Topic Editors

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia

Veterinary Infectious Diseases

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
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384440

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Veterinary infectious diseases are factors that impact the health of livestock, domestic animals and wildlife. Their study includes infectious-disease-causing pathogens, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, molecular evolution, immune responses, treatment and prevention. As we know, almost two-thirds of the pathogens that cause diseases in humans are of animal origin, such as SARS-CoV/COVID-19, avian influenza virus, rabies virus, Ebola virus, etc. In addition to those zoonoses, other animal-species-specific infectious diseases, such as Africa Swine Fever (ASF), Classical Swine Fever (CSF), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Newcastle Disease (ND), Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD), African Horse Sickness (AHS), etc., are also extremely important.

Therefore, the scope of this topic focuses on the recent findings in pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, molecular evolution, immune responses, treatment and prevention of animal viral diseases.

Prof. Dr. Chao-Nan Lin
Dr. Peck Toung Ooi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • endemic, exotic, and zoonotic diseases
  • animal infectious diseases
  • fungal infections
  • rickettsial infections
  • livestock, wildlife, and domestic animal
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • host-pathogen interactions
  • veterinary epidemiology
  • surveillance and evolution
  • diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
  • diseases eradication and elimination
  • medicine and medication
  • avian influenza
  • avian paramyxovirus
  • bluetongue
  • bovine virus diarrhea
  • classical swine fever
  • equine herpesvirus
  • fowl pox
  • Newcastle disease
  • rabies
  • transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Viruses
viruses
3.8 7.3 2009 13.8 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Fungi
jof
4.2 6.7 2015 18.4 Days CHF 2600
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.1 7.4 2013 15.1 Days CHF 2700
Life
life
3.2 4.3 2011 17.5 Days CHF 2600
Microbiology Research
microbiolres
2.1 1.9 2010 16.6 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (130 papers)

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2 pages, 715 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Teng et al. Efficacy Assessment of Phage Therapy in Treating Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Mastitis in Mice. Viruses 2022, 14, 620
by Fei Teng, Xiaoyu Xiong, Songsong Zhang, Guiwei Li, Ruichong Wang, Lanlan Zhang, Xiaona Wang, Han Zhou, Jiaxuan Li, Yijing Li, Yanping Jiang, Wen Cui, Lijie Tang, Li Wang and Xinyuan Qiao
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030319 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity, Safety, and Anti-Viral Efficacy of a Subunit SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Candidate in Captive Black-Footed Ferrets (Mustela nigripes) and Their Susceptibility to Viral Challenge
by Ariel E. Leon, Della Garelle, Airn Hartwig, Elizabeth A. Falendysz, Hon S. Ip, Julia S. Lankton, Tyler N. Tretten, Terry R. Spraker, Richard Bowen and Tonie E. Rocke
Viruses 2022, 14(10), 2188; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14102188 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
A preliminary vaccination trial against the emergent pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, was completed in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes; BFF) to assess safety, immunogenicity, and anti-viral efficacy. Vaccination and boosting of 15 BFF with purified SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit protein produced a nearly 150-fold increase [...] Read more.
A preliminary vaccination trial against the emergent pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, was completed in captive black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes; BFF) to assess safety, immunogenicity, and anti-viral efficacy. Vaccination and boosting of 15 BFF with purified SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit protein produced a nearly 150-fold increase in mean antibody titers compared to pre-vaccination titers. Serum antibody responses were highest in young animals, but in all vaccinees, antibody response declined rapidly. Anti-viral activity from vaccinated and unvaccinated BFF was determined in vitro, as well as in vivo with a passive serum transfer study in mice. Transgenic mice that received BFF serum transfers and were subsequently challenged with SARS-CoV-2 had lung viral loads that negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with the BFF serum titer received. Lastly, an experimental challenge study in a small group of BFF was completed to test susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Despite viral replication and shedding in the upper respiratory tract for up to 7 days post-challenge, no clinical disease was observed in either vaccinated or naive animals. The lack of morbidity or mortality observed indicates SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely to affect wild BFF populations, but infected captive animals pose a potential risk, albeit low, for humans and other animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 2042 KiB  
Article
Wild Bird Surveillance in the Gauteng Province of South Africa during the High-Risk Period for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Introduction
by Celia Abolnik, Thandeka P. Phiri, Gerbrand van der Zel, Jade Anthony, Nadine Daniell and Liesl de Boni
Viruses 2022, 14(9), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14092027 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Migratory birds carried clade 2.3.4.4B H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses to South Africa in 2017, 2018 and 2021, where the Gauteng Province is a high-risk zone for virus introduction. Here, we combined environmental faecal sampling with sensitive rRT-PCR methods and direct [...] Read more.
Migratory birds carried clade 2.3.4.4B H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses to South Africa in 2017, 2018 and 2021, where the Gauteng Province is a high-risk zone for virus introduction. Here, we combined environmental faecal sampling with sensitive rRT-PCR methods and direct Ion Torrent sequencing to survey wild populations between February and May 2022. An overall IAV incidence of 42.92% (100/231) in water bird faecal swab pools or swabs from moribund or dead European White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) was detected. In total, 7% of the IAV-positive pools tested H5-positive, with clade 2.3.4.4B H5N1 HPAI confirmed in the storks; 10% of the IAV-positive samples were identified as H9N2, and five complete H9N2 genomes were phylogenetically closely related to a local 2021 wild duck H9N2 virus, recent Eurasian LPAI viruses or those detected in commercial ostriches in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces since 2018. H3N1, H4N2, H5N2 and H8Nx subtypes were also identified. Targeted surveillance of wild birds using environmental faecal sampling can thus be effectively applied under sub-Saharan African conditions, but region-specific studies should first be used to identify peak prevalence times which, in southern Africa, is linked to the peak rainfall period, when ducks are reproductively active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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23 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological and Genomic Characterisation of Middelburg and Sindbis Alphaviruses Identified in Horses with Febrile and Neurological Infections, South Africa (2014–2018)
by Isabel Fourie, Jumari Snyman, June Williams, Arshad Ismail, Petrus Jansen van Vuren and Marietjie Venter
Viruses 2022, 14(9), 2013; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14092013 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Although Old World alphaviruses, Middelburg- (MIDV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), have previously been detected in horses and wildlife with neurologic disease in South Africa, the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of MIDV and SINV infections in animals are not well documented. Clinical samples from [...] Read more.
Although Old World alphaviruses, Middelburg- (MIDV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), have previously been detected in horses and wildlife with neurologic disease in South Africa, the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of MIDV and SINV infections in animals are not well documented. Clinical samples from horses across South Africa with acute or fatal neurologic and febrile infections submitted between 2014–2018 were investigated. In total, 69/1084 (6.36%) and 11/1084 (1.01%) horses tested positive for MIDV and SINV, respectively, by real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR. Main signs/outcomes for MIDV (n = 69): 73.91% neurological, 75.36% fever, 28.99% icterus and anorexia, respectively, 8.70% fatalities; SINV (n = 11): 54.54% neurological, 72.73% fever, 36.36% anorexia and 18.18% fatalities. MIDV cases peaked in the late summer/autumn across most South African provinces while SINV cases did not show a clear seasonality and were detected in fewer South African provinces. MIDV could still be detected in blood samples via RT-PCR for up to 71,417 and 21 days after onset of signs in 4 horses respectively, suggesting prolonged replication relative to SINV which could only be detected in the initial sample. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the nsP4 (MIDV n = 59 and SINV n = 7) and E1 (MIDV n = 45) genes, as well as full genome sequences (MIDV n = 6), clustered the MIDV and SINV strains from the present study with previously detected strains. MIDV infection appears to be more prevalent in horses than SINV infection based on RT-PCR results, however, prevalence estimates might be different when also considering serological surveillance data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 1358 KiB  
Brief Report
The Genetic Characterization of the First Detected Bat Coronaviruses in Poland Revealed SARS-Related Types and Alphacoronaviruses
by Anna Orłowska, Marcin Smreczak, Katarzyna Thor, Magda Niedbalska, Dominika Pawelec, Paweł Trębas and Jerzy Rola
Viruses 2022, 14(9), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14091914 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Bats are a major global reservoir of alphacoronaviruses (alphaCoVs) and betaCoVs. Attempts to discover the causative agents of COVID-19 and SARS have revealed horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) to be the most probable source of the virus. We report the first detection of bat coronaviruses [...] Read more.
Bats are a major global reservoir of alphacoronaviruses (alphaCoVs) and betaCoVs. Attempts to discover the causative agents of COVID-19 and SARS have revealed horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) to be the most probable source of the virus. We report the first detection of bat coronaviruses (BtCoVs) in insectivorous bats in Poland and highlight SARS-related coronaviruses found in Rhinolophidae bats. The study included 503 (397 oral swabs and 106 fecal) samples collected from 20 bat species. Genetically diverse BtCoVs (n = 20) of the Alpha- and Betacoronavirus genera were found in fecal samples of two bat species. SARS-related CoVs were in 18 out of 58 lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) samples (31%, 95% CI 20.6–43.8), and alphaCoVs were in 2 out of 55 Daubenton’s bat (Myotis daubentonii) samples (3.6%, 95% CI 0.6–12.3). The overall BtCoV prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 2.6–6.1). High identity was determined for BtCoVs isolated from European M. daubentonii and R. hipposideros bats. The detection of SARS-related and alphaCoVs in Polish bats with high phylogenetic relatedness to reference BtCoVs isolated in different European countries but from the same species confirms their high host restriction. Our data elucidate the molecular epidemiology, prevalence, and geographic distribution of coronaviruses and particularly SARS-related types in the bat population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Stromal Antigen 2 Deficiency Induces Interferon Responses and Restricts Porcine Deltacoronavirus Infection
by Yang Wu, Hongling Zhang, Jianfei Chen, Zhaorong Shi, Mingwei Li, Ying Zhao, Hongyan Shi, Da Shi, Longjun Guo and Li Feng
Viruses 2022, 14(8), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081783 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered enteropathogenic coronavirus and has caused significant economic impacts on the pork industry. Although studies have partly uncovered the molecular mechanism of PDCoV–host interaction, it requires further research. In this study, we explored the roles of Stromal [...] Read more.
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered enteropathogenic coronavirus and has caused significant economic impacts on the pork industry. Although studies have partly uncovered the molecular mechanism of PDCoV–host interaction, it requires further research. In this study, we explored the roles of Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) in PDCoV infection. We found that STAG2-deficient cells inhibited infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and PDCoV, whereas restoration of STAG2 expression in STAG2-depleted (STAG2/) IPEC-J2 cells line restored PDCoV infection, suggesting that STAG2 is involved in the PDCoV replication. Furthermore, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in robust interferon (IFN) expression. Subsequently, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in the activation of JAK-STAT signaling and the expression of IFN stimulated gene (ISG), which establish an antiviral state. Taken together, the depletion of STAG2 activates the JAK-STAT signaling and induces the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting PDCoV replication. Our study provides new insights and potential therapeutic targets for unraveling the mechanism of PDCoV replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 1780 KiB  
Review
Multiple Receptors Involved in Invasion and Neuropathogenicity of Canine Distemper Virus: A Review
by Jianjun Zhao and Yanrong Ren
Viruses 2022, 14(7), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071520 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3489
Abstract
The canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that infects a broad range of terrestrial carnivores, predominantly canines, and is associated with high mortality. Similar to another morbillivirus, measles virus, which infects humans and nonhuman primates, CDV transmission from an infected host to [...] Read more.
The canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that infects a broad range of terrestrial carnivores, predominantly canines, and is associated with high mortality. Similar to another morbillivirus, measles virus, which infects humans and nonhuman primates, CDV transmission from an infected host to a naïve host depends on two cellular receptors, namely, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM or CD150) and the adherens junction protein nectin-4 (also known as PVRL4). CDV can also invade the central nervous system by anterograde spread through olfactory nerves or in infected lymphocytes through the circulation, thus causing chronic progressive or relapsing demyelination of the brain. However, the absence of the two receptors in the white matter, primary cultured astrocytes, and neurons in the brain was recently demonstrated. Furthermore, a SLAM/nectin-4-blind recombinant CDV exhibits full cell-to-cell transmission in primary astrocytes. This strongly suggests the existence of a third CDV receptor expressed in neural cells, possibly glial cells. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the study of CDV receptors, highlighting the unidentified glial receptor and its contribution to pathogenicity in the host nervous system. The reviewed studies focus on CDV neuropathogenesis, and neural receptors may provide promising directions for the treatment of neurological diseases caused by CDV. We also present an overview of other neurotropic viruses to promote further research and identification of CDV neural receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 2696 KiB  
Article
An Improved, Dual-Direction, Promoter-Driven, Reverse Genetics System for the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV)
by Xifeng Hu, Zheng Chen, Xiangdong Wu, Zhen Ding, Qinghua Zeng and Huansheng Wu
Viruses 2022, 14(7), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071396 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), one member of the Birnaviridae family, causes immunosuppression in young chickens by damaging the mature B cells of the bursa of Fabricius (BF), the central immune system of young chickens. The genome of IBDV is a bisegmented, [...] Read more.
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), one member of the Birnaviridae family, causes immunosuppression in young chickens by damaging the mature B cells of the bursa of Fabricius (BF), the central immune system of young chickens. The genome of IBDV is a bisegmented, double-strand RNA (dsRNA). Reverse genetics systems for IBDV allow the generation of genetically manipulated infectious virus via transfected plasmid DNA, encoding the two genomic viral RNA segments as well as major viral proteins. For this purpose, the minus-sense of both segment A and segment B are inserted into vectors between the polymerase I promoter and the corresponding terminator I. These plasmids facilitate the transcription of the viral minus-sense genome but copy the plus-sense genome as well viral protein translation depends on the activity of VP1 and VP3, when transfected into 293T cells. To further improve rescue efficiency, dual-direction promoters were generated based on the polymerase II promoter in the reverse direction in the backbone of the pCDNA3.0 vector. Therefore, the polymerase I promoter transcribes the viral minus-sense genome in the forward direction and the polymerase II promoter transcribes viral mRNA, translated into viral proteins that produce infectious IBDV. We also found that the rescue efficiency of transfecting two plasmids is significantly higher than that of transfecting four plasmids. In addition, this dual-direction promoter rescue system was used to generate R186A mutant IBDV since Arg186 is the arginine monomer-methylation site identified by LC–MS. Our data furtherly showed that the Arg186 monomer methylation mutant was due to a reduction in VP1 polymerase activity as well as virus replication, suggesting that the Arg186 methylation site is essential for IBDV replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 2843 KiB  
Systematic Review
Point-of-Care Tests for Rapid Detection of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Renfeng Li, Xiangqin Tian, Junzeng Pang, Linyue Li, Jiakang Yuan, Zhuangzhuang Tian and Ziliang Wang
Viruses 2022, 14(7), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14071355 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
The timely and accurate diagnosis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection is crucial to reduce the risk of viral transmission. Therefore, the objective of this review was to evaluate the overall diagnostic accuracy of rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for PEDV. Studies published [...] Read more.
The timely and accurate diagnosis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection is crucial to reduce the risk of viral transmission. Therefore, the objective of this review was to evaluate the overall diagnostic accuracy of rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for PEDV. Studies published before 7 January 2022 were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Springer Link, and Web of Science databases, using subject headings or keywords related to point of care and rapid test diagnostic for PEDV and PED. Two investigators independently extracted data, rated risk of bias, and assessed the quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The bivariate model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model were used for performing the meta-analysis. Threshold effect, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression were applied to explore heterogeneity. Of the 2908 records identified, 24 eligible studies involving 3264 specimens were enrolled in the meta-analysis, including 11 studies on evaluation of lateral flow immunochromatography assay (ICA)-based, and 13 on nucleic acid isothermal amplification (NAIA)-based POCTs. The overall pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92–0.97), 0.96 (95% CI 0.88–0.99) and 480 (95% CI 111–2074), respectively; for ICA-based POCTs and the corresponding values for NAIA-based, POCTs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94–0.99), 0.98 (95% CI 0.91–0.99) and 1517 (95% CI 290–7943), respectively. The two tests showed highly comparable and satisfactory diagnostic performance in clinical utility. These results support current recommendations for the use of rapid POC tests when PEDV is suspected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Transmembrane Protein LMxysn_1693 of Serovar 4h Listeria monocytogenes Is Associated with Bile Salt Resistance and Intestinal Colonization
by Fanxin Jin, Youwei Feng, Chao Chen, Hao Yao, Renling Zhang, Qin Zhang, Fanzeng Meng, Xiang Chen, Xin’an Jiao and Yuelan Yin
Microorganisms 2022, 10(7), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071263 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen comprising of 14 serotypes, of which serovar 4h isolates belonging to hybrid sub-lineage Ⅱ exhibit hypervirulent features. LMxysn_1693 of serovar 4h Lm XYSN, a member of genomic island-7 (GI-7), is predicted to a membrane [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen comprising of 14 serotypes, of which serovar 4h isolates belonging to hybrid sub-lineage Ⅱ exhibit hypervirulent features. LMxysn_1693 of serovar 4h Lm XYSN, a member of genomic island-7 (GI-7), is predicted to a membrane protein with unknown function, which is conserved in serovar 4h Listeria monocytogenes. Under bile salts stress, Lm XYSN strain lacking LMxysn_1693 (XYSN∆1693) exhibited a stationary phase growth defect as well as a reduction in biofilm formation and strikingly down-regulated bile-salts-resistant genes and virulent genes. Particularly, LMxysn_1693 protein plays a crucial role in Lm XYSN adhesion and invasion to intestinal epithelial cells, as well as colonization in the ileum of mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LMxysn_1693 gene encodes a component of the putative ABC transporter system, synthetically interacts with genes involved in bile resistance, biofilm formation and virulence, and thus contributes to Listeria monocytogenes survival within and outside the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Development of a Monoclonal Antibody to Pig CD69 Reveals Early Activation of T Cells in Pig after PRRSV and ASFV Infection
by Yunfei Tian, Yuxin Hao, Maoli Dong, Shuai Li, Dongyue Wang, Fei Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Xiaoli Hao, Yi Yang, Nanhua Chen, Jianzhong Zhu, Junqing Guo, Jiajun Wu, Shaobin Shang and Jiyong Zhou
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061343 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
The CD69 molecule, as an early activation marker of lymphocytes, is often used to assess the activation of cellular immunity. However, for pigs, an anti-pig CD69 antibody is not yet available for this purpose after infection or vaccination. In this study, a monoclonal [...] Read more.
The CD69 molecule, as an early activation marker of lymphocytes, is often used to assess the activation of cellular immunity. However, for pigs, an anti-pig CD69 antibody is not yet available for this purpose after infection or vaccination. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against pig CD69 was produced by peptide immunization and hybridoma technique. One mAb (5F12) showed good reactivity with pig CD69 that was expressed in transfected-HEK-293T cells and on mitogen-activated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by indirect immunofluorescence assay and flow cytometry. This mAb did not cross-react with activated lymphocytes from mouse, bovine, and chicken. Epitope mapping showed that the epitope recognized by this mAb was located at amino acid residues 147–161 of pig CD69. By conjugating with fluorochrome, this mAb was used to detect the early activation of lymphocytes in PRRSV- and ASFV-infected pigs by flow cytometry. The results showed that PRRSV infection induced the dominant activation of CD4 T cells in mediastinal lymph nodes and CD8 T cells in the spleen at 14 days post-infection, in terms of CD69 expression. In an experiment on ASFV infection, we found that ASFV infection resulted in the early activation of NK cells, B cells, and distinct T cell subsets with variable magnitude in PBMCs, spleen, and submandibular lymph nodes. Our study revealed an early event of lymphocyte and T cell activation after PRRSV and ASFV infections and provides an important immunological tool for the in-depth analysis of cellular immune response in pigs after infection or vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
Biological Characteristics of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Viruses Isolated in China
by Mi Wu, Zhifei Zhang, Xin Su, Haipeng Lu, Xuesong Li, Chunxiu Yuan, Qinfang Liu, Qiaoyang Teng, Letu Geri and Zejun Li
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061200 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes severe respiratory disease in chickens and results in huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. To correlate the genomic difference with the replication and pathogenicity, phenotypes of three ILTVs isolated from chickens in China from 2016 to [...] Read more.
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes severe respiratory disease in chickens and results in huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. To correlate the genomic difference with the replication and pathogenicity, phenotypes of three ILTVs isolated from chickens in China from 2016 to 2018 were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. Based on the entire genome, the isolates GD2018 and SH2017 shared 99.9% nucleotide homology, while the isolate SH2016 shared 99.7% nucleotide homology with GD2018 and SH2017, respectively. Each virus genome contained 82 ORFs encoding 77 kinds of protein, 31 of which share the same amino acid sequence in the three viruses. GD2018 and SH2017 shared 57 proteins with the same amino acid sequence, while SH2016 shared 42 and 41 proteins with the amino acid sequences of GD2018 and SH2017, respectively. SH2016 propagated efficiently in allantoic fluid and on chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of SPF chicken embryo eggs, while GD2018 and SH2017 proliferated well only on CAMs. GD2018 propagated most efficiently on CAMs and LMH cells among three isolates. SH2016 caused serious clinical symptoms, while GD2018 and SH2017 caused mild and moderate clinical symptoms in chickens, although the sero of the chickens infected with those three isolates were all positive for anti-ILTV antibody at 14 and 21 days after challenge. Three ILTVs with high genetic homology showed significant differences in the replication in different culture systems and the pathogenicity of chickens, providing basic materials for studying the key determinants of pathogenicity of ILTV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 3236 KiB  
Article
Identification of NP Protein-Specific B-Cell Epitopes for H9N2 Subtype of Avian Influenza Virus
by Xiangyu Huang, Jingwen Huang, Guihu Yin, Yiqin Cai, Mengli Chen, Jianing Hu and Xiuli Feng
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061172 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Avian Influenza (AI) caused by the H9N2 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV) poses a serious threat to both the poultry industry and to public health safety. NP is one of the major structural proteins in influenza viruses. B-cell determinants located on [...] Read more.
Avian Influenza (AI) caused by the H9N2 subtype of the avian influenza virus (AIV) poses a serious threat to both the poultry industry and to public health safety. NP is one of the major structural proteins in influenza viruses. B-cell determinants located on NP proteins have attracted increasing attention. In this study, based on the NP sequence of the H9N2 (A/chicken/Shandong/LY1/2017) strain, the truncated NP gene (71 AA–243 AA) was cloned and prokaryotically expressed in a pET-28a (+) vector. BALB/c mice were immunized with a purified recombinant of an NP protein to prepare a monoclonal antibody against NP proteins. The prokaryotic expression of four overlapping fragments, NP-N-96, NP-C-103, NP-C-54 and NP-C-49, were used to recognize an antigenic epitope of the NP protein. The results show that, after cell fusion, one hybridoma cell clone secreted the antibody specific to the NP protein, following screening with ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence, which is named the 4F5 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Western blotting on the overlapping fragments showed that the 230FQTAAQRA237 motif was identified as the minimal motif recognized by 4F5mAb, which was represented as the linear B-cell epitope of the NP protein. Homology analysis of this epitope shows that it was highly conserved in 18 AIVs analyzed in this study, and the epitope prediction results indicate that the epitope may be located on the surface of the NP protein. These results provide a strong experimental basis for studying the function of the NP protein of the H9N2 AIV and also strong technical support for the development of a universal assay based on an anti-NP monoclonal antibody. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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10 pages, 3746 KiB  
Communication
Recombination between the Fostera MLV-like Strain and the Strain Belonging to Lineage 1 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Korea
by Go-Eun Shin, Ji-Young Park, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Bok-Kyung Ku, Choi-Kyu Park and Hye-Young Jeoung
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061153 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry worldwide. In Korea, Fostera PRRS commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccines have been used since 2014 to control the PRRSV infection. In this study, two [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry worldwide. In Korea, Fostera PRRS commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccines have been used since 2014 to control the PRRSV infection. In this study, two PRRSV-2 strains (20D160-1 and 21R2-63-1) were successfully isolated, and their complete genomic sequences were determined. Genetic analysis showed that the two isolates have recombination events between the P129-like strain derived from the Fostera PRRS MLV vaccine and the strain of lineage 1. The 20D160-1 indicated that partial ORF2 to partial ORF4 of the minor parental KNU-1902-like strain, which belongs to Korean lineage C (Kor C) of lineage 1, was inserted into the major parental P129-like strain. The 21R2-63-1 revealed that partial ORF1b of the P129-like strain was inserted into the backbone of the NADC30-like strain. This study is the first to report natural recombinant strains between Fostera PRRS MLV-like strain and the field strain in Korea. These results may have significant implications for MLV evolution and the understanding of PRRSV genetic diversity, while highlighting the need for continuous surveillance of PRRSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 1809 KiB  
Article
CD38 Enhances TLR9 Expression and Activates NLRP3 Inflammasome after Porcine Parvovirus Infection
by Yi Zheng, Yixuan Xu, Weimin Xu, Sanjie Cao, Qigui Yan, Xiaobo Huang, Yiping Wen, Qin Zhao, Senyan Du, Yifei Lang, Shan Zhao and Rui Wu
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061136 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
(1) Background: Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus without envelope which causes great harm in relation to porcine reproductive disorders in clinic. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) is a transmembrane protein widely existing in mammals. Its various functions make it a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus without envelope which causes great harm in relation to porcine reproductive disorders in clinic. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) is a transmembrane protein widely existing in mammals. Its various functions make it a very popular research object, including in the viral infection field. (2) Methods: Western blotting and an EdU Cell Proliferation Kit were used to evaluate the effect of CD38-deficient cells. Relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the transcription levels of cytokines after PPV infection. The renilla luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the activation function of CD38 on downstream factors. The fluorescence probe method was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). (3) Results: This study found that the loss of CD38 function inhibited the up-regulated state of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9), Interferon-α (IFN-α), and Myxovirus Resistance 1 (Mx1) after PPV infection. The luminescence of the group transfected with both CD38 expression plasmid and TLR9 promoter renilla luciferase reporter plasmid was significantly up-regulated compared with the control, suggesting that CD38 may activate the promoter of TLR9. In addition, CD38 deficiency not only activated the transcription of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), but also inhibited ROS level and the transcription of NLR Family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 (NLRP3). (4) Conclusion: (i) CD38 may participate in the TLR9/IFN-α/Mx1 pathway by activating the expression of TLR9 after PPV infected PK-15 cells; (ii) CD38 may activate the NLRP3/CASP1 pathway by increasing ROS level; (iii) CD38 deficiency activates the expression of SIRT1 and can prevent the normal proliferation of PPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1995 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of Two Wild Bird-Origin H3N8 Avian Influenza Viruses to Mammalian Hosts
by Jianpeng Liang, Qian Li, Linlin Cai, Qingli Yuan, Libin Chen, Qiuyan Lin, Chencheng Xiao, Bin Xiang and Tao Ren
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051097 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
Wild birds play an important role in the emergence, evolution, and spread of zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, there are few studies on the cross-species transmission of the H3N8 AIV originating from wild birds. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility and [...] Read more.
Wild birds play an important role in the emergence, evolution, and spread of zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, there are few studies on the cross-species transmission of the H3N8 AIV originating from wild birds. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility and pathogenicity of two H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from wild birds, GZA1 and XJ47, to mammals. The HA genes of both strains belonged to Eurasian isolates, while the other genes were derived from a variety of other subtypes of AIVs. Both strains can infect specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, BALB/c mice, and guinea pigs. The XJ47 strain spread horizontally in SPF chickens and guinea pigs. The GZA1 strain did not spread horizontally but caused higher weight loss and mild lung inflammation in mice. P12-GZA1- and P12-XJ47-adapted strains obtained after 12 passages in the lung of mice showed enhanced pathogenicity in mice, which led to obvious clinical symptoms, lung inflammation, and 100% death. Both adapted strains have the reported mutation T97I in the PA, and the reported mutation D701N in PB2 has been found in the P12-GZA1-adapted strain. This study provides an important scientific basis for the continuous monitoring of wild AIVs and the mechanism underlying AIV cross-species transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 9215 KiB  
Article
Senecavirus A Enhances Its Adaptive Evolution via Synonymous Codon Bias Evolution
by Simiao Zhao, Huiqi Cui, Zhenru Hu, Li Du, Xuhua Ran and Xiaobo Wen
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051055 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Synonymous codon bias in the viral genome affects protein translation and gene expression, suggesting that the synonymous codon mutant plays an essential role in influencing virulence and evolution. However, how the recessive mutant form contributes to virus evolvability remains elusive. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Synonymous codon bias in the viral genome affects protein translation and gene expression, suggesting that the synonymous codon mutant plays an essential role in influencing virulence and evolution. However, how the recessive mutant form contributes to virus evolvability remains elusive. In this paper, we characterize how the Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, utilizes synonymous codon mutations to influence its evolution, resulting in the adaptive evolution of the virus to adverse environments. The phylogenetic tree and Median-joining (MJ)-Network of these SVA lineages worldwide were constructed to reveal SVA three-stage genetic development clusters. Furthermore, we analyzed the codon bias of the SVA genome of selected strains and found that SVA could increase the GC content of the third base of some amino acid synonymous codons to enhance the viral RNA adaptive evolution. Our results highlight the impact of recessive mutation of virus codon bias on the evolution of the SVA and uncover a previously underappreciated evolutionary strategy for SVA. They also underline the importance of understanding the genetic evolution of SVA and how SVA adapts to the adverse effects of external stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 2682 KiB  
Article
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection Induces Autophagosome Formation but Inhibits Autolysosome Formation during Replication
by Jae-Yeon Park, Jihoon Ryu, Eui-Ju Hong and Hyun-Jin Shin
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051050 - 15 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the mechanism involved in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication and autophagic flux. In this study, we found that as PEDV replicated, production of LC3-II was significantly induced up to 24 h post-infection (hpi). Interestingly, [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the mechanism involved in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication and autophagic flux. In this study, we found that as PEDV replicated, production of LC3-II was significantly induced up to 24 h post-infection (hpi). Interestingly, although there was significant production of LC3-II, greater p62 accumulation was simultaneously found. Pretreatment with rapamycin significantly induced PEDV replication, but autolysosome formation was reduced. These results were confirmed by the evaluation of ATG5/ATG12 and LAMP1/LAMP2. Taken together, we conclude that PEDV infection induces autophagosome formation but inhibits autolysosome formation during replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 4546 KiB  
Review
Insights into the Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Associated with Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems and Single Regulators
by Noel Gahamanyi, Dae-Geun Song, Leonard E. G. Mboera, Mecky I. Matee, Dieudonné Mutangana, Raghavendra G. Amachawadi, Erick V. G. Komba and Cheol-Ho Pan
Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13(2), 188-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13020016 - 5 May 2022
Viewed by 2979
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major aetiologies of diarrhoea. Understanding the processes and virulence factors contributing to C. jejuni fitness is a cornerstone for developing mitigation strategies. Two-component signal transduction systems, known as two-component systems (TCSs), along with single regulators with no [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major aetiologies of diarrhoea. Understanding the processes and virulence factors contributing to C. jejuni fitness is a cornerstone for developing mitigation strategies. Two-component signal transduction systems, known as two-component systems (TCSs), along with single regulators with no obvious cognate histidine kinase, help pathogens in interacting with their environments, but the available literature on C. jejuni is limited. A typical TCS possesses histidine kinase and response regulator proteins. The objective of this review was to provide insights into the virulence of C. jejuni associated with TCSs and single regulators. Despite limited research, TCSs are important contributors to the pathogenicity of C. jejuni by influencing motility (FlgSR), colonisation (DccRS), nutrient acquisition (PhosSR and BumSR), and stress response (RacRS). Of the single regulators, CbrR and CosR are involved in bile resistance and oxidative stress response, respectively. Cross-talks among TCSs complicate the full elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. Although progress has been made in characterising C. jejuni TCSs, shortfalls such as triggering signals, inability to induce mutations in some genes, or developing suitable in vivo models are still being encountered. Further research is expected to shed light on the unexplored sides of the C. jejuni TCSs, which may allow new drug discoveries and better control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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3 pages, 486 KiB  
Comment
The Prevalence of Porcine Circovirus-like Viruses in China Presents New Challenges to the Diagnosis of Diarrhea-Associated Viruses. Comment on Yang et al. Epidemiology and Evolution of Emerging Porcine Circovirus-like Viruses in Pigs with Hemorrhagic Dysentery and Diarrhea Symptoms in Central China from 2018 to 2021. Viruses 2021, 13, 2282
by Meng Zeng, Chihai Ji, Yuan Sun and Jingyun Ma
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050962 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Recently, a report in Viruses has highlighted the problem of porcine circovirus-like (PCL) virus [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Evolutionary Dynamics of Mexican Lineage H5N2 Avian Influenza Viruses
by Wanhong Xu, Roberto Navarro-López, Mario Solis-Hernandez, Francisco Liljehult-Fuentes, Miguel Molina-Montiel, María Lagunas-Ayala, Marisol Rocha-Martinez, Eduardo Ferrara-Tijera, Juan Pérez de la Rosa and Yohannes Berhane
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050958 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
We have demonstrated for the first time a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) using complete genome sequences (n = 189), from its first isolation in 1993 until 2019. Our study showed that the Mexican lineage [...] Read more.
We have demonstrated for the first time a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) using complete genome sequences (n = 189), from its first isolation in 1993 until 2019. Our study showed that the Mexican lineage H5N2 AIV originated from the North American wild bird gene pool viruses around 1990 and is currently circulating in poultry populations of Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Taiwan. Since the implementation of vaccination in 1995, the highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) H5N2 virus was eradicated from Mexican poultry in mid-1995. However, the low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H5N2 virus has continued to circulate in domestic poultry populations in Mexico, eventually evolving into five distinct clades. In the current study, we demonstrate that the evolution of Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs involves gene reassortments and mutations gained over time. The current circulating Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs are classified as LPAIV based on the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein cleavage site motif as well as the results of the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI). The immune pressure from vaccinations most likely has played a significant role in the positive selection of antigenic drift mutants within the Mexican H5N2 AIVs. Most of the identified substitutions in these viruses are located on the critical antigenic residues of the HA protein and as a result, might have contributed to vaccine failures. This study highlights and stresses the need for vaccine updates while emphasizing the importance of continued molecular monitoring of the HA protein for its antigenic changes compared to the vaccines used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 3724 KiB  
Article
Molecular Investigation of Recent Canine Parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) in Italy Revealed Distinct Clustering
by Marilena Carrino, Luca Tassoni, Mery Campalto, Lara Cavicchio, Monica Mion, Michela Corrò, Alda Natale and Maria Serena Beato
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050917 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Canine parvovirus Type 2 (CPV-2) is a worldwide distributed virus considered the major cause of viral gastroenteritis in dogs. Studies on Italian CPV-2 are restricted to viruses circulating until 2017. Only one study provided more updated information on CPV-2 but was limited to [...] Read more.
Canine parvovirus Type 2 (CPV-2) is a worldwide distributed virus considered the major cause of viral gastroenteritis in dogs. Studies on Italian CPV-2 are restricted to viruses circulating until 2017. Only one study provided more updated information on CPV-2 but was limited to the Sicily region. No information regarding the circulation and genetic characteristics of CPV-2 in Northeast Italy has been made available since 2015. The present study investigated the genetic characteristics of CPV-2 circulating in the dog population of Northeast Italy between 2013 and 2019. The VP2 gene of 67 CPV-2 was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify patterns of distribution. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis highlighted unique characteristics of Northeast Italian CPV-2 and interestingly depicted typical genetic clustering of the Italian CPV-2 strains, showing the existence of distinct CPV-2 genetic groups. Such analysis provided insights into the origin of some Italian CPV-2 genetic clusters, revealing potential introductions from East European countries and the spread of CPV-2 from South/Central to North Italy. This is the first report that describes the genetic characteristics of recent Italian CPV-2. Tracking the genetic characteristics of CPV-2 nationally and globally may have impact on understanding the evolution and distribution of CPV-2, in particular in light of the current humanitarian emergency involving Ukraine, with the massive and uncontrolled movement of people and pet animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 4307 KiB  
Article
First Report of Lumpy Skin Disease in Myanmar and Molecular Analysis of the Field Virus Isolates
by Min Thein Maw, Myint Myint Khin, David Hadrill, Irene Kasindi Meki, Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli, Maung Maung Kyin, Win Win Myint, Wai Zin Thein, Ohnmar Aye, Elisa Palamara, Ye Tun Win, Giovanni Cattoli and Charles Euloge Lamien
Microorganisms 2022, 10(5), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050897 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4774
Abstract
Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes lumpy skin disease in cattle and buffaloes, which is associated with significant animal production and economic losses. Since the 2000s, LSDV has spread from Africa to several countries in the Middle East; Europe; and Asia; including, more [...] Read more.
Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes lumpy skin disease in cattle and buffaloes, which is associated with significant animal production and economic losses. Since the 2000s, LSDV has spread from Africa to several countries in the Middle East; Europe; and Asia; including, more recently, several south-east Asian countries. In November 2020, Myanmar reported its first LSD outbreak. This study reports on the first incursion of LSD in Myanmar and the molecular analysis of the LSDV detected. Staff from the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Irrigation collected samples from cattle with suspected LSD infection. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations’ Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) and the Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/FAO program’s Animal Health and Production laboratory provided LSDV diagnostic support to two regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Myanmar. Samples from 13 cattle tested positive by real-time PCR. Selected samples underwent sequence analysis in IAEA laboratories. The results show that the Myanmar LSDV sequences clustered with LSDV isolates from Bangladesh and India, LSDV Kenya, and LSDV NI-2490. Further characterization showed that the Myanmar LSDV is 100% identical to isolates from Bangladesh and India, implying a common source of introduction. These findings inform diagnosis and development of control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
Whole-Genome Investigation of Salmonella Dublin Considering Mountain Pastures as Reservoirs in Southern Bavaria, Germany
by Corinna Klose, Nelly Scuda, Tobias Ziegler, David Eisenberger, Matthias Hanczaruk and Julia M. Riehm
Microorganisms 2022, 10(5), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050885 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Worldwide, Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is responsible for clinical disease in cattle and also in humans. In Southern Bavaria, Germany, the serovar was identified as a causative agent for 54 animal disease outbreaks in herds between 2017 and 2021. Most of these [...] Read more.
Worldwide, Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is responsible for clinical disease in cattle and also in humans. In Southern Bavaria, Germany, the serovar was identified as a causative agent for 54 animal disease outbreaks in herds between 2017 and 2021. Most of these emerged from cattle herds (n = 50). Two occurred in pig farms and two in bovine herds other than cattle. Genomic analysis of 88 S. Dublin strains isolated during these animal disease outbreaks revealed 7 clusters with 3 different MLST-based sequence types and 16 subordinate cgMLST-based complex types. Antimicrobial susceptibility investigation revealed one resistant and three intermediate strains. Furthermore, only a few genes coding for bacterial virulence were found among the isolates. Genome analysis enables pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility, serotyping, phylogeny, and follow-up traceback analysis. Mountain pastures turned out to be the most likely locations for transmission between cattle of different herd origins, as indicated by epidemiological data and genomic traceback analyses. In this context, S. Dublin shedding was also detected in asymptomatic herding dogs. Due to the high prevalence of S. Dublin in Upper Bavaria over the years, we suggest referring to this administrative region as “endemic”. Consequently, cattle should be screened for salmonellosis before and after mountain pasturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Screening for Virulence-Related Genes via a Transposon Mutant Library of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Using a Galleria mellonella Larvae Infection Model
by Jingyan Fan, Lelin Zhao, Qiao Hu, Siqi Li, Haotian Li, Qianqian Zhang, Geng Zou, Liangsheng Zhang, Lu Li, Qi Huang and Rui Zhou
Microorganisms 2022, 10(5), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10050868 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing lethal infections in pigs and humans. Identification of virulence-related genes (VRGs) is of great importance in understanding the pathobiology of a bacterial pathogen. To identify novel VRGs, a transposon (Tn) mutant [...] Read more.
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing lethal infections in pigs and humans. Identification of virulence-related genes (VRGs) is of great importance in understanding the pathobiology of a bacterial pathogen. To identify novel VRGs, a transposon (Tn) mutant library of S. suis strain SC19 was constructed in this study. The insertion sites of approximately 1700 mutants were identified by Tn-seq, which involved 417 different genes. A total of 32 attenuated strains were identified from the library by using a Galleria mellonella larvae infection model, and 30 novel VRGs were discovered, including transcription regulators, transporters, hypothetical proteins, etc. An isogenic deletion mutant of hxtR gene (ΔhxtR) and its complementary strain (CΔhxtR) were constructed, and their virulence was compared with the wild-type strain in G. mellonella larvae and mice, which showed that disruption of hxtR significantly attenuated the virulence. Moreover, the ΔhxtR strain displayed a reduced survival ability in whole blood, increased sensitivity to phagocytosis, increased chain length, and growth defect. Taken together, this study performed a high throughput screening for VRGs of S. suis using a G. mellonella larvae model and further characterized a novel critical virulence factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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19 pages, 5071 KiB  
Article
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3A Hijacks Sar1 and Sec12 for ER Remodeling in a COPII-Independent Manner
by Heng-Wei Lee, Yi-Fan Jiang, Hui-Wen Chang and Ivan-Chen Cheng
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040839 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Positive-stranded RNA viruses modify host organelles to form replication organelles (ROs) for their own replication. The enteroviral 3A protein has been demonstrated to be highly associated with the COPI pathway, in which factors operate on the ER-to-Golgi intermediate and the Golgi. However, Sar1, [...] Read more.
Positive-stranded RNA viruses modify host organelles to form replication organelles (ROs) for their own replication. The enteroviral 3A protein has been demonstrated to be highly associated with the COPI pathway, in which factors operate on the ER-to-Golgi intermediate and the Golgi. However, Sar1, a COPII factor exerting coordinated action at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites rather than COPI factors, is required for the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Therefore, further understanding regarding FMDV 3A could be key to explaining the differences and to understanding FMDV’s RO formation. In this study, FMDV 3A was confirmed as a peripheral membrane protein capable of modifying the ER into vesicle-like structures, which were neither COPII vesicles nor autophagosomes. When the C-terminus of 3A was truncated, it was located at the ER without vesicular modification. This change was revealed using mGFP and APEX2 fusion constructs, and observed by fluorescence microscopy and electron tomography, respectively. For the other 3A truncation, the minimal region for modification was aa 42–92. Furthermore, we found that the remodeling was related to two COPII factors, Sar1 and Sec12; both interacted with 3A, but their binding domains on 3A were different. Finally, we hypothesized that the N-terminus of 3A would interact with Sar1, as its C-terminus simultaneously interacted with Sec12, which could possibly enhance Sar1 activation. On the ER membrane, active Sar1 interacted with regions of aa 42–59 and aa 76–92 from 3A for vesicle formation. This mechanism was distinct from the traditional COPII pathway and could be critical for FMDV RO formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Profiling of the Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis from India
by Umarani Brahma, Akash Suresh, Shweta Murthy, Vasundhra Bhandari and Paresh Sharma
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040833 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterium known to cause severe infections in humans and animals. It is one of the major bacteria causing subclinical and clinical mastitis, leading to significant economic losses in livestock industry. In this study, we have isolated and characterized [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic bacterium known to cause severe infections in humans and animals. It is one of the major bacteria causing subclinical and clinical mastitis, leading to significant economic losses in livestock industry. In this study, we have isolated and characterized 80 S. aureus clinical isolates from mastitis-infected animals. The analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular typing, biofilm production and genetic determinants was performed to understand molecular and phenotypic features of the prevalent pathogen. Our antibiotic susceptibility assays showed the majority (57.5%) of isolates to be multidrug-resistant (MDR), 38.75% resistant and 3.75% sensitive. We found 25% isolates to be methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on oxacillin susceptibility assays. In the MRSA group, maximum isolates (95%) were MDR compared to 45% in MSSA. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed 15 different STs; ST-97 was the most common ST, followed by ST-2459, ST-1, ST-9 and ST-72. The agr typing showed agr-I as the most common type, followed by type II and III. Most isolates developed biofilms, which ranged in intensity from strong to weak. The presence or absence of lukS, a virulence-related gene, was found to have a substantial relationship with the biofilm phenotype. However, no significant association was found between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance or other virulence genes. We also found four MRSA isolates that were mecA negative based on molecular assays. Our findings reveal the prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates in India that are biofilm positive and have critical genetic factors for disease pathogenesis causing bovine mastitis. This study emphasizes the need for the comprehensive surveillance of S. aureus and other mastitis-causing pathogens to control the disease effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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10 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Novel Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza H6N1 in Backyard Chicken in Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Chilean Polynesia
by Francisca Di Pillo, Cecilia Baumberger, Carla Salazar, Pablo Galdames, Soledad Ruiz, Bridgett Sharp, Pamela Freiden, Shaoyuan Tan, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Christopher Hamilton-West and Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040718 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Little is known about the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wildlife and domestic animals in Polynesia. Here, we present the results of active AIV surveillance performed during two sampling seasons in 2019 on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Tracheal and cloacal swabs [...] Read more.
Little is known about the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wildlife and domestic animals in Polynesia. Here, we present the results of active AIV surveillance performed during two sampling seasons in 2019 on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Tracheal and cloacal swabs as well as sera samples were obtained from domestic backyard poultry, while fresh faeces were collected from wild birds. In addition to detecting antibodies against AIV in 46% of the domestic chickens in backyard production systems tested, we isolated a novel low pathogenic H6N1 virus from a chicken. Phylogenetic analysis of all genetic segments revealed that the virus was closely related to AIV’s circulating in South America. Our analysis showed different geographical origins of the genetic segments, with the PA, HA, NA, NP, and MP gene segments coming from central Chile and the PB2, PB1, and NS being closely related to viruses isolated in Argentina. While the route of introduction can only be speculated, our analysis shows the persistence and independent evolution of this strain in the island since its putative introduction between 2015 and 2016. The results of this research are the first evidence of AIV circulation in domestic birds on a Polynesian island and increase our understanding of AIV ecology in region, warranting further surveillance on Rapa Nui and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Key Residues within the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp1α Replicase Protein Required for Degradation of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Molecules
by Yuanyuan Liu, Peng Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Yongning Zhang, Xin Guo, Jun Han and Hanchun Yang
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040690 - 26 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2432
Abstract
The nonstructural protein 1α (nsp1α) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to target swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) for degradation, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this report, we further mapped the critical residues within [...] Read more.
The nonstructural protein 1α (nsp1α) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been shown to target swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) for degradation, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this report, we further mapped the critical residues within nsp1α by site-directed mutagenesis. We identified a cluster of residues (i.e., Phe17, Ile81, Phe82, Arg86, Thr88, Gly90, Asn91, Phe94, Arg97, Thr160, and Asn161) necessary for this function. Interestingly, they are all located in a structurally relatively concentrated region. Further analysis by reverse genetics led to the generation of two viable viral mutants, namely, nsp1α-G90A and nsp1α-T160A. Compared to WT, nsp1α-G90A failed to co-localize with either chain of SLA-I within infected cells, whereas nsp1α-T160A exhibited a partial co-localization relationship. Consequently, the mutant nsp1α-G90A exhibited an impaired ability to downregulate SLA-I in infected macrophages as demonstrated by Western blot, indirect immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry analysis. Consistently, the ubiquitination level of SLA-I was significantly reduced in the conditions of both infection and transfection. Together, our results provide further insights into the mechanism underlying PRRSV subversion of host immunity and have important implications in vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 1971 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characterization of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Circulating in Naturally Infected Sheep in Central Italy
by Chiara Arcangeli, Martina Torricelli, Carla Sebastiani, Daniele Lucarelli, Marcella Ciullo, Fabrizio Passamonti, Monica Giammarioli and Massimo Biagetti
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040686 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) represent a very heterogeneous group of ss-RNA viruses that infect sheep and goats worldwide. They cause important, deleterious effects on animal production and limit the animal trade. SRLVs show a high genetic variability due to high mutation rate and [...] Read more.
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) represent a very heterogeneous group of ss-RNA viruses that infect sheep and goats worldwide. They cause important, deleterious effects on animal production and limit the animal trade. SRLVs show a high genetic variability due to high mutation rate and frequent recombination events. Indeed, five genotypes (A–E) and several subtypes have been detected. The aim of this work was to genetically characterize SRLVs circulating in central Italy. On this basis, a phylogenetic study on the gag-pol genetic region of 133 sheep, collected from 19 naturally infected flocks, was conducted. In addition, to evaluate the frequency of mutation and the selective pressure on this region, a WebLogo 3 analysis was performed, and the dN/dS ratio was computed. The results showed that 26 samples out of 133 were clustered in genotype A and 106 samples belonged to genotype B, as follows: A9 (n = 8), A11 (n = 10), A24 (n = 7), B1 (n = 2), B2 (n = 59), and B3 (n = 45). No recombination events were found. Mutations were localized mainly in the VR-2 region, and the dN/dS ratio of 0.028 indicated the existence of purifying selection. Since the genetic diversity of SRLVs could make serological identification difficult, it is important to perform molecular characterization to ensure a more reliable diagnosis, to maintain flock health status, and for the application of local and national control programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 7890 KiB  
Article
Prevalence, Genetics and Evolutionary Properties of Eurasian Avian-like H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses in Liaoning
by Hailing Li, Haoyu Leng, Siqi Tang, Chaofan Su, Yina Xu, Yongtao Wang, Jiaming Lv, Shiwei Zhang, Yali Feng, Shaokang Song and Ying Zhang
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030643 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Swine influenza virus (SIV) is an important zoonosis pathogen. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus (2009/H1N1) highlighted the importance of the role of pigs as intermediate hosts. Liaoning province, located in northeastern China, has become one of the largest pig-farming areas [...] Read more.
Swine influenza virus (SIV) is an important zoonosis pathogen. The 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza A virus (2009/H1N1) highlighted the importance of the role of pigs as intermediate hosts. Liaoning province, located in northeastern China, has become one of the largest pig-farming areas since 2016. However, the epidemiology and evolutionary properties of SIVs in Liaoning are largely unknown. We performed systematic epidemiological and genetic dynamics surveillance of SIVs in Liaoning province during 2020. In total, 33,195 pig nasal swabs were collected, with an SIV detection rate of 2%. Our analysis revealed that multiple subtypes of SIVs are co-circulating in the pig population in Liaoning, including H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 SIVs. Furthermore, 24 H1N1 SIVs were confirmed to belong to the EA H1N1 lineage and divided into two genotypes. The two genotypes were both triple reassortant, and the predominant one with polymerase, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein (M) genes originating from 2009/H1N1; hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes originating from EA H1N1; and the nonstructural protein (NS) gene originating from triple reassortant H1N2 (TR H1N2) was detected in Liaoning for the first time. According to our evolutionary analysis, the EA H1N1 virus in Liaoning will undergo further genome variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
An Improved αvβ6-Receptor-Expressing Suspension Cell Line for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Production
by Yongjie Harvey, Ben Jackson, Brigid Veronica Carr, Kay Childs, Katy Moffat, Graham Freimanis, Chandana Tennakoon, Nicholas Juleff and Julian Seago
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030621 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2767
Abstract
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and South America, where outbreaks in cloven-hooved livestock threaten food security and have severe economic impacts. Vaccination in endemic regions remains the most effective control strategy. Current FMD vaccines are produced [...] Read more.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and South America, where outbreaks in cloven-hooved livestock threaten food security and have severe economic impacts. Vaccination in endemic regions remains the most effective control strategy. Current FMD vaccines are produced from chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) grown in suspension cultures of baby hamster kidney 21 cells (BHK-21). Strain diversity means vaccines produced from one subtype may not fully protect against circulating disparate subtypes, necessitating the development of new vaccine strains that “antigenically match”. However, some viruses have proven difficult to adapt to cell culture, slowing the manufacturing process, reducing vaccine yield and limiting the availability of effective vaccines, as well as potentiating the selection of undesired antigenic changes. To circumvent the need to cell culture adapt FMDV, we have used a systematic approach to develop recombinant suspension BHK-21 that stably express the key FMDV receptor integrin αvβ6. We show that αvβ6 expression is retained at consistently high levels as a mixed cell population and as a clonal cell line. Following exposure to field strains of FMDV, these recombinant BHK-21 facilitated higher virus yields compared to both parental and control BHK-21, whilst demonstrating comparable growth kinetics. The presented data supports the application of these recombinant αvβ6-expressing BHK-21 in future FMD vaccine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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0 pages, 3666 KiB  
Article
Efficacy Assessment of Phage Therapy in Treating Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Mastitis in Mice
by Fei Teng, Xiaoyu Xiong, Songsong Zhang, Guiwei Li, Ruichong Wang, Lanlan Zhang, Xiaona Wang, Han Zhou, Jiaxuan Li, Yijing Li, Yanping Jiang, Wen Cui, Lijie Tang, Li Wang and Xinyuan Qiao
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030620 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3146 | Correction
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phage against mastitis induced by drug-resistant S. aureus in a mouse model. In this study, five S. aureus phages—4086-1, 4086-2, 4086-3, 4086-4, and 4086-6—were isolated from milk samples secreted by mastitis [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phage against mastitis induced by drug-resistant S. aureus in a mouse model. In this study, five S. aureus phages—4086-1, 4086-2, 4086-3, 4086-4, and 4086-6—were isolated from milk samples secreted by mastitis cows. Transmission electron microscopy showed that all the five phages had icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails, which are typical characteristics of the family Podoviridae. All these phages were species-specific against S. aureus. The one-step growth curve showed a short latency period (10–20 min) and high burst size (up to 400 PFU/infected cell). To evaluate the effectiveness of the phage 4086-1 in the treatment against mastitis, a mouse model of mastitis was challenged with drug-resistant S. aureus. The results showed the proliferation of S. aureus in the mammary glands was significantly inhibited after treating by phage 4086-1. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly, which demonstrated the phages could effectively alleviate the inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the histopathological analysis showed that inflammatory infiltration in the mammary glands was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that phage may be a promising alternative therapy against mastitis caused by drug-resistant S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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22 pages, 5316 KiB  
Article
Expanding the Universe of Hemoplasmas: Multi-Locus Sequencing Reveals Putative Novel Hemoplasmas in Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris), the Largest Land Mammals in Brazil
by Anna Claudia Baumel Mongruel, Emília Patrícia Medici, Ariel da Costa Canena, Ana Cláudia Calchi, Rosangela Zacarias Machado and Marcos Rogério André
Microorganisms 2022, 10(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030614 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest land mammal in Brazil and classified as a vulnerable species, according to the assessment of the risk of extinction. The present study aimed at investigating the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas in [...] Read more.
The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest land mammal in Brazil and classified as a vulnerable species, according to the assessment of the risk of extinction. The present study aimed at investigating the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas in free-ranging T. terrestris from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado biomes. Blood samples were collected from 94 living and eight road-killed tapirs, totalizing 125 samples Conventional PCR targeting four different genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, RNAse P, and dnaK) were performed, and the obtained sequences were submitted for phylogenetic, genotype diversity, and distance analyses. The association between hemoplasma positivity and possible risk variables (age, gender, and origin) was assessed. Out of 122 analyzed samples, 41 (41/122; 33.61% CI: 25.84–42.38%) were positive in the 16S rRNA-based PCR assay for hemoplasmas. Positivity for hemoplasmas did not differ between tapirs’ gender and age. Tapirs from Pantanal were 5.64 times more likely to present positive results for hemoplasmas when compared to tapirs sampled in Cerrado. BLASTn, phylogenetic, genotype diversity, and distance analyses performed herein showed that the sampled lowland tapirs might be infected by two genetically distinct hemoplasmas, namely ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoterrestris’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematotapirus’. While the former was positioned into “Mycoplasma haemofelis group” and closely related to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, the latter was positioned into “Mycoplasma suis group” and closely related to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematobos’. The impact of both putative novel species on tapir health status should be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 1099 KiB  
Article
The Use and Limitations of the 16S rRNA Sequence for Species Classification of Anaplasma Samples
by Mitchell T. Caudill and Kelly A. Brayton
Microorganisms 2022, 10(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030605 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4246
Abstract
With the advent of cheaper, high-throughput sequencing technologies, the ability to survey biodiversity in previously unexplored niches and geographies has expanded massively. Within Anaplasma, a genus containing several intra-hematopoietic pathogens of medical and economic importance, at least 25 new species have been [...] Read more.
With the advent of cheaper, high-throughput sequencing technologies, the ability to survey biodiversity in previously unexplored niches and geographies has expanded massively. Within Anaplasma, a genus containing several intra-hematopoietic pathogens of medical and economic importance, at least 25 new species have been proposed since the last formal taxonomic organization. Given the obligate intracellular nature of these bacteria, none of these proposed species have been able to attain formal standing in the nomenclature per the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes rules. Many novel species’ proposals use sequence data obtained from targeted or metagenomic PCR studies of only a few genes, most commonly the 16S rRNA gene. We examined the utility of the 16S rRNA gene sequence for discriminating Anaplasma samples to the species level. We find that while the genetic diversity of the genus Anaplasma appears greater than appreciated in the last organization of the genus, caution must be used when attempting to resolve to a species descriptor from the 16S rRNA gene alone. Specifically, genomically distinct species have similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, especially when only partial amplicons of the 16S rRNA are used. Furthermore, we provide key bases that allow classification of the formally named species of Anaplasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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24 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Risk Assessment for Bluetongue Disease and African Horse Sickness: The Risk of Entry and Exposure at a UK Zoo
by Elisabeth Nelson, William Thurston, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Hannah Jenkins, Mary Cameron, Simon Carpenter, Amanda Guthrie and Marion England
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030502 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause economically important diseases that are currently exotic to the United Kingdom (UK), but have significant potential for introduction and onward transmission. Given the susceptibility of animals kept in zoo collections to vector-borne diseases, [...] Read more.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause economically important diseases that are currently exotic to the United Kingdom (UK), but have significant potential for introduction and onward transmission. Given the susceptibility of animals kept in zoo collections to vector-borne diseases, a qualitative risk assessment for the introduction of BTV and AHSV to ZSL London Zoo was performed. Risk pathways for each virus were identified and assessed using published literature, animal import data and outputs from epidemiological models. Direct imports of infected animals, as well as wind-borne infected Culicoides, were considered as routes of incursion. The proximity of ongoing disease events in mainland Europe and proven capability of transmission to the UK places ZSL London Zoo at higher risk of BTV release and exposure (estimated as low to medium) than AHSV (estimated as very low to low). The recent long-range expansion of AHSV into Thailand from southern Africa highlights the need for vector competence studies of Palearctic Culicoides for AHSV to assess the risk of transmission in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 3457 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characteristics and Pathogenicity of a Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus with a Naturally Occurring Truncated ORF3 Gene
by Yuan-Hang Zhang, Hong-Xuan Li, Xi-Meng Chen, Liu-Hui Zhang, You-Yi Zhao, Ai-Fang Luo, Yu-Rong Yang, Lan-Lan Zheng and Hong-Ying Chen
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030487 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major pathogen that causes diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, with devastating impact on the pig industry. To further understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field strains, in this study the complete [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major pathogen that causes diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, with devastating impact on the pig industry. To further understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field strains, in this study the complete genomes of four PEDV variants (HN2021, CH-HNYY-2018, CH-SXWS-2018, and CH-HNKF-2016) obtained from immunized pig farms in central China between 2016 to 2021 were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome and S gene showed that the four strains identified in the present study had evolved into the subgroup G2a, but were distant from the vaccine strain CV777. Additionally, it was noteworthy that a new PEDV strain (named HN2021) belonging to the G2a PEDV subgroup was successfully isolated in vitro and it was further confirmed by RT-PCR that this isolate had a large natural deletion at 207–373 nt of the ORF3 gene, which has never been reported before. Particularly, in terms of pathogenicity evaluation, colostrum deprivation piglets challenged with PEDV HN2021 showed severe diarrhea and high mortality, confirming that PEDV HN2021 was a virulent strain. Hence, PEDV strain HN2021 of subgroup G2a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of recurring porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China. This study lays the foundation for better understanding of the genetic evolution and molecular pathogenesis of PEDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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19 pages, 3980 KiB  
Article
Highly Pathogenic PRRSV-Infected Alveolar Macrophages Impair the Function of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells
by Weifeng Sun, Weixin Wu, Nan Jiang, Xinna Ge, Yongning Zhang, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Lei Zhou and Hanchun Yang
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030452 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), especially the highly pathogenic strains, can cause serious acute lung injury (ALI), characterized by extensive hemorrhage, inflammatory cells and serous fluid infiltration in the lung vascular system. Meanwhile, the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) are [...] Read more.
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), especially the highly pathogenic strains, can cause serious acute lung injury (ALI), characterized by extensive hemorrhage, inflammatory cells and serous fluid infiltration in the lung vascular system. Meanwhile, the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) are essential for forming the air–blood barrier and keeping the water–salt balance to prevent leakage of circulating nutrients, solutes, and fluid into the underlying tissues. As well, they tightly regulate the influx of immune cells. To determine the possible relationship between the PMVECs’ function changes and lung vascular permeability during PRRSV infection, the PMVECs were co-cultured with HP-PRRSV-inoculated primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in transwell model, and then the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and comprehensive bioinformatics analysis were carried out to characterize the dynamic transcriptome landscapes of PMVECs. In total, 16,489 annotated genes were identified, with 275 upregulated and 270 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were characterized at both 18 and 24 h post PRRSV inoculation. The GO terms and KEGG pathways analysis indicated that the immune response, metabolic pathways, cell death, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, viral responses, and apoptotic process are significantly regulated upon co-culture with PRRSV-infected PAMs. Moreover, according to the TERR and dextran flux assay results, dysregulation of TJ proteins, including CLDN1, CLDN4, CLDN8, and OCLN, is further confirmed to correlate with the increased permeability of PMVECs. These transcriptome profiles and DEGs will provide valuable clues for further exploring the roles of PMVECs in PRRSV-induced ALI in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 3539 KiB  
Article
Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus 1, 4 and 5 in China: Occurrence in Multiple Sample Types and Implications for Wild and Captive Population Surveillance
by Nian Yang, Mingwei Bao, Biru Zhu, Qingzhong Shen, Xianming Guo, Wenwen Li, Ruchun Tang, Di Zhu, Yinpu Tang, David N. Phalen and Li Zhang
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020411 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are important causes of death in both captive and wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Nothing is known about the prevalence of EEHVs in wild or domestic elephants in China. To determine if EEHVs are present in elephants [...] Read more.
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are important causes of death in both captive and wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Nothing is known about the prevalence of EEHVs in wild or domestic elephants in China. To determine if EEHVs are present in elephants in China, 126 wild elephants from three populations and 202 captive individuals from zoos (n = 155) and the Wild Elephant Valley (n = 47) were screened using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assays with EEHV-redundant and EEHV1/4/5-specific primers. EEHV1B and EEHV4 were detected in samples from both wild (EEHV1B:8/126; EEHV4:2/126) and captive (EEHV1B:5/155; EEHV4:9/155) elephants, while EEHV1A (six cases) and EEHV5 (one case) were only present in the captive elephants from the Wild Elephant Valley. EEHV1 was detected in blood and trunk and oral swabs; EEHV4 was detected in trunk and oral swabs as well as feces; EEHV5 was found in trunk and oral swabs. No significant age or sex association with EEHV1A, EEHV1B, or EEHV5 positivity was observed. An age association with EEHV4 positivity was found, with all unweaned elephants being EEHV4 positive, but an association with the sex of the elephant was not observed. These findings represent the first documentation of EEHV presence in captive and wild elephants in China. These findings also document EEHV1B and EEHV4 shedding in feces and demonstrate the utility of fecal screening as a tool for investigating EEHV4 infection in wild populations of elephants. It is recommended that EEHV testing be included in surveillance programs for captive and wild elephants in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Identification of Cryptic Promoter Activity in cDNA Sequences Corresponding to PRRSV 5′ Untranslated Region and Transcription Regulatory Sequences
by Jayeshbhai Chaudhari, The Nhu Nguyen and Hiep L. X. Vu
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020400 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
To investigate the role of PRRSV nonstructural proteins (nsps) in viral RNA replication and transcription, we generated a cDNA clone of PRRSV strain NCV1 carrying the nanoluciferase (nluc) gene under the control of the transcription regulatory sequence 6 (TRS6) designated as [...] Read more.
To investigate the role of PRRSV nonstructural proteins (nsps) in viral RNA replication and transcription, we generated a cDNA clone of PRRSV strain NCV1 carrying the nanoluciferase (nluc) gene under the control of the transcription regulatory sequence 6 (TRS6) designated as pNCV1-Nluc. Cells transfected with the pNCV1-Nluc DNA plasmid produced an infectious virus and high levels of luciferase activity. Interestingly, cells transfected with mutant pNCV1-Nluc constructs carrying deletions in nsp7 or nsp9 regions also exhibited luciferase activity, although no infectious virus was produced. Further investigation revealed that the cDNA sequences corresponding to the PRRSV 5′ untranslated region (UTR) and TRS, when cloned upstream of the reporter gene nluc, were able to drive the expression of the reporter genes in the transfected cells. Luciferase signals from cells transfected with a reporter plasmid carrying PRRSV 5′ UTR or TRS sequences upstream of nluc were in the range of 6- to 10-fold higher compared to cells transfected with an empty plasmid carrying nluc only. The results suggest that PRRSV 5′ UTR and TRS-B in their cDNA forms possess cryptic eukaryotic promoter activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
African Swine Fever Virus K205R Induces ER Stress and Consequently Activates Autophagy and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway
by Qi Wang, Luyu Zhou, Jiang Wang, Dan Su, Dahua Li, Yongkun Du, Guoyu Yang, Gaiping Zhang and Beibei Chu
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020394 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3587
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is responsible for enormous economic losses in the global swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes approximate 160 proteins, most of whose functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of ASFV K205R in endoplasmic reticulum [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is responsible for enormous economic losses in the global swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes approximate 160 proteins, most of whose functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of ASFV K205R in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, and inflammation. We observed that K205R was located in both the cytosolic and membrane fractions, and formed stress granules in cells. Furthermore, K205R triggered ER stress and activated the unfolded protein response through activating the transcription factor 6, ER to nucleus signaling 1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 (EIF2AK3/PERK) signaling pathways. Moreover, K205R inhibited the serine/threonine kinase 1 and the mechanistic target of the rapamycin kinase signaling pathway, thereby activating unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1, and hence autophagy. In addition, K205R stimulated the translocation of P65 into the nucleus and the subsequent activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Inhibition of ER stress with a PERK inhibitor attenuated K205R-induced autophagy and NF-κB activation. Our data demonstrated a previously uncharacterized role of ASFV K205R in ER stress, autophagy, and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 2263 KiB  
Article
Differential Modulation of Innate Antiviral Profiles in the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cells of Chickens Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses of Different Virulence
by Rui Chen, Jinnan Chen, Yanhua Xiang, Yanyan Chen, Weiwei Shen, Weiwei Wang, Yihai Li, Ping Wei and Xiumiao He
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020393 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry around the world. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) are the first line of defense of the host against the infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry around the world. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) are the first line of defense of the host against the infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune antiviral signaling triggered by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), as well as macrophage activation and cytokine response in the intestinal lamina propria (ILP) cells after the oral challenge of IBDV in relation to IBDV virulence and disease pathogenesis. The results showed that the expression levels of TLR3, IRF7, IFN-α/β and the corresponding downstream antiviral factors OAS, PKR and Mx were all upregulated in the SPF chicken ILP cells at 8 h post-infection (hpi) and 12 hpi. Similarly, macrophages were activated, with the initial macrophage M1 activation observed at 8 hpi, but then it rapidly shifted to a non-protective M2-type. Both Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) types of cytokines were differentially upregulated during the early stage of infection; however, the Th1 cytokines exhibited stronger activation before 8 hpi compared to those of the Th2 cytokines. Interestingly, differential regulations of gene expression induced by different IBDV strains with different virulence were detected. The HLJ0504-like very virulent (vv) IBDV strain NN1172 induced stronger activation of TLR3-IFN-α/β pathway, macrophages and the Th1/2 cytokines’ expression, compared to those induced by the attenuated strain B87 at 8 hpi and 12 hpi in the ILP cells. In conclusion, the innate antiviral response mediated by the TLR3-IRF7 pathway, macrophage activation and cytokine expression in the GALT cells at the early stage of IBDV infection was differentially modulated, and the HLJ0504-like vvIBDV strain triggered stronger activation than the attenuated vaccine strain, and that may play an important role in the progression of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
ADAM17 Is an Essential Factor for the Infection of Bovine Cells with Pestiviruses
by Marianne Zaruba, Hann-Wei Chen, Ole Frithjof Pietsch, Kati Szakmary-Braendle, Angelika Auer, Marlene Mötz, Kerstin Seitz, Stefan Düsterhöft, Aspen M. Workman, Till Rümenapf and Christiane Riedel
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020381 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
The entry of BVDV into bovine cells was studied using CRIB cells (cells resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus [BVDV]) that have evolved from MDBK cells by a spontaneous loss of susceptibility to BVDV. Recently, larger genetic deletions were reported but [...] Read more.
The entry of BVDV into bovine cells was studied using CRIB cells (cells resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus [BVDV]) that have evolved from MDBK cells by a spontaneous loss of susceptibility to BVDV. Recently, larger genetic deletions were reported but no correlation of the affected genes and the resistance to BVDV infection could be established. The metalloprotease ADAM17 was reported as an essential attachment factor for the related classical swine fever virus (CSFV). To assess whether ADAM17 might be involved in the resistance of CRIB-1 cells to pestiviruses, we analyzed its expression in CRIB-1 and MDBK cells. While ADAM17 protein was detectable in MBDK cells, it was absent from CRIB-1 cells. No functional full-length ADAM17 mRNA could be detected in CRIB cells and genetic analysis revealed the presence of two defective alleles. Transcomplementation of functional ADAM17 derived from MDBK cells in CRIB-1 cells resulted in a nearly complete reversion of their resistance to pestiviral infection. Our results demonstrate that ADAM17 is a key cellular factor for the pestivirus resistance of CRIB-1 cells and establishes its essential role for a broader range of pestiviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 5373 KiB  
Article
Encephalomyocarditis Virus 2A Protein Inhibited Apoptosis by Interaction with Annexin A2 through JNK/c-Jun Pathway
by Ruochan Han, Lin Liang, Tong Qin, Sa Xiao and Ruiying Liang
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020359 - 9 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Encephalomyocarditis virus can cause myocarditis and encephalitis in pigs and other mammals, thus posing a potential threat to public health safety. The 2A protein is an important virulence factor of EMCV. Previous studies have shown that the 2A protein may be related to [...] Read more.
Encephalomyocarditis virus can cause myocarditis and encephalitis in pigs and other mammals, thus posing a potential threat to public health safety. The 2A protein is an important virulence factor of EMCV. Previous studies have shown that the 2A protein may be related to the inhibition of apoptosis by virus, but its specific molecular mechanism is not clear. In this study, the 2A protein was expressed in Escherichia coli in order to find interacting cell proteins. A pull down assay, coupled with mass spectrometry, revealed that the 2A protein possibly interacted with annexin A2. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal imaging analysis further demonstrated that the 2A protein interacted with annexin A2 in cells. In reducing the expression of annexin A2 by siRNA, the ability of the 2A protein to inhibit apoptosis was weakened and the proliferation of EMCV was slowed down. These results suggest that annexin A2 is closely related to the inhibition of apoptosis by 2A. Furthermore, both RT-PCR and western blot results showed that the 2A protein requires annexin A2 interaction to inhibit apoptosis via JNK/c-Jun pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that the 2A protein inhibits apoptosis by interacting with annexin A2 via the JNK/c-Jun pathway. These findings provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis underlying EMCV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 6539 KiB  
Article
Structural Insights into Alphavirus Assembly Revealed by the Cryo-EM Structure of Getah Virus
by Ming Wang, Zhenzhao Sun, Chenxi Cui, Shida Wang, Decheng Yang, Zhibin Shi, Xinyu Wei, Pengfei Wang, Weiyao Sun, Jing Zhu, Jiaqi Li, Bingchen Du, Zaisi Liu, Lili Wei, Chunguo Liu, Xijun He, Xiangxi Wang, Xinzheng Zhang and Jingfei Wang
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020327 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Getah virus (GETV) is a member of the alphavirus genus, and it infects a variety of animal species, including horses, pigs, cattle, and foxes. Human infection with this virus has also been reported. The structure of GETV has not yet been determined. In [...] Read more.
Getah virus (GETV) is a member of the alphavirus genus, and it infects a variety of animal species, including horses, pigs, cattle, and foxes. Human infection with this virus has also been reported. The structure of GETV has not yet been determined. In this study, we report the cryo-EM structure of GETV at a resolution of 3.5 Å. This structure reveals conformational polymorphism of the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 at icosahedral 3-fold and quasi-3-fold axes, which is believed to be a necessary organization in forming a curvature surface of virions. In our density map, three extra densities are identified, one of which is believed a “pocket factor”; the other two are located by domain D of E2, and they may maintain the stability of E1/E2 heterodimers. We also identify three N-glycosylations at E1 N141, E2 N200, and E2 N262, which might be associated with receptor binding and membrane fusion. The resolving of the structure of GETV provides new insights into the structure and assembly of alphaviruses and lays a basis for studying the differences of biology and pathogenicity between arthritogenic and encephalitic alphaviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic Profiling of Mouse Mast Cells upon Pathogenic Avian H5N1 and Pandemic H1N1 Influenza a Virus Infection
by Yuling Tang, Hongping Wu, Caiyun Huo, Shumei Zou, Yanxin Hu and Hanchun Yang
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020292 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
Mast cells, widely residing in connective tissues and on mucosal surfaces, play significant roles in battling against influenza A viruses. To gain further insights into the host cellular responses of mouse mast cells with influenza A virus infection, such as the highly pathogenic [...] Read more.
Mast cells, widely residing in connective tissues and on mucosal surfaces, play significant roles in battling against influenza A viruses. To gain further insights into the host cellular responses of mouse mast cells with influenza A virus infection, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 and the human pandemic influenza A H1N1, we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related signaling pathways. Our data revealed that H1N1-infected mouse mast P815 cells presented more up- and down-regulated genes compared with H5N1-infected cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that the up-regulated genes in H1N1 infection were enriched for more degranulation-related cellular component terms and immune recognition-related molecular functions terms, while the up-regulated genes in H5N1 infection were enriched for more immune-response-related biological processes. Network enrichment of the KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs in H1N1 infection were specifically enriched for the FoxO and autophagy pathways. In contrast, DEGs in H5N1 infection were specifically enriched for the NF-κB and necroptosis pathways. Interestingly, we found that Nbeal2 could be preferentially activated in H5N1-infected P815 cells, where the level of Nbeal2 increased dramatically but decreased in HIN1-infected P815 cells. Nbeal2 knockdown facilitated inflammatory cytokine release in both H1N1- and H5N1-infected P815 cells and aggravated the apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells. In summary, our data described a transcriptomic profile and bioinformatic characterization of H1N-1 or H5N1-infected mast cells and, for the first time, established the crucial role of Nbeal2 during influenza A virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
Levistolide A Inhibits PEDV Replication via Inducing ROS Generation
by Wei Zeng, Jingping Ren, Zhonghua Li, Changsheng Jiang, Qi Sun, Chang Li, Wan Li, Wentao Li and Qigai He
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020258 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3715
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variant strains adversely affect the production of pigs globally. Vaccines derived from PEDV traditional strains impart less protection against the variant strains. Moreover, sequence diversity among different PEDV variant strains is also complicated. This necessitates developing alternative antiviral [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variant strains adversely affect the production of pigs globally. Vaccines derived from PEDV traditional strains impart less protection against the variant strains. Moreover, sequence diversity among different PEDV variant strains is also complicated. This necessitates developing alternative antiviral strategies for defending against PEDV. This study explored a natural product, Levistolide A (LA), to possess antiviral activity against PEDV. LA was found to suppress PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner. And the inhibitory effect of LA against PEDV was maintained in the course of time. In terms of viral RNA and protein production, LA also showed a strong inhibitory effect. In addition, LA was indicated to inhibit PEDV from attaching to the cellular membrane or penetrating the cells. Further study revealed that LA can induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the corresponding inhibitor, NAC, was found to antagonize the effect of LA on inhibiting PEDV replication. This illustrated that the LA-induced ROS generation played an important role in its anti-PEDV activity. LA was also identified to stimulate ER stress, which is an important consequence of ROS production and was proven to be able to inhibit PEDV replication. To conclude, this study revealed that LA can inhibit PEDV replication via inducing ROS generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 8592 KiB  
Article
SGIV Induced and Exploited Cellular De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis for Virus Entry and Replication
by Qi Zheng, Youhua Huang, Liqun Wang, Ya Zhang, Xixi Guo, Xiaohong Huang and Qiwei Qin
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020180 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
Considerable attention has been paid to the roles of lipid metabolism in virus infection due to its regulatory effects on virus replication and host antiviral immune response. However, few literature has focused on whether lipid metabolism is involved in the life cycle of [...] Read more.
Considerable attention has been paid to the roles of lipid metabolism in virus infection due to its regulatory effects on virus replication and host antiviral immune response. However, few literature has focused on whether lipid metabolism is involved in the life cycle of lower vertebrate viruses. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is the causative aquatic virus that extensively causes fry and adult groupers death. Here, the potential roles of cellular de novo fatty acid synthesis in SGIV infection was investigated. SGIV infection not only increased the expression levels of key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis in vivo/vitro, including acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), but it also induced the formation of lipid droplets (LDs), suggesting that SGIV altered de novo fatty acid synthesis in host cells. Using the inhibitor and specific siRNA of ACC1 and FASN, we found that fatty acid synthesis was essential for SGIV replication, evidenced by their inhibitory effects on CPE progression, viral gene transcription, protein expression and virus production. Moreover, the inhibitor of fatty acid β-oxidation could also reduce SGIV replication. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis but not β-oxidation markedly blocked virus entry during the life cycle of SGIV infection. In addition, we also found that inhibition of ACC1 and FASN increased the IFN immune and inflammatory response during SGIV infection. Together, our data demonstrated that SGIV infection in vitro regulated host lipid metabolism and, in that process, cellular fatty acid synthesis might exert crucial roles during SGIV infection via regulating virus entry and host immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
In the Search of Marine Pestiviruses: First Case of Phocoena Pestivirus in a Belt Sea Harbour Porpoise
by Iben Stokholm, Nicole Fischer, Christine Baechlein, Alexander Postel, Anders Galatius, Line Anker Kyhn, Charlotte Bie Thøstesen, Sara Persson, Ursula Siebert, Morten Tange Olsen and Paul Becher
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010161 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
Pestiviruses are widespread pathogens causing severe acute and chronic diseases among terrestrial mammals. Recently, Phocoena pestivirus (PhoPeV) was described in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) of the North Sea, expanding the host range to marine mammals. While the role of the virus [...] Read more.
Pestiviruses are widespread pathogens causing severe acute and chronic diseases among terrestrial mammals. Recently, Phocoena pestivirus (PhoPeV) was described in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) of the North Sea, expanding the host range to marine mammals. While the role of the virus is unknown, intrauterine infections with the most closely related pestiviruses— Bungowannah pestivirus (BuPV) and Linda virus (LindaV)—can cause increased rates of abortions and deaths in young piglets. Such diseases could severely impact already vulnerable harbour porpoise populations. Here, we investigated the presence of PhoPeV in 77 harbour porpoises, 277 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) collected in the Baltic Sea region between 2002 and 2019. The full genome sequence of a pestivirus was obtained from a juvenile female porpoise collected along the coast of Zealand in Denmark in 2011. The comparative Bayesian phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between the new PhoPeV sequence and previously published North Sea sequences with a recent divergence from genotype 1 sequences between 2005 and 2009. Our findings provide further insight into the circulation of PhoPeV and expand the distribution from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea region with possible implications for the vulnerable Belt Sea and endangered Baltic Proper harbour porpoise populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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19 pages, 31099 KiB  
Article
Novel Neutralizing Epitope of PEDV S1 Protein Identified by IgM Monoclonal Antibody
by Techit Thavorasak, Monrat Chulanetra, Kittirat Glab-ampai, Karsidete Teeranitayatarn, Thaweesak Songserm, Rungrueang Yodsheewan, Nawannaporn Sae-lim, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk, Nitat Sookrung and Wanpen Chaicumpa
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010125 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4036
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes devastating enteric disease that inflicts huge economic damage on the swine industry worldwide. A safe and highly effective PEDV vaccine that contains only the virus-neutralizing epitopes (not enhancing epitope), as well as a ready-to-use PEDV neutralizing antibody [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes devastating enteric disease that inflicts huge economic damage on the swine industry worldwide. A safe and highly effective PEDV vaccine that contains only the virus-neutralizing epitopes (not enhancing epitope), as well as a ready-to-use PEDV neutralizing antibody for the passive immunization of PEDV vulnerable piglets (during the first week of life) are needed, particularly for PEDV-endemic farms. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the recombinant S1 domain of PEDV spike (S) protein and tested their PEDV neutralizing activity by CPE-reduction assay. The mAb secreted by one hybrodoma clone (A3), that also bound to the native S1 counterpart from PEDV-infected cells (tested by combined co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting), neutralized PEDV infectivity. Epitope of the neutralizing mAb (mAbA3) locates in the S1A subdomain of the spike protein, as identified by phage mimotope search and multiple sequence alignment, and peptide binding-ELISA. The newly identified epitope is shared by PEDV G1 and G2 strains and other alphacoronaviruses. In summary, mAbA3 may be useful as a ready-to-use antibody for passive immunization of PEDV-susceptible piglets, while the novel neutralizing epitope, together with other, previously known protective epitopes, have potential as an immunogenic cocktail for a safe, next-generation PEDV vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 9791 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Ameliorates Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacillus cereus-Induced Cell Damage through Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasomes and Apoptosis in Bovine Endometritis
by Ning Liu, Xue Wang, Qiang Shan, Le Xu, Yanan Li, Bingxin Chu, Lan Yang, Jiufeng Wang and Yaohong Zhu
Microorganisms 2022, 10(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010137 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Bacillus cereus, considered a worldwide human food-borne pathogen, has brought serious health risks to humans and animals and huge losses to animal husbandry. The plethora of diverse toxins and drug resistance are the focus for B. cereus. As an alternative treatment [...] Read more.
Bacillus cereus, considered a worldwide human food-borne pathogen, has brought serious health risks to humans and animals and huge losses to animal husbandry. The plethora of diverse toxins and drug resistance are the focus for B. cereus. As an alternative treatment to antibiotics, probiotics can effectively alleviate the hazards of super bacteria, food safety, and antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and distribution of B. cereus in dairy cows and to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a model of endometritis induced by multi-drug-resistant B. cereus. A strong poisonous strain with a variety of drug resistances was used to establish an endometrial epithelial cell infection model. B. cereus was shown to cause damage to the internal structure, impair the integrity of cells, and activate the inflammatory response, while L. rhamnosus could inhibit cell apoptosis and alleviate this damage. This study indicates that the B. cereus-induced activation of the NLRP3 signal pathway involves K+ efflux. We conclude that LGR-1 may relieve cell destruction by reducing K+ efflux to the extracellular caused by the perforation of the toxins secreted by B. cereus on the cell membrane surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 1701 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Live-Attenuated Genotype III Japanese Encephalitis Viral Vaccine against Circulating Genotype I Viruses in Swine
by Yi-Chin Fan, Yi-Ying Chen, Jo-Mei Chen, Chienjin Huang, Mei Huang and Shyan-Song Chiou
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010114 - 9 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Expansion of genotype I (GI) Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) has resulted in the replacement of the dominant genotype III (GIII) viruses, raising serious public health concerns for using GIII virus-derived vaccines to effectively control JEV epidemics. Therefore, this study used swine as the [...] Read more.
Expansion of genotype I (GI) Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV) has resulted in the replacement of the dominant genotype III (GIII) viruses, raising serious public health concerns for using GIII virus-derived vaccines to effectively control JEV epidemics. Therefore, this study used swine as the model to estimate the effectiveness of GIII live-attenuated vaccine against GI virus infection by comparing the incidence of stillbirth/abortion in gilts from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pig farms during the GI-circulation period. In total, 389 and 213 litters of gilts were recorded from four vaccinated and two non-vaccinated pig farms, respectively. All viruses detected in the aborted fetuses and mosquitoes belonged to the GI genotype during the study period. We thus estimated that the vaccine effectiveness of GIII live-attenuated vaccine against GI viruses in naive gilts based on the overall incidence of stillbirth/abortion and incidence of JEV-confirmed stillbirth/abortion was 65.5% (50.8–75.7%) and 74.7% (34.5–90.2%), respectively. In contrast to previous estimates, the GIII live-attenuated vaccine had an efficacy of 95.6% (68.3–99.4%) to prevent the incidence of stillbirth/abortion during the GIII-circulating period. These results indicate that the vaccine effectiveness of GIII live-attenuated JEV vaccine to prevent stillbirth/abortion caused by GI viruses is lower than that against GIII viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 2513 KiB  
Brief Report
Detection and Molecular Characterization of Canine Alphacoronavirus in Free-Roaming Dogs, Bangladesh
by Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Ariful Islam, Shariful Islam, Md Kaisar Rahman, Mojnu Miah, Md Shaheen Alam and Mohammed Ziaur Rahman
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010067 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread among the dog population and causes gastrointestinal disorders, and even fatal cases. As the zoonotic transmission of viruses from animals to humans has become a worldwide concern nowadays, it is necessary to screen free-roaming dogs for their common [...] Read more.
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread among the dog population and causes gastrointestinal disorders, and even fatal cases. As the zoonotic transmission of viruses from animals to humans has become a worldwide concern nowadays, it is necessary to screen free-roaming dogs for their common pathogens due to their frequent interaction with humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study to detect and characterize the known and novel Corona, Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses in free-roaming dogs in Bangladesh. Between 2009–10 and 2016–17, we collected swab samples from 69 dogs from four districts of Bangladesh, tested using RT-PCR and sequenced. None of the samples were positive for Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses. Only three samples (4.3%; 95% CI: 0.9–12.2) tested positive for Canine Coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV strains identified were branched with strains of genotype CCoV-II with distinct distances. They are closely related to CCoVs from the UK, China, and other CoVs isolated from different species, which suggests genetic recombination and interspecies transmission of CCoVs. These findings indicate that CCoV is circulating in dogs of Bangladesh. Hence, we recommend future studies on epidemiology and genetic characterization with full-genome sequencing of emerging coronaviruses in companion animals in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 3905 KiB  
Article
Immune Responses in Pregnant Sows Induced by Recombinant Lactobacillus johnsonii Expressing the COE Protein of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Provide Protection for Piglets against PEDV Infection
by Dianzhong Zheng, Xiaona Wang, Ning Ju, Zhaorui Wang, Ling Sui, Li Wang, Xinyuan Qiao, Wen Cui, Yanping Jiang, Han Zhou, Yijing Li and Lijie Tang
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010007 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4488
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) induced by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an intestinal infectious disease in pigs that causes serious economic losses to the pig industry. To develop an effective oral vaccine against PEDV infection, we used a swine-origin Lactobacillus johnsonii ( [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) induced by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an intestinal infectious disease in pigs that causes serious economic losses to the pig industry. To develop an effective oral vaccine against PEDV infection, we used a swine-origin Lactobacillus johnsonii (L. johnsonii) as an antigen delivery carrier. A recombinant strain pPG-T7g10-COE/L. johnsonii (L. johnsonii-COE) expressing COE protein (a neutralizing epitope of the viral spike protein) was generated. The immunomodulatory effect on dendritic cell in vitro and immunogenicity in pregnant sows was evaluated following oral administration. L. johnsonii-COE could activate monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) maturation and triggered cell immune responses. After oral vaccination with L. johnsonii-COE, levels of anti-PEDV-specific serum IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies as well as mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibody were induced in pregnant sows. High levels of PEDV-specific SIgA and IgG antibodies were detected in the maternal milk, which provide effective protection for the piglets against PEDV infection. In summary, oral L. johnsonii-COE was able to efficiently activate anti-PEDV humoral and cellular immune responses, demonstrating potential as a vaccine for use in sows to provide protection of their piglets against PEDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 4851 KiB  
Article
Nanopore-Based Direct RNA-Sequencing Reveals a High-Resolution Transcriptional Landscape of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
by Riteng Zhang, Peixin Wang, Xin Ma, Yifan Wu, Chen Luo, Li Qiu, Basit Zeshan, Zengqi Yang, Yefei Zhou and Xinglong Wang
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122531 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3426
Abstract
The TRS-mediated discontinuous transcription process is a hallmark of Arteriviruses. Precise assessment of the intricate subgenomic RNA (sg mRNA) populations is required to understand the kinetics of viral transcription. It is difficult to reconstruct and comprehensively quantify splicing events using short-read sequencing, making [...] Read more.
The TRS-mediated discontinuous transcription process is a hallmark of Arteriviruses. Precise assessment of the intricate subgenomic RNA (sg mRNA) populations is required to understand the kinetics of viral transcription. It is difficult to reconstruct and comprehensively quantify splicing events using short-read sequencing, making the identification of transcription-regulatory sequences (TRS) particularly problematic. Here, we applied long-read direct RNA sequencing to characterize the recombined RNA molecules produced in porcine alveolar macrophages during early passage infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Based on sequencing two PRRSV isolates, namely XM-2020 and GD, we revealed a high-resolution and diverse transcriptional landscape in PRRSV. The data revealed intriguing differences in subgenomic recombination types between the two PRRSVs while also demonstrating TRS-independent heterogeneous subpopulation not previously observed in Arteriviruses. We find that TRS usage is a regulated process and share the common preferred TRS in both strains. This study also identified a substantial number of TRS-mediated transcript variants, including alternative-sg mRNAs encoding the same annotated ORF, as well as putative sg mRNAs encoded nested internal ORFs, implying that the genetic information encoded in PRRSV may be more intensively expressed. Epigenetic modifications have emerged as an essential regulatory layer in gene expression. Here, we gained a deeper understanding of m5C modification in poly(A) RNA, elucidating a potential link between methylation and transcriptional regulation. Collectively, our findings provided meaningful insights for redefining the transcriptome complexity of PRRSV. This will assist in filling the research gaps and developing strategies for better control of the PRRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 24475 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Associations and Molecular Evolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus in China from 2017 to 2021
by Dongchang He, Min Gu, Xiyue Wang, Xiaoquan Wang, Gairu Li, Yayao Yan, Jinyuan Gu, Tiansong Zhan, Huiguang Wu, Xiaoli Hao, Guoqing Wang, Jiao Hu, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shuo Su, Chan Ding and Xiufan Liu
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122524 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3897
Abstract
Highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) emerged in China in 2016. HP H7N9 AIV caused at least 33 human infections and has been circulating in poultry farms continuously since wave 5. The genetic divergence, geographic patterns, and hemagglutinin adaptive and parallel [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) emerged in China in 2016. HP H7N9 AIV caused at least 33 human infections and has been circulating in poultry farms continuously since wave 5. The genetic divergence, geographic patterns, and hemagglutinin adaptive and parallel molecular evolution of HP H7N9 AIV in China since 2017 are still unclear. Here, 10 new strains of HP H7N9 AIVs from October 2019 to April 2021 were sequenced. We found that HP H7N9 was primarily circulating in Northern China, particularly in the provinces surrounding the Bohai Sea (Liaoning, Hebei, and Shandong) since wave 6. Of note, HP H7N9 AIV phylogenies exhibit a geographical structure compatible with high levels of local transmission after unidirectional rapid geographical expansion towards the north of China in 2017. In addition, we showed that two major subclades were continually expanding with the viral population size undergoing a sharp increase after 2018 with an obvious seasonal tendency. Notably, the hemagglutinin gene showed signs of parallel evolution and positive selection. Our research sheds light on the current epidemiology, evolution, and diversity of HP H7N9 AIV that can help prevent and control the spreading of HP H7N9 AIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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10 pages, 2524 KiB  
Article
Idiopathic Chronic Diarrhea in Rhesus Macaques Is Not Associated with Enteric Viral Infections
by Eric Delwart, Michael J. Tisza, Eda Altan, Yanpeng Li, Xutao Deng, Dennis J. Hartigan-O’Connor and Amir Ardeshir
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122503 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2078
Abstract
While recent changes in treatment have reduced the lethality of idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD), this condition remains one of the most common causes of rhesus macaque deaths in non-human primate research centers. We compared the viromes in fecal swabs from 52 animals with [...] Read more.
While recent changes in treatment have reduced the lethality of idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD), this condition remains one of the most common causes of rhesus macaque deaths in non-human primate research centers. We compared the viromes in fecal swabs from 52 animals with late stage ICD and 41 healthy animals. Viral metagenomics targeting virus-like particles was used to identify viruses fecally shed by each animal. Five viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae, one to the Caliciviridae, one to the Parvoviridae, and one to the Adenoviridae families were identified. The fraction of reads matching each viral species was then used to estimate and compare viral loads in ICD cases versus healthy controls. None of the viruses detected in fecal swabs were strongly associated with ICD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 5929 KiB  
Article
The Autophagy Cargo Receptor SQSTM1 Inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection through Selective Autophagic Degradation of Double-Stranded Viral RNA
by Chenyang Xu, Tongtong Li, Jing Lei, Yina Zhang, Jiyong Zhou and Boli Hu
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122494 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
Selective autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic cargos, such as damaged organelles, invading pathogens, and protein aggregates. However, whether it targets double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of intracellular pathogens is still largely unknown. Here, we show that selective autophagy regulates the degradation of the infectious [...] Read more.
Selective autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic cargos, such as damaged organelles, invading pathogens, and protein aggregates. However, whether it targets double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of intracellular pathogens is still largely unknown. Here, we show that selective autophagy regulates the degradation of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) dsRNA genome. The amount of dsRNA decreased greatly in cells that overexpressed the autophagy-required protein VPS34 or autophagy cargo receptor SQSTM1, while it increased significantly in SQSTM1 or VPS34 knockout cells or by treating wild-type cells with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine or wortmannin. Confocal microscopy and structured illumination microscopy showed SQSTM1 colocalized with dsRNA during IBDV infection. A pull-down assay further confirmed the direct binding of SQSTM1 to dsRNA through amino acid sites R139 and K141. Overexpression of SQSTM1 inhibited the replication of IBDV, while knockout of SQSTM1 promoted IBDV replication. Therefore, our findings reveal the role of SQSTM1 in clearing viral dsRNA through selective autophagy, highlighting the antiviral role of autophagy in the removal of the viral genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 3179 KiB  
Article
The A179L Gene of African Swine Fever Virus Suppresses Virus-Induced Apoptosis but Enhances Necroptosis
by Jun Shi, Wei Liu, Miao Zhang, Jing Sun and Xiulong Xu
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122490 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3219
Abstract
A179L, a non-structural protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV), is capable of suppressing apoptosis by binding the BH3 domain of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins via a conserved ligand binding groove. Our present study aims to determine if A179L affects necroptosis, the [...] Read more.
A179L, a non-structural protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV), is capable of suppressing apoptosis by binding the BH3 domain of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins via a conserved ligand binding groove. Our present study aims to determine if A179L affects necroptosis, the second form of programmed cell death induced by DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report that A179L enhanced TNF-α or TSZ (TNF-α, Smac, and Z-Vad)-induced receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK1), RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain like peudokinase (MLKL) phosphorylation in L929 cells, a murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Sytox green staining revealed that A179L significantly increased the number of necroptotic cells in TSZ-treated L929 cells. Using human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to model DNA virus-induced cell death, we found that A179L blocked the HSV-1-induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 8, and caspase 3 and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in HSV-1-infected IPEC-DQ cells, a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line. In contrast, A179L transfection of IPEC-DQ cells enhanced HSV-1-induced RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL phosphorylation and increased the number of necroptotic cells. Consistently, A179L also suppressed apoptosis but enhanced the necroptosis induced by two RNA viruses, Sendai virus (SeV) and influenza virus (IAV). Our study uncovers a previously unrecognized role of A179L in regulating cell death and suggests that A179L re-directs its anti-apoptotic activity to necroptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
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