT data for electrical isotropic and anisotropic models, and subsequently used the anisotropy [...] Read more.
When interpreting magnetotelluric (MT) data, because of the inherent anisotropy of the earth, considering electrical anisotropy is crucial. Accordingly, using the edge-based finite element method, we calculated the responses of MT data for electrical isotropic and anisotropic models, and subsequently used the anisotropy index and polar plot to depict MT responses. High values of the anisotropy index were mainly yielded at the boundary domains of anomalous bodies for isotropy cases because the conductive differences among isotropic anomalous bodies or among anomalous bodies and background earth can be regarded as macro-anisotropy. However, they only appeared across anomalous bodies in the anisotropy cases. The anisotropy index can directly differentiate isotropy from anisotropy but exhibits difficulty in reflecting the azimuth of the principal conductivities. For the isotropy cases, polar plots are approximately circular and become curves with a big ratio of the major axis to minor axis, such as an 8-shaped curve for the anisotropic earth. Furthermore, the polar plot can reveal the directions of principal conductivities. However, distorted by anomalous bodies, polar plots with a large ratio of the major axis to minor axis occur in isotropic domains around the anomalous bodies, which may lead to the misinterpretation of these domains as anisotropic earth. Therefore, combining the anisotropy index with a polar plot facilitates the identification of the electrical anisotropy. Full article
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20 pages, 16130 KiB  
Article
Application of Gaofen-6 Images in the Downscaling of Land Surface Temperatures
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(10), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14102307 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
The coarse resolution of land surface temperatures (LSTs) retrieved from thermal-infrared (TIR) satellite images restricts their usage. One way to improve the resolution of such LSTs is downscaling using high-resolution remote sensing images. Herein, Gaofen-6 (GF-6) and Landsat-8 images were used to obtain [...] Read more.
The coarse resolution of land surface temperatures (LSTs) retrieved from thermal-infrared (TIR) satellite images restricts their usage. One way to improve the resolution of such LSTs is downscaling using high-resolution remote sensing images. Herein, Gaofen-6 (GF-6) and Landsat-8 images were used to obtain original and retrieved LSTs (Landsat-8- and GF-6-retrieved-LSTs) to perform LST downscaling in the Ebinur Lake Watershed. Downscaling model was constructed, and the regression kernel was explored. The results of downscaling LST using the GF-6 normalized difference vegetation index with red-edge band 2, ratio built-up index, normalized difference sand index, and normalized difference water index as multi-remote sensing indices with multiple remote sensing indices with random forest regression method provided optimal downscaling results, with R2 of 0.836, 0.918, and 0.941, root mean square difference of 1.04 K, 2.06 K, and 1.80 K, and the number of pixels with LST errors between −1 K and +1 K of 87.2%, 76.4%, and 81.9%, respectively. The expression of spatial distribution of 16 m-LST downscaling results corresponded with that of Landsat-8- and GF-6-retrieved-LST, and provided additional details spatial description of LST variations, which was absent in the Landsat-8- and GF-6-retrieved LSTs. The results of downscaling LST could satisfy the application requirements of LST spatial resolution. Full article
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19 pages, 16862 KiB  
Article
OpenHSI: A Complete Open-Source Hyperspectral Imaging Solution for Everyone
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092244 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5150
Abstract
OpenHSI is an initiative to lower the barriers of entry and bring compact pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to a wider audience. We present an open-source optical design that can be replicated with readily available commercial-off-the-shelf components, and an open-source software platform openhsi that [...] Read more.
OpenHSI is an initiative to lower the barriers of entry and bring compact pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to a wider audience. We present an open-source optical design that can be replicated with readily available commercial-off-the-shelf components, and an open-source software platform openhsi that simplifies the process of capturing calibrated hyperspectral datacubes. Some of the features that the software stack provides include: an ISO 19115-2 metadata editor, wavelength calibration, a fast smile correction method, radiance conversion, atmospheric correction using 6SV (an open-source radiative transfer code), and empirical line calibration. A pipeline was developed to customise the desired processing and make openhsi practical for real-time use. We used the OpenHSI optical design and software stack successfully in the field and verified the performance using calibration tarpaulins. By providing all the tools needed to collect documented hyperspectral datasets, our work empowers practitioners who may not have the financial or technical capability to operate commercial hyperspectral imagers, and opens the door for applications in new problem domains. Full article
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21 pages, 26006 KiB  
Article
A Parallel Method for Texture Reconstruction in Large-Scale 3D Automatic Modeling Based on Oblique Photography
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092160 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Common methods of texture reconstruction first build a visual list for each triangular face, and then select the best image for each triangular face based on the graph-cut method. These methods have problems such as high memory consumption, and difficulties in large-area texture [...] Read more.
Common methods of texture reconstruction first build a visual list for each triangular face, and then select the best image for each triangular face based on the graph-cut method. These methods have problems such as high memory consumption, and difficulties in large-area texture reconstruction. Hence, this paper proposes a parallel method for texture reconstruction in large-scale 3D automatic modeling. First, the hierarchical relationships between the texture reconstruction are calculated in accordance with the adjacency relationships between partitioning cells. Second, building contours are extracted based on the 3D mesh model, the tiles are divided into two categories (occlusion and non-occlusion), and the incorrect occlusion relationship is restored based on the occluded tiles. Then, the graph-cut algorithm is constructed to select the best-view label. Finally, the jagged labels between adjacent labels are smoothed to alleviate the problem of texture seams. Oblique photography data from an area of 10 km2 in Dongying, Shandong were used for validation. The experimental results reveal the following: (i) concerning reconstruction efficiency, the Waechter method can perform texture reconstruction only in a small area, whereas with the proposed method, the size of the reconstruction area is not restricted. The memory consumption is improved by factors of approximately 2–13. (ii) Concerning reconstruction results, the Waechter method incorrectly reconstructs the textures of partially occluded regions at the tile edges, while the proposed method can reconstruct the textures correctly. (iii) Compared to the Waechter method, the proposed approach has a 30% lower reduction in the number of texture fragments. Full article
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19 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Online Sparse DOA Estimation Based on Sub–Aperture Recursive LASSO for TDM–MIMO Radar
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092133 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm is a promising method for sparse source location in time–division multiplexing (TDM) multiple–input, multiple–output (MIMO) radar systems, with notable performance gains in regard to resolution enhancement and side lobe suppression. However, the current batch [...] Read more.
The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm is a promising method for sparse source location in time–division multiplexing (TDM) multiple–input, multiple–output (MIMO) radar systems, with notable performance gains in regard to resolution enhancement and side lobe suppression. However, the current batch LASSO algorithm suffers from high–computational complexity when dealing with massive TDM–MIMO observations, due to high–dimensional matrix operations and the large number of iterations. In this paper, an online LASSO method is proposed for efficient direction–of–arrival (DOA) estimation of the TDM–MIMO radar based on the receiving features of the sub–aperture data blocks. This method recursively refines the location parameters for each receive (RX) block observation that becomes available sequentially in time. Compared with the conventional batch LASSO method, the proposed online DOA method makes full use of the TDM–MIMO reception time to improve the real–time performance. Additionally, it allows for much less iterations, avoiding high–dimensional matrix operations, allowing the computational complexity to be reduced from OK3 to OK2. Simulated and real–data results demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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16 pages, 5353 KiB  
Article
QUantitative and Automatic Atmospheric Correction (QUAAC): Application and Validation
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093280 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The difficulty of atmospheric correction based on a radiative transfer model lies in the acquisition of synchronized atmospheric parameters, especially the aerosol optical depth (AOD). At the moment, there is no fully automatic and high-efficiency atmospheric correction method to make full use of [...] Read more.
The difficulty of atmospheric correction based on a radiative transfer model lies in the acquisition of synchronized atmospheric parameters, especially the aerosol optical depth (AOD). At the moment, there is no fully automatic and high-efficiency atmospheric correction method to make full use of the advantages of geostationary meteorological satellites in large-scale and efficient atmospheric monitoring. Therefore, a QUantitative and Automatic Atmospheric Correction (QUAAC) method is proposed which can efficiently correct high-spatial-resolution (HSR) satellite images. QUAAC uses the atmospheric aerosol products of geostationary satellites to match the synchronized AOD according to the temporal and spatial information of HSR satellite images. This method solves the problem that the AOD is difficult to obtain or the accuracy is not high enough to meet the demand of atmospheric correction. By using the obtained atmospheric parameters, atmospheric correction is performed to obtain the surface reflectance (SR). The whole process can achieve fully automatic operation without manual intervention. After QUAAC applied to Gaofen-2 (GF-2) HSR satellite and Himawari-8 (H-8) geostationary satellite, the results show that the effect of QUAAC correction is slightly better than that of the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) correction, and the QUAAC−corrected surface spectral curves have good coherence to that of the synchronously measured by field experiments. Full article
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17 pages, 3907 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Numerical Methods for Transforming UTM Plane Coordinates to Lambert Plane Coordinates
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092056 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
The rapid transformation from UTM (Universal Transverse Mecator) projection to Lambert projection helps to realize timely merging, inversion, and analysis of high-frequency partitioned remote sensing images. In this study, the transformation error and the efficiency of the linear rule approximation method, the improved [...] Read more.
The rapid transformation from UTM (Universal Transverse Mecator) projection to Lambert projection helps to realize timely merging, inversion, and analysis of high-frequency partitioned remote sensing images. In this study, the transformation error and the efficiency of the linear rule approximation method, the improved linear rule approximation method, the hyperbolic transformation method, and the conformal transformation method were compared in transforming the coordinates of sample points on WGS84 (The World Geodetic System 1984)-UTM zonal projections to WGS84-Lambert projection coordinates. The effect of the grid aspect ratio on the coordinate transformation error of the conformal transformation method was examined. In addition, the conformal transformation method-based error spatial pattern of the sample points was analyzed. The results show that the conformal transformation method can better balance error and efficiency than other numerical methods. The error of the conformal transformation method is less affected by grid size. The maximum x-error is less than 0.36 m and the maximum y-error is less than 1.22 m when the grid size reaches 300 km × 300 km. The x- and y-error values decrease when square grids are used; namely, setting the grid aspect ratio close to 1 helps to weaken the effect of increasing grid area on the error. The dispersion of the error distribution and the maximum error of sample points both decrease relative to their minimum distance to the grid edge and stabilize at a minimum distance equal to 70 km. This study can support the rapid integration of massive remote sensing data over large areas. Full article
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19 pages, 61170 KiB  
Article
Combining Spectral, Spatial-Contextual, and Structural Information in Multispectral UAV Data for Spruce Crown Delineation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092044 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
Precise delineation of individual tree crowns is critical for accurate forest biophysical parameter estimation, species classification, and ecosystem modelling. Multispectral optical remote sensors mounted on low-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can rapidly collect very-high-resolution (VHR) photogrammetric optical data that contain the spectral, spatial, [...] Read more.
Precise delineation of individual tree crowns is critical for accurate forest biophysical parameter estimation, species classification, and ecosystem modelling. Multispectral optical remote sensors mounted on low-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can rapidly collect very-high-resolution (VHR) photogrammetric optical data that contain the spectral, spatial, and structural information of trees. State-of-the-art tree crown delineation approaches rely mostly on spectral information and underexploit the spatial-contextual and structural information in VHR photogrammetric multispectral data, resulting in crown delineation errors. Here, we propose the spectral, spatial-contextual, and structural information-based individual tree crown delineation (S3-ITD) method, which accurately delineates individual spruce crowns by minimizing the undesirable effects due to intracrown spectral variance and nonuniform illumination/shadowing in VHR multispectral data. We evaluate the performance of the S3-ITD crown delineation method over a white spruce forest in Quebec, Canada. The highest mean intersection over union (IoU) index of 0.83, and the lowest mean crown-area difference (CAD) of 0.14 m2, proves the superior crown delineation performance of the S3-ITD method over state-of-the-art methods. The reduction in error by 2.4 cm and 1.0 cm for the allometrically derived diameter at breast height (DBH) estimates compared with those from the WS-ITD and the BF-ITD approaches, respectively, demonstrates the effectiveness of the S3-ITD method to accurately estimate biophysical parameters. Full article
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26 pages, 20005 KiB  
Article
Magnetometric Surveys for the Non-Invasive Surface and Subsurface Interpretation of Volcanic Structures in Planetary Exploration, a Case Study of Several Volcanoes in the Iberian Peninsula
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(9), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14092039 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Volcanoes are typical features of the solar system that offer a window into the interior of planets. Thus, their study can improve the understanding of the interiors and evolution of planets. On Earth, volcanoes are monitored by multiple sensors during their dormant and [...] Read more.
Volcanoes are typical features of the solar system that offer a window into the interior of planets. Thus, their study can improve the understanding of the interiors and evolution of planets. On Earth, volcanoes are monitored by multiple sensors during their dormant and active phases. Presently, this is not feasible for other planets’ volcanoes. However, robotic vehicles and the recent technological demonstration of Ingenuity on Mars open up the possibility of using the powerful and non-destructive geophysical tool of magnetic surveys at different heights, for the investigation of surfaces and subsurfaces. We propose a methodology with a view to extract information from planetary volcanoes in the short and medium term, which comprises an analysis of the morphology using images, magnetic field surveys at different heights, in situ measurements of magnetic susceptibility, and simplified models for the interpretation of geological structures. This methodology is applied successfully to the study of different examples of the main volcanic zones of the Iberian Peninsula, representative of the Martian intraplate volcanism and similar to Venus domes, as a preparatory action prior to the exploration of the rocky planets’ surfaces. Full article
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21 pages, 5693 KiB  
Article
Field Campaign Evaluation of Sensors Lufft GMX500 and MaxiMet WS100 in Peruvian Central Andes
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093219 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
The research presents the inter-comparison of atmospheric variables measured by 9 automatic weather stations. This set of data was compared with the measurements of other weather stations in order to standardize the values that must be adjusted when taken to different areas. The [...] Read more.
The research presents the inter-comparison of atmospheric variables measured by 9 automatic weather stations. This set of data was compared with the measurements of other weather stations in order to standardize the values that must be adjusted when taken to different areas. The data of a set of a total of 9 GMX500, which measures conventional meteorological variables, and 10 WS100 sensors, which measures precipitation parameters. The automatic stations were set up at the Huancayo Observatory (Geophysical Institute of Peru) for a period of 5 months. The data set of GMX500 were evaluated comparing with the average of the 9 sensors and the WS100 was compared with an optical disdrometer Parsivel2. The temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, rainfall rate, and drop size distribution were evaluated. A pair of GMX500 sensors presented high data dispersion; it was found found that the errors came from a bad configuration; once this problem was solved, good agreement was archived, with low RMSE and high correlation. It was found that the WS100 sensors overestimate the precipitation with a percentage bias close to 100% and the differences increase with the greater intensity of rain. The drop size distribution retrieved by WS100 have unrealistic behavior with higher concentrations in diameters of 1 mm and 5 mm, in addition to a flattened curve. Full article
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24 pages, 5133 KiB  
Article
A Real-Time Effectiveness Evaluation Method for Remote Sensing Satellite Clusters on Moving Targets
Sensors 2022, 22(8), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22082993 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Recently, remote sensing satellites have become increasingly important in the Earth observation field as their temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions have improved. Subsequently, the quantitative evaluation of remote sensing satellites has received considerable attention. The quantitative evaluation method is conventionally based on simulation, [...] Read more.
Recently, remote sensing satellites have become increasingly important in the Earth observation field as their temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions have improved. Subsequently, the quantitative evaluation of remote sensing satellites has received considerable attention. The quantitative evaluation method is conventionally based on simulation, but it has a speed-accuracy trade-off. In this paper, a real-time evaluation model architecture for remote sensing satellite clusters is proposed. Firstly, a multi-physical field coupling simulation model of the satellite cluster to observe moving targets is established. Aside from considering the repercussions of on-board resource constraints, it also considers the consequences of the imaging’s uncertainty effects on observation results. Secondly, a moving target observation indicator system is developed, which reflects the satellite cluster’s actual effectiveness in orbit. Meanwhile, an indicator screening method using correlation analysis is proposed to improve the independence of the indicator system. Thirdly, a neural network is designed and trained for stakeholders to realize a rapid evaluation. Different network structures and parameters are comprehensively studied to determine the optimized neural network model. Finally, based on the experiments carried out, the proposed neural network evaluation model can generate real-time, high-quality evaluation results. Hence, the validity of our proposed approach is substantiated. Full article
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19 pages, 8607 KiB  
Article
SAR Target Recognition Using cGAN-Based SAR-to-Optical Image Translation
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(8), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14081793 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3390
Abstract
Target recognition in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery suffers from speckle noise and geometric distortion brought by the range-based coherent imaging mechanism. A new SAR target recognition system is proposed, using a SAR-to-optical translation network as pre-processing to enhance both automatic and manual [...] Read more.
Target recognition in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery suffers from speckle noise and geometric distortion brought by the range-based coherent imaging mechanism. A new SAR target recognition system is proposed, using a SAR-to-optical translation network as pre-processing to enhance both automatic and manual target recognition. In the system, SAR images of targets are translated into optical by a modified conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) whose generator with a symmetric architecture and inhomogeneous convolution kernels is designed to reduce the background clutter and edge blur of the output. After the translation, a typical convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier is exploited to recognize the target types in translated optical images automatically. For training and testing the system, a new multi-view SAR-optical dataset of aircraft targets is created. Evaluations of the translation results based on human vision and image quality assessment (IQA) methods verify the improvement of image interpretability and quality, and translated images obtain higher average accuracy than original SAR data in manual and CNN classification experiments. The good expansibility and robustness of the system shown in extending experiments indicate the promising potential for practical applications of SAR target recognition. Full article
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10 pages, 2005 KiB  
Technical Note
Resolution Enhancement of SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Estimates
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071761 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission includes a unique combination of instruments intended to provide daily global soil moisture data with high accuracy and resolution. Due to radar instrument failure, the default resolution of the data product decreased from the intended 9 [...] Read more.
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission includes a unique combination of instruments intended to provide daily global soil moisture data with high accuracy and resolution. Due to radar instrument failure, the default resolution of the data product decreased from the intended 9 km to 36 km shortly after the mission started to return data. To improve this, we employed the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction algorithm in its radiometer form (rSIR) to enhance the resolution of the radiometer brightness temperature measurements from which the soil moisture was derived. This paper compares the soil moisture estimates created from the rSIR-enhanced brightness temperatures with SMAP project radiometer L2_SM_SP and SMAP-Sentinel L2_SM_P products reported on 9 km and 3 km grids, respectively. We find that the difference of the rSIR-enhanced passive soil moisture product is generally within 0.020 cm3 cm3 RMS of the 9 km SMAP radiometer L2_SM_SP and 0.045 cm3 cm3 RMS of the 3 km SMAP-Sentinel L2_SM_P soil moisture products. The accuracy of the rSIR soil moisture can be improved by including better antenna pattern correction methods applied to the input TB measurements. Full article
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17 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Land Use Change and Driving Mechanisms in Vietnam during the Period 2000–2020
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071600 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
High-accuracy, long-time-series and large-scale land classification mapping are essential for assessing the evolutionary patterns of land systems and developing sustainability studies. In this paper, using Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Landsat satellite remote sensing images, based on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, we [...] Read more.
High-accuracy, long-time-series and large-scale land classification mapping are essential for assessing the evolutionary patterns of land systems and developing sustainability studies. In this paper, using Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Landsat satellite remote sensing images, based on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, we carried out remote sensing classification to obtain a year-by-year land use/cover data set in Vietnam over the past 21 years (2000–2020). Further applying principal component analysis and multiple linear regression methods, we examined the spatio-temporal characteristics, dynamic changes and driving mechanisms of land use change. The results show the following: (1) The RF classification algorithm supported by the GEE can quickly and accurately obtain a land use/cover data set. The overall classification accuracy is 0.91 ± 0.01. (2) The land cover types in Vietnam are dominated by woodland and cropland, with an area share of 54.62% and 37.90%, respectively. In the past 20 years, the area of built-up land has increased the most (+93.49%), followed by the area of water bodies (+54.19%), while the area of woodland has remained almost unchanged. (3) The expansion of built-up land is driven by regional economic development; the area changes in cropland, water bodies and woodland are influenced by both national economic development and climate change. The results of the study provide a basis for assessing land use policies in Vietnam and a reference methodological framework for rapid land mapping and analysis in other countries in the China–Indochina Peninsula. Full article
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23 pages, 5645 KiB  
Article
NDSRGAN: A Novel Dense Generative Adversarial Network for Real Aerial Imagery Super-Resolution Reconstruction
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071574 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
In recent years, more and more researchers have used deep learning methods for super-resolution reconstruction and have made good progress. However, most of the existing super-resolution reconstruction models generate low-resolution images for training by downsampling high-resolution images through bicubic interpolation, and the models [...] Read more.
In recent years, more and more researchers have used deep learning methods for super-resolution reconstruction and have made good progress. However, most of the existing super-resolution reconstruction models generate low-resolution images for training by downsampling high-resolution images through bicubic interpolation, and the models trained from these data have poor reconstruction results on real-world low-resolution images. In the field of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial photography, the use of existing super-resolution reconstruction models in reconstructing real-world low-resolution aerial images captured by UAVs is prone to producing some artifacts, texture detail distortion and other problems, due to compression and fusion processing of the aerial images, thereby resulting in serious loss of texture detail in the obtained low-resolution aerial images. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel dense generative adversarial network for real aerial imagery super-resolution reconstruction (NDSRGAN), and we produce image datasets with paired high- and low-resolution real aerial remote sensing images. In the generative network, we use a multilevel dense network to connect the dense connections in a residual dense block. In the discriminative network, we use a matrix mean discriminator that can discriminate the generated images locally, no longer discriminating the whole input image using a single value but instead in chunks of regions. We also use smoothL1 loss instead of the L1 loss used in most existing super-resolution models, to accelerate the model convergence and reach the global optimum faster. Compared with traditional models, our model can better utilise the feature information in the original image and discriminate the image in patches. A series of experiments is conducted with real aerial imagery datasets, and the results show that our model achieves good performance on quantitative metrics and visual perception. Full article
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28 pages, 70523 KiB  
Article
Robust Clutter Suppression and Radial Velocity Estimation for High-Resolution Wide-Swath SAR-GMTI
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071555 - 23 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Moving targets are usually smeared and imaged at incorrect positions in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images due to the target motions during the illumination time. Moreover, a moving target will cause multiple artifacts in the reconstructed image since pulse repetition frequency (PRF) operated [...] Read more.
Moving targets are usually smeared and imaged at incorrect positions in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images due to the target motions during the illumination time. Moreover, a moving target will cause multiple artifacts in the reconstructed image since pulse repetition frequency (PRF) operated in high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS) SAR is very low. In order to reliably indicate moving targets, a robust cancellation algorithm is derived in this paper for clutter suppression in multichannel HRWS SAR, which is free by velocity searching and covariance matrix estimation of clutter plus noise. The proposed multilayer channel-cancellation combined with the deramp processing is designed to sequentially suppress the seriously aliased clutter in HRWS SAR. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust in tough situations, and have a superior detection ability in weak targets and low-velocity targets. In addition, the radial velocity estimation algorithm combined with the channel cancellation is exploited to relocate moving targets. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is validated by actual spaceborne SAR data acquired by a coordination experiment with two controllable vehicles. Full article
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19 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Cycle and Self-Supervised Consistency Training for Adapting Semantic Segmentation of Aerial Images
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(7), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14071527 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Semantic segmentation is a critical problem for many remote sensing (RS) image applications. Benefiting from large-scale pixel-level labeled data and the continuous evolution of deep neural network architectures, the performance of semantic segmentation approaches has been constantly improved. However, deploying a well-trained model [...] Read more.
Semantic segmentation is a critical problem for many remote sensing (RS) image applications. Benefiting from large-scale pixel-level labeled data and the continuous evolution of deep neural network architectures, the performance of semantic segmentation approaches has been constantly improved. However, deploying a well-trained model on unseen and diverse testing environments remains a major challenge: a large gap between data distributions in train and test domains results in severe performance loss, while manual dense labeling is costly and not scalable. To this end, we proposed an unsupervised domain adaptation framework for RS image semantic segmentation that is both practical and effective. The framework is supported by the consistency principle, including the cycle consistency in the input space and self-supervised consistency in the training stage. Specifically, we introduce cycle-consistent generative adversarial networks to reduce the discrepancy between source and target distributions by translating one into the other. The translated source data then drive a pipeline of supervised semantic segmentation model training. We enforce consistency of model predictions across target image transformations in order to provide self-supervision for the unlabeled target data. Experiments and extensive ablation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on two challenging benchmarks, on which we achieve up to 9.95% and 7.53% improvements in accuracy over the state-of-the-art methods, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 14990 KiB  
Article
Automated Delineation of Microstands in Hemiboreal Mixed Forests Using Stereo GeoEye-1 Data
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(6), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14061471 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
A microstand is a small forest area with a homogeneous tree species, height, and density composition. High-spatial-resolution GeoEye-1 multispectral (MS) images and GeoEye-1-based canopy height models (CHMs) allow delineating microstands automatically. This paper studied the potential benefits of two microstand segmentation workflows: (1) [...] Read more.
A microstand is a small forest area with a homogeneous tree species, height, and density composition. High-spatial-resolution GeoEye-1 multispectral (MS) images and GeoEye-1-based canopy height models (CHMs) allow delineating microstands automatically. This paper studied the potential benefits of two microstand segmentation workflows: (1) our modification of JSEG and (2) generic region merging (GRM) of the Orfeo Toolbox, both intended for the microstand border refinement and automated stand volume estimation in hemiboreal forests. Our modification of JSEG uses a CHM as the primary data source for segmentation by refining the results using MS data. Meanwhile, the CHM and multispectral data fusion were achieved as multiband segmentation for the GRM workflow. The accuracy was evaluated using several sets of metrics (unsupervised, supervised direct assessment, and system-level assessment). Metrics were calculated for a regular segment grid to check the benefits compared with the simple image patches. The metrics showed very similar results for both workflows. The most successful combinations in the workflow parameters retrieved over 75 % of the boundaries selected by a human interpreter. However, the impact of data fusion and parameter combinations on stand volume estimation accuracy was minimal, causing variations of the RMSE within approximately 7 m3/ha. Full article
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24 pages, 4083 KiB  
Article
Assessing Obukhov Length and Friction Velocity from Floating Lidar Observations: A Data Screening and Sensitivity Computation Approach
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(6), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14061394 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
This work presents a parametric-solver algorithm for estimating atmospheric stability and friction velocity from floating Doppler wind lidar (FDWL) observations close to the mast of IJmuiden in the North Sea. The focus of the study was two-fold: (i) to examine the sensitivity of [...] Read more.
This work presents a parametric-solver algorithm for estimating atmospheric stability and friction velocity from floating Doppler wind lidar (FDWL) observations close to the mast of IJmuiden in the North Sea. The focus of the study was two-fold: (i) to examine the sensitivity of the computational algorithm to the retrieved variables and derived stability classes (the latter through confusion-matrix theory), and (ii) to present data screening procedures for FDWLs and fixed reference instrumentation. The performance of the stability estimation algorithm was assessed with reference to wind speed and temperature observations from the mast. A fixed-to-mast Doppler wind lidar (DWL) was also available, which provides a reference for wind-speed observations free from sea-motion perturbations. When comparing FDWL- and mast-derived mean wind speeds, the obtained determination coefficient was as high as that of the fixed-to-mast DWL against the mast (ρ2=0.996) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.25 m/s. From the 82-day measurement