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Animal Coronavirus Diseases: Parallels with COVID-19 in Humans

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Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
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Animal Disease Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
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Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
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Viral Research and Experimental Medicine Centre (ViREMiCS), SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore 169856, Singapore
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Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
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Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404332, Taiwan
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Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10051, Taiwan
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenneth Lundstrom
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081507
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Veterinary Infectious Diseases)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus in humans, has expanded globally over the past year. COVID-19 remains an important subject of intensive research owing to its huge impact on economic and public health globally. Based on historical archives, the first coronavirus-related disease recorded was possibly animal-related, a case of feline infectious peritonitis described as early as 1912. Despite over a century of documented coronaviruses in animals, the global animal industry still suffers from outbreaks. Knowledge and experience handling animal coronaviruses provide a valuable tool to complement our understanding of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we present an overview of coronaviruses, clinical signs, COVID-19 in animals, genome organization and recombination, immunopathogenesis, transmission, viral shedding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. By drawing parallels between COVID-19 in animals and humans, we provide perspectives on the pathophysiological mechanisms by which coronaviruses cause diseases in both animals and humans, providing a critical basis for the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics against these deadly viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal coronavirus; COVID-19; DIVA; immunopathogenesis animal coronavirus; COVID-19; DIVA; immunopathogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-N.; Chan, K.R.; Ooi, E.E.; Chiou, M.-T.; Hoang, M.; Hsueh, P.-R.; Ooi, P.T. Animal Coronavirus Diseases: Parallels with COVID-19 in Humans. Viruses 2021, 13, 1507. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081507

AMA Style

Lin C-N, Chan KR, Ooi EE, Chiou M-T, Hoang M, Hsueh P-R, Ooi PT. Animal Coronavirus Diseases: Parallels with COVID-19 in Humans. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1507. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Chao-Nan, Kuan R. Chan, Eng E. Ooi, Ming-Tang Chiou, Minh Hoang, Po-Ren Hsueh, and Peck T. Ooi 2021. "Animal Coronavirus Diseases: Parallels with COVID-19 in Humans" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1507. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081507

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