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Article

Full Viral Genome Sequencing and Phylogenomic Analysis of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 (FHV-1) in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
2
White Oak Conservation, Yulee, FL 32097, USA
3
Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
4
Bioinformatics and Analytics Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
5
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
6
Birmingham Zoo, 2630 Cahaba Road, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chao-Nan Lin and Peck Toung Ooi
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112307
Received: 23 October 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) is endemic in captive cheetahs and sporadically causes devastating disease. Modified live vaccines (MLV), intended for use in domestic cats, are used in some captive cheetah populations and have been anecdotally linked to disease in certain subpopulations. Ten FHV-1 isolates from ten captive cheetahs and one isolate from an MLV used to inoculate four of the host animals were analyzed. Viral DNA was extracted for full-genome sequencing by Illumina MiSeq with viral genomes then used for phylogenomic and recombinational analyses. The FHV-1 shed by vaccinated cheetahs were almost identical to the MLV, with few variants among viral genomes. Eight cheetah FHV-1 isolates and the MLV were grouped in a clade along with FHV-1 isolates from domestic cats in the USA. The remaining two cheetah FHV-1 isolates (unknown host vaccine status) were not associated with a clade. The likely ancestral origin of these two isolates involves recombination events between Australian domestic cat and cheetah FHV-1 isolates. Collectively, these data suggest that the MLV is capable of causing clinical disease and viral shedding in some cheetahs and represents evidence of interspecies transmission of virus between domestic and wild cats. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline herpesvirus; herpes; Varicellovirus; cheetah; genome sequencing; phylogenomic; vaccines; modified live vaccine; veterinary feline herpesvirus; herpes; Varicellovirus; cheetah; genome sequencing; phylogenomic; vaccines; modified live vaccine; veterinary
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marino, M.E.; Mironovich, M.A.; Ineck, N.E.; Citino, S.B.; Emerson, J.A.; Maggs, D.J.; Coghill, L.M.; Dubovi, E.J.; Turner, R.C.; Carter, R.T.; Lewin, A.C. Full Viral Genome Sequencing and Phylogenomic Analysis of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 (FHV-1) in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Viruses 2021, 13, 2307. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112307

AMA Style

Marino ME, Mironovich MA, Ineck NE, Citino SB, Emerson JA, Maggs DJ, Coghill LM, Dubovi EJ, Turner RC, Carter RT, Lewin AC. Full Viral Genome Sequencing and Phylogenomic Analysis of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 (FHV-1) in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2307. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112307

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marino, Morgan E., Melanie A. Mironovich, Nikole E. Ineck, Scott B. Citino, Jessica A. Emerson, David J. Maggs, Lyndon M. Coghill, Edward J. Dubovi, Rachel C. Turner, Renee T. Carter, and Andrew C. Lewin. 2021. "Full Viral Genome Sequencing and Phylogenomic Analysis of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1 (FHV-1) in Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2307. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112307

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