Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April
 
 

Horticulturae, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 92 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Synthetic and bio-based active substances were found to be suitable for controlling Parthenolecanium corni infestation in several highbush blueberry plantations. Their efficacy could be related to the initial level of infestation. Natural enemy species were found in all plantations and differed in terms of the population size and diversity, which, besides supporting the control of the scale, could impact the infestation level or product efficacy. Applying an IPM strategy that combines agronomical practices with the application of insecticides with different mechanisms of action, attentive to the benefit of natural enemies, is considered a suitable method of achieving the satisfactory control of P. corni in highbush blueberry plantations. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 5733 KiB  
Article
Algerian Fig Trees: Botanical and Morphometric Leaf Characterization
by Fahima Abdelkader, Ziane Laiadi, Susana Boso, José-Luis Santiago, Pilar Gago and María-Carmen Martínez
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050612 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3414
Abstract
Leaf morphology in plants is very important in the evaluation of intraspecific variation. Indeed, the leaves of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.) present a great diversity of shape and size. The present study consists of the botanical, morphological, and morphometric characterization [...] Read more.
Leaf morphology in plants is very important in the evaluation of intraspecific variation. Indeed, the leaves of the fig tree (Ficus carica L.) present a great diversity of shape and size. The present study consists of the botanical, morphological, and morphometric characterization of the leaves of 26 local fig tree varieties cultivated in different areas of Bejaia (northeast Algeria). Our results indicate that the morphological parameters of the leaves allowed a good differentiation of the studied cultivars according to the descriptors (UPOV) among varieties and independent of their growing environment. Moreover, the method of morphometric description proposed in this paper allows the differentiation of varieties and the comparison among them in an objective way and by simple mathematical methods. This method demonstrates the existence of a very high percentage of polymorphisms within the studied varieties, but also their classification according to the number of lobes, the depth of the lateral sinuses, and the degree of openness of the angles performed by the main veins of the leaves. The Azougagh variety is characterized by wider angles, and, on the contrary, the Tassahlit variety has the least-open angles. None of the studied varieties presented “entire” leaves. The majority presented leaves with five lobes. The varieties Tilizwith, Tazarzourth, Avarkan, Tamkarkourth, and Inconnu B differed clearly from the rest by showing leaves with seven lobes and deep lateral sinuses. In contrast, the varieties Zarika, Baccor Blanc, Avarkan Lisse, and Avgaiti presented leaves with only three lobes. This is the first work on fig tree characterization using morphometric methods, which are shown to be complementary to the UPOV code and efficient in separating even the closed varieties. It will be interesting to extend these studies to larger scales and areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mediterranean Biodiversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3484 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Spatial Dispersion of Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus on Surfaces in a Commercial Tomato Production Site
by Jens Ehlers, Shaheen Nourinejhad Zarghani, Stefanie Liedtke, Bärbel Kroschewski, Carmen Büttner and Martina Bandte
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050611 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
The tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) causes severe damage to tomato cultivars and has international economic importance. The harmful tobamovirus is easily mechanically transmissible and highly stable. An ongoing cultivation of infected tomato plants may lead to the spread of ToBRFV in [...] Read more.
The tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) causes severe damage to tomato cultivars and has international economic importance. The harmful tobamovirus is easily mechanically transmissible and highly stable. An ongoing cultivation of infected tomato plants may lead to the spread of ToBRFV in and around the production area of the infested tomato farm. We conducted a study in which we collected a representative number of swab samples from various inanimate surfaces in greenhouses, packaging halls, and shared and private accommodations. In addition, numerous fabrics, such as outer clothing, bed linen, and items used by greenhouse workers, were tested. The infectivity of ToBRFV-contaminated surfaces was tested in bioassays using Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi NN and confirmed using DAS-ELISA. The proportion of ToBRFV-contaminated surfaces varied among locations, from 48.7% in greenhouses to 0% in offices with limited access to staff. Samples from shared accommodation and private accommodation were 18.4% and 3.6% ToBRFV positive, respectively. Clothing and protective items were found to be highly contaminated with ToBRFV, and even around the sleeping area, infective ToBRFV was detected in a few apartments. This study provides evidence for the first time on how and where infectious ToBRFV can be spread by humans beyond the production area. To avoid further dissemination, strict hygiene protocols are required to interrupt transmission routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Protected Culture)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2442 KiB  
Communication
Volatile Composition and Aroma Description of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers from Albino Cultivars
by Ying Gao, Yuhong Chen, Fang Wang, Jianxin Chen, Gensheng Chen, Yongquan Xu and Junfeng Yin
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050610 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
Volatiles are important quality components in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers. Albino tea plants are mutant tea plants with diverse abnormal metabolisms. However, whether the metabolisms of volatiles in tea flowers from albino cultivars are abnormal remains unclear. In this study, headspace [...] Read more.
Volatiles are important quality components in tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers. Albino tea plants are mutant tea plants with diverse abnormal metabolisms. However, whether the metabolisms of volatiles in tea flowers from albino cultivars are abnormal remains unclear. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and aroma evaluation were conducted to investigate the volatile composition and aroma of tea flowers from three albino cultivars (i.e., Baiye No.1, Huangjinya, and Yujinxiang) and one non-albino cultivar (i.e., Jiukeng). The results indicated that tea flowers shared the majority of volatiles but their relative abundances were different. Twelve differential compounds were screened out by partial least squares discriminant analysis. Linalool was the one with the highest relative abundance in three out of the four tea flowers, while acetophenone was the one with the highest relative abundance in tea flowers from Huangjinya. Aroma evaluation indicated that tea flowers from Huangjinya smelt sweetest among them. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that acetophenone and (R)-1-phenylethanol were positively associated with the sweet smell, while methyl salicylate, 2-heptanol, (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, and 2-pentanol were positively associated with the green smell. The results enhance our understanding of the volatiles and aroma of tea flowers from albino cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavor Chemistry and Sensory Evaluation of Horticultural Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Discrimination of Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ Leaves at Different Maturity Stages by FTIR and GCMS Fingerprinting
by Nuruljannah Suhaida Idris, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Ali Majrashi, Mekhled Mutiran Alenazi, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Khairil Mahmud and Nashriyah Mat
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050609 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1493
Abstract
‘Giant Green’ is one of the Syzygium samarangense cultivars planted throughout Malaysia because it has great potential for benefitting human health. However, its variation in chemical compounds, especially in the leaves at different maturity stages, cannot be systematically discriminated. Hence, Fourier transform infrared [...] Read more.
‘Giant Green’ is one of the Syzygium samarangense cultivars planted throughout Malaysia because it has great potential for benefitting human health. However, its variation in chemical compounds, especially in the leaves at different maturity stages, cannot be systematically discriminated. Hence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) coupled with chemometric tools were applied to discriminate between the different stages of leaves, namely, young, mature, and old leaves. The chemical variability among the samples was evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) techniques. For discrimination, partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was applied, and then partial least squares (PLS) was used to determine the correlation between biological activities (antioxidant and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay) and maturity stages of ‘Giant Green’ leaves. As a result, the PCA, HCA, and PLS-DA of the FTIR and GC-MS data showed the separation between clusters for the different maturity stages of the leaves. Additionally, the PLS result demonstrated that the young leaves showed a strong correlation between metabolite quantities and biological activities. The findings of this study revealed that FTIR and GC-MS coupled with chemometric analyses can be used as a rapid method for the discrimination of bioactive structural functions in relation to their biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2660 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature Variation and Blue and Red LEDs on the Elongation of Arugula and Mustard Microgreens
by Yun Kong, Joseph Masabni and Genhua Niu
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050608 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Recent studies using LED lighting at low to modest intensity have indicated that compared with red light, blue light can promote plant elongation in many crops as a shade avoidance response despite varying sensitivity with light environments, plant species, and growth stages. Currently, [...] Read more.
Recent studies using LED lighting at low to modest intensity have indicated that compared with red light, blue light can promote plant elongation in many crops as a shade avoidance response despite varying sensitivity with light environments, plant species, and growth stages. Currently, there is limited understanding of how temperature affects the blue light-mediated plant response. To clarify this point, two microgreen species (arugula and mustard) were grown indoors under two light quality × two temperature treatments: red LED light (peak at 670 nm) and blue LED light (peak at 450 nm) at 18 °C or 28 °C. A photosynthetic photon flux density of 110 µmol m−2 s−1 and a photoperiod of 12 h d−1 were used for all treatments. After 6 to 8 days of treatment, at both temperatures, blue vs. red light promoted plant elongation, as demonstrated by a greater plant elongation rate, final plant height, and hypocotyl length, in arugula but not in mustard. Blue vs. red light also promoted some shade-avoidance responses such as decreased cotyledon size in both species and increased petiole length and dry mass partitioning to hypocotyls in arugula only. The elongation promotion in arugula by blue light was greater at 18 °C than at 28 °C, showing interactions between light and temperature on most plant traits. For mustard, plant elongation was promoted at 28 °C compared to 18 °C independent of light treatment, showing no interactions between light and temperature on most plant traits. These results suggest that the blue light-mediated elongation as a shade-avoidance response is not reversed by high temperature, despite the varying sensitivity with temperatures and species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Protected Culture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Application of Cinnamaldehyde Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in Strawberry Preservation
by Shangjian Li, Jiajia Chen, Yuntong Liu, Qinhua Zheng, Weijian Tan, Xiaolin Feng, Kexin Feng and Wenzhong Hu
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050607 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Strawberries are a popular food. However, the growth and reproduction of microorganisms on the surface of strawberries change their quality and may cause food poisoning. We compared the effects of solid lipid nanoparticles containing cinnamaldehyde (SLN-CA) and unencapsulated cinnamaldehyde on the freshness of [...] Read more.
Strawberries are a popular food. However, the growth and reproduction of microorganisms on the surface of strawberries change their quality and may cause food poisoning. We compared the effects of solid lipid nanoparticles containing cinnamaldehyde (SLN-CA) and unencapsulated cinnamaldehyde on the freshness of strawberries stored for seven days. The impacts of SLN-CA at different concentrations on strawberry firmness, weight loss, rate of fruit rot, and sensory quality were investigated at 25 °C. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and malonaldehyde (MDA) and vitamin C contents of strawberry cell homogenates were measured during storage. The experimental results showed that SLN-CA treatment can effectively reduce the probability of decay in strawberries without causing excessive weight loss. SLN-CA can reduce softening, maintain a high level of SOD activity in cells, reduce the accumulation of MDA and consumption of organic acids, and improve the sensory characteristics of strawberries and thereby their shelf life. Therefore, SLN-CA is a promising preservation method to increase the shelf life and safety of strawberries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Nutritional, Phytochemical, and Antioxidant Potential of Rourea minor Fruits: An Underutilized Species
by Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy, Guggalada Govardhana Yadav, Sathish Shekhappa Kadapatti, Akarsha H. Pote, Ramalinga Jagali, Vidya Yarashi and Yaser Hassan Dewir
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050606 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The present study focuses on the nutritional, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant activities of the fruits of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston., an underutilized plant species. The ripened seeds contained 0.28%, 12.39%, 25.70%, 1.4%, and 3.4% of fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, and fiber, respectively, whereas [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the nutritional, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant activities of the fruits of Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston., an underutilized plant species. The ripened seeds contained 0.28%, 12.39%, 25.70%, 1.4%, and 3.4% of fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, and fiber, respectively, whereas ripened pulp possessed 0.19%, 0.34%, 0.90%, 0.35%, and 0.98% of fat, protein, carbohydrates, ash, and fiber, respectively. The ripened seed and pulp were also rich in mineral elements and especially microelements. The pulp, when ripe, had high levels of microelements such as boron, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese with values of 25.98, 2523.56, 499.12, 33.62, and 40.30 µg/g DW, respectively. Phytate and oxalate content were comparatively higher in ripened seeds (6.91 and 31.88 mg/g FW) than in the pulp. Acetone, absolute methanol, water, and 70% methanol were used for the extraction of phytochemicals, and 70% methanol extract contained the highest phytochemicals. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid content of unripe seeds was 180.47 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/DW, 68.95 quercetin equivalent (QE)/g DW, and 0.35 atropine equivalent (AE)/g DW, respectively, and that of unripe pulp was 8.21 mg GAE/g DW, 2.97 mg QE/g DW and 1.20 mg AE/g DW, respectively. All the extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity, proved by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, following a similar trend to the phytochemical composition. The study concludes that Rourea minor fruits, both seeds, and pulp, could be an excellent source of nutrients, microelements, and antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physico-Chemical Characterization of Fruits and Vegetables)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 494 KiB  
Article
Quantification and Distribution of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in the Inner and Outer Parts of Strawberry Fruit
by Kristyna Simkova, Robert Veberic, Metka Hudina, Nika Cvelbar Weber, Tina Smrke, Mariana Cecilia Grohar, Tea Ivancic, Massimiliano Pelacci, Aljaz Medic and Jerneja Jakopic
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050605 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
The distribution of primary and secondary metabolites within a fruit can affect its nutritional and organoleptic quality, as fruit can vary in size and shape. This study investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit of [...] Read more.
The distribution of primary and secondary metabolites within a fruit can affect its nutritional and organoleptic quality, as fruit can vary in size and shape. This study investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit of four strawberry cultivars (‘Asia’, ‘Clery’, ‘Frederica’, and ‘Sandra’) that were collected at one harvest point. The study included an analysis of the individual sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and enzymes responsible for the degradation of phenolics. All of the studied cultivars showed a lower pH, higher total organic acid content, and lower glucose and fructose content in the outer part of the fruit. Differences were also observed in the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, which were always higher in the outer part. The absolute differences in the total phenolic content ranged from 3723 to 6154 mg kg−1 dry weight. Our results provide a basis for understanding the differences in the biosynthesis of these metabolites within this fruit and prove that it is essential to mix samples well before extractions to obtain results that are representative of the whole fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
Integrated Control of Scales on Highbush Blueberry in Poland
by Małgorzata Tartanus, Barbara Sobieszek, Agnieszka Furmańczyk-Gnyp and Eligio Malusà
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050604 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
In the past decade, the development of highbush blueberry production in Poland has been followed by the occurrence of new pests in the plantations, including scales. Since both the assessment of the populations of natural enemies present in a territory and the knowledge [...] Read more.
In the past decade, the development of highbush blueberry production in Poland has been followed by the occurrence of new pests in the plantations, including scales. Since both the assessment of the populations of natural enemies present in a territory and the knowledge of the scale species present in the crop are crucial for the correct application of IPM strategies, a study was carried out to address these aspects and evaluate the efficacy of several active substances in controlling Parthenolecanium spp. in several highbush blueberry plantations. Specimens of adult larvae collected on several plantations were phylogenetically closely linked to two species, P. corni and P. fletcheri. However, considering the ecology and behavior of these species, it was concluded that the pest population was more likely to belong to P. corni. Analyzing the scale parasitoids’ community present in the different locations, it emerged that it was quite diversified, including species affecting both the initial and adult biological phases of the scales, with differences also in the population size and diversity, including both general or specialized parasitoids and predators. The different active substances tested in the efficacy trials, which included both synthetic and bio-based compounds, were suitable for controlling the scale infestation. However, the different efficacy observed between them, depending on season and location, could be interpreted taking into consideration the initial level of infestation. It is concluded that applying an IPM strategy that combines agronomical practices with the application of insecticides with different mechanisms of action, attentive to the benefit of protecting natural enemies, can result in satisfactory control of P. corni in highbush blueberry plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management in Horticulture)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2198 KiB  
Article
Research on Chilling Requirements and Physiological Mechanisms of Prunus mume
by Yuhan Zhang, Kaifeng Ma and Qingwei Li
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050603 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Low temperature plays a vital role in the growth and development of woody plants. In this research, based on the ability of artificial low temperatures to break dormancy, the Utah model was used to determine the chilling requirements (CR) of four early flowering [...] Read more.
Low temperature plays a vital role in the growth and development of woody plants. In this research, based on the ability of artificial low temperatures to break dormancy, the Utah model was used to determine the chilling requirements (CR) of four early flowering Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Rosaceae) cultivars, which are widely found in the Henan area of China. In addition, changes in the carbohydrates, antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormone contents of the flower buds (FBs) of the above-mentioned P. mume cultivars were measured during the low-temperature storage process, and the physiological changes of the four cultivars during the low-temperature induction period were explored. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) the CRs of ‘Gulihong’, ‘Nanjing gongfen’, ‘Zaoyudie’, and ‘Zaohualve’ were 408CU, 396CU, 372CU, and 348CU, respectively. All the P. mume cultivars belonged to cultivars with a low chilling demand. They also bloomed 4 months earlier, and (2) during the process of releasing dormancy at low temperatures, the contents of soluble sugar (SS) in the osmoregulation system of the four Prunus mume cultivars showed an upward trend, while the content of starch (ST) basically showed an opposite trend to the increase in chilling. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the FBs of each cultivar gradually decreased with the increase in cold and remained at a low level, while the peroxidase (POD) activity showed an opposite trend, and the dynamic changes of the catalase (CAT) activity generally showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing as a whole. The changing trend of gibberellin (GA3) content was similar to that of ABA. In addition, it was found that before dormancy was released, the SS and Pro contents of cultivars with lower CRs and early FB germination were significantly higher than those of other cultivars with higher CRs and the contents of ST and SP were lower. The cultivars with higher CRs and late FB germination had higher ABA content, lower GA3 contents, and their enzyme activities were significantly higher than those of the cultivars with lower CR. Therefore, the changes in the content of various substances in FBs are related to the amount of cooling required by the cultivar and at what point the FBs germinate, and the changes in their contents can be used as one of the indicators for judging the dormancy process of FBs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3172 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Growth and Rhizosphere Soil Changes of Herbaceous Peony Treated with a Compound Microbial Agent under Contrasted Soil Conditions
by Lijin Yang, Yajie Shi, Xiao Yang, Lingling Dong, Fuling Lei, Chengshu Zheng, Anqi Xie, Dongliang Zhang, Limin Sun and Xia Sun
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050602 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
When used for ornamental purposes, the herbaceous peony is usually propagated by root ramets, but the replanting of divided seedlings in the original planting area results in poor growth and development. No research has reported on a compound microbial agent used for herbaceous [...] Read more.
When used for ornamental purposes, the herbaceous peony is usually propagated by root ramets, but the replanting of divided seedlings in the original planting area results in poor growth and development. No research has reported on a compound microbial agent used for herbaceous peony. The purpose of this experiment is to provide a reference for low–cost soil improvement in production, promote the growth and development of herbaceous peony, and solve the problem of planting back obstacles. In this study, 3–year–old seedlings of herbaceous peony ‘Zifengyu’ were selected and planted into an ordinary garden and replanted soils. Four root irrigation treatments were conducted using the compound microbial agent ‘Junzhongjun’ to determine the physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soil, root physiology, and growth and development of ‘Zifengyu’ under different soil conditions. The growth and development of the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony were promoted by the treatment of the compound microbial agent in the following order: garden soil > sieved–root soil > unsieved–root soil. Root vigour was enhanced in the following sequence: sieved–root soil > unsieved–root soil > garden soil. The organic matter and available potassium in the rhizosphere soil of herbaceous peony increased, and the promotional effect in the sieved–root soil was significantly better than that in the other two soils. The results show that the compound microbial agent is low in cost and has a stimulating effect on the growth and development of herbaceous peony. In the process of production, the residual broken roots in the soil can be sieved and combined with the application of the compound microbial agent to further alleviate the barriers of replanting. The concentration and frequency of agent application should be further optimized at a later stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Variability in Productive and Biochemical Traits of Vicia faba L. Landraces from Apulia Region (South Italy)
by Francesca De Cillis, Claudia Ruta, Cataldo Pulvento, Luigi Tedone and Giuseppe De Mastro
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050601 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
The faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major) is a pulse that is garnering attention for its chemical composition, which makes it suitable for a healthy diet. The Apulian germplasm is rich in local accessions at risk of genetic erosion, which [...] Read more.
The faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major) is a pulse that is garnering attention for its chemical composition, which makes it suitable for a healthy diet. The Apulian germplasm is rich in local accessions at risk of genetic erosion, which need evaluating and promoting. Thirteen Vicia faba local Landraces have been analyzed in relation to their productivity and their chemical and biochemical characteristics: their protein, total phenol, total flavonoid, condensate tannin and L-DOPA levels. The results showed great variability—above all in the thousand-seeds weight and in their content of proteins and L-DOPA. Among the accessions evaluated, the two collected from the most southern area of the region (FV12-FV10) were particularly promising—both for their good biochemical traits and, especially, for the higher L-DOPA content (0.46 and 0.49 g 100 g−1 d.m., respectively), even when expressed in terms of yield per plant (116.3 and 153.0 mg plant−1 d.m., respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Horticultural Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of the Grafting Efficiency of Watermelon with a Grafting Machine
by Huan Liang, Juhong Zhu, Mihong Ge, Dehuan Wang, Ke Liu, Mobing Zhou, Yuhong Sun, Qian Zhang, Kai Jiang and Xianfeng Shi
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050600 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
The rising age of the population in rural China and the labor intensity of grafting have resulted in a decrease in the number of grafters and a subsequent increase in their wages. Manual grafting can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for watermelon-grafted [...] Read more.
The rising age of the population in rural China and the labor intensity of grafting have resulted in a decrease in the number of grafters and a subsequent increase in their wages. Manual grafting can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for watermelon-grafted transplanting; thus, machine grafting will be an effective alternative. In order to accelerate the implementation of machine grafting in China, a comparative analysis between the automatic grafting machine (model 2TJGQ-800) and traditional hand grafting was conducted. The reliability and feasibility of machine grafting were evaluated through a comprehensive evaluation of the production capacity and grafting seedling quality. This study focuses on the grafting application of watermelon plug-tray seedlings. The scion and rootstock seeds were sown on 9 November 2022. Grafting experiments using an automatic grafting machine, skilled workers, and ordinary workers were conducted with the root-pruned one-cotyledon grafting method on 24 November 2022. The results showed that the machine grafting had a high uniformity and grafting speed. The grafting speed of the grafting machine was 774 plant·h−1 and 1.65–2.55-fold higher than the hand grafting. With training, workers can improve their grafting speed, but it will still be slower than machine grafting. In addition, there was no significant difference in the grafting survival rate between the machine grafting and hand grafting. However, using machine grafting, the success rate decreased from 100% to 90.07% and the rootstock regrowth rate increased from 18.44% to 72.69%. Incomplete rootstock cutting, clip supply failure, and grafting drop failure are the three main factors that result in machine grafting failure. In conclusion, the grafting machine has advantages in terms of grafting speed and uniformity. Upon improving the accuracy of the cutting mechanism and grafting success rate, it will be adopted by commercial nurseries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technology and Equipment in Horticulture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Ripeness of Hass Avocado Fruit Using Deep Learning with Hyperspectral Imaging
by Yazad Jamshed Davur, Wiebke Kämper, Kourosh Khoshelham, Stephen J. Trueman and Shahla Hosseini Bai
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050599 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3251
Abstract
Rapid ripeness assessment of fruit after harvest is important to reduce post-harvest losses by sorting fruit according to the duration until they become ready to eat. However, there has been little research on non-destructive estimation of the ripeness and ripening speed of avocado [...] Read more.
Rapid ripeness assessment of fruit after harvest is important to reduce post-harvest losses by sorting fruit according to the duration until they become ready to eat. However, there has been little research on non-destructive estimation of the ripeness and ripening speed of avocado fruit. Unlike previous methods, which classify the ripeness of fruit into a few categories (e.g., unripe and ripe) or indirectly estimate ripeness from its firmness, we developed a method using hyperspectral imaging coupled with deep learning regression to directly estimate the duration until ripeness of Hass avocado fruit. A set of 44,096 sub-images of 551 Hass avocado fruit images was used to train, validate, and test a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict the number of days until ripeness. Training, validation, and test samples were generated as sub-images of Hass fruit images and were used to train a spectral–spatial residual network to estimate the duration to ripeness. We achieved predictions of duration to ripeness with an average error of 1.17 days per fruit on the test set. A series of experiments demonstrated that our deep learning regression approach outperformed classification approaches that rely on dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis. Our results show the potential for combining hyperspectral imaging with deep learning to estimate the ripeness stage of fruit, which could help to fine-tune avocado fruit sorting and processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fruit Production Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1984 KiB  
Communication
Quality Evaluation of Mustard Microgreens Grown on Peat and Jute Substrate
by Samar Min Allah, Rosanna Dimita, Carmine Negro, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Gadaleta, Carlo Mininni and Luigi De Bellis
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050598 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Consumers appreciate microgreens for their vast variety of colors and flavors. Usually, they are grown employing peat, a substrate that is used in large quantities. In order to identify a more sustainable propagation protocol and to reduce the amount of peat consumed, alternative [...] Read more.
Consumers appreciate microgreens for their vast variety of colors and flavors. Usually, they are grown employing peat, a substrate that is used in large quantities. In order to identify a more sustainable propagation protocol and to reduce the amount of peat consumed, alternative propagation protocols were evaluated. Jute is a biodegradable substrate with lower post-harvest costs because it does not leave particles on microgreens. This work evaluates the microgreen yield, flavor, texture, and phytochemical compounds when grown on jute. Green mustard (Brassica nigra) is one of the most popular microgreens. When growing these microgreens on jute (three repetitions), it was necessary to increase the frequency of irrigation and reduce the amount of water for each turn. In addition, the propagation time needed to be increased from 5 to 7 days. The tasters found no difference in flavor and only a slight difference in texture was observed when microgreens were grown on jute. The phenol and chlorophyll levels were unchanged, while carotenoid levels were slightly higher. Thus, the cultivation of green mustard on jute has a minimal impact on microgreens and leads to increased sustainability and reduced post-harvest costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Protected Culture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Dehydrated Medicinal Herbs
by Adna Prado Massarioli, Severino Matias de Alencar, Adriano Francisco Siqueira, Mariana Pereira de Melo, Igor Gomes Vidigal and Ana Lúcia Gabas Ferreira
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050597 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the effects of drying in a forced-air oven or solar dryer on the drying rates, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and antioxidant properties of rosemary, mint, common fennel, lemon grass, and basil. The drying rates of all herbs were [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the effects of drying in a forced-air oven or solar dryer on the drying rates, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and antioxidant properties of rosemary, mint, common fennel, lemon grass, and basil. The drying rates of all herbs were higher in the forced-air oven in comparison to the solar dryer. According to results obtained for herbal properties after this different drying process, mint was less affected by both drying conditions. On the other hand, regardless of the method of drying used, all dried herbs exhibited similar antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of total phenolics. The antioxidant activities of oven-dried herbs ranged from 19.18 to 71.55% and increased in the order common fennel < lemon grass < mint < basil < rosemary, while the activities of sun-dried samples varied from 17.73 to 58.27% and increased in the order basil < common fennel < lemon grass < mint < rosemary. The results obtained demonstrate that the process of drying can alter the quality of an herbal product, implying that standardization of post-harvest steps is essential to ensure the consistency of an herbal product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
Photosynthesis, Biochemical and Yield Performance of Grapevine Hybrids in Two Rootstock and Trellis Height
by Francisco José Domingues Neto, Adilson Pimentel Junior, Lenon Romano Modesto, Mara Fernandes Moura, Fernando Ferrari Putti, Carmen Silvia Fernandes Boaro, Elizabeth Orika Ono, João Domingos Rodrigues and Marco Antonio Tecchio
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050596 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The interaction between variety, rootstock, and trellis height is important for grapevine management, mainly for producing new varieties of grapes for juice and wine in new wine-growing regions with high production potential. Then, this study aimed to evaluate the rootstocks and trellis height [...] Read more.
The interaction between variety, rootstock, and trellis height is important for grapevine management, mainly for producing new varieties of grapes for juice and wine in new wine-growing regions with high production potential. Then, this study aimed to evaluate the rootstocks and trellis height influence on photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance for grapevine hybrids. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design using two factors, rootstocks (‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’) and trellis height (until 1.6 and 2.0 m), evaluated for two grapevine hybrids (IAC 138-22 ‘Maximo’ and ‘BRS Violeta’). During grapevine flowering, it was evaluated photosynthesis and biochemical performance, for this, the gaseous exchanges were measured using the open system photosynthesis equipment with a CO2 analyzer and water vapor by infrared radiation, being net assimilation rate of CO2, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency (Rubisco), and the flux density of photosynthetically active photons. At the stages of grapevine flowering and ripening berries were evaluated the antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)), total soluble proteins, chlorophylls, and SPAD. The interaction between rootstock and trellis heigh influenced varieties’ photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance. In conclusion under subtropical conditions, better photosynthesis, biochemical, and yield performance were observed when both cultivars were grafted on the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock. The ‘IAC 138-22 Maximo’ was trained until 2.0 and grafted on the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock, increasing grape production and photosynthesis efficiency. In addition, this variety was more productive than ‘BRS Violeta’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orchard Management under Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 955 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cognitive Style and Working Memory on Floral Design Ability
by Hui-Shan Chan, Hui-Ying Chu and Miao-Tzu Lin
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050595 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Students were sampled from two universities in southern Taiwan from 1 September 2022 to 31 October 2022. This study examined the factors affecting the floral design ability of 125 university students by analyzing the relationship between demographic variables, cognitive styles, working memory, and [...] Read more.
Students were sampled from two universities in southern Taiwan from 1 September 2022 to 31 October 2022. This study examined the factors affecting the floral design ability of 125 university students by analyzing the relationship between demographic variables, cognitive styles, working memory, and floral design ability. The results revealed that the cognitive style, working memory, and floral design ability scores of the participants were 2.82 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.35), 5.06 (SD: 1.11), and 77.27 (SD: 5.43), respectively. Most participants were visual processors and demonstrated favorable scores for working memory and floral design ability. Floral design ability had a moderately positive correlation with cognitive style (r = 0.474, p < 0.000) and working memory (r = 0.521, p < 0.000). Both working memory and cognitive style were influential factors for floral design ability. Specifically, working memory exhibited a higher predictive power and explained 27.2% of the variance, whereas cognitive style only explained 10.3% of the variance. Therefore, teaching aids that improve working memory, such as computer games and picture cards, can be used as supplementary teaching aids in floral design education. Visual processors can be taught using more picture-based or photo-based teaching methods, whereas a list of operational procedures is more suitable for verbal processors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Floriculture, Nursery and Landscape, and Turf)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Potential of Olive Leaves from Different Istrian Cultivars in Croatia
by Marija Polić Pasković, Nikolina Vidović, Igor Lukić, Paula Žurga, Valerija Majetić Germek, Smiljana Goreta Ban, Tomislav Kos, Lepomir Čoga, Tea Tomljanović, Sunčana Simonić-Kocijan, Dean Ban, Sara Godena and Igor Pasković
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050594 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
For the first time the effects of different sampling periods and their interaction with five major autochthonous Croatian Istrian olive cultivars and the Italian cultivar ‘Leccino’ on the quantity and composition of olive leaf phenolic compounds and mineral nutrients were investigated. For that [...] Read more.
For the first time the effects of different sampling periods and their interaction with five major autochthonous Croatian Istrian olive cultivars and the Italian cultivar ‘Leccino’ on the quantity and composition of olive leaf phenolic compounds and mineral nutrients were investigated. For that purpose, olive leaves were sampled in two collecting periods, in October and March, coinciding with the harvesting and pruning periods, respectively. All selected cultivars had a higher oleuropein leaf content in the pruning collecting period, with the highest levels noted for the ‘Leccino’ and ‘Buža’ cultivars. Cultivar significantly affected almost all the investigated phenols, with higher concentrations of these valuable compounds in the pruning than in the harvesting period. Differences observed in leaf mineral composition were closely related to the differences in phenolic profiles and were significantly affected by genotype. Some of the studied mineral nutrients, such as P, Cu and B, were found to be significantly correlated with the most abundant olive leaf phenolic compounds, oleuropein and verbascoside. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Plant Nutrition on Primary and Secondary Metabolites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2711 KiB  
Article
Trend Analysis of Different Climate Parameters and Watering Requirements for Hazelnut in Central Italy Related to Climate Change
by Alessandra Vinci, Bruno Di Lena, Silvia Portarena and Daniela Farinelli
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050593 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
In this study, the effects of climate change on the irrigation water requirement of hazelnut trees were investigated in Central Italy. The meteorological variables considered were precipitation, temperature, chilling units, and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Central Italy. The hydrological variables were [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of climate change on the irrigation water requirement of hazelnut trees were investigated in Central Italy. The meteorological variables considered were precipitation, temperature, chilling units, and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Central Italy. The hydrological variables were the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and the water requirement based on soil water balance. Climate data were collected from eight meteorological stations for the period 1974–2021, and ET0 was estimated by the Hargreaves and Samani equation. The SPI index was calculated for a four-month time scale corresponding to the hazelnut growing season (April–August). A statistical analysis of the trends of the variables considered was conducted. The results showed an increasing trend for temperature, ET0, and water requirements, while a decreasing trend was shown for the chilling units. No significant trends were detected for precipitation and SPI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenge of Horticultural Crops under Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2649 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of a Plant-Derived Protein Hydrolysate and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Eggplant Grown in Open Fields: A Two-Year Study
by Giuseppe Di Miceli, Lorena Vultaggio, Leo Sabatino, Claudio De Pasquale, Salvatore La Bella and Beppe Benedetto Consentino
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050592 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Plant biostimulants, such as plant protein hydrolysates (PHs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), are natural products capable of increasing the yield and quality of crops and decreasing the ecological impact of plant growing cycles. However, there is little research on the mutual application [...] Read more.
Plant biostimulants, such as plant protein hydrolysates (PHs) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), are natural products capable of increasing the yield and quality of crops and decreasing the ecological impact of plant growing cycles. However, there is little research on the mutual application of different categories of biostimulants (microbial and non-microbial). The current study was conducted to examine the effects of “Trainer” PH application (0 or 3 mL L−1) and AM (R. irregularis) inoculation on the growth, yield, quality and nitrogen indices of ”Birgah” F1 eggplant cultivated for two years (2020 and 2021). Results revealed that the combined application of PH and AM significantly enhanced total and marketable yields, average marketable fruit weight and number of marketable fruits by 23.7%, 36.4%, 19.0% and 11.1% compared to non-treated plants (control), respectively. Moreover, biostimulants increased the soluble solids content (SSC), chlorogenic acid, total anthocyanins, K and Mg in the fruits by 16%, 4.6%, 6.4%, 8.6% and 23.9% compared to control plants, respectively. Interestingly, the mutual application of PH and AM improved fruit quality by reducing the glycoalkaloid concentration (−19.8%) and fruit browning potential (−38%). Furthermore, both biostimulants exerted a synergistic action, enhancing nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake efficiency by 26.7% and 18.75%, respectively. On the other hand, productive and fruit-quality features were significantly influenced by the year due to remarkable differences in terms of maximum temperature between the first and second cultivation cycles. Overall, our research underlined that PH and AM can positively interact to improve the performance of eggplant cultivated in open fields. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7284 KiB  
Article
Adaptogenic Preparations Enhance the Tolerance to Spring Frosts, Yield and Quality of Apple Fruits
by Zoya Ozherelieva, Pavel Prudnikov, Andrey Nikitin, Anna Androsova, Anzhelika Bolgova, Anna Stupina and Oksana Vetrova
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050591 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The goal of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of adaptogenic preparations of the Natural Plant Complex “White Pearl” line to increase the yield and quality of apples. The objects of the studies were the apple cultivar “Sinap Orlovsky” [...] Read more.
The goal of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of adaptogenic preparations of the Natural Plant Complex “White Pearl” line to increase the yield and quality of apples. The objects of the studies were the apple cultivar “Sinap Orlovsky” and adaptogenic preparations: phytomodulator “White Pearl Universal Antifreeze” and phytocorrector “White Pearl Drip Ca + Mg”. The experiment used the following variants: 1—control (foliar sprays with water); 2—foliar sprays with adaptogenic preparations: 1% solution of “White Pearl Universal Antifreeze” + 1% solution of “White Pearl Drip Ca + Mg”. As a result of the complex use of biological products, the yield was significantly increased by 1.7 times and the average fruit weight was increased by 20.3 g. The adaptogenic preparations increased the yield of marketable apple fruits by 14.8% and contributed to a 2.5-fold decrease in fruits affected by scald and a 2-fold decrease in bitter pitting. The adaptogenic preparations improved the taste qualities of “Sinap Orlovsky” fruits compared to the control by increasing the amount of sucrose by 25.6% and ascorbic acid by 20.5%. The conducted tests of adaptogenic preparations in apple plantations show the prospects of their use as additional techniques in traditional apple cultivation technologies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 925 KiB  
Article
Understanding Latinx Farmers in Pennsylvania to Meet Their Needs for Non-Formal Education
by Ilse A. Huerta-Arredondo, Elsa Sánchez and John Ewing
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050590 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Latinx/Hispanic farmers are an underrepresented group with the largest number of farm operators in the US. However, agricultural educators have encountered challenges in identifying Latinx farmers in Pennsylvania and consequently, in meeting their needs. This study aims to contribute to improved agricultural programming [...] Read more.
Latinx/Hispanic farmers are an underrepresented group with the largest number of farm operators in the US. However, agricultural educators have encountered challenges in identifying Latinx farmers in Pennsylvania and consequently, in meeting their needs. This study aims to contribute to improved agricultural programming by offering an exploratory overview of Latinx farmers in the Commonwealth, and to bring to light the experiences of Extension educators when working with Latinxs in the agricultural context. Qualitative research interviews were conducted with seventeen Latinxs at different stages of their farming journey, and with twelve educators with experience in agriculture programming and outreach to Latinxs. Latinx farmers discussed the characteristics, goals, challenges, and solutions of their farming operations. Educators discussed their motivations to serve Latinx farmers, the challenges they face in meeting their needs, and the implementation of targeted strategies for successful programming. Both groups discussed challenges they believe Latinx farmers face due to their ethnicity and provided recommendations to better serve the Latinx farming population. Based on the findings, agricultural educators could support Latinx farmers by developing statewide programming, including programming in Spanish, having employers allocate a percentage of educators’ responsibilities to connecting with this audience, creating a Latinx farmers’ network, partnering with organizations connected with Latinx farmers, participating in cultural competency training, and promoting stories of success. Our methodology and findings can be adapted to educators in other locations working with minority populations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2676 KiB  
Article
Differential Response of Olive Cultivars to Leaf Spot Disease (Fusicladium oleagineum) under Climate Warming Conditions in Morocco
by Khaoula Habbadi, Ilyass Maafa, Abdellatif Benbouazza, Faiçal Aoujil, Hasnae Choukri, Salma El Iraqui El Houssaini and Ahmed El Bakkali
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050589 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Olive leaf spot (OLS), also called olive scab and peacock eye, caused by Fusicladium oleagineum, is a major disease that causes significant damage to olive trees. However, we still lack information about how cultivar and environmental factors influence disease development. In this [...] Read more.
Olive leaf spot (OLS), also called olive scab and peacock eye, caused by Fusicladium oleagineum, is a major disease that causes significant damage to olive trees. However, we still lack information about how cultivar and environmental factors influence disease development. In this study, evaluation of the incidence and severity on twenty olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.), maintained in an ex situ collection in Morocco, was carried out monthly during the period from March to July 2021. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated for each cultivar including leaf chlorophyll, polyphenols and flavonoid contents. Results revealed that the OLS incidence was highly correlated with severity (r = 0.94) and found to be related to climatic conditions and cultivars. The studied cultivars were classified into four major groups, i.e., susceptible, moderately susceptible, moderately resistant and resistant. Finally, our investigations revealed a partial relationship between resistance to the OLS disease and phenolic and flavonoid leaf contents, supporting the assumption of the potential involvement of such components in cultivar resistance to the disease. Overall, our work highlights the importance of characterizing olive cultivar resistance to OLS in driving the choice of the best varieties for an effective control of the disease in specific warming regions such as Morocco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3238 KiB  
Article
Characterization, Evolutionary Analysis, and Expression Pattern Analysis of the Heat Shock Transcription Factors and Drought Stress Response in Heimia myrtifolia
by Guozhe Zhang, Cuihua Gu, Yacheng Ye, Yu Zhao, Linxue Shang, Weili Shao, Sidan Hong and Jin Ma
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050588 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are among the most important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stimuli. They play a key role in numerous transcriptional regulatory processes. However, the specific characteristics of HSF gene family members and their expression patterns in different tissues [...] Read more.
Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are among the most important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stimuli. They play a key role in numerous transcriptional regulatory processes. However, the specific characteristics of HSF gene family members and their expression patterns in different tissues and under drought stress have not been precisely investigated in Heimia myrtifolia. This study analyzed transcriptome data from H. myrtifolia and identified 15 members of the HSF family. Using a phylogenetic tree, these members were classified into three major classes and fifteen groups. The amino acid physicochemical properties of these members were also investigated. The results showed that all HmHSF genes are located in the nucleus, and multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed that all HmHSF proteins have the most conserved DBD structural domains. Interestingly, a special HmHSF15 protein was found in the three-dimensional structure of the protein, which has a conserved structural domain that performs a function in addition to the unique structural domain of HSF proteins, resulting in a three-dimensional structure for HmHSF15 that is different from other HmHSF proteins. GO enrichment analysis shows that most HmHSFA-like genes are part of various biological processes associated with abiotic stresses. Finally, this study analyzed the tissue specificity of HmHSF genes in different parts of H. myrtifolia by qRT-PCR and found that HmHSF genes were more abundantly expressed in roots than in other tissues, and HmHSF05, HmHSF12, and HmHSF14 genes were different from other HSF genes, which could be further analyzed to verify their functionality. The results provide a basis for analyzing the functions of HmHSF genes in H. myrtifolia and help to explore the molecular regulatory mechanism of HmHSF in response to drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological and Molecular Biology Research on Ornamental Flower)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Overexpression of RrGGP2 and RrDHAR Increases Ascorbic Acid Content in Tomato
by Zeyang Liu, Tianzhi Rao, Richard A. Ludlow, Yali Yan, Min Lu and Huaming An
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050587 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant antioxidant in plants and is an important nutritional index for agricultural products. Some plants, such as Rosa roxburghii Tratt., contain exceptionally high levels of AsA, but are relatively unpalatable. In view of its role in human [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AsA) is the most abundant antioxidant in plants and is an important nutritional index for agricultural products. Some plants, such as Rosa roxburghii Tratt., contain exceptionally high levels of AsA, but are relatively unpalatable. In view of its role in human health, as well as plant growth and development, we examined the effects of two important AsA regulatory genes from R. roxburghii in tomato, with the aim of producing a crop of higher nutritional quality. RrGGP2 and RrDHAR were cloned from R. roxburghii fruit. The overexpression vectors were made using 35S promoters and mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to obtain the overexpression lines. A PCR and qRT-PCR verified that the two genes had been inserted and overexpressed in the tomato leaves and fruits. The results showed that the overexpression of RrGGP2 increased tomato leaf and fruit AsA content by 108.5% and 294.3%, respectively, while the overexpression of RrDHAR increased tomato leaf and fruit AsA content by 183.9% and 179.9%. The overexpression of RrGGP2 and RrDHAR further changed the expression of genes related to AsA metabolism, and the upregulation of one such gene, SlGGP, may have contributed greatly to the increase in AsA. Results here indicate that RrGGP2 contributes more towards fruit AsA accumulation in tomato than RrDHAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 539 KiB  
Review
Overview of Melatonin’s Impact on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Fruits
by Syariful Mubarok, Erni Suminar, Adzkia Husnul Abidat, Citra Ayu Setyawati, Erik Setiawan and Adine Syabina Buswar
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050586 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Fruits are important horticultural commodities because they provide nutrients that help human health. Fruits are mostly consumed as fresh products; however, there are challenges in retaining the freshness, such as the rapid ripening process that triggers fruit deterioration and reduces fruit quality and [...] Read more.
Fruits are important horticultural commodities because they provide nutrients that help human health. Fruits are mostly consumed as fresh products; however, there are challenges in retaining the freshness, such as the rapid ripening process that triggers fruit deterioration and reduces fruit quality and nutrient content. The postharvest quality of horticultural crops is affected by pre-and postharvest treatment. Most farmers use chemical compounds and fungicides to prevent postharvest damage; however, this results in health hazards and environmental pollution. Melatonin can be used for maintaining and improving postharvest horticultural crops such as fruits. Melatonin is a new bioactive compound that is a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. It has been studied as an alternative to harmful chemicals used commercially in the postharvest management of fresh products. For human health, melatonin plays a regulatory role in circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, and the immune system. In plants, melatonin regulates many biological processes, particularly when plants have experienced abiotic stress, germination, aging, and growth. The effect of exogenous melatonin on fruit ripening has focused primarily on the relationship between melatonin and ethylene plant hormones. Many studies in recent years have discussed melatonin’s role in plants, particularly in delaying plant aging as an alternative way of increasing fruit shelf life. This review provides a comprehensive overview of melatonin biosynthesis in plants, factors that affect the content of melatonin in fruit, melatonin mechanisms in fruit ripening, the impact of melatonin on postharvest fruit quality, the effect of melatonin on postharvest quality, and the change in metabolite content of horticultural products, particularly fruits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Interactions in the Exotic Plant Nicotiana glauca Graham for Enhanced Soil Fertility and Alleviation of Metal Pollution
by Hanane Dounas, Mohammed Bouskout, Hiba-Allah Nafidi, Abdulaziz Abdullah Alsahli, Mohammed Bourhia and Lahcen Ouahmane
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050585 - 14 May 2023
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
The harm that invasive species cause to the environment has received a lot of attention. It is therefore appropriate that the current research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of invasion by Nicotiana glauca Graham on soil fertility by looking at (i) its [...] Read more.
The harm that invasive species cause to the environment has received a lot of attention. It is therefore appropriate that the current research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of invasion by Nicotiana glauca Graham on soil fertility by looking at (i) its contribution to the mycorrhizal potential of the soil, (ii) its impact on soil richness and diversity in terms of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community (iii), and its ability to modify the physicochemical characteristics in the invaded soil, specifically cleaning up heavy metal. The current study was conducted at Al Houz plain (Marrakesh region, Morocco), in heavily infested sites by N. glauca. The spores of AMF were isolated using the wet sieving process; the isolated spores were sorted for morphological features using a binocular microscope. The plant roots were thinned and colored before microscopic observation. The most probable number method was used to assess mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Heavy metal contamination in soils was characterized using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and the pollution load index (PLI) was utilized to assess and compare the level of heavy metal contamination at each station. The ability of N. glauca to reproduce was evaluated in order to support one of its invasive characteristics. The estimate indicated that each plant might produce more than three million seeds. This significant number guarantees the plant a great capacity for reproduction and invasion. The extra-significant mycorrhizal potential, which can take the form of spores, mycelium, or vesicles that can regenerate mycorrhizae, was discovered by conducting soil analysis in the rhizospheric soils of N. glauca. This research demonstrated the strong mycotrophic capability of N. glauca and the large mycorrhizal potential of soils. Between 4.85 and 305.5 mycorrhizal propagules were considered to be the most probable number (MPN) per 100 g of dry soil. Based on color, shape and size, AMF were classified into five morphotypes corresponding to five genera. The isolated taxa of AMF with the most diverse spores were Glomus, Rhizophagus, Paraglomus, Scutellospora, and Sclerocystis. The Glomus genus was found to have spores in significant quantity. Furthermore, N. glauca demonstrated a potential involvement in the phytoremediation of damaged soils, with a high pollution load index demonstrating a particularly high accumulation of heavy metals. N. glauca is a highly mycotrophic plant that can boost soil mycorrhizal propagule stock. N. glauca has also been demonstrated to be a phytoremediation plant capable of cleansing contaminated soils. As a result, N. glauca could be considered as a prospective candidate for application in phytoremediation of polluted soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Pathology and Disease Management (PPDM))
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 997 KiB  
Review
Research-Gap-Spotting in Plum–Apricot Hybrids—Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activities, and Health Beneficial Properties
by Aneta Popova, Dasha Mihaylova, Svetla Pandova and Pavlina Doykina
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050584 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Plum–apricot hybrids are successful backcrosses of plums and apricots resulting in plumcots, pluots, and apriums. A topic search on plums, apricots, and plumcots shows that extensive information exists on the agro-morphology, genotyping, bioactive substances, and nutritive value of the genus Prunus, and [...] Read more.
Plum–apricot hybrids are successful backcrosses of plums and apricots resulting in plumcots, pluots, and apriums. A topic search on plums, apricots, and plumcots shows that extensive information exists on the agro-morphology, genotyping, bioactive substances, and nutritive value of the genus Prunus, and plums and apricots, in particular. However, when search results for plum–apricot hybrids were evaluated for the period 2010–2023, only a few papers focused partially on the topic of their metabolomics. A database search (Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar) exposed that less than 10 articles/year appeared in Scopus on the topic of plum–apricot hybrids, 618 papers were found on Google Scholar (2010–2023), and only 2 results were found in PubMed for the same period using the same keywords. This shows the grand research opportunity and the need for providing a thorough chemical characterization of the existing plum–apricot hybrids. This review aims at schematizing the available information about plum–apricot hybrids (with reference to their parents), identifying the gaps about their bioactive compounds, antioxidant activities, and health beneficial properties, as well as pointing to future perspectives in terms of fruit hybrid characterization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Growth Patterns and Metabolite Composition of Different Ginseng Cultivars (Yunpoong and K-1) Grown in a Vertical Farm
by Ga Oun Lee, Seong-Nam Jang, Min Ju Kim, Du Yong Cho, Kye Man Cho, Ji Hyun Lee and Ki-Ho Son
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050583 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
This study analyzed growth patterns, biological compounds, antioxidant properties, ginsenoside contents, metabolites, and the annual net production of ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ to find the optimal harvesting time of ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a container-type vertical farm under a temperature [...] Read more.
This study analyzed growth patterns, biological compounds, antioxidant properties, ginsenoside contents, metabolites, and the annual net production of ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ to find the optimal harvesting time of ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a container-type vertical farm under a temperature of 20 °C, a humidity of 60%, and average light intensity of 46.4 µmol m−2 s−1 (16 h photoperiod). Growth patterns at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after transplanting (WAT) differed between cultivars. Regarding biological compounds and antioxidant properties, ‘Yunpoong’ took 5 WAT (43.59%; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazine-hydrate radical scavenging activity, 1.47 OD593nm; ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, 78.01%; 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity), and ‘K-1’ took 4 WAT (0.98 Re mg g−1; total flavonoid contents, 35.93%; DPPH) to show a high content. Two cultivars showed the highest total ginsenoside contents at 5 WAT. Most of the analyzed metabolites had a higher content in ‘Yunpoong’ than in ‘K-1’. In both cultivars, it was confirmed that the longer the growth period (3 − > 5 WAT), the lower the yield and the annual ginsenoside net production. Therefore, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ cultivars should be grown as ginseng sprouts in the vertical farms for approximately 3 WAT and 4 WAT, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop