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Evolutionary Dynamics of Mexican Lineage H5N2 Avian Influenza Viruses

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3M4, Canada
Animal Health General Directorate, Animal and Plant Health, Food Inspection and Food Safety National Services (SENASICA), Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA), Mexico City 06470, Mexico
United States-Mexico Commission for the Prevention of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Other Exotic Diseases of Animals, Mexico City 64590, Mexico
Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2S2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chao-Nan Lin, Peck Toung Ooi and Ayato Takada
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 958;
Received: 21 March 2022 / Revised: 25 April 2022 / Accepted: 27 April 2022 / Published: 3 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
We have demonstrated for the first time a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) using complete genome sequences (n = 189), from its first isolation in 1993 until 2019. Our study showed that the Mexican lineage H5N2 AIV originated from the North American wild bird gene pool viruses around 1990 and is currently circulating in poultry populations of Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Taiwan. Since the implementation of vaccination in 1995, the highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) H5N2 virus was eradicated from Mexican poultry in mid-1995. However, the low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H5N2 virus has continued to circulate in domestic poultry populations in Mexico, eventually evolving into five distinct clades. In the current study, we demonstrate that the evolution of Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs involves gene reassortments and mutations gained over time. The current circulating Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs are classified as LPAIV based on the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein cleavage site motif as well as the results of the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI). The immune pressure from vaccinations most likely has played a significant role in the positive selection of antigenic drift mutants within the Mexican H5N2 AIVs. Most of the identified substitutions in these viruses are located on the critical antigenic residues of the HA protein and as a result, might have contributed to vaccine failures. This study highlights and stresses the need for vaccine updates while emphasizing the importance of continued molecular monitoring of the HA protein for its antigenic changes compared to the vaccines used. View Full-Text
Keywords: H5N2 avian influenza virus; antigenic evolution; selection pressure; genetic and phylogenetic analyses H5N2 avian influenza virus; antigenic evolution; selection pressure; genetic and phylogenetic analyses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, W.; Navarro-López, R.; Solis-Hernandez, M.; Liljehult-Fuentes, F.; Molina-Montiel, M.; Lagunas-Ayala, M.; Rocha-Martinez, M.; Ferrara-Tijera, E.; Pérez de la Rosa, J.; Berhane, Y. Evolutionary Dynamics of Mexican Lineage H5N2 Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses 2022, 14, 958.

AMA Style

Xu W, Navarro-López R, Solis-Hernandez M, Liljehult-Fuentes F, Molina-Montiel M, Lagunas-Ayala M, Rocha-Martinez M, Ferrara-Tijera E, Pérez de la Rosa J, Berhane Y. Evolutionary Dynamics of Mexican Lineage H5N2 Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):958.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Wanhong, Roberto Navarro-López, Mario Solis-Hernandez, Francisco Liljehult-Fuentes, Miguel Molina-Montiel, María Lagunas-Ayala, Marisol Rocha-Martinez, Eduardo Ferrara-Tijera, Juan Pérez de la Rosa, and Yohannes Berhane. 2022. "Evolutionary Dynamics of Mexican Lineage H5N2 Avian Influenza Viruses" Viruses 14, no. 5: 958.

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