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Article

Characterization of Canine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Circulating in Dogs in China from 2016 to 2018

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
2
Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130122, China
3
Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
4
National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, Luoyang 471003, China
5
College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
6
College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin Medical University, Jilin 132013, China
7
College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Chao-Nan Lin
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112279
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
Avian H3N2 influenza virus follows cross-host transmission and has spread among dogs in Asia since 2005. After 2015–2016, a new H3N2 subtype canine influenza epidemic occurred in dogs in North America and Asia. The disease prevalence was assessed by virological and serological surveillance in dogs in China. Herein, five H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strains were isolated from 1185 Chinese canine respiratory disease samples in 2017–2018; these strains were on the evolutionary branch of the North American CIVs after 2016 and genetically far from the classical canine H3N2 strain discovered in China before 2016. Serological surveillance showed an HI antibody positive rate of 6.68%. H3N2 was prevalent in the coastal areas and northeastern regions of China. In 2018, it became the primary epidemic strain in the country. The QK01 strain of H3N2 showed high efficiency in transmission among dogs through respiratory droplets. Nevertheless, the virus only replicated in the upper respiratory tract and exhibited low pathogenicity in mice. Furthermore, highly efficient transmission by direct contact other than respiratory droplet transmission was found in a guinea pig model. The low-level replication in avian species other than ducks could not facilitate contact and airborne transmission in chickens. The current results indicated that a novel H3N2 virus has become a predominant epidemic strain in dogs in China since 2016 and acquired highly efficient transmissibility but could not be replicated in avian species. Thus, further monitoring is required for designing optimal immunoprophylactic tools for dogs and estimating the zoonotic risk of CIV in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine influenza virus; evolution; serological surveillance; transmission canine influenza virus; evolution; serological surveillance; transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Feng, Y.; Wang, T.; Ge, Y.; Kong, Y.; Sun, H.; Xiang, H.; Zhou, B.; Fang, S.; Xia, Q.; Hu, X.; Sun, W.; Wang, X.; Meng, K.; Lv, C.; Li, E.; Xia, X.; He, H.; Gao, Y.; Jin, N. Characterization of Canine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Circulating in Dogs in China from 2016 to 2018. Viruses 2021, 13, 2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112279

AMA Style

Li Y, Zhang X, Liu Y, Feng Y, Wang T, Ge Y, Kong Y, Sun H, Xiang H, Zhou B, Fang S, Xia Q, Hu X, Sun W, Wang X, Meng K, Lv C, Li E, Xia X, He H, Gao Y, Jin N. Characterization of Canine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Circulating in Dogs in China from 2016 to 2018. Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112279

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yuanguo, Xinghai Zhang, Yuxiu Liu, Ye Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Ye Ge, Yunyi Kong, Hongyu Sun, Haiyang Xiang, Bo Zhou, Shushan Fang, Qing Xia, Xinyu Hu, Weiyang Sun, Xuefeng Wang, Keyin Meng, Chaoxiang Lv, Entao Li, Xianzhu Xia, Hongbin He, Yuwei Gao, and Ningyi Jin. 2021. "Characterization of Canine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Circulating in Dogs in China from 2016 to 2018" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112279

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