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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2021, IECPS 2020

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science

Online | 1–15 December 2020

Volume Editor: Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science was held from the 1–15 December 2020 in Sciforum. The event was dedicated to the International Year of Plant Health (declared by the [...] Read more.
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Abstract
Multidisciplinary Screening of Three Species belonging to Caprifoliaceae Family Traditionally Used as Antidepressants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08643 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The essential oils (EOs) of the Eurasiatic Valeriana officinalis (Vo), the Himalayan Valeriana jatamansi (Vj) and Nardostachys jatamansi (Nj), are traditionally used to treat neurological disorders. A multidisciplinary approach based on micromorphology, DNA barcoding, EOs characterization as well as evaluation of the biological [...] Read more.
The essential oils (EOs) of the Eurasiatic Valeriana officinalis (Vo), the Himalayan Valeriana jatamansi (Vj) and Nardostachys jatamansi (Nj), are traditionally used to treat neurological disorders. A multidisciplinary approach based on micromorphology, DNA barcoding, EOs characterization as well as evaluation of the biological effects on the nervous system was carried out. Nj showed the highest inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (IC50 67.15 μg/mL), followed by Vo (IC50 127.30 μg/mL) and Vj (IC50 246.84 μg/mL). Microelectrode arrays analyses on rat cortical neurons revealed stronger inhibition by Nj (IC50 18.8 and 11.1 μg/mL) and Vo (16.5 and 22.5 μg/mL), compared with Vj (68.5 and 89.3 μg/mL). These results could be related to the different EOs composition and in particular to the different content of oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones, which represents a discriminating factor in determining the order of potency. In conclusion, this multidisciplinary approach could be a useful tool to quickly discriminate these three plant species and avoid adulterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
On Augmenting Growth, Photosynthesis, Enzymatic Activities and Nutrient Contents of Brassica juncea (L.) by the Application of Plant Growth Regulators
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08652 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 218
Abstract
In a simple randomized pot experiment, the effect of nine plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely benzyl amino purine, chlormequat, gibberellic acid, indole acetic acid, indole butyric acid, kinetin, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and triacontanol was studied on growth and physio-biochemical performance of mustard [...] Read more.
In a simple randomized pot experiment, the effect of nine plant growth regulators (PGRs), namely benzyl amino purine, chlormequat, gibberellic acid, indole acetic acid, indole butyric acid, kinetin, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and triacontanol was studied on growth and physio-biochemical performance of mustard (Brassica juncea L.)Plants were sprayed with a uniform concentration of PGRs each at 5 µM twice at 50 and 70 days after sowing (DAS). At 80 DAS, various parameters were studied. The data showed varied effects of PGRs on the various studied parameters. Among the PGRs, salicylic acid proved best for most of the parameters; for example, it increased root length by 35.92%, shoot length by 26.56%, root fresh mass by 33.15%, shoot dry mass by 31.86%, root dry mass by 37.09%, area per leaf 27.05%, chlorophyll content by 29.04%, photosynthetic rate by 29.91% and carbonic anhydrase activity by 28.82%. Gibberellic acid surpassed others for leaf relative water content, leaf phosphorous and potassium content. Moreover, triacontanol gave the maximum value for nitrate reductase activity and leaf nitrogen content. The data revealed the overall superiority of salicylic acid for improving the growth and physio-biochemical performance of mustard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Fruit-Associated Endophytes from Olive Cultivars with Different Levels of Resistance to Fruit Fly and Their Relationship with Pest Infestation
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08880 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important olive pest, with major economic importance in olive production worldwide. Different olive cultivars exhibit different propensities to fruit fly infestation and the causes are still unclear. Here, we want to disclose [...] Read more.
Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important olive pest, with major economic importance in olive production worldwide. Different olive cultivars exhibit different propensities to fruit fly infestation and the causes are still unclear. Here, we want to disclose the potential role of olive-associated endophytes in conferring such susceptibility differences. Accordingly, the endophytic microbial composition of infested and non-infested fruits from cultivars Madural (susceptible to olive fly) and Cobrançosa (less susceptible) were studied. A culture-dependent approach was used, the isolates being identified by sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (for fungi) and 16S rRNA gene regions (for bacteria). Overall, there was a larger consortium of bacteria associated with olives than fungi. The bacterial communities were predominantly composed of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, while the fungal isolates belonged to the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Both host cultivar and level of fly infestation had a negligible effect on fungal and bacterial community composition. Despite this, a clear positive association of microbial consortia with the resistant cultivar (Kocuria sp., Actinobacterium sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas citronellolis, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium sp., and Meristemomycetes arctostaphylos) and non-infested fruits (Kocuria sp., Stereum sp., and Vishniacozyma victoria) was found. Their functional roles in host cultivar susceptibility/resistance to the fruit fly is a topic that requires further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Observations on the Potential of Spiders as Natural Enemies of Trioza erytreae (del Guercio, 1918; Hemiptera: Triozidae) in the Citrus Agroecosystem in Portugal
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08877 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 155
Abstract
The “citrus greening disease” or huanglongbing is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus liberibacter spp. One vector of HLB, the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae (del Guercio, 1918), was recorded for the first time in 2014 in mainland Spain and since then it [...] Read more.
The “citrus greening disease” or huanglongbing is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus liberibacter spp. One vector of HLB, the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae (del Guercio, 1918), was recorded for the first time in 2014 in mainland Spain and since then it has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Measures against T. erytreae include chemical treatments and quarantine although eradication programmes have been of limited success or even failed. The biological control of T. erytreae has been little developed yet. Among natural enemies, spiders may encompass a promising group of predators. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of spiders as natural enemies of T. erytreae. A Citrus limon orchard was selected in northwestern Portugal in the area colonized by T. erytreae. A total of 100 webs (50 above and 50 below 1.5 m) were visually inspected throughout the orchard in August 2020. The family of the web-builder, web size, number of adults of T. erytreae captured by each web, and the temperature and humidity were registered. Temperature and humidity did not significantly differ between the two vertical strata. Web size was significantly higher in the lower strata whereas the number of captured adults of T. erytreae was significantly higher in the upper strata. The dominant family in the upper strata was Theridiidae corresponding with the most successful webs capturing adults of T. erytreae. Our results suggest that web architecture was the only factor driving the number of captured adults of T. erytreae. Thus, space web builders could be the most successful natural enemies of T. erytreae among aerial web builders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Exploring the Effects of Cold Plasma on Wheat Seed Surface, Germination and Growth
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08860 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Seeds have large economic importance all over the world. They are an essential source of minerals, proteins, starch, and oil reserves in the early stages of plant development and growth. A high abundance of such molecules makes seeds of cereals and legumes a [...] Read more.
Seeds have large economic importance all over the world. They are an essential source of minerals, proteins, starch, and oil reserves in the early stages of plant development and growth. A high abundance of such molecules makes seeds of cereals and legumes a major food source for the majority of the human world population. However, to gain optimal yield of important crops and to avoid pests, many farmers use pesticides and agrochemicals before, during, and/or after harvesting of crops. A wide and common use of such chemicals can cause pest resistance and harmful effects on soil and the surrounding environment, which represents a global threat to the environment. The non-thermal or “cold” plasma technology is becoming more and more popular in the field of agriculture. It has been successfully used by scientists for the treatment of various types of seeds under specific conditions. Plasma treatment has, in some cases, triggered specific responses in plant seed growth and development, which could be used to agricultural advantage. Many researchers have reported changes in hydrophilic properties of seed surface and increased water uptake. Moreover, plasma-treated seeds showed improved growth, increased yield and triggered possible plant resistance to abiotic stress such as drought and salinity. The objective of our experiment is to identify surface changes after cold plasma treatment, and the influence of plasma treatment on seed development and early growth. Different direct and indirect plasma treatments were applied on seeds of two winter wheat varieties. We examined and detected changes in the chemical composition of seed coat and changes in hydrophilic properties of seed surface. Plasma treatment also affected the dynamics of water uptake of seeds, germination rate and the root number of plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Understanding Fungal Communities of Olive Tree Leaves for Application to Climate Change Adaptation
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08876 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 191
Abstract
The olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea L.) is a typical plant of the Mediterranean vegetation, well adapted to drought and poor soils being also tolerant to high solar irradiance. The phyllosphere microbiota associated with these plants is likely to play a [...] Read more.
The olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea L.) is a typical plant of the Mediterranean vegetation, well adapted to drought and poor soils being also tolerant to high solar irradiance. The phyllosphere microbiota associated with these plants is likely to play a role in their tolerance to such harsh environmental conditions. Here, we have characterized the endophytic and epiphytic fungal community present in leaves of olive trees, for potential application of these insights to climate change adaptation. Leaf samples were collected from a rainfed olive orchard near Mirandela (NE Portugal). Fungi were isolated and counted from the surface and inner tissues of leaves. The isolates obtained were identified by ITS rRNA gene sequencing and their phylogenetic diversity was then analyzed. A Celerioriella-like species and two unassigned species belonging to Phaeomoniellaceae and Pleosporineae were the most abundant taxa within 23 species (out of 161) found in both epiphytic and endophytic subsamples. These strains are good candidates to be studied for their resilience to climate changes in order to be applied as “tolerance inducers” in olive crops from this Mediterranean area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Bacteria Associated with Philaenus spumarius for the Control of Xylella fastidiosa 
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08859 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The endosymbiotic bacteria that live within the body of insects are involved in many aspects of the host physiology, including reproduction and defense. Thus, the exploitation of these microorganisms may have practical applications for the management of vector-borne diseases. In the Mediterranean area, [...] Read more.
The endosymbiotic bacteria that live within the body of insects are involved in many aspects of the host physiology, including reproduction and defense. Thus, the exploitation of these microorganisms may have practical applications for the management of vector-borne diseases. In the Mediterranean area, Philaenus spumarius was identified as the main vector of Xylella fastidiosa. This xylem-restricted bacterium is responsible for several diseases in a variety of agricultural crops of high importance, for which there are not any effective control methods. Thus, in this work we evaluate different media types for the isolation and growth of bacteria living within P. spumarius adults, for their potential exploitation in the management of X. fastidiosa. Specifically, we compared the effect of minimal (Luria Bertani—LB) and complex (Modified Melin-Norkrans—MMN) media, with and without fetal bovine or gelling agents, on the number and diversity of bacteria. The collection of isolates obtained was further genetically characterized by repetitive element–based PCR method (BOX-PCR) and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The results showed no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of bacteria among the two media tested (LB and MMN). The addition of fetal bovine to the media leads to a slight increase in bacterial abundance, in particular in MMN medium. While the liquid media led to a significant increase in abundance, the solid media facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa. The comparison between BOX-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the analysis of 57 bacterial isolates revealed a greater discriminatory power of the former, allowing the differentiation of the bacteria even at the intra-species level. The clustering of the isolates using BOX-PCR fingerprinting was different to that obtained from the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing method proved to be more suitable in phylogenetic evaluations, generally grouping isolates belonging to the same genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Effect of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Shoot Organogenesis of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Epicotyl Explants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08843 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an economically valuable crop used in the production of nutraceutical supplements, functional food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, etc. However, the large-scale propagation of this plant has been limited by challenges regarding its low regeneration rate and the variety-/genotype-dependent [...] Read more.
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an economically valuable crop used in the production of nutraceutical supplements, functional food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, etc. However, the large-scale propagation of this plant has been limited by challenges regarding its low regeneration rate and the variety-/genotype-dependent response of the explants. Previously, it was shown that elevated endogenous auxin levels are inhibitory for shoot organogenesis and the use of auxin transport inhibitors may improve shoot regeneration in some recalcitrant species. This study explored the effect of the application of auxin transport inhibitors such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) on shoot induction in hemp. Epicotyls isolated from 7-day-old seedlings were used as explants. Explants were cultured on shoot regeneration media composed of Murashige and Skoog basal medium enriched with meta-topolin (mT) and tidiazuron TDZ (control), as well as media supplemented with a combination of TDZ or mT with auxin transport inhibitors NPA (0.0–20 mg L−1) and TIBA (0.0–0.5 mM). Shoot regeneration proceeded at 25 ± 2 °C with a 16 h photoperiod under a photosynthetic flux of 80 µmol m2 s−1. After three weeks of culture the following data were recorded: percentage of survival explants, percentage of explants producing axillary shoots, number of shoots per explant, and percentage of callusing and malformed explants. The use of a medium supplemented with NPA at a concentration of 10 mg L−1 for both hormonal treatments resulted in a higher number of shoots per explant as compared with the control (4.3 vs. 3.4 for TDZ and 3.7 vs. 2.8 for mT). The regeneration rate for TIBA treatment was lower than in the control medium. Moreover, inhibition of growth and necrosis of explants was observed. The results of this study demonstrate the promotional effect of NPA on shoot organogenesis in hemp in vitro cultures. Further studies on various plant materials (different genotypes/cultivars) and the effects of auxin transport inhibitors are recommended in order to establish the optimal protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Determination of Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Content and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Tomborissa comorensis Fruit
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08857 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 149
Abstract
The objective of this study was to perform phytochemical screening, estimate the total phenolics and flavonoids, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Tomborissa comorensis fruit. The dried and pulverized fruit of Tomborissa comorensis (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by the Soxhlet method [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to perform phytochemical screening, estimate the total phenolics and flavonoids, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Tomborissa comorensis fruit. The dried and pulverized fruit of Tomborissa comorensis (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by the Soxhlet method with increasing polarity of solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Three different methods, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power scavenging activity (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity, were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. Phytochemical screening concerns the presence of flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and tannins only on the methanol extract. The total phenolic and flavonoid content results show greater dominance in the methanol extract. All tests showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate extract shows high activity in DPPH radical scavenging activity, but in a reducing power assay, it is the methanol extract that manifested high activity. The results of this study show that the fruit of T. comorensis is a rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Between Eco-Philosophy and Conventional Agriculture: The Role of Fungicides from the Perspective of Climate Change
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08842 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
This research investigates a set of factors that can lead to natural imbalances in plants and provides an overview of agricultural economy in terms of innovative agricultural development, especially in the field of plant protection, taking into account the effects of climate change. [...] Read more.
This research investigates a set of factors that can lead to natural imbalances in plants and provides an overview of agricultural economy in terms of innovative agricultural development, especially in the field of plant protection, taking into account the effects of climate change. Environmental protection and sustainable management of natural resources and vulnerabilities regarding fertilizer application techniques are current concerns in agricultural development. The excessive and intrusive development generated by mega-tourism causes the degradation of the environment and society, reviving interest in methods of plant protection in order to preserve the biosphere. Climate change involves the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the adaptation of agricultural systems. In our opinion, these aspects are closely related to the use of various types of plant protection tools, especially fungicides. The plant–soil interdependence in agricultural practice is also highlighted in this paper. We found that products (chemicals) to control diseases in agricultural crops are increasingly used in agricultural areas, especially fungicides. The amount of fungicides in solid form increased in 2018 compared to the previous year by 5.7%. One of the main objectives in the field of agriculture is to maintain a low level of greenhouse gas emission. The emergence of modern agriculture in the 1960s, supported by harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers, has been detrimental to the field ecosystem. This research is based on the theories of eco-philosophy. Studies have shown that organic farming can significantly reduce the carbon footprint per ton of food produced compared to conventional agriculture, mainly due to the abandonment of the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The novelty of this research is the amalgamation of local village wisdom and traditions and inherited values as progressive tools for the application of a plant protection system in response to climate change and the pressure of diseases and pests. In this study, we try to highlight issues that, in our opinion, are important for the development of the agricultural sector towards a return to local methods typical of traditional farms, premises that will reduce fertilizer consumption and thus contribute to pest control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Transcriptional Down-Regulation of Various Genes in Alfalfa Enhances Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08888 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial legume esteemed for its yield, adaptability and superior nutritional quality as a forage crop. However, alfalfa production is often impacted by various environmental challenges such as drought and poor drainage throughout the growing season, which [...] Read more.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial legume esteemed for its yield, adaptability and superior nutritional quality as a forage crop. However, alfalfa production is often impacted by various environmental challenges such as drought and poor drainage throughout the growing season, which lead to a decline in farmers’ profitability. These factors are anticipated to become more problematic in the coming years due to global warming scenarios, and as such, there is a need for the development of alfalfa cultivars with enhanced abiotic stress resilience. In this study, five gene homologs (CBF2, ACBP3, TAC1, FAO3 and HB2) negatively regulating various abiotic stresses in other closely related crop species were identified in alfalfa, and RNAi genotypes exhibiting down-regulation of each gene, respectively, were generated. The RNAi genotypes were subjected to drought and flooding treatments, respectively, to assess their responses to abiotic stresses. Preliminary results demonstrated that alfalfa genotypes with reduced expression of TAC1 exhibited increased tolerance to drought, while the down-regulation of ACBP3 and HB2 in alfalfa led to enhanced tolerance to flooding. Further experiments are underway to unravel the mechanisms driving increased abiotic stress tolerance in these genotypes. Our aim is to use the knowledge gained in this study to produce transgene-free highly adaptable alfalfa germplasm using advanced molecular breeding platforms such as genome editing via CRISPR/Cas, which could reduce production costs and enhance biomass production by minimizing forage crop losses under extreme weather conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Mutation of MsSPL8 Alleles via CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing Leads to Superior Abiotic Stress Resiliency and Distinct Morphological Alterations in Alfalfa
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08887 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Increase in demand for meat, milk and their products is expected to escalate considerably in coming years due to our ever-expanding population. While increases in forage crop production will therefore be a necessity to meet demand, our ability to attain high levels of [...] Read more.
Increase in demand for meat, milk and their products is expected to escalate considerably in coming years due to our ever-expanding population. While increases in forage crop production will therefore be a necessity to meet demand, our ability to attain high levels of forage crop productivity is likely to be constrained by typical environmental pressures such as drought and salinity due to climate change. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the world’s most widely grown forage species, with a cropping area of over 30 million hectares worldwide. As such, there is a critical need to exploit advanced molecular breeding technologies in this species with the aim of rapidly developing alfalfa cultivars with improved biomass, as well as resiliency to various types of abiotic stress. It has been shown previously that the RNAi-mediated down-regulation of the miRNA156 target gene, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE8 (MsSPL8), enhances biomass production, as well as drought and salinity tolerance, in alfalfa. However, due to negative public perception and regulatory constraints surrounding the use of transgenic crops, it remains a challenge to implement such a crop in growers’ fields. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing provides an alternative breeding tool that yields germplasm bearing a mutation that is fundamentally identical to those achieved using conventional breeding approaches such as chemical mutagenesis, and the resulting plants can be made transgene-free in a straightforward manner. In this study, we successfully targeted MsSPL8 alleles using this technology in alfalfa, and isolated genotypes with mutations in approximately 25%, 50% and 75% of MsSPL8 alleles, respectively, in this tetraploid species. Furthermore, enhanced drought and salinity resistance, along with distinct morphological alterations including early flowering and reductions in internode length, were noted in the first generation of edited genotypes, which suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 can provide an effective breeding tool in alfalfa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Genomics-Assisted Mapping in Cicer-Ascochyta Pathosystem to Unravel the Quantitative Resistance Genes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08672 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
In many plant–pathogen interactions, the host resistance is governed by a combinatorial action of multiple genes termed as quantitative disease resistance (QDR). Three decades of genetic research on economically important interaction of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Ascochyta rabiei has [...] Read more.
In many plant–pathogen interactions, the host resistance is governed by a combinatorial action of multiple genes termed as quantitative disease resistance (QDR). Three decades of genetic research on economically important interaction of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Ascochyta rabiei has revealed quantitative nature of host resistance. Despite various genomic studies in chickpea-Ascochyta system, identification of narrowed QTL/gene remains elusive. We utilized a next-generation genomic tool, namely multiple quantitative trait loci sequencing (mQTL-seq), to trounce the hurdles in revealing QDR genes against Ascochyta blight (AB). The mQTL-seq analysis revealed two major QTLs (qABR4.1 and qABR4.2) and a novel minor QTL (qABR4.3) on assembled Ca4 chickpea chromosome that provides resistance against AB. Under the major qABR4.1, a transcriptional regulator CaAHL18 was identified as a candidate gene and CaNIP8 marker was developed from its polymorphic cis-regulatory region for molecular breeding. We are further fine-mapping the major qABR4.2 (27.55–33.49 Mb) and novel minor qABR4.3 (38.78–39.48 Mb) to elucidate the candidate genes and their molecular mechanism of resistance. Up until now, the second major QTL, qABR4.2 is narrowed to ~1.41 Mb from 5.41 Mb region via utilizing bi-parental CRIL-7 population genotyping and association analysis in various chickpea accessions. Further, to translate the obtained genetic information from our AB resistance study, we intend to introgress multiple fungal resistance loci (for AB and FW resistant desi accessions) in few selected higher yielding cultivated chickpea varieties. Our combinatorial approaches have helped in overcoming the chickpea-AB genetic mapping associated problems of AB resistance loci fine-mapping and their utilization in molecular breeding. Consequently, our work will provide landmark information on chickpea AB resistance for the convenience of biotechnologists and breeders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Modelling Biocontrol Agents as Plant Protection Tools
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08631 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 99
Abstract
In recent years, researchers have increasingly explored sustainable tools for plant protection against pathogens, including the use of biological control agents (BCAs), which have the potential to complement or replace chemical fungicides. However, global reliance on their use remains relatively insignificant and the [...] Read more.
In recent years, researchers have increasingly explored sustainable tools for plant protection against pathogens, including the use of biological control agents (BCAs), which have the potential to complement or replace chemical fungicides. However, global reliance on their use remains relatively insignificant and the factors influencing their efficacy remain unclear. The complex interactions among a target pathogen, a host plant, and the BCA population in a changing environment can be studied by process-based, weather-driven mathematical models, able to interpret the combined effects on BCA efficacy of: (i) BCA mechanism of action, (ii) timing of BCA application with respect to timing of pathogen infection (preventative vs. curative), (iii) temperature and moisture requirements for both pathogen and BCA growth, and (iv) BCA survival capability. When the model was used under three contrasting weather conditions for the control of Botrytis bunch rot in grapevine, BCA efficacy was mostly influenced by environmental conditions, accounting for > 90% of the variance in simulated biocontrol efficacy. These findings indicate that the environmental responses of BCAs should be considered during their selection, BCA survival capability should be considered during both selection and formulation, and weather conditions and forecasts should be considered at the time of BCA application in the field. Different commercial BCAs for the control of Botrytis cinerea showed different environmental requirements and adaptation capabilities; therefore, the most suitable BCA to be used for a specific field application may consider weather conditions and forecasts at the time of intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Remodeling of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolites in Durum Wheat: A Simple Response to Complex Stimuli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08641 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Plant stress studies dealing with a single stress approach have been useful for dissecting stress perception of defined stimuli and related gene expression and metabolic changes. However, in real-world scenarios, plants are simultaneously exposed to a plethora of stresses counteracted by mean of [...] Read more.
Plant stress studies dealing with a single stress approach have been useful for dissecting stress perception of defined stimuli and related gene expression and metabolic changes. However, in real-world scenarios, plants are simultaneously exposed to a plethora of stresses counteracted by mean of tailored responses completely different from the responses to individual stresses. Durum wheat seedlings were used as an experimental model to investigate the plant response to salinity (100 mM NaCl) and low/high light (350/900 μmol m–2 s–1) or low/high nitrogen (0.1/10 mM KNO3, respectively), focusing on the physiological and metabolic changes potentially involved in osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense. The data showed that durum wheat plants are able to fine-tune relatively few selected metabolites, in particular proline, amides, GABA, minor amino acids, hexoses, and glycine betaine, which may be the key actors in osmotic adjustment, scavenging of ROS, biochemical pH-stat, assimilation of the excess of ammonium, and signaling under the combined stresses. To unravel, in particular, the reason of proline, glycine betaine, and GABA accumulation and their possible mode of action, all possible roles for these metabolites under stress are considered, and mechanisms of action triggered by stresses suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Promising Bacteria for Glyphosate Degradation
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08872 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Soil contamination is particularly serious. One of the main factors contributing to this is the accelerated development of agriculture, which has led to a strong increase in the use of herbicides. Studies show that herbicides formulated on the basis of glyphosate have a [...] Read more.
Soil contamination is particularly serious. One of the main factors contributing to this is the accelerated development of agriculture, which has led to a strong increase in the use of herbicides. Studies show that herbicides formulated on the basis of glyphosate have a carcinogenic potential in laboratory animals, being classified by the WHO as a probable carcinogen for humans. In this context, our research works in the area of decontamination of agricultural soils, using native microorganisms, where the pollutants are transformed into by-products that are less harmful to the environment. A sampling of a wine farm in Douro was collected, followed by isolation of bacterial by means of selective cultures and their respective pure culture. Subsequently, bacterial tests were performed in vitro, with normal and in duplicate concentrations of glyphosate. In the end, 379 bacteria were isolated. The results were as expected, with greater bacterial growth occurring in low soil dilutions of around 26%, as well as in recommended concentrations. On the other hand, growth at high dilutions and concentrations was found to be lower, with a percentage of 12%. After bacterial tests on microplates, it was found that only 4.80% of the bacteria have the potential for glyphosate degradation. Through this study, it is concluded that in soils where the use of herbicides is recurrent, there are promising bacteria for their degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
A Different Point of View of Plant-Bacterial Interactions: RNA-Seq Analysis of a PGP Bacterial Endophyte Colonizing Rapeseed Plants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08726 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Some microbes are important players in plant fitness, contributing to their nutrient acquisition and protection against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Potential of Different Sources of Sulfur in Mitigating Cadmium Induced Toxicity in Mustard
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08727 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The response of five mustard cultivars, Pusa Tarak, RH-0742, Pusa Agrini, Giriraj and RH-406, to 0, 100 and 200 mg Cd/kg soil was evaluated in terms of photosynthetic and growth characteristics, antioxidant metabolism, oxidative stress and S-assimilation. The 200 Cd/kg soil was found [...] Read more.
The response of five mustard cultivars, Pusa Tarak, RH-0742, Pusa Agrini, Giriraj and RH-406, to 0, 100 and 200 mg Cd/kg soil was evaluated in terms of photosynthetic and growth characteristics, antioxidant metabolism, oxidative stress and S-assimilation. The 200 Cd/kg soil was found to show more detrimental effects on photosynthetic and growth characteristics than the 100 Cd/kg soil. Among these cultivars, cv. Giriraj showed the maximum resistance against Cd stress and showed the least reduction in photosynthetic and growth parameters with the maximum increase in antioxidant metabolism. Further the influence of optimum S (100 mg S kg−1 soil) and excess S (200 mg S kg−1 soil) in the form of different sources (gypsum, magnesium sulfate, elemental sulfur, and ammonium sulfate) was studied, and their involvement in countering Cd induced toxicity was evaluated. Both optimum S and excess S have a positive impact on the photosynthesis and growth of plants under controlled conditions, while excess S more conspicuously alleviated the detrimental effects of Cd. Among different S sources, elemental S proved to be more beneficial in alleviating Cd stress as compared to other sources by modulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and a sustained lower level of lipid peroxidation by reducing the contents of H2O2, and TBARS. The sulfur-induced aforementioned results were due to the production of S-containing amino acids such as cysteine, which is a constituent of reduced glutathione, and Cys-rich heavy metal chelators such as metallothionines and phytochelatins. These results suggest that S application in the elemental form can more potently induce antioxidant potential, S-assimilation, and photosynthetic attributes and most efficiently help Cd sequestration, playing a crucial role in plant tolerance to Cd stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Novel Copper Nanoparticles for the Control of Olive Foliar and Fruit Diseases
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08854 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Peacock spot caused by Spilocaea oleagina and anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp., are the most important foliar and fruit diseases of olives. Applications of copper-based fungicides are the main control measures for these pathogens. However, the replacement of copper-based products with more eco-friendly [...] Read more.
Peacock spot caused by Spilocaea oleagina and anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp., are the most important foliar and fruit diseases of olives. Applications of copper-based fungicides are the main control measures for these pathogens. However, the replacement of copper-based products with more eco-friendly alternatives is a priority. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of five novel nano-copper (Cu-NPs) formulations against the two major olive diseases. Two commercial copper-based formulations were included as reference treatments. The efficacy of Cu-NPs against Spilocaea oleagina was evaluated in one-year-old olive trees (cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis) under controlled environmental conditions in plant growth chambers, while the efficacy against Colletotrichum spp. was evaluated under field conditions on the same cultivar. Results showed that the most effective Cu-NPs against Colletotrichum spp. was 110_CN_S4_X1 which provided a mean control efficacy value of 61.03%, while the two commercial formulations of conventional copper products provided significantly lower control efficacy values of 35.06% and 45.45%. Similarly, three of the Cu-NPs tested (110_CN_S4_X1, 109_CC_S4_X2, 108_CN_S1_X1) were found to be highly effective against Spilocaea oleagina, with control efficacy values ranging from 60% to 67.5%. The results of this study are expected to contribute to the optimization of olive disease control and reduce the yield losses caused, using a new generation of biocides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Beneficial Microorganisms: The Best Partner to Improve Plant Adaptative Capacity
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08639 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The world is currently facing a high population increase, as well as climate change involving global warming and water shortages, which limits the agronomic productivity necessary to achieve food security for the growing population. As sessile organisms unable to run away from danger, [...] Read more.
The world is currently facing a high population increase, as well as climate change involving global warming and water shortages, which limits the agronomic productivity necessary to achieve food security for the growing population. As sessile organisms unable to run away from danger, plants are endowed with sophisticated mechanisms to overcome all stressing situations for survival, involving an enormous amount of chemical molecules specific for each situation. In addition, they establish intimate relationships with beneficial microorganisms, creating the plant microbiome. Within this microbiome are beneficial bacteria, known as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), which represent a great tool to boost plant fitness in different aspects, as they are able to trigger multiple targets simultaneously. The present work describes the physiological mechanisms involved in plant adaptation to water stress, nutrient absorption, and adaptative responses to biotic stress, and how bio-effectors are able to modulate these responses, focusing on the mechanisms involved in plant adaptation to water stress (salinity and water shortage), plant innate immunity, and general mechanisms involved in plant protection to pathogen outbreaks. A few examples in Solanum lycopersicum, Olea europea and Rubus sp illustrate the effects of PGPR in increasing plant adaptative capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Use of Molecular Dynamics to Decipher the Binding of Salicylic Acid to Proteins. Example of Arabidopsis Thaliana Chloroplastic GAPDH-A1
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08637 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Salicylic acid (SA) has an essential role in the responses of plants to pathogens. SA initiates defense signaling cascades by binding to proteins. NPR1 is a transcriptional coactivator and is a key target of SA binding. Many other proteins have been shown to [...] Read more.
Salicylic acid (SA) has an essential role in the responses of plants to pathogens. SA initiates defense signaling cascades by binding to proteins. NPR1 is a transcriptional coactivator and is a key target of SA binding. Many other proteins have been shown to bind SA. Among these proteins are important enzymes of primary metabolism. Here, we describe that the A1 isomer of chloroplast glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPA1) from Arabidopsis thaliana binds SA, as shown in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Additionally, we show that SA inhibits its GAPDH activity in vitro. To gain an insight into the underlying molecular interactions and binding mechanism, we combined in silico molecular docking experiments and molecular dynamics simulations on the free protein and protein–ligand complex. The molecular docking analysis led to the identification of two putative binding pockets for SA. A simulation in water of the complex between SA and the protein allowed us to determine that only one pocket, a surface cavity around Asn35, would efficiently bind SA in the presence of a solvent. The importance of this is further supported through experimental biochemical assays. Indeed, mutating GAPA1 Asn35 into Gly or Arg81 into Leu strongly diminished the ability of the enzyme to bind SA. The very same cavity is responsible for the binding of NADP+ to GAPA1. NADH inhibited, in a dose-response manner, the binding of SA to GAPA1, validating our data. The use of the methodology to study SA binding to other proteins will be discussed at the end of the talk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Abstract
Analysis of the Potential of a Pseudomonas Bacterial Strain to Promote Brassica napus Plant Growth and Study of Its Inoculation Effect on Root Bacterial Associated Communities
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08848 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 111
Abstract
Because of their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties, microbes play crucial roles in plant development, making them potential candidates for substituting chemical fertilizers, especially when the soil conditions are not the most appropriate to obtain maximum crop yields. This is the case of strain Pseudomonas [...] Read more.
Because of their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties, microbes play crucial roles in plant development, making them potential candidates for substituting chemical fertilizers, especially when the soil conditions are not the most appropriate to obtain maximum crop yields. This is the case of strain Pseudomonas brassicacearum CDVBN10, a bacterial endophyte isolated from rapeseed (Brassica napus) roots. Previous in vitro, in planta and in silico experiments have demonstrated that strain CDVBN10 has interesting PGP potential. This endophyte synthetizes cellulose, produces siderophores, solubilizes P, promotes plant height and root length in rapeseed seedlings, and carries genes implicated in several PGP pathways. Based on these data, we conducted greenhouse experiments using this strain as a biofertilizer under normal and salinity stress conditions, finding significant improvements in those inoculated plants, compared to the negative control. To prove its biofertilizer potential under field conditions, we carried out a field trial in which plants inoculated with CDVBN10 showed a 216%, 174.3%, and 197.8% increase in number of pods, seed weight, and aerial part weight, respectively. Along-read (SMRT; PacBio) 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed in root samples from this field trials to study possible shifts on the rapeseed root microbiome due to the inoculation with CDVBN10. Interestingly, despite the great plant improvements, there were no significant differences in root bacterial communities of inoculated plants; thus, other potential beneficial members of the plant microbiome had not been displaced. According to the results, the strain P. brassicacearum CDVBN10 is suggested as a promising bacterial biofertilizer with great performance on B. napus crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)

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Jump to: Research

Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Seeds Moringa oleifera Lam. Present in Urban Forests as a Coagulant-Flocculant for Water Treatment
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08553 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 168
Abstract
The objective of the work was to evaluate the efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural coagulant-flocculant in the treatment of water for human consumption. Seeds were collected from trees present in forest remnants of the city of Ibagué (Colombia), dried, pulverized, [...] Read more.
The objective of the work was to evaluate the efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural coagulant-flocculant in the treatment of water for human consumption. Seeds were collected from trees present in forest remnants of the city of Ibagué (Colombia), dried, pulverized, and subjected to the process of extraction of the active agents from organic solvents; samples were taken from river surface waters and with a Latin square design (DCL) that grouped two factors (water pH and extract dosage). The coagulant action was evaluated in the tests carried out with jar tests. According to the ranges of pH (4, 5, 6 and 7) and dosages (5, 10, 15 and 20 mL) used, a greater reduction of the turbidity values was obtained in the conditions of pH 6 with a dosage of 10 mL of coagulant solution, and pH 7 with a dosage of 10 mL of coagulant solution. The tests carried out showed that the coagulation-flocculation levels of moringa seeds do not vary significantly concerning the reports in the literature for Colombia. Their performance is associated with the factors established in the experimental design and maintains experimental efficiency against coagulants conventional used for the purification of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Establishment of an Efficient In Vitro Culture System in Dicentra × hybrida
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08565 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Dicentra × hybrida is a popular ornamental hybrid, cultivated in parks and gardens worldwide. To date, there are no reports on establishing a plant tissue culture system in this species. This study aims to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol in D. × hybrida [...] Read more.
Dicentra × hybrida is a popular ornamental hybrid, cultivated in parks and gardens worldwide. To date, there are no reports on establishing a plant tissue culture system in this species. This study aims to develop an efficient micropropagation protocol in D. × hybrida ‘Amore Rose’ for further reproduction and breeding. Shoots of in vivo-grown plants were dissected and washed with running tap water. Next, shoot segments were bathed in tap water with a drop of detergent for 30 min; then, immersed in 70% (v/v) ethanol for 1 min. Following the initial disinfection, explants were surface sterilized with 0.4–0.8% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 20 min and, finally, washed thrice with sterile distilled water (20 min each). The rosette explants were inoculated polarly in the modified Murashige and Skoog medium devoid of plant growth regulators and cultured in a growth room with a 16 h photoperiod. After one month, contamination-free explants were transferred on the kinetin-supplemented medium. The disinfection efficiency reached 10–40%. All disinfected explants were capable of developing healthy shoots. The multiplication ratio, i.e., the number of secondary explants produced, reached up to 6.0. All developed shoots regenerated roots spontaneously. The obtained plantlets were successfully acclimatized to ex vitro conditions. The described here protocol can be recommended for the in vitro propagation of Dicentra × hybrida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Assessment of the Genetic Diversity of Ulex europaeus in Maui, California, Hawaii and New Zealand by a Method of Microsatellite Markers
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08564 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 121
Abstract
One of the most serious, invasive, allohexaploid plant species, Ulex europaeus, is originally from western Europe and is now spreading to the world by some unknown pathways. Plants often show phenotypic plasticity according to their environment, but elucidating the fact that the [...] Read more.
One of the most serious, invasive, allohexaploid plant species, Ulex europaeus, is originally from western Europe and is now spreading to the world by some unknown pathways. Plants often show phenotypic plasticity according to their environment, but elucidating the fact that the differences are derived from environmental or genetic effects is very important for further study. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the genetic distances among Ulex europaeus from four different regions, namely Maui, California, Hawaii and New Zealand. The microsatellite method, which has been frequently used to test the genetic distances of the hexaploid plant species, was recently used for assessment because a normal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) often shows genotypic ambiguity on hexaploids. We tested the leaf samples of 37 mother trees from four regions (Maui: 11; California: 4; Hawaii: 7; New Zealand: 15) at five microsatellite loci. After polymerase chain reaction analyses (PCR), dinucleotide-repeat motifs (DRMs) were counted and compared to test the genetic distances of the samples. As a result, a dendrogram and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that Ulex europaeus sampled in four different regions were genetically very close. If they show any morphological differences, they are inferred to be derived from environmental effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Increase of Calcium in ‘Rocha’ Pear (Pyrus communis L.) for Development of Functional Foods
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08668 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 209
Abstract
The food industry will face determinant challenges in the future, namely, feeding a growing population, set to reach up to 9 billion people by 2050, while maintaining food quality, in circumstances of resource limitations and sustainable use. In this outlook, minimizing mineral deficits [...] Read more.
The food industry will face determinant challenges in the future, namely, feeding a growing population, set to reach up to 9 billion people by 2050, while maintaining food quality, in circumstances of resource limitations and sustainable use. In this outlook, minimizing mineral deficits in the human diet can prevent health diseases. Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in human organisms, performing both structural and signaling functions, its deficits being associated with the development of osteoporosis and other pathologies. To minimize this issue, foliar spraying of edible plants can increase the amount of minerals, triggering additional value in unprocessed food products. Following this assumption at an orchard of Rocha pears located in the West region of Portugal, seven foliar sprays were carried out with calcium chloride (4% corresponds to the exclusive use of CaCl2 4 kg ha−1; 8% corresponds to the use of CaCl2 4 kg ha−1 (for the first three sprays) and CaCl2 8 kg ha−1 (for the four remaining sprays)). At harvest, calcium levels increased about 12.2–38.3%, whereas significant differences in physicochemical parameters occurred only in malic acid and total soluble solids. In conclusion, calcium levels increased in fruits after foliar spraying, but quality parameters only revealed minor changes, enabling the production of biofortified Rocha pears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Ectopic Lateral Root Branching in Fe-Deprived Maize Plants: Searching for the Genes Underpinning the Phenotype
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08679 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and productivity, and human and animal diets rely on Fe from plant sources. Despite the large number of studies on plants’ Fe deficiency responses, considerably less is known about the morphological and anatomical alterations [...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth and productivity, and human and animal diets rely on Fe from plant sources. Despite the large number of studies on plants’ Fe deficiency responses, considerably less is known about the morphological and anatomical alterations that root systems of plants undergo, especially in the graminaceous plants following a chelation strategy to take up Fe3+ from the rhizosphere. A stress symptom observed in Fe-deprived maize plants is an ectopic lateral root branching occurring at the terminal 5 cm of the root. In order to understand this response, one-week-old maize seedlings were placed in containers with either full nutrient solution, or nutrient solution lacking an Fe source. Control and Fe-deprived plants were grown for another 14 days, and the trait of ectopic lateral root branching was observed both on roots that emerged before the onset of Fe deprivation, as well as on roots that emerged after the onset of the deprivation. Ongoing in silico analysis of a quantitative trait locus known to be related to this trait of maize grown under limited Fe, revealed several genes coding for known and unknown proteins, as well as long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Overexpression of Erianthus arundinaceus DREB2 Transcription Factor Ameliorates the Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Eleusine coracana Cultivars
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08665 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 179
Abstract
Drought and salinity are the major constraints on agricultural production worldwide and a remarkable attempt is being made to improve the plant yields in the direction of increasing water deficit. We have developed transgenic finger millet cultivars ‘CO(Ra)-14’ and ‘Paiyur-2’ overexpressing Erianthus arundinaceous [...] Read more.
Drought and salinity are the major constraints on agricultural production worldwide and a remarkable attempt is being made to improve the plant yields in the direction of increasing water deficit. We have developed transgenic finger millet cultivars ‘CO(Ra)-14’ and ‘Paiyur-2’ overexpressing Erianthus arundinaceous DREB2 (EaDREB2) transcription factor confirmed by PCR and Southern stably expressed in T0 and T1. These transgenic lines were tolerant to high salinity and severe drought stress conditions without affecting the morphological or agronomic characters. Analysis of morpho-physiological characters revealed that overexpression of EaDREB2 gene was associated with maintenance of chlorophyll content, increased relative water content, improved accumulation of the osmotic substance such as proline and decreased electrolyte leakage, under both saline and drought stresses. After treating the plants to progressive drought and salinity stress, transgenic lines showed less chlorophyll reduction and moderate growth inhibition than the controls. The majority of the transformed lines showed prominent tolerance to salinity and drought with significant spikelet fertility and higher grain yield compared to the controls at stressed and unstressed conditions. This is the first holistic report on development of drought and saline tolerance in finger millet through transgenic modification and it is essential to benefit the farmers from seasonal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Bioaccumulation and Human Health Risk of Heavy Metals from Pesticides in Some Crops Grown in Plateau State, Nigeria
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08737 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 159
Abstract
The health risk assessment of heavy metals as the source of metal contamination in food crops fumigated exclusively with pesticides is mostly overlooked. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in some food crops fumigated with [...] Read more.
The health risk assessment of heavy metals as the source of metal contamination in food crops fumigated exclusively with pesticides is mostly overlooked. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in some food crops fumigated with pesticides and their health risk to humans. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of the studied crops ranged from 0.12 to 2.03 for Zn, 1.73 to 23.34 for Pb, 1.60 to 1150.50 for Cu, 0.67 to 19.50 for Cr, and 0.09 to 6.14 mg/kg for Cd. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr in the investigated crops were above the WHO (2011) permissible limits and in decreasing trend of Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd > Zn. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) > 1 values for Cd, Pb, and Zn and the BAF value were highest for copper (141.75) in Oryza sativa. Pollution indices showed all crops were contaminated with Cd, Pb, and Cr and were likely to pose a potential health risk to humans. The estimated daily intake of Cd and Pb from all the studied crops exceeded the USEPA (2006) oral reference dose daily limit. A hazard quotient > 1 was observed only from the consumption of Ozyza sativa (3.504) for Cu and could likely cause potential health risk in human. The hazard index indicated a health risk through the consumption of Oryza sativa (4.666), Zea mays (1.475), and Capsicum annuum (1.132) for all the studied metals. Therefore, there is a need for regular screening and monitoring of heavy metals from pesticides sources in food crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Fungicide-Free Management of Papaya Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) Disease Using Combined Bio-Rationales and Bee Wax in Organic Agriculture
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08906 - 07 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important orchard crop, mainly cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Due its excellent medicinal value, papaw is recommended for daily consumption by medical professionals as fresh fruit. Papaya production is being hampered by papaya Anthracnose [...] Read more.
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important orchard crop, mainly cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Due its excellent medicinal value, papaw is recommended for daily consumption by medical professionals as fresh fruit. Papaya production is being hampered by papaya Anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which is inflicting major economic losses of around 40–100% during field cultivation, transportation, and storage in organic agriculture. An investigation was planned to assess the antifungal capacity of the medicinal plants Spinacia oleracea, Limonia acidissima, Allium sativum, Achyranthes aspera, Calotropis gigantea, Ocimum basilicum, Mukia scabrella, Ficus racemose, Azadiracta indica, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Lantana camara and Ocimum cinnamon combined with bee wax coating against papaya anthracnose disease. Fifty-percent concentrations of botanical were extracted from dried leaves using a methanol-based solvent extraction method. Two sets of partially ripened non-infected marketable papaya fruits were collected and treated with 50% concentration of botanical extracts and allowed to dry. One set was coated with melted wax by spraying under cool conditions using a power sprayer, along with a non-treated control. These experimental setups were arranged in a complete randomized design with five replicates. Four hours after wax coating, both sets were inoculated with spores of C. gloeosporioides. Data on disease incidence, disease severity (0–5 scale), number of days for disease-free period, pH, and TSS were measured in both sets and ANOVA was performed using SAS software. Duncan’s Multiple Ranges Test (DMRT) was used to determine the least significant differences among the treatments at p < 0.05. The results show that disease incidence and severity in O. basilicum + bee wax treated fruits was 0% and 5%, respectively, and significant at p < 0.05 until the 10th day post-inoculation; thereafter, disease incidence and severity were slowly increased to 15% on the 14th day post-inoculation, but in other treatments and the control, disease incidence and severity varied from 60–80% and 100%, respectively, from the fifth day post-inoculation. Moreover, bee wax-coated papaya fruits showed significantly higher preserved days, to a maximum of 17.047 ± 3.86. Weight loss percentage, pH and TSS were not significantly on par among wax-coated treatments but were significant when compared with wax-free treatments. This study concludes that the combined application O. basilicum + bee wax is a promising alternative to nasty fungicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Karrikins Reduce the Hypocotyl Length of Rapeseed (Brassica napus napus L.) under Continuous Red Light
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08777 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Karrikins (KARs) are relatively simple molecules originating from the burning of plant material, which can enhance the germination of many species from fire-prone environments, but also for species whose life cycle is not connected with fire; for example, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). [...] Read more.
Karrikins (KARs) are relatively simple molecules originating from the burning of plant material, which can enhance the germination of many species from fire-prone environments, but also for species whose life cycle is not connected with fire; for example, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). KARs not only improve germination but also alter several physiological processes and morphological features of plants. One of the changes in morphology observed on Arabidopsis seedlings is the shortening of hypocotyls when grown under continuous red light. So far, six biologically active compounds belonging to the KARs group were identified. Most of the plants showed the strongest response to the first identified KAR, KAR1, but Arabidopsis exhibited the strongest reaction to KAR2. In our experiment, we focused on seedlings’ hypocotyl length of rapeseed (Brassica napus napus L.), an economically important plant from the same family as Arabidopsis, Brassicaceae. Our results show that the hypocotyl of eight-day-old seedlings of rapeseed grown under continuous red light was significantly shortened by both KARs examined by us, KAR1, as well as by KAR2. Therefore, we can conclude that, similarly to Arabidopsis, rapeseed seedlings possess the light-dependent response of development to KARs. This proves that the role of these compounds is not yet fully understood in plant life, as well as in the germination induction of fire-following species. Moreover, it is very unlikely that the combustion of plant material is the only source of KARs occurring in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Enhanced Performance of Endophytic Bacillus subtilis in Conjunction with Salicylic Acid Meliorated Simultaneous Drought and Fusarium Root Rot Stresses in Triticum aestivum L.
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08778 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 159
Abstract
Plants are constantly faced with both abiotic and biotic stresses, which seriously reduce their productivity. We evaluated the potential of endophytic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (strain 10-4) alone, and when mixed with salicylic acid (SA), to meliorate drought and Fusarium root rot (FRR) stresses [...] Read more.
Plants are constantly faced with both abiotic and biotic stresses, which seriously reduce their productivity. We evaluated the potential of endophytic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (strain 10-4) alone, and when mixed with salicylic acid (SA), to meliorate drought and Fusarium root rot (FRR) stresses in Triticum aestivum L. All microbiological, molecular, and physio-biochemical parameters were assessed using classical and modern methods. The findings demonstrated B. subtilis 10-4 alone, and especially mixed with SA, significantly improved wheat growth and ameliorated the damaging influence of drought, FRR, and drought + FRR. An important contribution to observed growth-stimulating and protective effects of B. subtilis 10-4 and SA on plants revealed the ability of bacteria to produce auxins, siderophores, lipopeptides surfactin, and to colonize internal plant tissues. Additionally, bio-priming of seeds with B. subtilis 10-4 alone, and especially mixed with SA, decreased stress-induced (drought, FRR, drought + FRR) lipid peroxidation and amino acid proline accumulation in plants, thereby indicating a protective effect on plant cells against reactive oxygen species and osmotic damages. Current research provides novel insights into the potential and mechanism of B. subtilis 10-4 and SA in the mitigation of combined drought + FRR stresses in wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Congenial In Vitro γ-ray-Induced Mutagenesis Underlying the Diverse Array of Petal Colours in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum kitam) cv. “Candid”
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08780 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorumkitam.) is a leading flower with applied value worldwide. Flower color is an important trait that influences the commercial value of chrysanthemum cultivars. Developing new chrysanthemum cultivars with novel characteristics, such as new flower colors in a time- [...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorumkitam.) is a leading flower with applied value worldwide. Flower color is an important trait that influences the commercial value of chrysanthemum cultivars. Developing new chrysanthemum cultivars with novel characteristics, such as new flower colors in a time- and cost-efficient manner, is the ultimate goal for breeders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate flower pigmentation may provide important implications for the rationale manipulation of flower color. To generate a diverse array of flower color mutants in chrysanthemum cv. “Candid” through mutagenesis, in vitro grown micro shoots were exposed to 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-Gy gamma irradiation at 100 Gy per minute, and were evaluated for different parameters. The rhizogenesis parameters decreased with the increase in irradiation dose from 0 Gy to 40 Gy, while a 10-Gy dose proved to record the minimum decline as compared to the control. Survival, leaf size, and the number of leaves on the plant−1 after the eighth week interval also decreased with the increasing trend of gamma irradiation dose but recorded a minimum decline in plants developed from shoots irradiated with a 10-Gy gamma irradiation dose, with respect to the control. The minimum delay in the number of days to floral bud appearance took under 10 Gy, as compared to control. The highest number of flower color mutants were recorded under 10 Gy (light pink, orange pink, white, and yellow). Amountable mutation frequency on the basis of flower color was desirable in plants irradiated with the smallest dose of 10 Gy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Role of Class III Peroxidases in Stem Lignification of Zinnia elegans Jacq.
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08847 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Class III peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have use a wide range of substrates and perform numerous functions, including synthesis of monolignols, lignin precursors. The activity and tissue localization of cationic guaiacol (GPOX) and anionic benzidine peroxidases (BPOX) were studied in the first internode of [...] Read more.
Class III peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have use a wide range of substrates and perform numerous functions, including synthesis of monolignols, lignin precursors. The activity and tissue localization of cationic guaiacol (GPOX) and anionic benzidine peroxidases (BPOX) were studied in the first internode of zinnia plants of different ages. The lignin in cross sections of plant tissues was stained by phloroglucinol-HClTthe lignin content was determined by Klason. Enzyme activity and the H2O2 amount were determined spectrophotometrically. The hypocotyl grew for 40 days and the lignin content for 60 days. In 20-days-old plants, lignin was detected in protoxylem, and in 60-days-old—in sclerenchyma, protoxylem, and metaxylem. Enzyme histochemistry revealed that BPOX was localized in endoderm, phloem, and protoxylem, while GPOX—in the metaxylem and sclerenchyma. A moderate increase in GPOX activity during internode growth was shown. In contrast, BPOX activity was high at the initial growth stage, and declined to the 60th day. Thus, the most intense lignification in mechanical tissue and xylem occurred during the period from 20 to 40 days of plant growth. BPOX is likely involved in the process at the early stages of growth, while GPOX is responsible for sclerenchyma and metaxylem lignification at the later stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Root Traits Differentiates Osmotic Stress Tolerant and Susceptible Wheat Genotypes under PEG-Treatment
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08869 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Wheat is an important cereal crop that often suffers from osmotic stress under various growing conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress at the phytomer level on root growth and root hair morphology of 22 [...] Read more.
Wheat is an important cereal crop that often suffers from osmotic stress under various growing conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress at the phytomer level on root growth and root hair morphology of 22 hydroponically grown wheat varieties. Two treatments, 0% and 10% PEG, were imposed on 20-day old wheat seedlings for a duration of 15 days. PEG stress significantly reduced plant height, number of live leaves per tiller, chlorophyll content, shoot dry weights, number of root bearing phytomers and roots per tiller. By contrast, PEG stress significantly increased leaf injury scores, root dry weight, main axis length and diameter of developed roots, length and diameter and density of both first and second order lateral roots, and the density and length of root hairs. An increase in root dry weight in PEG stress tolerant wheat genotypes was achieved through an increase in the length and diameter of main axis and lateral roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Intergenomic Crossover Formation in Newly Synthesized Trigeneric Hybrids Involving Wheat, Rye and Barley
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08747 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Polyploidization, or whole genome duplication (WGD), has an important role in evolution and speciation. One of the biggest challenges faced by a new polyploid is meiosis, particularly, discriminating between multiple related chromosomes, so that only homologs recombine, to ensure regular chromosome segregation and [...] Read more.
Polyploidization, or whole genome duplication (WGD), has an important role in evolution and speciation. One of the biggest challenges faced by a new polyploid is meiosis, particularly, discriminating between multiple related chromosomes, so that only homologs recombine, to ensure regular chromosome segregation and fertility. Here, we report the production of two new hybrids that are formed by the genomes of species from three different genera, as follows: a hybrid between Aegilops taushii (DD), Hordeum chilense (HchHch), and Secale cereale (RR), with the haploid genomic constitution DHchR (n = 7x = 21); and a hybrid between Triticum turgidum spp. durum (AABB), H. chilense, and S. cereale, with the constitution ABHchR (n = 7x = 28). We used genomic in situ hybridization to establish the chromosome composition of the new hybrids, and to study their meiotic behavior. Interestingly, there were multiple chromosome associations at metaphase I in both hybrids, indicating the presence of a crossover formation between the different genomes. We tried to duplicate the genome of both hybrids, to obtain the corresponding amphiploid, achieving success with the ABHchR hybrid. Several amphiploids AABBHchHchRR were obtained and characterized. These results indicate that recombination between the genera of three economically important crops is possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Nutrient and Water Use Efficiency at Leaf Level of Cucumber Plants under Contrasting Soil Nutrient and Lignosulfonate Level
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08611 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
To reduce the use of commercial conventional inorganic fertilizers, the possibility of using pulp and paper industry wastes in agriculture as an alternative source of nutrients has recently been under study and discussion. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium lignosulfonate [...] Read more.
To reduce the use of commercial conventional inorganic fertilizers, the possibility of using pulp and paper industry wastes in agriculture as an alternative source of nutrients has recently been under study and discussion. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium lignosulfonate application to soil on photosynthetic leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) and water use efficiency. A pot culture experiment was conducted with cucumber seedlings using five lignosulfonate concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 vol. %) in sandy soil under sufficient or low nutrient availability for plants. The impact of nutrient availability on plant physiological traits was stronger than the lignosulfonate impact. Under the condition of sufficient nutrient availability, the lignosulfonate application decreased N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe use efficiency, increased Mn use efficiency, and did not change water use efficiency. The decrease in nutrient use efficiency was connected with both photosynthetic rate decrease and leaf nutrient content increase. The decline in soil nutrient availability caused a decrease in nutrient and water use efficiency. Under low nutrient availability, soil lignosulfonate tended to increase nutrient and water use efficiency, but it was not successful in eliminating the negative effects of soil nutrient deficiency on plant growth, photosynthetic processes, and efficiency of nutrient use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Genetic Variability for Mesocotyl Length in Maize
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08781 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The possibility of developing deep-sowing tolerant (DST) maize to absorb moisture from subsoil zones is crucial to maize adaptation to water-stressed environments. The function of the mesocotyl in field emergence of seedlings is established in grasses. However, information is scarce on the extent [...] Read more.
The possibility of developing deep-sowing tolerant (DST) maize to absorb moisture from subsoil zones is crucial to maize adaptation to water-stressed environments. The function of the mesocotyl in field emergence of seedlings is established in grasses. However, information is scarce on the extent of genetic variability for mesocotyl length (ML) in maize. Sixty-eight maize genotypes were studied using Completely Randomised Design in a laboratory experiment to investigate the extent of genetic variability for ML, and the relationship of seed biochemical components with ML. Ten seeds of each genotype were germinated for 10 days in the dark. Mesocotyl length was determined by placing cut mesocotyl against a flexible measuring tape. Biochemical contents of seeds were determined at a standard diagnostic laboratory. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) genotype mean square, indicating sufficient variability for genetic improvement. Broad-sense heritability and genetic advance were high and implied that ML was heritable. Mean ML for genotypes ranged from 0.58 to 9.02 cm; thus, planned crosses can be made for ML improvement. A dendrogram from cluster analysis based on Ward’s minimum variance cluster analysis classified 65 of the genotypes into clusters I, II, and III with ML (mean ± standard deviation) of 0.49 ± 0.18, 4.25 ± 0.96, and 9.16 ± 0.93 cm, respectively. All the measured biochemical parameters, except selenium, showed significant (p ≤ 0.05/0.01) associations with ML. Crosses can be planned involving genotypes from clusters 1 and III, to exploit heterosis for ML in a hybrid program. The results obtained from this study provide a basis for the development of DST maize for drought-prone environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Biocontrol Activity of Actinomycetes Strains against Fungal and Bacterial Pathogens of Solanum lycopersicum L. and Daucus carota L.: In Vitro and In Planta Antagonistic Activity
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08863 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 180
Abstract
Plants are affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses due to climate change. Tomato and carrots are important crops that are attacked by various pathogens. Fourteen plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) belonging to the genera Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp. were selected for the biocontrol [...] Read more.
Plants are affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses due to climate change. Tomato and carrots are important crops that are attacked by various pathogens. Fourteen plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) belonging to the genera Streptomyces sp. and Nocardiopsis sp. were selected for the biocontrol of several common fungal and bacterial pathogens. Antifungal activity was assessed against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) and Rhizoctonia solani (RHS). Antibacterial activity was evaluated against Pseudomonas syringae (PS), Pseudomonas corrugata (PC), Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA), and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum (PCC). In vitro antifungal and antibacterial antagonistic activities were evaluated by the dual culture method. Fungal–bacterial interaction areas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell-free culture filtrates (CFs) from strains showing good biocontrol potential were produced and investigated for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity. The two most effective strains were also combined in consortium and utilized for In Planta pre-emergence biocontrol assays on both S. lycopersicum and D. carota. For each pathogenic strain, four experimental conditions were compared: CNT (no PGPB/no infection), PGPB (with PGPB/no infection), PGPB+INF (with PGPB/with infection), and INF (no PGPB/with infection). Streptomyces albidoflavus strain H12 and Nocardiopsis aegyptica strain H14 showed good in vitro antifungal (inhibition of >50%) and antibacterial (inhibition halo of >10 mm) activity. The SEM micrographs showed deterioration of fungal filaments and modification of hyphal structures. The CFs of both strains were also able to inhibit FORL and RHS in in vitro growth (minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.2–0.8%). In planta biocontrol assessments showed that the consortium was effective in reducing the infection effects of both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Dual consortium allowed regular plant development compared to the control. These results confirm the usefulness of actinomycetes strains as a biocontrol agent and can therefore be an alternative to chemicals used in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Glutathione Is Involved in Resistance of Oilseed Rape to Powdery Mildew
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08749 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an economically important crop. In temperate climate powdery mildew Erysiphe crucifertaum can reduce its yields dra0matically. Nevertheless, cultivars resistant to this fungal disease have not been selected yet. Plants, grown in the field and in the [...] Read more.
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an economically important crop. In temperate climate powdery mildew Erysiphe crucifertaum can reduce its yields dra0matically. Nevertheless, cultivars resistant to this fungal disease have not been selected yet. Plants, grown in the field and in the light chamber, were infected with powdery mildew. After 30 days there were severe signs of infection on most of the plants, however several individuals were less susceptible to it. Leaves of B. napus were used to measure the level of GSH, GSSG and GST by spectrophotometric assay. The level of total glutathione was higher in plants with increased resistant to powdery mildew than in both severely infected plants and control plants that were not subjected to the infection. The GST activity in resistant and control plants was at the same level, however in susceptible plants it was lower. Therefore, oilseed rape with naturally increased glutathione content can be used in the selection of resistant cultivars. GST and GSH genes should be also considered as targets for genetic engineering and genome editing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Control of Carrot Seed-Borne Pathogens by Aromatic Plants Distillates
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08628 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Global warming, pollution problems, and the demand for sustainable food production forced farmers and scientists to search for new solutions in biological plant protection. The usage of natural renewable sources around us seems to be an alternative. Compounds isolated from plants and distinguished [...] Read more.
Global warming, pollution problems, and the demand for sustainable food production forced farmers and scientists to search for new solutions in biological plant protection. The usage of natural renewable sources around us seems to be an alternative. Compounds isolated from plants and distinguished with antifungal properties can be used to protect vegetables from the seed-borne pathogens. The study aimed to elucidate the ability of Juniperus communis L., Hyssopus officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils to control the carrot seed-borne pathogen Alternaria spp. The agar-plate method was used for carrot seed infestation with micromycetes. Essential oils extracted from common juniper, hyssop and thyme were then separately mixed with potato dextrose agar media at different concentrations and the antifungal activity of each oil tested in vitro. The results revealed that the T. vulgaris essential oil (200–1000 μL L−1) significantly inhibited Alternaria spp. growth. The H. officinalis essential oil promoted seed-borne pathogens growth on the second and fifth days of the evaluation compared to the control; however, the concentration of 400 μL L−1 showed little suppression of micromycete development 7 days after inoculation. The in vitro experiments indicated that 600 μL L−1 of J. communis essential oil could control seed-borne pathogen viability. Overall, thyme essential oil expressed a high potential for application in biofungicide formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
The Stomata of the Katanin Mutants, fra2, lue1 and bot1
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08730 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 168
Abstract
Katanin, is a microtubule severing protein that orchestrates microtubule organization throughout the plant cell cycle. Taking into consideration the role of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the stomatal development, the Arabidopsis thaliana katanin mutants, fra2, lue1 and bot1 were studied to observe how [...] Read more.
Katanin, is a microtubule severing protein that orchestrates microtubule organization throughout the plant cell cycle. Taking into consideration the role of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the stomatal development, the Arabidopsis thaliana katanin mutants, fra2, lue1 and bot1 were studied to observe how the absence of function of/malfunction of katanin affects stomatal development. Katanin mutants are characterised by less mature stomata and more young stomata and meristemoids forming clusters. The size of the mature stomata differed from col-0, with the katanin mutants having shorter guard cells and pores as well as smaller pore aperture. In addition, a unique type of cell was observed in the fra2 mutant, the persistent guard mother cells (GMC’s), where the GMC persisted and did not divide symmetrically to form a stoma. Another rather significant observation was that the cell walls of some epidermal cells in the mutants appeared to be incomplete. As far as the cell wall matrix components distribution is concerned, callose did not display significant differences compared to col-0 while pectins and hemicelluloses were differentially dispersed. Microtubules in cytokinetic GMCs were long, bended and connected to the nuclei, while microtubule arrays in katanin mutant leaf epidermis were aberrant and stomatal complexes had astral microtubule arrays as it was observed in the wild type. In conclusion, the malfunction of katanin appears to affect the development of stomata in the epidermis of young leaves in Arabidopsis thaliana, affecting not only stomatal patterning, since the one-cell spacing rule was compromised, but also the morphology of the stomatal complexes. The cell wall-matrix appears altered in the katanin mutants, possibly affecting the function of the stomata since katanin mutant stomata had a reduced pore aperture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Influence of Seed Priming Techniques on Seedling Establishment and Yield of Asparagus Hybrids
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08734 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Stimulating and increasing of seed field germination, activating the growth of the root system and enhancing productivity is the actual tasks can be solved by priming the seeds of Asparagus officinalis L. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of [...] Read more.
Stimulating and increasing of seed field germination, activating the growth of the root system and enhancing productivity is the actual tasks can be solved by priming the seeds of Asparagus officinalis L. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of low-temperature and hydropriming, succinic acid and microelement solution treatment on germination energy, seed germination and quality of planting material of asparagus hybrids. Samples of asparagus hybrids varying by years of reproduction were cooled to temperatures of −70 or −196 °C and heated on air at 22 °C or soaked for 24 h in water in solutions of microelements according to Murashige and Skoog (1–3 mg/L) and/or succinic acid (1–3 mg/L). The use of low-temperature treatments increased seeds germination. Yield study of growing asparagus seedlings obtained from seeds cooled to −70 °C showed a higher number of shoots and roots, their weight compared with the control after 120 days cultivation. Hydropriming of seeds and its further cultivation at optimal temperature conditions promoted significantly higher indices of emergence of asparagus seeds compared to the control values. Treatment of the seeds with microelements and succinic acid did not affect the studied indices after cultivation. It can be concluded that to improve the qualities of asparagus seeds hybrid pretreatment at low temperatures (−70 °C) or hydropriming should be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Susceptibility of Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to Five Cry Toxins
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08821 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 138
Abstract
The beetle Xylotrechus arvicola is a significant pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the wine-producing regions of the Iberian Peninsula. X. arvicola larvae bore the grapevine wood and make galleries, which cause structural damage to the plant and a decrease in [...] Read more.
The beetle Xylotrechus arvicola is a significant pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the wine-producing regions of the Iberian Peninsula. X. arvicola larvae bore the grapevine wood and make galleries, which cause structural damage to the plant and a decrease in the quality and quantity of its production. The susceptibility of X. arvicola larvae to five coleopteran toxic Cry proteins (Cry1B, Cry1I, Cry3A, Cry7A, and Cry23/37) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. After 30 days, Cry proteins showed larvicidal activity against X. arvicola, with mortality rates over 50%, with the proteins Cry1Ba and Cry7Ab being the most aggressive, with mortality rates over 80%. The evaluated Cry proteins can be applied in the environmentally friendly control of X. arvicola larvae since they are able to kill them. The larval stage tested is prior to drilling into the plant, which makes spray treatments feasible. The results can help in the design of combinations of Cry proteins as biopesticides to be applied by the time these larvae hatch to increase vine wood protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
The Acclimation Mechanisms of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii against Nitrosative Stress: A Role of NADPH Oxidase (RBOL2) in the Regulation of Nitric Oxide-Mediated ER Stress and Glutathione Redox State
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08609 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal in the modulation of acclamatory responses to stress in plants. Here, the metabolic shift of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to sub-lethal NO stress was approached by exposure to 0.1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor, in the presence [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal in the modulation of acclamatory responses to stress in plants. Here, the metabolic shift of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to sub-lethal NO stress was approached by exposure to 0.1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor, in the presence or the absence of the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). NO did not cause growth impairment but induced a decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels and redox state. NO upregulated the expression of glutathione-associated genes, glutathione synthetase (GSH1), and glutathione reductase (GSHR1) genes while it decreased that of the proteins associated with ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR). Furthermore, the expression of NADPH oxidase isoform, respiratory burst oxygenase-like 2 (RBOL2), instead of RBOL1 increased under NO stress. NO-induced upregulation of GSH1 and GSHR1 upregulation and the downregulation of most UPR genes were not found in rbol2 mutant. The presence of cPTIO suppressed the NO-induced changes in GSH availability, UPR, and RBOL expression. Overall, NADPH oxidase (RBOL2)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involve in the inhibition of UPR and the enhancement of GSH availability by NO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Elucidating the Impact of Priming Substrates on Seedling Survival and Seed Quality of China Aster
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08750 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Germination and seed quality of China aster are crucial features that affect seedling survival and establishment when seeded directly in a field. Moreover, freak weather events in changing climate scenarios and biotic stress have often resulted in poor seedling quality and survival of [...] Read more.
Germination and seed quality of China aster are crucial features that affect seedling survival and establishment when seeded directly in a field. Moreover, freak weather events in changing climate scenarios and biotic stress have often resulted in poor seedling quality and survival of China aster. Subsequently, the impact of a range of priming techniques on germination, seedling survival and growth of cv. Powderpuff of China aster newly introduced in Kashmir valley was scrutinized at the Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory. Seeds were subjected to two treatment methods (3 hydro-priming and 2 halo-priming), constituting a total of six treatment combinations (T0–T5) in CRD (completely randomized design), with four replications. The analyzed variables were seedling survival percentage, germination percentage, seedling collar diameter, seedling fresh weight, shoot–root ratio and the number of leaves/seedling. The analyzed data on the influence of priming treatments on germination percentage are depicted, showing that different priming agents have a significant influence on pre- and post-germination attributes. Significantly, maximum germination percentage (87.50%), seedling survival percentage (81.95), seedling fresh weight (0.0031 g), seedling collar diameter (0.101 cm), number of leaves seedling−1 (7.01) and shoot–root ratio (1.044) were recorded in treatment T5 (2% KNO3 18 h) and minimum (42.50) in case of control (T0), i.e., un-primed seeds. Halo-conditioning with KNO3 for 12 h significantly improved germination percentage, seedling survival percentage, seedling diameter, leaf number per seedling and shoot–root ratio. In conclusion, KNO3 played a vital role in the establishment and survival of seedlings in the field, under Kashmir conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Biannual Seed Yield, Viability and Germination in Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08889 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Commiphora wightii is an important medicinal tree of arid and semi-arid regions of India. It is commonly known as Guggal and belongs to the family Burseraceae. It is a slow growing poor viable seed producing plant; moreover, excessive destructive tapping for oleogum resin [...] Read more.
Commiphora wightii is an important medicinal tree of arid and semi-arid regions of India. It is commonly known as Guggal and belongs to the family Burseraceae. It is a slow growing poor viable seed producing plant; moreover, excessive destructive tapping for oleogum resin (known as guggul) has put this plant under critically endangered categories according to the IUCN. This plant produces two types of seeds, viz., black highly viable seed and white non-viable seeds. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim to estimate seed production in summer and winter and their viability ratios (black:white), which will be helpful in raising nurseries and large-scale plantations of Guggul. Mature seeds were collected from 647 guggal plants (10 years old) from Deesa, Gujarat, India in summer (March–July 2017) and winter (November–December 2017). There is no significant difference in percentage of plants bearing mature seeds, but the number of mature seeds per seed producing plant is significantly higher in winter (72.51 seeds) as compared with summer (10.19 seeds). The proportion of black seed in summer and winter was almost opposite, i.e., in winter 70.9% of seeds were black, whereas in summer only 30% black seeds were found. Seed germination data revealed that black seeds collected in winter showed higher seed germination (13.6%) than in summer (2.1%). No germination was recorded in summer collected white seed, whereas very low seed germination was observed in winter (1.2%) white seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Building a Pathway for Diversity in Plant Sciences in Argentina: Highlighting the Work of Women Scientists through Virtual Activities
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08569 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Encouraging the participation of a diverse workforce in academia increases plurality as it broadens the range of skills, ways of thinking, and experiences. Institutions and professional societies have been putting efforts on building plans that help make workplaces, conferences, education, and extension programs [...] Read more.
Encouraging the participation of a diverse workforce in academia increases plurality as it broadens the range of skills, ways of thinking, and experiences. Institutions and professional societies have been putting efforts on building plans that help make workplaces, conferences, education, and extension programs more relatable to a highly diverse population. Argentina has an overall gender-balanced workforce in the sciences (~53% women/total), with an even higher representation in disciplines related to plant sciences. However, media outlets and national conferences related to genetics, botany, plant physiology, ecology, and molecular biology, fail to reflect those numbers as the proportion of women invited for interviews, plenary lectures, and symposia falls below ~30%. As a way to increase the visibility of the wealth of plant science topics and experimental approaches in which Argentinian women work, and to facilitate connections among them across the country and abroad, we created the Argentinian Women in Plant Science network. This group has grown to over 200 members, representing a wide range of career stages and research topics. Since April, and taking advantage of the confinement situation, our weekly webinar series highlighting women plant scientists has reached an average audience of 60–70 participants, with a record of 100. Recently, we have begun a series of open professional development webinars to reach a wider public. Our first webinar, focused on scientific poster design, had ~250 participants, most of them undergrad and graduate students from all over the country covering a diverse range of disciplines, including the social sciences. Even though we have immersed ourselves in the plant science community with our weekly seminars, we have expanded our goals with activities aimed to reach out to a much wider audience with webinars and teacher training workshops, hopefully making plant science more attainable to all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Effects of Oleander Leaves (Nerium oleander) against Metabolism, Activity Pattern, and the Leaves Potency as Rice-Field Rat Repellent (Rattus argentiventer)
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08868 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Nerium oleander historically has been known worldwide as a poisonous plant that can be used to control pests. However, studies on the effects of oleander leaves against Rattus argentiventer as a major agricultural rodent pest are limited. This research aimed to probe the [...] Read more.
Nerium oleander historically has been known worldwide as a poisonous plant that can be used to control pests. However, studies on the effects of oleander leaves against Rattus argentiventer as a major agricultural rodent pest are limited. This research aimed to probe the potency of oleander leaves extracted in methanol as a rice-field rat repellent. The experiments involved a choice test (T-maze arena) and a no-choice test (metabolic cage) that were analyzed by the T-test using three replications for 6 days. The results showed that the rats on the T-maze avoided consuming food and water near the oleander treatment. The same results occurred in the metabolic cage, which was indicated by a decrease in the average of food and feces, and also by an increase in the average of water and urine. Additionally, the treatment also caused a disruption in daily activity patterns, which was significantly indicated by an increase of 22.84% in average time for resting activities and a decrease in time for locomotion and nesting activities (by 9.71% and 13.13%, respectively). Overall, oleander leaves have the potential to provide a repellent effect against rice-field rats, especially in the choice test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Use of Siliceous Minerals as Natural Nitrification Inhibitors
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08744 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 96
Abstract
The comparative study on the effects of nitrapyrin and the mixture of natural siliceous minerals on physiological processes in economically important C3 and C4 crops (viz. wheat and corn) grown under high nitrogen fertilization conditions, as well as on soil microbiota and nitrogen [...] Read more.
The comparative study on the effects of nitrapyrin and the mixture of natural siliceous minerals on physiological processes in economically important C3 and C4 crops (viz. wheat and corn) grown under high nitrogen fertilization conditions, as well as on soil microbiota and nitrogen balance, was conducted in the laboratory and long-term field experiments. The siliceous minerals were shown to have significantly higher inhibitory effects on the nitrification process in different types of soils, amended with urea, the number of nitrifiers and micromicetes producing phytotoxic allelochemicals compared with nitrapyrin. Crops treated with siliceous minerals had higher photosynthetic pigment content and higher glutamic acid concentration, which indicated the intensification of photosynthetic processes. Nitrapyrin reduced the concentration of chlorophyll b and carotenoids, but slightly increased the content of chlorophyll a in the leaves of wheat and corn. The content of aspartate and some aromatic amino acids decreased, while arginine and lysine increased. Such metabolic changes suggested disintegration of nitrogen and phosphate metabolism in the studied crops. Thus, the use of siliceous minerals is more advantageous than nitrapyrin in terms of their effectiveness, persistence in various types of soils and beneficial effect on soil microbiota and crops’ functional state and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Biofortification with Selenium: Enrichment Index and Interactions among Nutrients
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08701 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Selenium is an antioxidant trace mineral important for human health and development. Therefore, the growing demand for efficient, bioeconomic and sustainable strategies to increase Se content in cereals, namely, rice, is justified. In this context, biofortification is a strategy that can promote nutrient [...] Read more.
Selenium is an antioxidant trace mineral important for human health and development. Therefore, the growing demand for efficient, bioeconomic and sustainable strategies to increase Se content in cereals, namely, rice, is justified. In this context, biofortification is a strategy that can promote nutrient enhancement in food crops and, therefore, increased nutrient uptake in the human body. In this framework, a technical itinerary was implemented using a rice genotype (OP1509), through foliar spraying with two selenium concentrations (25 and 100 g Se.ha−1) of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3). It was found that the average Se biofortification index was 1.8–4.7- and 5.4–6.0-fold in selenate and selenite treatments, respectively. The contents of Se, Ca, Fe, K, P, C, H and O in brown rice grains were also quantified and it was found that both forms of fertilizers increased Zn contents with 25 g Se.ha−1, but decreased with 100 g Se.ha−1. Moreover, Ca only increased significantly with selenate pulverization. The application of both forms also increased grain weight, but did not affect the colorimetric analysis. It is concluded that the applied itinerary can be implemented to minimize Se malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Abiotic Stress Upregulates the Expression of Genes Involved in PSV and Autophagy Routes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08695 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Adverse conditions caused by abiotic stress modulate plant development and growth by altering morphological and cellular mechanisms. To face this problem, plants, along with physiological adaptations, developed intracellular mechanisms, including changes in protein production and trafficking or modifications of the endomembrane system. It [...] Read more.
Adverse conditions caused by abiotic stress modulate plant development and growth by altering morphological and cellular mechanisms. To face this problem, plants, along with physiological adaptations, developed intracellular mechanisms, including changes in protein production and trafficking or modifications of the endomembrane system. It is known that stress situations can alter protein sorting to the vacuole, changing their routes via a Golgi-independent pathway. Our goal is to evaluate the expression levels of different aspartic proteinases and well-characterized genes involved in the vacuolar pathway, in plants submitted to different abiotic stresses (osmotic, oxidative, saline and heavy metals). The results obtained point to a different response of the three aspartic proteinases under study, indicating that different, yet related, genes respond differently to different types of stress, resulting in a fine-tuned regulation. Furthermore, our results regarding the endomembrane system effectors show that AtEXO70, AtRMR1, AtSYP51, AtSYP121 and AtVTI12 are up-regulated, while AtVAMP, AtSYP23 and AtBP80 are downregulated in the same situations. This demonstrates that adverse conditions caused by abiotic stress can alter the expression of key proteins involved in the protein trafficking machinery, which can be related to the activation/deactivation of certain pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Development of In Vitro Root Culture and miRNAs Analysis for Secondary Metabolites of Native Plants from the Mexican Bajio
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08886 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Mexico is a megadiverse country, with a high quantity of unique plant species with different uses and applications, such as bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, and, recently, nutrimental. The content of phytochemicals, and the impact of them on animal and human health, has made them [...] Read more.
Mexico is a megadiverse country, with a high quantity of unique plant species with different uses and applications, such as bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticidal, and, recently, nutrimental. The content of phytochemicals, and the impact of them on animal and human health, has made them a target for biotechnological improvement. In the region Bajio in Mexico, several plants that are associated with ecological, medical and industrial potential have been identified, but also those associated with the traditions. The work in this project includes the development of systems for the culture for the production of secondary metabolites (in vitro root tissue culture) and the miRNA expression analysis, in order to find the molecules that are associated with metabolites production. In this study, we include the following two plants: marigold (Tagetes erecta), in which genes associated to lutein production had been identified in flower development; systems for cell culture and plant transformation have been developed, but no systems for in vitro root culture. Up until now, there are not studies related to miRNA expression and association to these molecules to secondary metabolites. In Heliopsis longipes, several methodologies had been developed for the isolation of afinnin and its uses in agriculture, medicine, and, recently, as analgesic activities in some other metabolites. First, a root tissue culture was established for both of the plants (marigold and Heliopsis), using a combination of auxins (2,4-D, IAA, IBA) in a kinetic assay, as the base for manipulation; differences in the root architecture were determined mainly in the time of production and root architecture. In the molecular analysis, four miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed, and associated to secondary metabolites production (miR146, miR164, miR168, miR171). The reordering of miRNAs synthesis and the targets was analyzed, and is associated with the secondary metabolites production, in order to establish a system for the in vitro induction of metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Study of Phytochemical Constituents and Bioactivity of n-Hexane and Dichloromethane Extracts of Juniperus macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08770 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 82
Abstract
This study assessed and compared the chemical profile and the antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of non-polar extracts of Juniperus macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. and J. oxycedrus L. from Italy. The aerial parts of both Juniperus subspecies were subjected to exhaustive macerations with [...] Read more.
This study assessed and compared the chemical profile and the antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of non-polar extracts of Juniperus macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. and J. oxycedrus L. from Italy. The aerial parts of both Juniperus subspecies were subjected to exhaustive macerations with n-hexane and dichloromethane as solvents. Extracts were investigated for their chemical profile by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ferric reducing activity power (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and β-carotene bleaching assays were applied to study the antioxidant properties. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against several cancer human cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, A549, and COR-L23 cells). Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes mainly characterized n-hexane extracts while diterpenes and fatty acids were the most abundant identified compounds in dichloromethane extracts. The n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts of J. oxycedrus showed the most promising cytotoxic activity against the COR-L23 cell line with IC50 values of 26.9 and 39.3 µg/mL, respectively. J. macrocarpa revealed great radicals scavenging activity. Overall, the obtained results suggest that both Juniperus species are a good source of potential antioxidants and anti-proliferative compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Post-Thaw Survival of Meristems from In Vitro Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Plants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08769 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 146
Abstract
Cryotherapy of shoot tips can effectively eliminate the sweet potatoes pathogens, such as viruses and phytoplasm, and is impossible without the development of effective cryopreservation techniques. At the same time, cryopreservation allows a long-term germplasm storage. In this study, we developed and compared [...] Read more.
Cryotherapy of shoot tips can effectively eliminate the sweet potatoes pathogens, such as viruses and phytoplasm, and is impossible without the development of effective cryopreservation techniques. At the same time, cryopreservation allows a long-term germplasm storage. In this study, we developed and compared different methods for sweet potatoes’ meristems treatment for optimized preservation. The meristems of Admiral variety up to 1–2 mm were isolated from in vitro growth plants. In one group the specimens were dehydrated for 120 min with sterile air flow and immersed into liquid nitrogen at a needle tip. The meristems of other groups were dehydrated with plant vitrification solutions (modified PVS 1, PVS 2, 88% PVS 3, and PVS N). The samples were immersed into liquid nitrogen either in 1.8 mL cryovials or 50 µL hermetically sealed aluminum pans for differential scanning calorimetry. It was shown that the survival rates of meristems were 55% after 88% PVS 3 treatment and 83 and 85% after PVS 2 and PVS N exposure. The highest percentage of preserved specimens was found after dehydration with air-flow and modified PVS 1 (89–95%). After cryopreservation in 1.8 mL cryovials the highest post-thaw preservation was noted after pretreatment with modified PVS 1 (60–75%) and the lowest one was observed with 88% PVS 3 (35–40%). Meristems treated with PVS 2 and PVS N provided 45–55% survival rates. After cryopreservation in aluminum pans the highest post-thaw preservation was detected for dehydration with modified PVS 1 (81–84%) and the lowest one was found with 88% PVS 3 (40–51%). Meristems treated with PVS 2 and PVS N revealed of 68–78% post-thaw survival respectively. The meristems cryopreservation method based on dehydration with sterile air flow is of special interest, since no cryoprotectant use is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Cost-Effective Markers and Candidate Genes Analysis at Wheat MQTL Loci
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08571 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) is a resolutive technique, using PCR amplification and in-tube detection, which is based on the PCR product’s melting analysis. It is a promising technique for breeding analysis, as it does not require dedicated sequencing equipment. It can be performed [...] Read more.
High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) is a resolutive technique, using PCR amplification and in-tube detection, which is based on the PCR product’s melting analysis. It is a promising technique for breeding analysis, as it does not require dedicated sequencing equipment. It can be performed using QRT-PCR equipment that can be available in small-medium molecular biology laboratories or locally by the breeders, and it does not require an electrophoretic step to analyze the amplified DNA fragments. To develop effective HRM assays, the search for highly polymorphic sites amenable to PCR amplification is a prerequisite, which is not an easy task in wheat due to its genome complexity. The insertion site-based polymorphism markers (ISBPs) are PCR markers designed based on the knowledge of the sequence flanking transposable element (TE) sequences. The two PCR primers are designed with one in the transposable element and the other in the flanking DNA sequence. TEs are very abundant and nested in the wheat genome, with unique (genome-specific) insertion sites that are highly polymorphic. In this work, we analyze the available HRM-ISBP assays for wheat 3B and 4A chromosomes, and update their applications in wheat diversity at drought and heat MQTL loci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Developing an Agent-Based Model for Haplodrassus rufipes (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), a Generalist Predator Species of Olive Tree Pests: Conceptual Model Outline
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08745 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Olive growing has been facing major sustainability challenges due to intensification, resulting in an increased use of pesticides and fertilizers and, consequently, in the depletion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity and landscape values. This has created an urgent need to develop [...] Read more.
Olive growing has been facing major sustainability challenges due to intensification, resulting in an increased use of pesticides and fertilizers and, consequently, in the depletion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity and landscape values. This has created an urgent need to develop models for managing complex agroecosystems that integrate factors affecting food quality, sustainability and biodiversity, providing a supporting technique to understand the consequences of agricultural management for ecosystem services. We are developing an advanced agent-based simulation (ABS) applied to olive groves to model the effects of farming practices on the abundance of olive pest predators. ABS is a modeling technique where agents represent animals (predator arthropods, in our case) acting in their environment. Our model is based on an ABS system developed by Aarhus University, the ALMaSS, which comprises highly detailed farm management and spatial structures to construct dynamic landscapes where agents operate. In this work, we present the conceptual model for one of the selected species, Haplodrassus rufipes (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Inhibitory Potential of Essential Oils on Malassezia strains by Various Plants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08838 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 633
Abstract
It is imperative to classify opportunistic skin pathogens and skin commensals for the Malassezia genus of lipophilic yeasts. Recently, in the eastern and western United States, nine types of bat skins have isolated as new Malassezia species in the subfamily Myotinae. Factually, [...] Read more.
It is imperative to classify opportunistic skin pathogens and skin commensals for the Malassezia genus of lipophilic yeasts. Recently, in the eastern and western United States, nine types of bat skins have isolated as new Malassezia species in the subfamily Myotinae. Factually, wild-type Malassezia insulates are typically susceptible to azoles, except for fluconazole, although developed azole resistance in these strains has been related to either alterations or quadruplications of the ERG11 gene. Those remarks have provoked interest in substitute antifungal therapy, such as chlorhexidine, and different plant essential oils. The purposes of this investigation were to assess atopic dermatitis (AD) along with the Malassezia species and the adequacy of its inhibitory effect with different plant essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. Plants produce essential oils because of physiological stresses, microorganism assaults, and biological variables. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, integrated normally in various plant parts during the cycle of secondary metabolism. Yeasts of the class Malassezia have been associated with various ailments influencing the human skin, for example, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, Malassezia (Pityrosporum) and pityriasis Versicolor, and—less commonly—with other dermatologic issues, for example, transient acantholytic dermatosis, onychomycosis, and reticulated and confluent papillomatosis. Malassezia is a significant causal factor for seborrheic dermatitis. Studies exploring cell and humoral immune responses explicit to Malassezia species in patients with Malassezia-related infections and healthy controls have commonly not been able to characterize critical contrasts in their resistant reactions. Presently, few medications are accessible to treat this fungal infection. The current examination is expected to enhance the clinical utilization of essential oils; there is an urgent need to conduct further in vivo investigations with large cohorts of patients to confirm the clinical capability of essential oils against Malassezia species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
A Complex Interaction System for Understanding the Ability of Trichoderma to Trigger Defenses in Tomato Plants Challenged by Phytophthora nicotianae
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08632 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
In this study, the early activation of plant-defense-related genes during a three-way plant–antagonist–pathogen interaction in a tomato–TrichodermaPhytophthora nicotianae model system was evaluated. Thirty-day-old tomato seedlings were treated at the root systems with a suspension of germinated conidia of two selected [...] Read more.
In this study, the early activation of plant-defense-related genes during a three-way plant–antagonist–pathogen interaction in a tomato–TrichodermaPhytophthora nicotianae model system was evaluated. Thirty-day-old tomato seedlings were treated at the root systems with a suspension of germinated conidia of two selected strains of T. asperellum and T. atroviride and then inoculated with zoospores of P. nicotianae. The defense mechanisms activated by tomato plants upon the simultaneous colonization of the root systems by Trichoderma spp. and P. nicotianae were evaluated 72 h post-inoculation by analyzing the transcriptomic profiles of genes involved in the pathways of salicylic acid (i.e., pathogenesis-related proteins—PR1b1 andPR-P2-encoding genes), jasmonic acid (i.e., lipoxygenases enzymes—TomLoxC- and TomLoxA-encoding genes), and the tomato plant defensin protein (i.e., SlyDF2-encoding gene). The results showed that PR1b1 was more strongly up-regulated in the three-way system including T. asperellum, while the gene PR-P2 was up-regulated in the system including T. atroviride. TomLoxA was significantly up-regulated only in the three-way system including T. asperellum, while TomLoxC was significantly up-regulated in neither of the analyzed three-way systems. Finally, the gene SlyDF2 was significantly up-regulated in tomato seedlings in both three-way systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Reorientation of Methods Applied to Plant Protection as an Effect of Climate Change
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08650 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 123
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of the agricultural economy in terms of agricultural development, especially in the area of plant protection, taking into account the effects of climate change. Environmental protection and sustainable management of natural resources, prioritizing an action behavior regarding vulnerabilities [...] Read more.
The paper provides an overview of the agricultural economy in terms of agricultural development, especially in the area of plant protection, taking into account the effects of climate change. Environmental protection and sustainable management of natural resources, prioritizing an action behavior regarding vulnerabilities regarding the types of fertilizers used, favors the reorientation of methods applied to plant protection in order to protect the biosphere are part of the soil-plant-air-water equation. Climate change involves the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation of agricultural systems. There also are risks in using excessive fungicides in plant protection. Plant-soil interdependence in agricultural practice is highlighted in the paper. One of the main objectives in the field of agriculture is to maintain a low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Research has a major role to play in reducing the carbon footprint per tonne of food produced from organic farming, compared to conventional farming, mainly due to the abandonment of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The aim of the following research is to collect data and information on the most efficient management models that will create the premises for the production of production models that will respond in the future to the challenges of climate change, especially from the perspective of reducing greenhouse gases, depending on the application of a plant protection system in response to climate change and the pressure of diseases and pests. During the research, we tried to highlight aspects that, in our opinion, are important for the development of the agricultural sector as part of the economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Performance of a Specialist and a Generalist Herbivorous Moth on Different Quercus robur Genotypes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08592 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
Besides beech, oak is one of the most ecologically and economically important deciduous tree species in Central European forests. Due to progressive global warming, oaks are increasingly exposed to biotic and abiotic stress factors. In addition to drought and heat, thermophilic herbivorous insects [...] Read more.
Besides beech, oak is one of the most ecologically and economically important deciduous tree species in Central European forests. Due to progressive global warming, oaks are increasingly exposed to biotic and abiotic stress factors. In addition to drought and heat, thermophilic herbivorous insects also represent a challenge for the oak trees. During earlier investigations on Tortrix viridana in North Rhine-Westphalia, differences in the infestation intensity of individual pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur) by herbivorous insects led to a definition of tolerant (T-oaks, less infested) and susceptible (S-oaks, heavily infested) oaks. Performance studies with T. viridana and Lymantria dispar were conducted to validate the observations. Both herbivorous insects needed more time for their juvenile development when reared on T-oaks. While the larvae of L. dispar tended to eat less leaf material from T-oaks than from S-oaks, T. viridana needed to consume more T-oak leaf material to achieve approximately the same pupal weight as larvae fed with leaf material from S-oaks. The mortality rate of T. viridana was significantly higher on T-oaks than on S-oaks, whereas no significant difference was found for L. dispar. Basically, T-oaks seem to offer a poorer nutritional basis for both kinds of leaf-eating insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Biomonitoring Air Pollution in Carob Leaves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08896 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
The optical properties and ecophysiological parameters of leaves of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) expanded in more and less polluted habitats were compared in order to evaluate the effect of air quality in leaf development. The accumulation of pigments (chlorophylls a and b, [...] Read more.
The optical properties and ecophysiological parameters of leaves of Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) expanded in more and less polluted habitats were compared in order to evaluate the effect of air quality in leaf development. The accumulation of pigments (chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids) and specific leaf area (SLA, cm2 g−1) were seasonally determined during leaf development (i.e., in nine successively grown leaves along shoots). Leaf transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) spectra for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were measured between 250 and 2500 nm wavelengths using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer and leaf absorptance (Abs) [(Abs = 100 − (R + T)] was used to assess the effect of environmental quality of more and less polluted habitats in Athens, according to the files of the Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Energy, on carob leaf physiology. An increase in the studied leaf parameters was observed for carob trees grown in the urban site. There was an increase in SLA from spring to late summer and a decrease in late autumn. Leaves of the less polluted site in the bush, regardless of the developmental stage, exhibited greater water absorption, while the adaxial surface absorbed more radiation in both categories of plants. It seems likely that differences in optical properties and pigment accumulation have important implications for model simulation purposes and may be used for air pollution biomonitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Phytophthora Diversity in a Sentinel Arboretum and in a Nature Reserve Area
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08748 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Most soilborne Phytophthora species are invasive plant pathogens, and nursery plants for transplanting are considered a primary pathway for the introduction of exotic Phytophthora species into plant diversity conservation sites. As a preliminary contribution to the study of Phytophthora populations in plant conservation [...] Read more.
Most soilborne Phytophthora species are invasive plant pathogens, and nursery plants for transplanting are considered a primary pathway for the introduction of exotic Phytophthora species into plant diversity conservation sites. As a preliminary contribution to the study of Phytophthora populations in plant conservation sites, we compared the diversity of Phytophthora in the protected natural area Complesso Speleologico Villasmundo S. Alfio Nature Reserve (NR) (Siracusa) and the botanical garden (BG) of the University of Catania, eastern Sicily (Italy). Samplings were carried out in spring 2019. Overall, 29 rhizosphere soil samples were collected, 17 from different types of vegetation in NR and 12 from different plant species in BG. Phytophthora species were recovered from soil samples by leaf baiting and isolation on a selective medium. Isolates were identified by combining morphological features with phylogenetic inferences from ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. Overall, 82 Phytophthora isolates, 30 from NR and 52 from BG, were characterized. Five Phytophthora species, P. pseudocryptogea, P. cryptogea, P. bilorbang, P. plurivora and P. gonapodyides, were recovered from NR, while only three species, P. nicotianae, P. multivora and P. parvispora, were found in BG. Factors contributing to shape Phytophthora populations of rhizosphere soil in these two vegetational contexts are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
A Novel Plant-Based Biostimulant Improves Plant Performances under Drought Stress in Tomato
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08883 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Abiotic stress adversely affects crop production, causing yield reductions in important crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among different abiotic stresses, drought is considered to be the most critical one since limited water availability negatively impacts plants growth and development, especially in [...] Read more.
Abiotic stress adversely affects crop production, causing yield reductions in important crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among different abiotic stresses, drought is considered to be the most critical one since limited water availability negatively impacts plants growth and development, especially in arid or semi-arid areas. This study aimed to understand how biostimulants may interact with critical physiological response mechanisms in tomatoes under limited water availability and to define strategies to improve tomato performances under drought stress. We investigated physiological responses of the tomato genotype ‘E42’ grown in an open field under control conditions (100% irrigation) and limited water availability (50% irrigation) and treated or not with a novel plant-based biostimulant named CycoFlow (Agriges, BN, Italia). Plants treated with the biostimulant showed an increase in stomatal conductance. The highest yield per plant was registered under the 100% water regimens in biostimulant-treated plants. Biostimulant-treated plants had higher pollen viability (+50.94% under water deficit) and higher fruit weight (+56.13% under water deficit) compared to non-treated plants. The treatment with the biostimulant had also an effect on antioxidants and pigments content in leaves and fruits. Altogether, these results indicate that the application of the biostimulant CycoFlow to tomato plants improved plant performances under limited water availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Flowering Genetic Regulatory Network in Neotropical Orchids
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08576 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 122
Abstract
During the reproductive transition in flowering plants, a vegetative apical meristem (SAM) transforms into an inflorescence meristem (IM) that forms bracts and flowers. In grasses such as rice, a genetic regulatory network (GRN) controlling reproductive transitions has been identified. It includes the integration [...] Read more.
During the reproductive transition in flowering plants, a vegetative apical meristem (SAM) transforms into an inflorescence meristem (IM) that forms bracts and flowers. In grasses such as rice, a genetic regulatory network (GRN) controlling reproductive transitions has been identified. It includes the integration of promoters and repressors from different gene lineages with active duplication events during angiosperm diversification. With the objective to understand the evolution and expression of flowering GRN in Orchidaceae, we performed comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of all genes from the flowering GRN and analyzed by RT-PCR the expression of targeted homologs in key developmental stages. Our ML results indicate that the FT/TFL1, FD, FLC/FUL, SOC1 and AGL24/SVP gene lineages have been subject to multiple duplications in monocots, as well as in Orchidaceae. Conversely, FLC genes are lost in Orchidaceae, suggesting major changes in the repression of flowering. Our studies also show active expression of many target genes in Elleanthus aurantiacus (Orchidoideae) in the SAM and in IM, indicating important functions in the reproductive transition. We describe how the flowering GRN in orchids has significant variations in copy number and expression patterns when compared to the canonical rice flowering GRN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Cachrys libanotis L. Extracts: Photocytotoxic Effects on UVA-Irradiated Human Melanoma Cells
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08574 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Photochemotherapy, combining the action of a light source and a chemical photosensitizer, is one of the most interesting current therapeutic approaches. Plants represent a rich source of photoactive compounds, and furanocoumarins are some of [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Photochemotherapy, combining the action of a light source and a chemical photosensitizer, is one of the most interesting current therapeutic approaches. Plants represent a rich source of photoactive compounds, and furanocoumarins are some of the most important naturally occurring phytoconstituents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photocytotoxic potential of Cachrys libanotis L. (Apiaceae) from Southern Italy. This species belongs to a genus rich in furanocoumarins and widely distributed in Europe. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted through both traditional maceration and pressurized cyclic solid-liquid (PCSL) extraction using a Naviglio extractor®. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to detect the coumarin content using GC-MS, and the photocytotoxic effects of the extracts were assessed on UVA-irradiated C32 melanoma cells. The apoptotic responses were also evaluated. Furthermore, the phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant potential were estimated. Xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin were identified and quantified. Both extracts affected the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner after irradiation for 1 h at a dose of 1.08 J/cm2. The sample obtained through PCSL extraction was the most effective, with an IC50 equal to 3.16 μg/mL, a very interesting value if compared with the positive control bergapten. This extract induced upregulation of apoptotic signals such as BAX and PARP cleavage, and in the presence of UVA radiation, it caused a greater upregulation of the p21 protein. The obtained results suggest that the investigated species could be a good candidate for further studies aiming to find new drugs with photocytotoxic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Physiological Characteristics of Expanding and Expanded Leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Assyrtiko in Climate Change Conditions
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08882 - 03 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The impact of climatic change on viticulture is expected to be severe in the Mediterranean area in the future. The scope of this study is the evaluation of the leaf functional and optical properties of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar (cv.) Assyrtiko [...] Read more.
The impact of climatic change on viticulture is expected to be severe in the Mediterranean area in the future. The scope of this study is the evaluation of the leaf functional and optical properties of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar (cv.) Assyrtiko and its response to abiotic stress conditions (elevated temperature and water deficiency) caused by climatic change. Plants of grapevine cv. Assyrtiko were placed in a growth chamber in the Botany Department of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece and four indoor environmental treatments were applied, concerning temperature (ambient versus ambient +2 °C) and water availability (well-watered versus water stressed). The photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids) were determined as well as the leaf area, dry weight and specific leaf area in expanding and fully expanded leaves of the treated plants. Using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda-950), equipped with an integrating sphere, the reflectance (R) and the transmittance (T), were measured in situ, between 250 and 2500 nm wavelength, in both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the grapevine cv. Assyrtiko and the absorbance (A) was calculated. It is likely that leaf chlorophyll content declined under drought and elevated temperature conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Flavonoids from Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer: A Ready Arsenal against Pests as Well as Diabetes
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08773 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) has currently become one of the most challenging noninfectious diseases to treat. Enzymes such as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase involved in carbohydrate metabolism are useful targets to treat the disease. Plants produce an immense variety of flavonoids with [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) has currently become one of the most challenging noninfectious diseases to treat. Enzymes such as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase involved in carbohydrate metabolism are useful targets to treat the disease. Plants produce an immense variety of flavonoids with diverse biological activities. They are involved in interactions with other plants, animals, and microbes. They can act as antimicrobial toxins or as anti- or pro-oxidants. We aimed to investigate whether flavonoids from leaf extracts of Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer (Family: Convolvulaceae) could exhibit alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro and in silico. The leaf flavonoids were extracted in chloroform by routine protocols, and their profiling was carried out using the LC-MS technique. The chloroform extract was also tested for its inhibitory activity against the commercially available porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme in vitro, where it showed excellent inhibition. The molecular docking study was performed only for flavonoids from the LC-MS compound list using AutoDock 4.2.6. The compounds were docked against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PDB ID: 1OSE). This structure already contained a bound molecule of ‘acarbose’ (a prescribed drug, an amylase inhibitor, and positive control in our in vitro experiments). Out of these, the top four flavonoids, vitexin (apigenin 8-C glucoside, a flavone), rutin (a flavonol), myricetin (a flavonol), and isoquercetin (a flavonol), showed the highest binding energies of −12.4 kcal/mol, −15.04 kcal/mol, −10.71 kcal/mol and −11.89 kcal/mol, respectively. Acarbose had binding energy of −11.48 kcal/mol. Thus, all four secondary metabolites showed comparable or higher binding energies than acarbose. The ligands interacting with the amino acid residues ASP197, GLU233, and TRP59 of amylase protein seemed to show an excellent inhibitory effect among the 15 secondary metabolites studied. This is also proven by our experimental data, which will be discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Influence of Cultivation Areas on the Seed-Borne Pathogens on Two Local Common Bean Ecotypes of “Fagioli di Sarconi” PGI (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08593 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The “Fagioli di Sarconi” common beans, typical of Basilicata Region (Southern Italy), include different ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (Protected Geographical Indication). The study aimed to determine the presence of seed-borne pathogens, isolated from two ecotypes of “Fagioli [...] Read more.
The “Fagioli di Sarconi” common beans, typical of Basilicata Region (Southern Italy), include different ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (Protected Geographical Indication). The study aimed to determine the presence of seed-borne pathogens, isolated from two ecotypes of “Fagioli di Sarconi” common beans, “Ciuoto” and “Cannellino rosso”, in two different cultivation areas during the years 2018 and 2019, for identifying genotypes resistant and well adapted to climatic changes. The seeds were evaluated for seed-borne pathogens screening by using three validated seed health testing methods, according to the 2020 International Rules for seed testing. The washing test identified 18 fungal pathogens, different for ecotype and year of observation; the 1% sodium hypochlorite treatment strongly reduced the contaminants. With the blotter test, several saprophyte pathogens were found. Between paper test, specific for detecting the C. lindemuthianum, revealed the presence of this pathogen for both ecotypes and years, in all areas, and individuated some bacteria, too. In conclusion, this work highlighted differences by the two PGI common bean ecotypes in response to seed-borne pathogens resistance and environmental change due probably to their different thickness and polyphenolic content of integument. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
DNA Barcoding and Phylogenetic Placement of the Genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Egypt
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08620 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
(1) Background: The genus Euphorbia L. in Egypt is represented by 40 species, one subspecies, and three varieties which are distributed in almost all phytogeographical regions in Egypt. The genus is well known for its medicinal importance; however, various and sometimes anomalous morphological [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The genus Euphorbia L. in Egypt is represented by 40 species, one subspecies, and three varieties which are distributed in almost all phytogeographical regions in Egypt. The genus is well known for its medicinal importance; however, various and sometimes anomalous morphological characters make the identification of the genus a problematic case. (2) Methods: In this study, six DNA markers: matK, rbcL, ETS, trnL intron, trnL spacer, and the entire ITS region (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2), as well as subunits ITS1 and ITS2 were evaluated singly and in combination to investigate their usage as potential DNA barcodes. The Maximum Likelihood (ML) and BLASTn analyses were conducted for 37 individuals representing 26 species of Egyptian Euphorbia. (3) Results: The BLASTn comparison of the newly generated DNA sequences of the Egyptian Euphorbia species showed that ITS, ITS1 and ITS2 subunits displayed high levels of species discrimination. On the other hand, the ML analysis of the DNA sequences of trnL intron yielded a better resolved phylogenetic tree than the other regions. However, our phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences of other markers: matK, rbcL, trnL, and the entire ITS region, with additional sequences from GenBank have shown that E. dracunculoides, E. hyssopifolia, E. lasiocarpa and E. granulata are probably not monophyletic. (4) Conclusion: This study, along with the broadest taxon coverage in Egypt, emphasizes the importance of using DNA markers for precise identification and phylogenetic placement of the genus Euphorbia in Egypt within the whole genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Interaction between Soil Drouhgt and Allelopathic Factor on Wheat Seedlings Performance
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08732 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The interaction between pre-sowing seed priming and soil drought on wheat physiological performance and allelopathic potential has been studied in alaboratory pot experiment. Amixture of cinnamic, salicylic and ascorbic acids (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) was used as a priming agent. The soil [...] Read more.
The interaction between pre-sowing seed priming and soil drought on wheat physiological performance and allelopathic potential has been studied in alaboratory pot experiment. Amixture of cinnamic, salicylic and ascorbic acids (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) was used as a priming agent. The soil moisture was regulated by watering pots to 20%, 40% and 60% of field capacity. The macronutrient content in the rhizosphere soil was also measured. The results obtained indicated that mild allelopathic stress applied to seeds made seedlings more resistant to subsequent drought stress and contributed to the increase of their allelopathic potential. Intensification of drought stress resulted in the decrease in production of allelopathic inhibitors in wheat plants and an increase of allelopathic stimulants and organic carbon in the rhizosphere soil. Changes in allelopathic activity of the rhizosphere soil closely correlate with the changes in organic carbon, nitrates, iron and phosphorus. While soil reaction, concentration of ammonia, manganese, potassium and sulfur displayed no correlation with soil allelopathic activity. The phenomena of cross-synergism and cross-antagonism between the interacting factors are discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Olive-Associated Fungi of Cultivars with Different Levels of Resistance to Anthracnose
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08878 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 143
Abstract
Olive anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the most damaging fruit diseases in olive crops worldwide. Their control is very difficult and relies mostly in the use of copper-based fungicides. The plant-associate fungal community has been increasingly recognized for playing an [...] Read more.
Olive anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the most damaging fruit diseases in olive crops worldwide. Their control is very difficult and relies mostly in the use of copper-based fungicides. The plant-associate fungal community has been increasingly recognized for playing an important role in plant health and fitness. Thus, in this work, the olive-associated fungi of cultivars with different levels of resistance to anthracnose were characterized to identify potential protecting fungi for a sustainable strategy of biocontrol. A culture-dependent approach was used to assess both epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities of leaves from the olive cultivars Madural (susceptible to anthracnose) and Cobrançosa (moderately tolerant), and the isolates obtained were identified by rRNA sequencing. Overall, the Ascomycota phylum and Aureobasidium genus were the most dominant, being epiphytes that are significantly more diverse and abundant than endophytes. Host plant (at cultivar level) had a negligible effect on the composition of the fungal communities of the leaves. Future research needs to highlight the most prominent taxa arising from different cultivars and to decipher these complex interactions between plants and fungi and assess their role in plant health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Inoculum Type Influences Phosphorus Subcellular Distribution in Shoots of Wheat Grown in Acidic Soil under Sustainable Agricultural Practices
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08596 - 30 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Crop growth in acidic soils is limited by toxicity of Al and/or Mn and deficiency of phosphorus (P). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improve host water and nutrient acquisition, particularly P. When colonization is initiated from an intact extraradical mycelium (ERM), shoot P levels [...] Read more.
Crop growth in acidic soils is limited by toxicity of Al and/or Mn and deficiency of phosphorus (P). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improve host water and nutrient acquisition, particularly P. When colonization is initiated from an intact extraradical mycelium (ERM), shoot P levels increase, depending on the plant species associated with ERM development (Developer). In the present study, wheat (Triticum aestivum) was grown in an acidic soil with intact ERM associated with previously grown native stress-adapted Developers. Non-mycotrophic Silene gallica (SIL) was compared with strongly mycotrophic Lolium rigidum L. (LOL) and Ornithopus compressus (ORN). After 3 weeks, wheat shoot P concentration and subcellular redistribution were analyzed via ICP-MS. ERMs established after LOL or ORN growth promoted 1.7- and 1.6-fold wheat shoot P accumulation, respectively. Shoots of wheat grown after SIL showed 40% of P in the apoplast, while after LOL or ORN, this proportion was approx. 50%. Intact ERM from mycotrophic Developers adapted to acidic soils seems to influence crop growth by increasing P uptake and managing its subcellular distribution. This knowledge is important for the development of sustainable agricultural practices in the framework of net carbon zero-emission agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Effects of Metformin on Antioxidative Response of Lactuca sativa Plants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08771 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in various ecosystems is of growing concern as these compounds may affect different organisms, causing changes to their metabolism and possibly contributing to food chain contamination. Our study aims to understand how lettuce cope with metformin (MTF), evaluating the [...] Read more.
The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in various ecosystems is of growing concern as these compounds may affect different organisms, causing changes to their metabolism and possibly contributing to food chain contamination. Our study aims to understand how lettuce cope with metformin (MTF), evaluating the oxidative stress and other effects on the plant metabolism. Lettuce was produced in a hydroponic culture contaminated with MTF. After 1, 8 and 15 days, plants were harvested and analysed. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters were determined following spectrophotometric methods. Concentrations of H2O2 and MDA were obtained under MTF contamination, revealing differences on day 15. This study showed that MTF affected plant metabolism inducing oxidative stress and that different tissues responded differently to the abiotic stress caused. The results from various antioxidative enzymes showed different trends in roots and leaves, indicating a specific role in the tolerance mechanism related with plant tissues. Enzymatic response indicated a more intense stress, as well as a more effective response, in leaves than in roots. The antioxidative protection mechanism in leaves were mainly due to the activity of CAT, GPOD and APX, showing that these enzymes have an important role in the defence mechanism against toxic effect of MTF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Climatic Suitability for Haplodrassus rufipes in a Mediterranean Area: Linking a Predaceous Species to the Olive Grove
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08598 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The use of natural enemies against crop pests has been promoted during the last decades. Efficient pest limitation relies on the overlap of the predator and the pest in time and space. In Portugal, the cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea [...] Read more.
The use of natural enemies against crop pests has been promoted during the last decades. Efficient pest limitation relies on the overlap of the predator and the pest in time and space. In Portugal, the cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) represents a key economic and cultural activity. Previous works highlighted the ground hunter spider Haplodrassus rufipes as a promising natural enemy against the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the main pest of the olive tree in northeastern Portugal. The objectives of this work were to approximate the distribution of H. rufipes throughout the whole Iberian Peninsula using its climatic suitability and compare it with the distribution of O. europaea. For this, a maximum entropy model at a 1-km resolution was developed. The distribution of O. europaea was visualized using a chorological map. The most contributing bioclimatic variable to the maxent model was the mean diurnal range. The distribution of O. europaea fairly overlapped with the highest values of the bioclimatic suitability of H. rufipes throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Dissecting Plant Specific Insert Interaction Networks
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08870 - 03 Dec 2020
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Abstract
In plants, there are several thousands of different types of proteins with different functions that must be correctly located to a specific subcellular compartment. The conventional vacuolar sorting route is already well described and research teams are now more interested in understanding mechanisms [...] Read more.
In plants, there are several thousands of different types of proteins with different functions that must be correctly located to a specific subcellular compartment. The conventional vacuolar sorting route is already well described and research teams are now more interested in understanding mechanisms behind how unconventional sorting routes work. Our laboratory has been studying the plant-specific insert (PSI), a domain shown to be both sufficient and necessary for correct vacuolar sorting, for a long time. Even though different PSI domains (PSI A and PSI B) present high similarity, they mediate different routes: PSI A has Golgi bypass ability, directly delivering proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuole; while PSI B mediates a conventional ER–Golgi–vacuole pathway. The main goal of this study was to identify intermediate players in PSI sorting processes. We purified both PSIs and several endomembrane reporters involved in specific events of protein transport and tested their interactions through pulldown assays. Furthermore, purified PSIs were also used as bait for co-immunoprecipitation in tobacco and Arabidopsis extracts. The data obtained will set the basis for a broader objective aimed at mapping the PSI network of interactions, which will help the characterization of unconventional trafficking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Plants Biodiversity in Olive Orchards and Surrounding Landscapes from a Conservation Biological Control Approach
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08604 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Many natural control agents of olive pests need pollen and nectar from non-crop plants in order to complete their life cycles. However, a deep knowledge about the occurring plant species in the agroecosystem is necessary to select the plant species to be maintained [...] Read more.
Many natural control agents of olive pests need pollen and nectar from non-crop plants in order to complete their life cycles. However, a deep knowledge about the occurring plant species in the agroecosystem is necessary to select the plant species to be maintained or enhanced from a conservation biological control approach. Thus, in this study, the goal was to increase the understanding about the plants’ biodiversity in an important olive-producing region in the northeast of Portugal. For that, on a weekly basis during the spring and every other week in the summer and autumn, blooming plant inventories were accomplished in three olive orchards with spontaneous vegetation and its surroundings (woody and herbaceous vegetation areas) from April to December of 2012 and 2013. The percentage ground cover for each flowering plant species was recorded following the Daubenmire cover scale modified by Bailey. A total of 258 plant species belonging to 47 families were identified. The most abundant family was Asteraceae, followed by Poaceae, Fabaceae and Brassicaceae. Several species were specific to each land use and presented different flowering periods, representing a potential variety of food sources across the seasons. Additionally, some of the identified species are known for their implications as providers of the key requisites for natural control agents. These results provided us with valuable information for the implementation of conservation biological control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Study on Yield Variability in Oil Palm Progenies and Their Genetic Origins
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08760 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
One of the most important and widely known plantation crops with high revenue returns is the Elaeis guineensis palm. To date, yield variability in fresh fruit bunches (YFFB) in Malaysian oil palm plantations is one of the key influences in low palm oil [...] Read more.
One of the most important and widely known plantation crops with high revenue returns is the Elaeis guineensis palm. To date, yield variability in fresh fruit bunches (YFFB) in Malaysian oil palm plantations is one of the key influences in low palm oil yield. Accordingly, an assessment of dura×pisifera progenies and their genetic origins on oil palm yield was investigated. Twenty-four derived progenies from 10 genetic sources were adopted as F1 hybrid-single generation and the standard approach for data collection of the yield and yield traits was followed for three sequential years. Variance analysis showed genetic differences between the progenies and their origins. Amid the progenies analyzed, 45.83% had YFFB above the trial mean. Progeny HPDP500 had the highest YFFB (191.74 kg/palm/year) and the highest bunch number (YBNO) was recorded in PKDP4474 (20.65 bunches/palm/year), and HPDP500 (20.53 bunches/palm/year). In year one and year three, the highest YFFB was reported, while in year one of data collection, the highest YBNO was recorded. Dura-Ulu Remis × Yangambi had the highest YFFB (175.81 kg/palm/year) and Tanzania × Nigeria recorded the highest YBNO (19.06 bunches/palm/year). High heritability and phenotypic coefficient of variation with a moderate genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits were further revealed. YFFB had a moderate positive YBNO relationship (r = 0.676; df =3, 23; p = 0.0001) and a weak positive average bunch weight correlation (r = 0.378; df = 3, 23; p = 0.0001). For tissue culture and hybridization programs for yield enhancement, progenies and origins with better performance may be used; however, the use of molecular research as a selection criterion seems to be worth further analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Quality Evaluation of Flaxseed Obtained from Different Locations
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08754 - 01 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to review the quality of flaxseed obtained from different geographical locations. The review is based on the previous studies which confirm that climatic conditions provide the impact on the plant growth and their quality as well. Geographic [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to review the quality of flaxseed obtained from different geographical locations. The review is based on the previous studies which confirm that climatic conditions provide the impact on the plant growth and their quality as well. Geographic investigations of plant molecular variety can give substantial data of plant growth and upgrade plant germplasm, medicinal values, and the uses, yet such examinations are deficient in cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Flax is the third biggest fibre harvest naturally and one among the five significant oil crops on the earth. Flax is often utilized as a model plant for the best plants on account of its compact size and self-fertilization characteristics. Flaxseed yields shifted incredibly due to climate and soil type, yet these conditions demonstrated next to no impact on plant thickness. There is a higher variety of generative plant parts seen by cultivated flax and more vegetative pieces of the plant were seen in pale flax fluctuates. The scope of variety, hereditarily based variety, heritability, and connection of a few characters are thought of, particularly concerning the impact of domestication. Higher developing season temperatures in different locations can impact the efficacy of agricultural, income of the farm and food security. Postponement in planting prompted an expansion in natural temperature during conceptive development of harvest bringing about lower seed quality. The outcomes demonstrated that the planting climate influences the development characteristics, yield, and its segment as well as the yield of oil. These findings are important for understanding flax domestication and are also helpful in grouping intraspecific variety of cultivated flax, setting up a centre subset of the flax assortment, and investigating new wellsprings of qualities for flax improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Antimicrobial Activity and Composition of Different Cultivars of Honeysuckle Berry Lonicera caerulea L.
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08626 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of composition and antimicrobial properties in eleven cultivars of honeysuckle berries. Using spectrophotometric methods, we compared the content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), anthocyanins, and chromatic characteristics of berries, which were grown [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of composition and antimicrobial properties in eleven cultivars of honeysuckle berries. Using spectrophotometric methods, we compared the content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), anthocyanins, and chromatic characteristics of berries, which were grown in the collection of Vytautas Magnus University Botanical Garden and collected at maturation stage. In addition, the content of ascorbic acid and saccharides were evaluated by HPLC using diode ray and light scattering detectors. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of honeysuckle berry were evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. Bacterial tests identified antimicrobial properties of honeysuckle berries against undesirable in food products bacteria but without affecting Candida and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The cultivar ‘Morena’ had the highest anthocyanins (781 mg/100 g) and total phenolic compounds (799 mg/100 g), while the lowest anthocyanins (282 mg/100 g) and TPC (300 mg/100 g) content were detected in the ‘Vostorg’ cultivar. Cultivars ‘Pavlovskaja’ and ‘Pereselenka’ had high contents of ascorbic acid. The maximum glucose and fructose contents were detected in the ‘Leningradskaya’ cultivar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Introgression of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes (Xa21, xa13 and xa5) into CB 174 R, an Elite Restorer Line in Rice
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08759 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the major diseases causing a severe yield reduction in rice-growing regions. One dominant (Xa21) and two recessive genes (xa13 and xa5) were introgressed into CB 174 [...] Read more.
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the major diseases causing a severe yield reduction in rice-growing regions. One dominant (Xa21) and two recessive genes (xa13 and xa5) were introgressed into CB 174 R through marker-assisted breeding. The present study found three (Xa21 + xa13 + xa5) and two (Xa21 + xa13 or Xa21 + xa5 or xa5 + xa13) gene-introgressed combinations in the early segregated materials through foreground selection. The identified homozygous/heterozygous individuals were forwarded to the next cycles of breeding to fix homozygous conditions for all three genes with an improved agronomic performance background and, thus, could be used as a donor source for a future rice breeding program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Transcriptome Analysis of Cocos nucifera L. Seedlings Having Contrasting Water-Use Efficiency (WUE) under Water-Deficit Stress: Molecular Insights and Genetic Markers for Drought Tolerance
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08853 - 02 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Perennials utilize complex adaptive strategies and molecular mechanisms to cope with water-deficit conditions. Hence, in order to gain molecular insights regarding water-deficit stress, two-year-old coconut seedlings of the varieties Kalpa Sree and Kalpatharu were subjected to soil water-deficit regimes (25% of available of [...] Read more.
Perennials utilize complex adaptive strategies and molecular mechanisms to cope with water-deficit conditions. Hence, in order to gain molecular insights regarding water-deficit stress, two-year-old coconut seedlings of the varieties Kalpa Sree and Kalpatharu were subjected to soil water-deficit regimes (25% of available of soil moisture and control). The biochemical, physiological and growth parameters underlying water-deficit stress revealed the differential enzymatic anti-oxidants, lipid peroxidation status and water use efficiency traits between the genotypes investigated. The entire plant water use efficiency at the control condition was significantly low in Kalpatharu (4.06) compared to in Kalpa Sree (4.74). Nevertheless, under severe stress (25% ASM), Kalpatharu exhibited the highest WUE (5.68) against dwarf variety Kalpa Sree (3.84). Furthermore, the leaf transcriptome profiles of the control and water-deficit stressed seedlings were examined by utilizing paired-end RNA-Seq. In total, ~7300 differentially expressed genes have been identified between the seedlings under water-deficit stress and control. Analysis of control and stressed Kalpasree leaf transcriptome showed significant upregulation of PHLOEM PROTEIN 2-LIKE A1-like, WRKY transcription factor 40 isoform X1 and downregulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 transcripts. On the other hand, the upregulation of transcripts encoding polyamine oxidase, arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase among others and downregulation of aquaporin PIP1-2 transcript was documented in Kalpatharu leaves. Moreover, long non-coding RNA and genic SSRs were also identified from the transcriptome data to further enrich the genomic resources of coconut palm, which could pave way for its utilization in developing climate-smart coconut crop. The implications of this study in molecular dissection of the adaptive response of coconut to the soil-water deficit are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Qualitative Screening of Phytocompounds and Spectrophotometric Investigations of Two Pumpkin Species
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08774 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 103
Abstract
Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) is a fruit packed with vitamins and nutrients beneficial to human health with numerous therapeutic uses including antiparasitic, antioxidant, it helps to lower bad cholesterol, as an adjuvant in weight loss, improves cancer prevention, etc. Pumpkin is rich [...] Read more.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) is a fruit packed with vitamins and nutrients beneficial to human health with numerous therapeutic uses including antiparasitic, antioxidant, it helps to lower bad cholesterol, as an adjuvant in weight loss, improves cancer prevention, etc. Pumpkin is rich in beta-carotene, and contains significant amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants that can considerably prevent cataracts and macular degeneration. Worldwide, five pumpkin species are grown for their edible fruit and seeds. This paper describes the qualitative screening of phytocompounds and the quantitative determination of the main bioactive compounds found in two pumpkin species: Valenciano and Waltham Butternut. The qualitative screening of phytochemicals was based on the visual change in color of aqueous extracts upon adding known reactants. This allowed a preliminary evaluation regarding the presence of different bioactive compounds such as saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, etc. In order to determine the specific amount of different phytocompounds (e.g., total content of polyphenols, total content of flavonoids, etc.) UV-Vis spectra were recorded in triplicate at well-established wavelengths, thus obtaining an average absorbance. For example, a method widely applied for the determination of total polyphenolic content is the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) reaction, which is basically an antioxidant analyses that relies on electron transfer that measures the reductive ability of a specific antioxidant. Briefly, the FC reaction involved mixing 1 mL diluted aqueous extract with 5 mL FC reagent and adding 4 mL Na2CO3 after 8 min After 60 min incubation at room temperature, we recorded the absorptions at 765 nm, which corresponds to the gallic acid curve calibration standard. Also, the antioxidant activity was recorded by using the DPPH method for both aqueous extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Natural Mineral Enrichment in Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria: Accumulation of Ca and Interaction with Other Nutrients by XRF Analysis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08709 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 151
Abstract
Calcium is a crucial nutrient for bone development and the normal functioning of the circulatory system, whereas its deficiency can trigger the development of osteoporosis and rickets. On the other hand, Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important staple food crops [...] Read more.
Calcium is a crucial nutrient for bone development and the normal functioning of the circulatory system, whereas its deficiency can trigger the development of osteoporosis and rickets. On the other hand, Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important staple food crops worldwide and is a primary component of the human diet. Accordingly, using this staple food, this study aims to develop a technical itinerary for Ca biofortification of cv. Agria. As such, an itinerary of Ca biofortification was promoted throughout the respective production cycle. Seven foliar sprays with CaCl2 or chelated calcium (Ca EDTA) were used at concentrations of 12 and 24 kg ha−1. The index of Ca biofortification and the related interactions with other chemical elements in the tuber were assessed. It was found that, relative to the control at harvest, Ca content increased 1.07–2.22 fold (maximum levels were obtained with 12 kg ha−1 Ca-EDTA). Ca(EDTA) at a concentration of 24 kg ha−1 showed the second-highest levels in Ca, S and, P content. By adding CaCl2, it was also possible to identify a tendency of increasing contents (in Ca, K, S, and P) when the spraying concentration increased (12 kg ha−1 to 24 kg ha−1). Outside of the Ca higher content, dry weight, height, diameter, and the colorimetric parameter L of the tubers did not vary significantly, but minor changes occurred in the colorimetric parameters Chroma and Hue. It was concluded that Ca(EDTA) could trigger a more efficient Ca biofortification of Agria potato tubers with the additional enrichment of K, S, and P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Partial Rootzone Drying Irrigation Modulates Transpiration of Olive Trees
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08844 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 100
Abstract
Water scarcity and the increasing demand for irrigation in olive orchards lead to the adoption of deficit irrigation approaches to save water. A partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation technique has been proposed for woody crops as an agronomic practice to improve water productivity. [...] Read more.
Water scarcity and the increasing demand for irrigation in olive orchards lead to the adoption of deficit irrigation approaches to save water. A partial rootzone drying (PRD) irrigation technique has been proposed for woody crops as an agronomic practice to improve water productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of this irrigation strategy on water relations and transpiration of olive trees (cv. Cobrançosa) under climate conditions in the northeast of Portugal during the summer season of 2014. Two irrigation treatments were used: control (FI), irrigated with 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET) and PRD50, irrigated with 50% of the control (FI) on one side and switching every two weeks. Whole tree transpiration (T) was quantified by sap flow, which was monitored within the trunks of both the control (FI) and deficit irrigated (PRD50) trees using the compensation heath-pulse technique. Foliage gas exchange and water potentials were determined throughout the experimental period. During the summer, daily transpiration reached roughly 27 and 43 L d−1 for PRD50 and FI olive trees, respectively, with a clear reduction of 37% in PRD50 olive trees. PRD50 showed statistically comparable values of water potentials to the control, which appeared to prevent an excessive drop in tree water status by modulating stomatal closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Chemical Composition of Chinotto Juice
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08756 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Citrus × myrtifolia (Rafinesque) fruits are commonly used to produce the popular Italian beverage ‘Chinotto’. The C. myrtifolia plant comes from Asia, like most Citrus spp., but is currently spread across Mediterranean countries including Italy, mostly Liguria and Sicily. The fresh juice obtained [...] Read more.
Citrus × myrtifolia (Rafinesque) fruits are commonly used to produce the popular Italian beverage ‘Chinotto’. The C. myrtifolia plant comes from Asia, like most Citrus spp., but is currently spread across Mediterranean countries including Italy, mostly Liguria and Sicily. The fresh juice obtained by squeezing ripe fruits of Chinotto was investigated with the aim of drawing up guidelines to be used as a marker of quality and authenticity of this product. The juice composition was studied in terms of soluble solids, organic acids, titratable acidity, sugars, mineral components, and flavanone glucoside and ascorbic acid content. The results represent a starting point to define the quality of Chinotto juice, improving its quality and detecting any adulterations or fraud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Effect of WGA on 24-Epibrassinolide-Induced Resistance of Wheat Plants and Cell Walls Reinforcement under the Influence of Cadmium Acetate
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08849 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 116
Abstract
The generally accepted approach for increasing plant resistance to heavy metals is the treatment by phytohormones of different natures. In particular, brassinosteroids are highly effective in decreasing the level of toxic ions damage effects on plant growth. ABA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) [...] Read more.
The generally accepted approach for increasing plant resistance to heavy metals is the treatment by phytohormones of different natures. In particular, brassinosteroids are highly effective in decreasing the level of toxic ions damage effects on plant growth. ABA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) contents were measured in the same plant with the help of enzyme immunoassay method. The localization of lignin and suberin on cross sections of wheat roots stained with berberine hemisulfate/toluidine blue was performed. The mitotic index was determined as percentage of mitotic cells of the total number of the cells. It was found that 0.4 μM 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) seed pretreatment under the influence of 1 mM cadmium acetate in the presence of fluridone (Fl) inhibited the stress-induced accumulation of ABA, while the WGA content in plants stayed higher than in stressed EBR-untreated wheat roots. Moreover, EBR-pretreated wheat plants under cadmium stress formed in the root cell walls’ Casparian bands and suberin lamellae, which are the critical locations in the apoplastic barriers of endodermis and exodermis. Pre-sowing EBR-treatment promoted acceleration of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae formation without inhibiting growth processes. We have demonstrated the involvement of wheat lectin in the realization of EBR-induced protective effect on plants under cadmium stress. An important contribution to EBR-induced strengthening the barrier properties of the cell walls of the studied tissues is the ability of EBR to induce ABA-independent accumulation of WGA, which further promotes the increasing lignin and suberin biopolymers deposition in the cell walls of wheat roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Identification of Fertility Gene Rf1 in Collection Samples of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Southern Russia
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08710 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 94
Abstract
Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the major crops used for various purposes, including animal and human nutrition. The most relevant strategy for creating new sorghum hybrids is the use of lines with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). However, the [...] Read more.
Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is one of the major crops used for various purposes, including animal and human nutrition. The most relevant strategy for creating new sorghum hybrids is the use of lines with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). However, the process of creating sterile lines and lines that restore fertility is very laborious and time-consuming. The breeders need to know the genotype of the original parental forms of sorghum by the presence of the main genes that control fertility to speed up breeding work. One of these is the Rf1 gene. Our study aimed to identify alleles of the Rf1 gene in collection samples of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) adapted to the arid conditions of southern Russia. The studies were carried out in southern Russia (FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”, Zernograd, Russia) between 2018–2019. The presence of alleles of the Rf1 fertility gene using the Xtxp18 SSR marker by PCR analysis in collection samples of grain sorghum (313 pcs.) was studied. Some samples were crossed with two sterile lines: “Demetra S” and “Dzhetta S” (developed in FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”) in 2019. The assessment of the fertility of self-pollinated lines was carried out in the field using a 3-point scale. The polymorphism of the Xtxp18 marker allowed for the identification of a wide allelic diversity of the Rf1 gene in collection samples of sorghum, and the association of the identified Rf1 alleles with the fertility and sterility of self-pollinated hybrids of grain sorghum as a result of the study was performed. This result will make it possible to deepen understanding of the influence of the Rf1 gene alleles on the level of fertility of sorghum plants in the future, as well as to accelerate the breeding process to create sterile lines and their fertile analogues for further obtaining commercial hybrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Tissue Accumulation and Quantification of Zn in Biofortified Triticum aestivum Grains—Interactions with Mn, Fe, Cu, Ca, K, P and S
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08711 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Zinc has a fundamental role at the regulatory, functional and structural levels, and its deficiency leads to loss of brain function, changes in growth and weakening of the immune system. In this context, biofortification, which is a process in which there is an [...] Read more.
Zinc has a fundamental role at the regulatory, functional and structural levels, and its deficiency leads to loss of brain function, changes in growth and weakening of the immune system. In this context, biofortification, which is a process in which there is an enrichment of both content and bioavailability of micronutrients in edible tissues of staple foods, may be used to overcome Zn deficiency. Considering that Triticum aestivum L. is a staple food largely used for flour production, an itinerary for Zn biofortification was implemented in two cvs (Roxo and Paiva), produced in an experimental cereal field production located in Alentejo, Portugal. These cvs were submitted to three different treatments (control—without foliar spraying, 6.3 and 12.6 kg ha−1 of Zn-EDTA pulverization), being applied three zinc foliar application at booting, heading and grain milk stages. The accumulation of Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ca, K, P and S in bread wheat was investigated, and it was found that, in general, maximum contents occurred in the embryo and vascular bundle. Moreover, although Zn increased in the wheat grain, especially at higher concentrations, it did not markedly affect the other minerals’ concentration. It was concluded that whole wheat flour biofortified in Zn is a more suitable option for a healthier diet that is rich in minerals, leading to the creation of an added value product useful to decrease micronutrient deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Grape Enrichment with Zinc for Vinification: Mineral Analysis with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, XRF and Tissue Analysis
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08718 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 185
Abstract
Micronutrient deficiency affects individuals all around the world, being a public health problem. To minimize this problem, several alternatives are being developed, namely agronomic biofortification, to increase the amount of nutrients in food crops. In this context, Zn is one of the most [...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiency affects individuals all around the world, being a public health problem. To minimize this problem, several alternatives are being developed, namely agronomic biofortification, to increase the amount of nutrients in food crops. In this context, Zn is one of the most relevant micronutrients for the human body, displaying catalytic, structural, and regulatory properties. Considering that Zn deficiency leads to health disorders (namely, neurological disorders, autoimmune and degenerative diseases related to age, Wilson’s disease, cardiovascular problems, and diabetes mellitus), a technical itinerary for biofortification was outlined in a field of grapes located in Palmela (Portugal), aiming to optimize Zn content for the Syrah variety. Biofortification was performed with foliar spraying of zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) throughout the production cycle (at concentrations of 0%, 30%, and 60%—0, 450, and 900 g ha−1). The zinc biofortification index increased about 59% and 45%, respectively, with OZn60 and SZn60 (i.e., concentrations of 60% with treatment ZnO and ZnSO4 respectively), whereas its deposition in the flesh of the grapes increased 2.41- and 2.37-fold and in the seeds by approx. 1.76- and 2.19-fold (with OZn60 and SZn60, respectively). After vinification, significant increases in Zn content in the wine were also found (1.92- and 1.77-fold); however, considering the amount of this nutrient in grapes, it was concluded that vinification must also be optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Extracts of Non-Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacteria Affect the Plant Cytoskeleton and Cell Cycle
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08722 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Studies on the toxicity of cyanobacterial products on plant cytoskeleton have so far focused on the effects of microcystins (MCs), cyanobacterial toxins that inhibit protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, enzymes which are involved in plant cytoskeleton (microtubules and F-actin) organization and cell cycle [...] Read more.
Studies on the toxicity of cyanobacterial products on plant cytoskeleton have so far focused on the effects of microcystins (MCs), cyanobacterial toxins that inhibit protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, enzymes which are involved in plant cytoskeleton (microtubules and F-actin) organization and cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of extracts from two non-microcystin-producing (NMP) cyanobacterial strains, Microcystis viridis TAU-MAC 1810 and Planktothrix agardhii TAU-MAC 0514, on the cytoskeleton and cell cycle of Oryza sativa (rice) root cells. Rice seedling roots were exposed for various time periods (1, 12 and 24 h) to aqueous extracts of the aforementioned strains. Treated root tips underwent either immunostaining for α-tubulin or staining of F-actin with fluorescent phalloidin, and DAPI staining of DNA. Fluorescent specimens were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Corrected total cell fluorescence (CTCF) was measured to quantify F-actin disorder. To assess cell cycle alterations, cell cycle stage frequencies were calculated. In addition, Evans Blue staining was applied to determine dead cells. Treatment with the extracts affected microtubules and F-actin, as well as the cell cycle. These findings suggest that bioactive cyanobacterial compounds, apart from MCs, can disrupt the cytoskeleton and cell cycle progression in plant cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by C3 or CAM-Induced Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Plants
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08723 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 122
Abstract
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is an adaptation of certain plants to arid and water-stressed environments. The expression of the CAM cycle may be strongly modulated by developmental and environmental factors. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a well-known facultative halophyte that can shift its photosynthetic carbon [...] Read more.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is an adaptation of certain plants to arid and water-stressed environments. The expression of the CAM cycle may be strongly modulated by developmental and environmental factors. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is a well-known facultative halophyte that can shift its photosynthetic carbon fixation pathway from C3 to CAM under salinity and other abiotic stress factors. However, until now, there has been no study about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by M. crystallinum in its various life cycles, C3 and CAM. Plants emit a part of the photosynthetically assimilated carbon into the atmosphere in the form of VOCs. Under normal conditions, isoprenoids (isoprene and monoterpenes) are the most abundant VOCs though methanol and acetaldehyde, and C-6 compounds are also emitted in great quantities. Under stress conditions, the emission of these compounds is generally altered. The study of how emissions change depending on stress conditions has become a useful “in vivo” indicator of plant vitality and of the plant response to abiotic stresses. Within this work, we aimed to analyze the VOCs emitted from C3 or CAM-induced M. crystallinum in order to evaluate the possible role that VOCs may have in the C3/CAM transition and consequently in the adaptation of this plant to salinity. Results showed that M. crystallinum emits different kinds of VOCs: aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, and terpenoids. VOC emissions were generally higher in plants representing C3, with only few exceptions as butanone, octanal, and ethyl-hexanol that were similar in the III phase of CAM and C3 plants. Regarding the emission of terpenoids, we could observe that whereas plants in the C3 mode of photosynthesis emitted three types of monoterpenes: a-pinene, carene, and limonene, plants in the CAM state did not emit any terpenoid compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Nutrient Interactions in the Natural Fortification of Tomato with Mg: An Analytical Perspective
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08724 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 115
Abstract
In the human body, about 53% of Mg is involved in the development and maintenance of bone and other calcified tissues, although it also has a physiological role in protein synthesis, muscle and nerve functions, blood glucose control and blood pressure regulation. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
In the human body, about 53% of Mg is involved in the development and maintenance of bone and other calcified tissues, although it also has a physiological role in protein synthesis, muscle and nerve functions, blood glucose control and blood pressure regulation. Nevertheless, Mg deficiency triggers electrolyte disturbance that can result in multiple symptoms, namely, tremors, poor coordination, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, personality changes, and nystagmus. Complications may include seizures or cardiac arrest. To surpass Mg deficiency, biofortification is a strategy that can boost nutrient enhancement in food crops and can increase nutrient uptake and accumulation in the human body. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a technical itinerary for Mg biofortification in Lycopersicum esculentum variety H1534. Tomato biofortification was promoted during the respective life cycles throughout six leaf applications with two different treatments (4% and 8%) of MgSO4, equivalent to 702 and 1404 g ha−1. At harvest, the biofortification indexes of Mg were 2.01- and 1.71-fold higher (after spraying with 4% and 8% MgSO4, respectively), with synergistic trends found only with Zn and Fe, whereas P did not vary significantly among treatments. Among treatments, relevant deviations could not be found for total soluble solids, height, diameter and color; however, minor changes in dry weight were detected. It can be concluded that the Mg biofortification of tomato variety H1534 can be performed to add nutritional value to tomato-based processed food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Molecular Evidence of Mucoromycotina “Fine Root Endophyte” Fungi in Agricultural Crops
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08728 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 202
Abstract
Over 85% of land plants engage in symbiotic relationships with mycorrhiza-forming soil fungi that colonise their roots. These mycorrhizal symbioses, which involve the exchange of fungal-acquired nutrients and water for photosynthetically fixed plant carbon, are considered a promising nature-based solution to making agricultural [...] Read more.
Over 85% of land plants engage in symbiotic relationships with mycorrhiza-forming soil fungi that colonise their roots. These mycorrhizal symbioses, which involve the exchange of fungal-acquired nutrients and water for photosynthetically fixed plant carbon, are considered a promising nature-based solution to making agricultural practices more sustainable. In order to implement the widespread use of mycorrhizal fungi in agriculture, a more complete awareness of mycorrhizal fungal diversity and range of plant hosts is needed. Mucoromycotina Fine Root Endophytes (MFRE) are a group of mycorrhiza-forming fungi that have recently been shown to be phylogenetically and functionally distinct from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of MFRE colonisation of winter wheat, winter barley, spring wheat and strawberry roots. Fungal symbionts were identified from partial DNA sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained through a workflow involving molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing. Our findings shed light on the true distribution of plant-MFRE associations and give rise to new questions regarding their functional significance within agricultural plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Phosphate Starvation Triggers Transcriptional Changes in the Biosynthesis and Signaling Pathways of Phytohormones in Marchantia polymorpha 
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08729 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Plant hormones are master regulators of developmental and genetic mechanisms to deal with diverse environmental cues. Upon phosphate (Pi) limitation, vascular plants modify phytohormone metabolism to coordinate diverse mechanisms to overcome such stress. However, the transcriptional program underlying the hormonal signaling in response [...] Read more.
Plant hormones are master regulators of developmental and genetic mechanisms to deal with diverse environmental cues. Upon phosphate (Pi) limitation, vascular plants modify phytohormone metabolism to coordinate diverse mechanisms to overcome such stress. However, the transcriptional program underlying the hormonal signaling in response to Pi scarcity in early branches of land plant phylogeny remains unclear. Therefore, we explored the transcriptional dynamics of key genes involved in auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, jasmonate, gibberellin, and abscisic acid metabolism in the early divergent land plant Marchantia polymorpha upon Pi starvation. Our RNAseq approach revealed major changes in genes associated with auxin and ethylene biosynthesis. Genes involved in cytokinin synthesis are repressed. Interestingly, genes involved in auxin and ethylene signaling, such as MpARF1 and MpARF2, are upregulated. In contrast, MpARRb is down-regulated. Moreover, genes involved in the synthesis of jasmonates were highly upregulated, but those related to signaling did not change in expression. Our data suggest that auxin and ethylene act as positive regulators of rhizoid development under Pi-limited conditions, whereas cytokinin may act as a negative regulator. The transcriptional behavior of some hormone-related genes in Marchantia is similar to those described in controlling root hair development in arabidopsis, maize, and rice, upon Pi scarcity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Identification and Characterization of Rothia amarae sp. nov. in a Suspension Culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Heynh.) Cells
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08753 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 177
Abstract
We report, for the first time, that a nonpathogenic bacterial microflora has been found in a suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to Rothia amarae. Identification was confirmed by microbiological, microscopic, and [...] Read more.
We report, for the first time, that a nonpathogenic bacterial microflora has been found in a suspension culture of Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to Rothia amarae. Identification was confirmed by microbiological, microscopic, and immunochemical methods. The growth of the isolate on blood agar preserves the morphological and immunochemical properties of the isolate from the plant cell suspension culture. Whether the isolated strain is a contaminant or a true symbiont remains an open question. It is known that Rothia bacteria live mostly in oceanic and waste water and in benthos. Members of Rothia are part of the normal microflora of the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and stomach of humans. Endophytic Rothia are inhibitory against several pathogenic fungi and bacteria. In addition, some actinobacteria, including members of Rothia, are nitrogen fixers. It cannot be ruled out that the R. amarae strain isolated in this work can be endosymbiotic with a suspension culture of A. thaliana. The bacterial “inclusions” found by us in a suspension culture of A. thaliana merit further investigation to identify them more deeply and clarify their symbiotic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Bioactivity of Essential Oils of Laggera pterodonta and Laggera aurita against Larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Malaria Vector
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08651 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The role of plants as sources of biologically active entities cannot be overstated. Plants belonging to different families with mosquitocidal activity have been discovered in established ethnobotanical and laboratory-based studies. Biological control of mosquitoes using botanicals remains the safest and most environmentally sound [...] Read more.
The role of plants as sources of biologically active entities cannot be overstated. Plants belonging to different families with mosquitocidal activity have been discovered in established ethnobotanical and laboratory-based studies. Biological control of mosquitoes using botanicals remains the safest and most environmentally sound alternative to chemical control. The essential oil of two Nigerian Laggera species, L. pterodonta and L. aurita, were investigated with regard to their ability to kill the fourth instar larvae of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. The WHO protocol was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Three replicates comprising 20 larvae each were exposed to various concentrations of the essential oil. Larval mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The results show that mortality increased with an increase in concentration and period of exposure. The essential oil of L. pterodonta was found to be the most effective, with LC50 values of 418 and 404 mg/L after 24 and 48 h, respectively, while the essential oil of L. aurita recorded LC50 value of 688 and 642 mg/L after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The GC-MS results reveal that the essential oil of L. pterodonta comprises 50.83% of compounds that have been reported to have larvicidal activity while the essential oil of L. aurita comprises of 43.69% compounds with larvicidal activity. The better activity of L. pterodonta essential oil could be attributed to it having a higher percentage of compounds such as ɤ-terpinene and 4-carvomenthenol with larvicidal activity. The results suggest that the essential oil of the plants have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Fomes fomentarius Extract Decrease Negative Impact of Cadmium Ions in Barley Seedlings
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08746 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 99
Abstract
Cadmium ions are toxic to living organisms and cause oxidative stress. Current research is focused on the search of new antitoxicants with antioxidant, antiradical, and chelating activity. Fomes fomentarius is one of the most common wood-destroying fungi in Eurasia; however, its chemical composition [...] Read more.
Cadmium ions are toxic to living organisms and cause oxidative stress. Current research is focused on the search of new antitoxicants with antioxidant, antiradical, and chelating activity. Fomes fomentarius is one of the most common wood-destroying fungi in Eurasia; however, its chemical composition and biological effects have not been studied sufficiently. This work aimed to study separate and joint effects of fungal extracts and Cd2+ ions (250 μM) on barley growth. Cd2+ caused a 95% decrease in root length compared to control (water). Fungal extract (2 mg/mL) decreased it by 25%. Diluted extract (1 mg/mL) stimulated root growth by 12%. The shoot length in the case of Cd2+ decreased by 44% compared to control and by 36% in the case of extract (2 mg/mL). At lower extract concentration the length of shoots increased by 20% compared to water. Under the joint action of Cd2+ and extract (1 mg/mL) the root length reached 30% of control, which is six times higher than in the case of Cd2+. The shoot length was also higher compared to Cd2+ and reached 71% of the control. Thus, the addition of tinder fungus extract (1 mg/mL) reduced the negative effect of Cd2+ but did not completely block it. We suppose that this effect was associated with the high content of phenolic compounds in the extract (3.5 μg/mL) and their antioxidant activity. The ABTS* test showed that fungal extract inhibited the formation of radicals by 51%, which is comparable to standard antioxidant rutin. We suggested that Fomes fomentarius extract could be tested further as a bio-based product, reducing the toxic effects of heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Influence of Severe Drought on Leaf Response in ABA Contrasting Tomato Genotypes (Wild Type and flacca Mutant)
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08867 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 194
Abstract
The reaction of leaf growth to drought stress is controlled by various hormones, among which ABA is one of the most important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ABA deficiency on tomato leaf response under severe drought stress. [...] Read more.
The reaction of leaf growth to drought stress is controlled by various hormones, among which ABA is one of the most important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ABA deficiency on tomato leaf response under severe drought stress. Therefore, ABA-mutant (flacca) and wild type (Ailsa Craig) were selected for research and in the stage of second flower truss anthesis plants were exposed to severe water deficit. The effects of severe drought on wild-type leaves and flacca mutant showed that, as a result of reduced ABA concentrations, flacca plants were exposed to a higher degree of stress than wild-type leaves, which had a negative impact on the examined physiological and biochemical parameters. Severe drought caused stomatal closure, decreased water potential, specific leaf area, and chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves in both genotypes, but this was more pronounced in the mutant. Wild-type plants have accumulated more vitamin C and ABA and have a higher total antioxidant capacity in the leaves in dry conditions than flacca mutants, which contribute to their better adaptive response to stress. Based on this, it can be assumed that the ABA mutation has led to a decrease in the capacity for oxidative stress products caused by severe drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Foliar Application of Gibberellic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate Improves Leaf Greenness in Hesperantha coccinea (syn. Schizostylis coccinea), a Rare Ornamental Plant
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08622 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 174
Abstract
Hesperantha coccinea (Iridaceaea) is a little-known ornamental plant recommended for cultivation in pots, gardens and for cut flowers. The species produces narrow, decorative green leaves that sometimes turn yellow as the plants begin to anthesis. A solution to the problem may be the [...] Read more.
Hesperantha coccinea (Iridaceaea) is a little-known ornamental plant recommended for cultivation in pots, gardens and for cut flowers. The species produces narrow, decorative green leaves that sometimes turn yellow as the plants begin to anthesis. A solution to the problem may be the application of plant growth regulators (PGRs), and so far none have been studied in Hesperantha cultivation. The study assessed the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid solutions (GA3; 50,100 and 200 mg dm−3) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA; 100, 500 and 1000 µmol dm−3) on the leaf greenness index (SPAD index), leaf number, leaf length and leaf width of H. coccinea. Control plants were not treated with PGRs. It was found that both GA3 and MeJA applied at all tested concentrations significantly increased the greenness index of H. coccinea leaves. In addition, GA3 increased the number of leaves without affecting the length and width of the leaves. MeJA had a growth inhibitory effect. When compared to the control, plants sprayed with MeJA solutions produced fewer leaves that also had reduced length and width. These findings indicate that both regulators (GA3 and MeJA) positively affected plant quality by improving leaf greenness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
JetGene—Online Database and Toolkit for an Analysis of Regulatory Regions or Nucleotide Contexts at Differently Translated Plants Transcripts
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08624 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
mRNAs have some regulatory codes which can define the fate of an individual mRNA in translation. We have developed a flexible online database JetGene (https://jetgene.bioset.org/; accessed on 23 October 2020) that contains cDNA, CDS, 5′-UTR, 3′-UTR sequences from Bacteria, Fungi, Metazoa, Plants, Protists [...] Read more.
mRNAs have some regulatory codes which can define the fate of an individual mRNA in translation. We have developed a flexible online database JetGene (https://jetgene.bioset.org/; accessed on 23 October 2020) that contains cDNA, CDS, 5′-UTR, 3′-UTR sequences from Bacteria, Fungi, Metazoa, Plants, Protists and Vertebrates with the aim of searching regulatory codes in mRNA and studying their correlation with the translational efficiency. It has a friendly interface and puts together a set of tools which are necessary for designing experiments. JetGene allows doing a benchmark analysis of sequences, namely: (1) to estimate the variation of length, nucleotide composition, frequency of codon usage, to analyze GC-content, CpG-islands, to study nucleotides surrounding the start codon and much more; (2) to identify and define the statistically significant representation of potential regulatory contexts at mRNA with different translation efficiency. A user can make a bioinformatics analysis for full-length transcripts or for a fragment of transcripts, or for coding/non-coding regions. Every step of the work is accompanied by a graphical interpretation of the results. Moreover, the beta-version of JetGene (https://beta.bioset.org, under construction; accessed on 23 October 2020) allows users to compare two datasets of mRNA and to apply omics data for searching and predicting the regulatory determinants of translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Phylogenetic Placement and Taxonomic Reinvestigation of Endemic and Endangered Plant Species: Silene leucophylla Boiss. and Silene schimperiana Boiss. (Caryophyllaceae)
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08619 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
The two endemic plant species Silene leucophylla and Silene schimperiana (Caryophyllaceae) are native to the Sinai Peninsula which is considered as one of the floristically richest phytogeographical hot spot regions in of the Mediterranean basin. The biodiversity of the Sinai Peninsula is crucial [...] Read more.
The two endemic plant species Silene leucophylla and Silene schimperiana (Caryophyllaceae) are native to the Sinai Peninsula which is considered as one of the floristically richest phytogeographical hot spot regions in of the Mediterranean basin. The biodiversity of the Sinai Peninsula is crucial for conservation and sustainable development in the area. Endemic plant species of the Sinai Peninsula are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats due to their relatively low population sizes. In the current study, we reinvestigated the taxonomic statues of two medicinally important and endangered species. The integrated approach involved macro- and micro-morphological traits using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as well as phylogenetic analysis were conducted, while phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Phylogenetic reconstruction using Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (rbcL and matK) markers retrieved the species phylogenies successfully. Silene leucophylla and Silene schimperiana were placed phylogenetically within the whole genus. The sectional classification of the two species was confirmed. Silene leucophylla was placed in section Siphonomorpha while Silene schimperiana allied to section Sclerocalycinae. The current study reaffirmed that the integration of various morphological and molecular approaches is useful for identifying and, determining the taxonomic statues, and revealing the phylogenetic positions of these two endangered plant taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Root Extracts of Rubia cordifolia L. in Different Solvent Systems
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08625 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 157
Abstract
Rubia cordifolia L. is an important plant used in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicinal systems of India for treatment of blood disorders. Of all the plant parts, roots of R. cordifolia are the most suitable source of effective secondary metabolites. The present work investigated [...] Read more.
Rubia cordifolia L. is an important plant used in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicinal systems of India for treatment of blood disorders. Of all the plant parts, roots of R. cordifolia are the most suitable source of effective secondary metabolites. The present work investigated phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of R. cordifolia root powder extracted in different solvents. Total polyphenols and flavonoids content were estimated. High antioxidant activity was corroborated with DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, reducing power and total antioxidant assays. Obtained results showed that ethanol extracts were most potent over methanol, aqueous, and PBS extracts for DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing power assays. In contrast, methanol and aqueous extracts had higher potency in nitric oxide and total antioxidant assays. Encouraging results were obtained for antioxidant activity even upon PVPP treatment that removed the polyphenols from the extracts. The results suggest a potential of ethanol and methanol extracts for cancer cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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Proceeding Paper
Green Leaf Volatiles: Airborne Signals That Protect against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08634 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 119
Abstract
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are rapidly released by plant leaves upon damage. This makes them ideal signals to convey the presence of a damaging threat to other parts of the same plant, but also to plants nearby. There, GLVs were first found to [...] Read more.
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are rapidly released by plant leaves upon damage. This makes them ideal signals to convey the presence of a damaging threat to other parts of the same plant, but also to plants nearby. There, GLVs were first found to activate defense responses against insect herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens. Aside from providing direct protection, GLVs also prime those responses resulting in an enhanced and/or accelerated response to these biotic stressors. Recently, it was shown that GLVs also protect against cold stress in plants, resulting in stress-specific transcript accumulation and subsequent reduced damage. This response was further associated with a stimulation of growth after the stress subsided. Common to all those stresses is that they can also cause the release of these compounds. However, the quantities and qualities of the emitted GLVs can vary significantly even in closely related species, suggesting that eco-physiological factors related to biotic and abiotic stresses rather than systematic relationships may have been the driving force for the highly variable emission of these compounds. Still, too little is known about the regulation of GLV emissions, signaling, and responses to support this hypothesis. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of current knowledge regarding biosynthesis and signaling of GLVs in plants and will give an outlook into future areas of research that may provide essential information about the complex biological activities of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
Proceeding Paper
Tomato Fruit Development in Response to Different Irrigation Practices: Developmental Study of Pericarp Cell Layers
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECPS2020-08855 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Many vegetable crop plants, including tomato, have high water needs and one of the options to overcome the negative effects of water reduction on yield is the use of deficit irrigation methods. Detailed knowledge on the effects of different irrigation methods on fruit [...] Read more.
Many vegetable crop plants, including tomato, have high water needs and one of the options to overcome the negative effects of water reduction on yield is the use of deficit irrigation methods. Detailed knowledge on the effects of different irrigation methods on fruit developmental processes could be a critical factor in the analysis of the effect on final yield. It is well known that water reduction limits the fruit growth rate and final fruit size in tomato, as a consequence of impact on cell division and expansion processes. This paper reviews roles of cellular traits in the responses of tomato fruit growth to deficit irrigation (DI) which were assessed using the wild-type (WT) and its flacca mutant deficient in plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). We specifically addressed how the cell number, cell size and setup of pericarp cell layers were affected by water deficit during development. Fruits of flacca in optimal irrigation are smaller as a consequence of smaller-sized cells in the pericarp. DI induced a stronger negative effect on cell division and expansion in flacca than in WT at an early stage. However, the effects of DI were similar in flacca and WT in ripe fruits. The main difference between flacca and WT responses to water restriction was a stronger negative impact during the early cell division in flacca, which is consistent with the involvement of ABA in the cell division process and water stress-induced ABA synthesis in WT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Plant Science)
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