Special Issue "Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Website1 Website2 SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Interests: dermatology; skin care; contact dermatitis; cosmetic efficacy; cosmetic formulation; barrier function; skin irritation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of Cosmetics, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue entitled "Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020". This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (47 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
A New Benchmark to Determine What Healthy Western Skin Looks Like in Terms of Biodiversity Using Standardised Methodology
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040079 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
A significant loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has been linked to an increased prevalence of skin problems in the western world. The primary objective of this study was to obtain a benchmark value for the microbial diversity found on healthy western [...] Read more.
A significant loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has been linked to an increased prevalence of skin problems in the western world. The primary objective of this study was to obtain a benchmark value for the microbial diversity found on healthy western skin, using the Chao1 index. This benchmark was used to update our 2017 skin health measuring mechanism in line with standardised methodology. It used 50 human participants from Graz in Austria and at a read depth of 6600 sequences, we found the average Chao1 diversity to be ~180, with upper and lower quartiles of ~208 and ~150, respectively. Previous work with a larger sample size was unsatisfactory to use as a benchmark because different diversity indices and evaluation methodologies were used. The medical University of Graz used the most recent version of the Chao1 index to obtain diversity results. Because of this study, we can transfer other benchmarks of skin microbiome diversity to the methodology used in this work from our 2017 study, such as “unhealthy western skin” and “caveman/perfect skin”. This could aid with the diagnostic assessment of susceptibility to cutaneous conditions or diseases and treatment. We also investigated the effect of sex and age, which are two known skin microbiome affecting factors. Although no statistical significance is seen for sex- and age-related changes in diversity, there appear to be changes related to both. Our preliminary results (10 in each of the five age groups) show adults aged 28–37 have the highest average diversity, and adults aged 48–57 have the lowest average diversity. In future work, this could be improved by obtaining benchmark diversity values from a larger sample size for any age, sex, body site, and area of residence, to which subjects can be compared. These improvements could help to investigate the ultimate question regarding which environmental factors in the western world are the main cause of the huge rise in skin problems. This could lead to future restrictions of certain synthetic chemicals or products found to be particularly harmful to the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Ex Vivo Model to Evaluate the Hair Protective Effect of a Biomimetic Exopolysaccharide against Water Pollution
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040078 - 04 Oct 2020
Abstract
As an external appendage, hair is exposed to multiple stresses of different origins such as particles and gases in air, or heavy metals and chemicals in water. So far, little research has addressed the impact of water pollution on hair. The present study [...] Read more.
As an external appendage, hair is exposed to multiple stresses of different origins such as particles and gases in air, or heavy metals and chemicals in water. So far, little research has addressed the impact of water pollution on hair. The present study describes a new ex vivo model that allowed us to document the adverse effects of water pollutants on the structure of hair proteins, as well as the protective potential of active cosmetic ingredients derived from a biomimetic exopolysaccharide (EPS). The impact of water pollution was evaluated on hair from a Caucasian donor repeatedly immersed in heavy metal-containing water. Heavy metal retention in and on hair was then quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP/MS). The adverse effects of heavy metals on the internal structure of hair and its prevention by the EPS were assessed through measurement of keratin birefringence. Notably, the method allows the monitoring of the organization of keratin fibers and therefore the initial change on it in order to modulate the global damage in the hair. Results revealed an increasing amount of lead, cadmium and copper, following multiple exposures to polluted water. In parallel, the structure of keratin was also altered with exposures. However, heavy metal-induced keratin fiber damage could be prevented in the presence of the tested EPS, avoiding more drastic hair problems, such as lack of shine, or decrease in strength, due to damage accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Natural Pigments in Henna and Jagua Tattoos for Fake Detection
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040074 - 24 Sep 2020
Abstract
Temporary tattoos are a popular alternative to permanent ones. Some of them use natural pigments such as lawsone in the famous henna tattoos. Recently, jagua tattoos, whose main ingredients are genipin and geniposide, have emerged as an interesting option. This study was conducted [...] Read more.
Temporary tattoos are a popular alternative to permanent ones. Some of them use natural pigments such as lawsone in the famous henna tattoos. Recently, jagua tattoos, whose main ingredients are genipin and geniposide, have emerged as an interesting option. This study was conducted to identify the presence and concentration of henna and jagua active ingredients (lawsone; genipin and geniposide, respectively) in commercial tattoo samples. Since natural pigments are often mixed with additives such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in the case of henna, PPD has been included in the study. Green and simple extraction methods based on vortex or ultrasound-assisted techniques have been tested. To determine the compounds of interest liquid chromatography (LC) with diode-array detection (DAD) has been applied; and PPD absence was confirmed by LC-QTOF (quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry). This work demonstrated that only one out of 14 henna samples analyzed contained lawsone. For jaguas, genipin was found in all samples, while geniposide only in two. Therefore, quality control analysis on these semi-permanent tattoos is considered necessary to detect these ingredients in commercial mixtures, as well as to uncover possible fraud in products sold as natural henna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040073 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
An oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion formulation containing kojic monooleate (KMO) in thin film system was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize and analyzed the effect of three variables, namely concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (20–30% w/w), [...] Read more.
An oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion formulation containing kojic monooleate (KMO) in thin film system was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize and analyzed the effect of three variables, namely concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (20–30% w/w), concentration of propylene glycol (PG) (1–10% w/w), and shear rate of high shear homogenizer (3000–9000 rpm) on droplet size as a response, while other compositions remained constant such as KMO (10.0% w/w), Tween 80 (3.19% w/w), castor oil (3.74% w/w), xanthan gum (0.70% w/w), and germall plus (0.7% w/w, PG (and) diazolidinyl urea (and) iodopropynyl butylcarbamate). The optimized KMO nanoemulsion formulation with desirable criteria was PVA (27.61% w/w) and PG (1.05% w/w), and shear rate (8656.17 rpm) with a predicted droplet size (110.21 nm) and actual droplet size (105.93 nm) with a residual standard error (RSE) of less than 2.0% was obtained. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the fitness of the quadratic polynomial fit the experimental data with a F-value of 65.30, p–value of p < 0.0001, and a non-significant lack-of-fit. The optimized KMO formulation shows the desired criteria of the thin film system and the physicochemical properties (Zeta potential −37.37 mV, PDI 0.13, pH 4.74) and stability at four different conditions indicate its suitability for cosmeceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-World Insights in Thailand on Usage Satisfaction and Perceived Efficacy of Dexpanthenol in Nappy Care
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030072 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
The prevalence of nappy rash or napkin dermatitis in Thailand infants aged 1–24 months is 36.1%. Dexpanthenol-containing nappy creams are clinical validated and effective in treating napkin dermatitis. This study explores the real-world usage satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product [...] Read more.
The prevalence of nappy rash or napkin dermatitis in Thailand infants aged 1–24 months is 36.1%. Dexpanthenol-containing nappy creams are clinical validated and effective in treating napkin dermatitis. This study explores the real-world usage satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product as a preventive strategy for napkin dermatitis. Respondents were mothers with babies between 6–12 months of age, who purchased and used a 5% Dexpanthenol-containing product (Bepanthen® Ointment) in the past one month. An online study collected respondents’ satisfaction with the product and its benefits and properties. A total of 300 respondents (52% frequent users and 48% as-needed users) completed the study. Over 90% of respondents reported that their babies experienced less nappy-related discomfort, crying, fidgeting and sleep disruption after applying the nappy care product. Almost all respondents (96%) were satisfied with the product. Notably, frequent users of the product reported higher rates of satisfaction than as-needed users (62% vs. 43%; p < 0.05). This high level of satisfaction was associated with the moisturizing properties and long-lasting skin protection provided by the dexpanthenol-containing product. Our findings from a real-world setting further validate the use of dexpanthenol-containing products as a preventive strategy for napkin dermatitis in Thai infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Topical Application of a Postbiotic, LactoSporin®, in Mild to Moderate Acne: A Randomized, Comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate its Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030070 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder of pilosebaceous units. The therapy for mild-to-moderate acne includes topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide and retinoids. In this open-label, randomized monocentric study, we compared the efficacy of LactoSporin® 2% w/w cream with benzoyl peroxide [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder of pilosebaceous units. The therapy for mild-to-moderate acne includes topical antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide and retinoids. In this open-label, randomized monocentric study, we compared the efficacy of LactoSporin® 2% w/w cream with benzoyl peroxide in 64 male and female subjects with mild-to-moderate acne for three weeks. The efficacy parameters were evaluated based on the dermatologist visual assessment and instrumental measurements using Sebumeter® MPA580, Antera 3DTM and VISIA CR 2.2 and subject self-assessment questionnaires. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study period. In order to understand the mechanism of action and properties of LactoSporin, the pH stability, thermostability, antimicrobial activity and 5-alpha reductase activity were evaluated in vitro. A significant improvement was observed in the dermatological assessment of closed comedones (p < 0.0001), open comedones (p = 0.0069) and papules count (p < 0.0001) in comparison to the baseline in both LactoSporin and benzoyl peroxide groups. The antera analysis showed significant improvement in redness (p < 0.0001) and elevation (p < 0.0001) (small and medium) in both the treatment groups. The sebumeter analysis showed a significant decrease in sebaceous secretion (p < 0.0001) for LactoSporin, which resulted in reduced oiliness, pimples, acne spots and redness around the acne spot. The product was found to be safe without any irritancy. LactoSporin was stable at an acidic pH and temperature range of 70 to 90 °C, with antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria, including Cutibacterium acnes. It was also a potent inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase activity. Thus, it can be concluded that the efficacy of LactoSporin is equivalent to benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of mild-to-moderate acne lesions and better than benzoyl peroxide for reducing the sebaceous secretion and oily, greasy nature of the skin, implying its efficacy in other sebohorriec conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of a Skin Image Analysis Tool by Using Machine Learning Algorithms
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030067 - 22 Aug 2020
Abstract
We present our latest research work on the development of a skin image analysis tool by using machine-learning algorithms. Skin imaging is very import in skin research. Over the years, we have used and developed different types of skin imaging techniques. As the [...] Read more.
We present our latest research work on the development of a skin image analysis tool by using machine-learning algorithms. Skin imaging is very import in skin research. Over the years, we have used and developed different types of skin imaging techniques. As the number of skin images and the type of skin images increase, there is a need of a dedicated skin image analysis tool. In this paper, we report the development of such software tool by using the latest MATLAB App Designer. It is simple, user friendly and yet powerful. We intend to make it available on GitHub, so that others can benefit from the software. This is an ongoing project; we are reporting here what we have achieved so far, and more functions will be added to the software in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Laminarin Effects, a β-(1,3)-Glucan, on Skin Cell Inflammation and Oxidation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030066 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
Laminarin, a β-(1,3)-glucan from the seaweed Laminaria digitata, is a polysaccharide which provides anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Its influence on both human dermal fibroblasts adult (HDFa) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) has not been established yet. Herein, laminarin effects were examined [...] Read more.
Laminarin, a β-(1,3)-glucan from the seaweed Laminaria digitata, is a polysaccharide which provides anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Its influence on both human dermal fibroblasts adult (HDFa) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) has not been established yet. Herein, laminarin effects were examined on skin cells’ mitochondrial and antioxidant activities. Cytokines, hyaluronic acid, and procollagen type I secretions and interaction mechanisms were explored after a maximum of 72 h treatment with laminarin. Our results demonstrated a decrease in mitochondrial activities with 72 h treatment with laminarin from 500 µg.mL−1 for NHEK cells and from 100 µg.mL−1 for HDFa cells without cytotoxicity. No variation of hyaluronic acid or type I procollagen was observed for all laminarin concentrations, while an antioxidant effect was found against reactive oxygen species (ROS) from 1 µg.mL−1 for HDFa cells in both H2O2 and UVA radiation conditions, and from 10 µg.mL−1 and 1 µg.mL−1 for NHEK cells in both H2O2 and UVA radiation conditions, respectively. Laminarin treatment modulated both cells surface glycosylation and cytokine secretions of skin cells. Overall, our data suggest a positive effect of β-(1,3)-glucan on skin cells on oxidative stress and inflammation induced by environmental factors. Of note, these effects are through the modulation of glycan and receptors interactions at the skin cells surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
An Uncontrolled Case Series Using a Botanically Derived, β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex in Two Androgenetic Alopecia-Affected Male Subjects
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030065 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Drug-based monotherapy provides limited clinical benefits in polygenic disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia. Possible benefits must be measured against non-trivial risks of negative side effects. Several well-controlled, peer-reviewed, basic science studies have demonstrated novel mechanisms of action and potential utility for natural-based phytochemicals [...] Read more.
Drug-based monotherapy provides limited clinical benefits in polygenic disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia. Possible benefits must be measured against non-trivial risks of negative side effects. Several well-controlled, peer-reviewed, basic science studies have demonstrated novel mechanisms of action and potential utility for natural-based phytochemicals in the treatment of androgen-mediated disorders, including androgenetic alopecia. Yet, due to phytochemical instability, volatility, and incompatibility, the bridge from in vitro potential to clinical efficacy remains largely unmet. Recent advances in nanomaterial manipulation provide enhanced platforms, such as cyclodextrins, in which these phytochemicals may be enveloped and delivered without triggering the loss of intended function. Unexpected, positive results of an uncontrolled case series for a cyclodextrin-enabled, natural-based formula containing γ linolenic acid, β-Sitosterol, epigallocatechin gallate, and genistein, administered concomitantly via oral and topical form in two androgenetic alopecia-affected, male subjects over the course of 270 days were found. At baseline, significant baldness in the vertex scalp of both subjects was observed. Subsequent 90-day time points demonstrated marked hair thickening. On treatment day 270 (conclusion), scalp hair loss was no longer evident in either patient. Particularly in the setting of a disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia, nano-complexed, botanically-based compositions may offer beneficial adjunctives or alternatives to traditional drug-based/surgical medical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Examining the Influence of Cosmetics on Jury Decisions
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030064 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Many studies have examined how defendant characteristics influence jury decisions, but none have investigated the effect of cosmetics. We therefore examined how cosmetics influence jury decisions for young and middle-aged female defendants. In Study 1, participants were more likely to assign guilty verdicts [...] Read more.
Many studies have examined how defendant characteristics influence jury decisions, but none have investigated the effect of cosmetics. We therefore examined how cosmetics influence jury decisions for young and middle-aged female defendants. In Study 1, participants were more likely to assign guilty verdicts to middle-aged defendants than young defendants and when presented with cosmetics, male participants gave young defendants longer sentences and middle-aged defendants shorter sentences. In Study 2, however, we did not replicate the age or the cosmetics effects on jury sentences, suggesting that comparisons between defendants may have influenced jury decisions in Study 1. Further work is thus still needed, but our two well-powered studies (N = 1127) provide a first exploration into the influence of cosmetics on jury decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Salicylate UV-Filters in Sunscreen Formulations Compromise the Preservative System Efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030063 - 03 Aug 2020
Abstract
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the [...] Read more.
Contamination of personal-care products are a serious health concern and therefore, preservative solutions are necessary for the costumers’ safety. High sun protection factor (SPF) sunscreen formulations are known to be difficult to preserve, due to their high ratio of organic phase containing the UV-filters. Salicylate esters such as octyl salicylate (OS) and homosalate (HS) are among the most common UV-filters currently used in the market, and can undergo hydrolysis by esterase molecules produced by contaminant microorganisms. The hydrolysis product, salicylic acid (SA) can be assimilated by certain bacteria that contain the chorismate pathway, in which its final product is pyochelin, an iron-chelating siderophore. Here, we show that OS and HS can compromise the preservative efficacy against two pathogenic important bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Challenge tests of formulations containing the UV-filters demonstrated that only bacteria with the chorismate pathway failed to be eradicated by the preservation system. mRNA expression levels of the bacterial pchD gene, which metabolizes SA to produce pyochelin, indicate a significant increase that was in correlation with increasing concentrations of both OS and HS. These data suggest that certain UV-filters can provide a source for bacterial resistance against common preservatives in sunscreen formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Calcium Carbonate Particles: A New Topical Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030062 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult [...] Read more.
Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. Pickering emulsions are particularly useful in cosmetics, where the surfactants are unwanted, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, where transdermal and/or dermal drug delivery is difficult to achieve and controlled drug release is desired. Here, we studied calcium carbonate particles as stabilizers of Pickering emulsions for topical use. An optimized formulation was obtained using a Quality by Design approach. First, a screening experiment was performed to identify the formulation and process critical variables that affect the quality properties of the Pickering emulsion. The optimization of the production was then studied by establishing the design space. The final formulation was hereinafter investigated regarding the pH, rheological properties, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. The results showed the formulation had a pH compatible with human skin and a shear thinning behavior. Moreover, this formulation showed a strong network structure, with a suitable spreadability on the skin, allowing an easy application. The in vitro assays were performed to assess the potential cytotoxicity of the calcium carbonate-stabilized emulsion and the particles themselves, and the results revealed that the formulation did not significantly affect the cell viability. In conclusion, the use of calcium carbonate particles as a stabilizer ingredient contributed to achieve an eco-friendly Pickering emulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessCommunication
Inhibitory Effects of the Bioactive Thermorubin Isolated from the Fungus Thermoactinomyces Antibioticus on Melanogenesis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030061 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus [...] Read more.
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders arise due to aberrant regulation of melanin synthesis and export. Current treatments include natural compounds like kojic acid and hydroquinone, which suffer from limitations due to adverse reactions. Thermorubin (TR) is a secondary metabolite derived from the fungus Thermoactinomyces antibioticus and has previously demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as antimicrobial activity. In the current study, we explored whether TR might be a used as a candidate for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders by studying its effects on melanin synthesis and melanin export in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and primary human melanocytes derived from darkly-pigmented (DP) skin. Non-toxic doses of TR were first identified in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. These doses were subsequently tested for their effects on both extracellular and intracellular melanin levels under conditions of basal and hormone-stimulated melanogenesis. Our results demonstrated that TR at 25 µM inhibited total melanin levels with selective inhibition of extracellular melanin in B16F10 cells under both basal and hormone-stimulated conditions. The mechanisms of inhibition did not include tyrosinase inhibition, either in cellular lysates or cell-free system. However, TR potently inhibited activity of α-glucosidase enzyme in vitro and exhibited antioxidant activity. Furthermore, our results with primary human melanocytes from DP skin showed that TR at 10 µM significantly suppressed dendricity along with an increase in accumulation of intracellular melanin. These findings point to a mechanism of action of TR as an exclusive inhibitor of melanosome export. Taken together, our preliminary results demonstrate that TR might offer a novel ingredient as a skin depigmenting agent for inclusion in cosmetic formulations. Further studies delineating molecular mechanisms of hypopigmentation of TR and testing in human skin tissue-equivalents are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Routine Skin Care on the Quality of Life
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030059 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. [...] Read more.
Importance: Consumers purchase a wide variety of consumer products and come into contact with these products on a daily basis. Manufacturers invest deeply in developing new products or improving existing products, in order to produce a positive impact on the lives of consumers. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of over-the-counter skin care products on the quality of life (QoL) of female consumers. Design and Measures: A QoL instrument developed for consumer products (the Farage QoL with an added Skin Care Module) was used to assess the impact of a 28-day facial skin care regimen using commercially available products formulated to improve elasticity, firmness and hydration, and to correct age- and sun-related skin color. Responses were collected prior to study commencement, at completion of the product usage stage, and after a period of withdrawal of the product with reversion to a basic skin care regimen. Participants: Two main study groups from Australia included 89 new mothers, i.e., women with children 2 years and under (mean age ± SD was 34 ± 4.8), and a national representative sample of 91 women (45 ± 12). An additional test group from China consisted of 40 younger cosmetic users (25 ± 4.3). The Skin Care Module was not included in the instrument for the third group. Results: After 28-days of usage, both test groups in the main study showed significant improvement in three of five items in the Skin Care Module (improved feelings of empowerment, happiness and self-esteem). Improvements persisted after 2 weeks of product withdrawal. In the main QoL instrument, the New Mothers group showed significant improvement in the Well-Being domain, driven by improvements in the Self-Image and Self Competence subdomains. The National Representative group showed improvements in the Energy and Vitality domain, driven by improvements in the Personal Pleasure, Physical State and Routine Activity subdomains. The additional group in the China study showed results similar to the New Mothers group. Conclusions and Relevance: A quality and efficacious skin care regimen can have a positive impact on the QoL of consumers. Differences in responses of the test groups were likely related to differences in the mean age and differences in time available to look after themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Valorisation of Ribes nigrum L. Pomace, an Agri-Food By-Product to Design a New Cosmetic Active
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030056 - 13 Jul 2020
Abstract
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of [...] Read more.
The ethical and ecological concerns of today’s consumers looking for both sustainable and efficient ingredients in finished products, put a lot of pressure on the cosmetic market actors who are being driven to profoundly modify the strategies adopted to innovate in terms of actives while notably being urged to switch from petroleum- to plant-based ingredients. To produce such natural cosmetic ingredients, agri-food by-products are advocated as raw material due to their reduced carbon footprint as they actively contribute to the worldwide improvement of waste management. The process to transform plant waste materials into such powerful and objectified “green” cosmetic actives in compliance with circular economy principles is a long-term integrated process. Such a development is thoroughly exemplified in the present paper through the description of the design of liquid anti-age ingredients based on Ribes nigrum L. extract. This was obtained by maceration of blackcurrant pomace. and the embodiment of this extract following its phytochemical analysis notably by HPLC-DAD-ELSD and its bioguided fractionation using in vitro bioassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Resorcinol Derivatives and their Effects on Melanin Production
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030055 - 11 Jul 2020
Abstract
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional [...] Read more.
Several resorcinol derivatives were synthesized and their effects on the survival rate of B16 murine melanoma cells, melanin production, and tyrosinase activity were investigated with an aim to evaluate their skin whitening effect. Twelve resorcinol derivatives were synthesized by esterification with three functional groups (L-ascorb-6-yl, ethyl, and glyceryl) linked via four alkyl chains of varying lengths (n = 2–5) at the 4-position. The structures of the 12 resorcinol derivatives were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The derivatives were added to B16 murine melanoma cells and the melanin contents in the cells and culture medium were measured. To measure the tyrosinase activity, the substrate L-DOPA was added to a mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution, and the inhibition of the tyrosinase activity was determined. At 10 µM, the resorcinol derivatives did not affect the survival of the B16 murine melanoma cells, but the melanin content was reduced. At 1 µM, the derivatives significantly inhibited the tyrosinase activity in the mushroom-derived tyrosinase solution. A plot of the inhibitory effect on melanin production against the cLogP value for each resorcinol derivative indicated that the highest inhibition occurred at a cLogP value of approximately 2. Therefore, these resorcinol derivatives are expected to serve as effective skin whitening agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Evidence of a Molecular Detection Method to Analyze Bacterial DNA as a Quality Indicator in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030054 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is [...] Read more.
Cosmetics are a category of widely consumed and distributed products, and their manufacture is always subject to specific guidelines. Quality Control (QC) tests provide information supporting the absence of injurious organisms and regarding the microbiological stability of cosmetics. The microbiological risk analysis is typically performed using the plate count method, which is a time-consuming and operator-dependent approach. Molecular technologies allow a deeper and more sensitive testing than traditional cultures. The demand for rapid and sensitive methods is recently increasing. The aim of our study was to compare different DNA extraction methods in order to detect and quantify bacterial load in cosmetics using a qPCR system. Known numbers of microorganisms were spiked into six different cosmetics to simulate contaminated samples. DNA was extracted with seven extraction kits and then quantified by real-time qPCR. Results revealed differences in terms of cell recovery, DNA yield, and quality. The bead-beating approaches were the most suitable in our molecular workflow and lead to good quality DNA for analysis by qPCR within four hours. Combined with mechanical extraction, qPCR may represent an efficient and easy method for microorganism identification in cosmetics, and can be automated. This approach also is also applicable for the detection of probiotics used as beneficial biological components in cosmetic products. The results of our molecular method provided preliminary evidences for the rapid identification of cells (10–100) and nucleic acids in complex preparations employed for human health, in compliance with regulatory limits. The suggested methodology is easy, fast, and sensitive. Its scalability allows serial microbiological evaluation at every manufacturing step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Fruit Extract and Skin Microbiota: A Focus on C. acnes Phylotypes in Acne Subjects
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030053 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus [...] Read more.
Knowing that Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is known to have antibacterial effects, this study investigated the skin microbiota with a focus on Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) phylotypes in subjects with acne, and determined microbiota changes after 28 days of treatment with berries Rhodomyrtus tomentosa as an active ingredient (RT). Skin swabs from seventeen acne subjects were collected and the skin microbiome was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A culture-independent next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based SLST (single-locus sequence typing) approach was aimed at evaluating RT extract effects on C. acnes phylotype repartition. Clinical evaluations (lesion counts) were performed at baseline (D0) and after 28 days (D28) of twice-daily application of the RT active ingredient. We determined: (1) the skin microbiota at D0 was dominated by Actinobacteria followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; (2) at the genus level, Cutibacterium was the most abundant genus followed by Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium; (3) C. acnes was the major species in terms of mean abundance, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis); and (4) phylotype IA1 was most represented, with a predominance of SLST type A1, followed by phylotypes II, IB, IA2, IC, and III. After 28 days of RT extract treatment, phylotype repartition were modified with a decrease in abundance (approximately 4%) of phylotype IA1 and an increase in phylotype II and III. Cutibacterium granulosum (C. granulosum) abundance also decreased. Reduction of retentional and inflammatory lesions was also noted only after RT treatment; thus, RT extract acts as a microbiota-regulating agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Transcutaneous Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid Using an Easy-to-Prepare Reverse Micelle Formulation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030052 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of [...] Read more.
The skin loses its moisture with advancing age, causing cosmetic issues such as wrinkles. In addition, the loss of moisture leads to hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as UV light. Transcutaneous supplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) is an effective and safe method of recovering the moisturizing function and elasticity of the skin. However, the transcutaneous delivery of HA remains challenging owing to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC) layer. To penetrate the SC barrier, we used a reverse micelle formulation that does not require high energy consumption processes for preparation. We aimed to enhance the skin permeability of HA by incorporating glyceryl monooleate—a skin permeation enhancer—into the formulation. A fluorescently-labeled HA-loaded reverse micelle formulation showed significantly enhanced permeation across Yucatan micro pig skin. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of the surface of the skin treated with the reverse micelle formulation showed blue shifts of the CH2 symmetric/asymmetric stretching peaks, indicating a reduction in the barrier function of the SC. Further study revealed that HA was released from the reverse micelles at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface between the SC and the living epidermis. The results demonstrated that our reverse micellar system is an easy-to-prepare formulation for the effective transcutaneous delivery of HA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Lake Zeiļu Clay Application Induced Changes in Human Skin Hydration, Elasticity, Transepidermal Water Loss and PH in Healthy Individuals
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030051 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water [...] Read more.
Clay has a great biomedical application potential, however there are just a few instrumental studies and the impact of lake clay on the skin has not yet been studied. The DermaLab skin analysis system (Cortex Technology) was used for hydration, elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH measurements after lake clay facial applications. Research included short-term tests (measurements 20 and 60 min after clay application) and long-term tests (application every 4th day for 3 weeks with measurements 20–24 h post-application). Control measurements and application tests to exclude contact allergy were made beforehand. No volunteer (n = 30) had positive allergic reaction. The matched-pairs design was applied: the right and left parts of forehead were used for the test and control groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test (significance level p = 0.001) was applied for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant pH changes demonstrated during the short-term measurements. The long-term measurements provided data that clay significantly improves skin hydration and elasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Study on Humans of Natural Compound Synergy as a Multifunctional Approach to Cellulite-Derived Skin Imperfections
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020048 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
Aim: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of a nutraceutical ingredient, SelectSIEVE® Rainbow, based on botanical extracts, in ameliorating cellulite-derived skin imperfections and microcirculation. The nutritional supplement contained a mixture of Oryza sativa (L.), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Ananas [...] Read more.
Aim: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of a nutraceutical ingredient, SelectSIEVE® Rainbow, based on botanical extracts, in ameliorating cellulite-derived skin imperfections and microcirculation. The nutritional supplement contained a mixture of Oryza sativa (L.), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr, and Actinidia chinensis Planch; all ingredients were botanicals that can be used in food supplements. Results: In vitro studies showed the high capacity of the supplement to have an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic effect, accompanied by an interesting proteolytic activity. The randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out on 60 women during an 8-week treatment period, confirmed the in vitro study results. SelectSIEVE® Rainbow showed a whole-body shaping activity, with a reduction of the waist, hip, and tight circumference of 0.8, 0.65 and 0.72 cm, respectively. It also showed a reduction of subcutaneous fat mass of 1.24 mm and body weight, with an average of 0.7 kg and positive peaks of −2.9 kg. Skin health and appearance were also improved: +5.4% skin elasticity, +5.5% skin tonicity and +5.7% skin draining. Finally, the dermatological evaluation of the cellulite score and microcirculation showed an improvement in 57% and 60% of the subjects enrolled in the studies. Conclusions: This first study provides interesting inputs on the effectiveness of the nutraceutical complex standardized in polyphenols, anthocyanins and proteolytic enzymes to counteract cellulite blemishes and improve local microcirculation. The positive response encourages deeper studies and further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Salicornia europaea on UVB-Induced Misoriented Cell Divisions in Skin Epithelium
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020044 - 07 Jun 2020
Abstract
Correct orientation of cell division is extremely important in the maintenance, regeneration, and repair of continuously proliferating tissues, such as the epidermis. Regulation of the axis of division of epidermal cells prevents the apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, and eventually the cancer. Thus, the orientation [...] Read more.
Correct orientation of cell division is extremely important in the maintenance, regeneration, and repair of continuously proliferating tissues, such as the epidermis. Regulation of the axis of division of epidermal cells prevents the apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, and eventually the cancer. Thus, the orientation of cell division is critical for maintaining the tissue architecture. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. europaea extract on the texture of human skin and the behavior of these cells during skin morphogenesis. In sun-exposed skin, S. europaea improved the texture. A multilayered, highly differentiated in vitro skin model indicated that, S. europaea extract suppressed the UVB-induced changes in the morphology of basal keratinocytes. Orientation of cell division was determined by measuring the axis of mitosis in the vertical sections of our experimental model. Analyses of the digital images revealed that S. europaea preserved the axis of division of basal keratinocytes from UVB-induced perturbations. Our findings uncover a new mechanism by which S. europaea responds to the spindle misorientation induced by UVB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation Utilizing the HLB Concept for the Development of Moisturizing Cream and Lotion: In-Vitro Characterization and Stability Evaluation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020043 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
The current study aims to utilize the concept of the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value of ingredients for the development of a stable emulsion-based moisturizing cream and lotion for cosmetic application. The combination of a hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifier such as glyceryl stearate (HLB [...] Read more.
The current study aims to utilize the concept of the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value of ingredients for the development of a stable emulsion-based moisturizing cream and lotion for cosmetic application. The combination of a hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifier such as glyceryl stearate (HLB value 3.8) and PEG-100 stearate (HLB value 18.8) were found to be effective to emulsify the chosen oil phase system at a specific concentration to achieve the required HLB for the development of the stable emulsion-based system. The developed formulation was characterized for pH, viscosity, spreadability, rheology, and droplet morphology. The influence of carbopol® ETD 2020 and the concentration of the oil phase on the rheology of the product was investigated and found to be significant to achieve the required thickening to convert the lotion into a cream. The formulation system developed through utilizing the concept of HLB was compared to a product developed through the conventional approach. It was observed that the utilization of the HLB method for the development of an emulsion-based product is a promising strategy compared to the conventional method. The physical stability and thermodynamic stability tests were carried out under different storage conditions. It was observed that the developed formulation was able to retain its integrity without showing any signs of instability during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Bacterial Spoilage in Cosmetics by a New Bioanalytical Approach: API-SPME-GC-MS to Monitor MVOCs
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020038 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
The main goal of this work was the use of the powerful solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) technique to unequivocally identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) derived from the enzymatic activity produced during metabolic processes using analytical profile index (API) biochemical tests. Three [...] Read more.
The main goal of this work was the use of the powerful solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) technique to unequivocally identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) derived from the enzymatic activity produced during metabolic processes using analytical profile index (API) biochemical tests. Three bacteria were selected for this study: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were inoculated and incubated to both API components and real cosmetics, as well as to a mixture of them. Specific MVOCs were successfully identified as biomarkers for each one of the studied microorganisms: Indole and 2-nitrophenol as Escherichia coli markers, 2-undecanone and phenylethyl alcohol as Proteus mirabilis-specific markers, and 1-undecene and 2′-aminoacetophenone as Pseudomonas aeruginosa ones. In addition, a high number of MVOCs were identified as general markers of bacterial presence. The results revealed that the MVOCs’ formation is highly subtract dependent. Therefore, the ultimate and most challenging objective is to establish a relationship between the identified MVOCs and the original compound present in the substrate. This work establishes the design and development of this original approach, and its practical application to the control of microbial contamination in real cosmetic samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Inonotus obliquus Extracts Decreased Expression of MMP1 mRNA via JNK-AP-1 Axis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020036 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
Inonotus obliquus, which is parasitic on birch and other trees, is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae. In this study, we investigated whether Inonotus obliquus extracts used in traditional medicine were decreased in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in the normal human [...] Read more.
Inonotus obliquus, which is parasitic on birch and other trees, is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae. In this study, we investigated whether Inonotus obliquus extracts used in traditional medicine were decreased in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in the normal human dermal fibroblasts. As shown in our results, extracts of Inonotus obliquus decreased MMP1 expression in oxidative stress-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. Additionally, Inonotus obliquus extracts decreased AP-1 transcriptional activity and phospho-JNK in oxidative stress-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. Oxidative stress mediated the elevation of MMP1 mRNA expression and was well regulated by the JNK-AP-1 axis. Therefore, the results suggest that Inonotus obliquus extracts decreased MMP1 mRNA expression by regulating JNK-AP-1 axis. Additionally, Inonotus obliquus extracts have the potential to reduce collagen destruction and the formation of wrinkles and to be used as a cosmetic ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Rabbit Ear Membranes as an Interesting Alternative for Permeability Tests in the Preformulation Stages of Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020035 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
In the pre-formulation stages of cosmetic products, in vitro permeability tests correspond to an important alternative for making better decisions regarding the stability, performance and biocompatibility of these products. Moreover, these tests allow us to establish whether a cosmetic ingredient can penetrate the [...] Read more.
In the pre-formulation stages of cosmetic products, in vitro permeability tests correspond to an important alternative for making better decisions regarding the stability, performance and biocompatibility of these products. Moreover, these tests allow us to establish whether a cosmetic ingredient can penetrate the different layers of the skin, which is essential in these products. This study was focused on the extraction, characterization and preservation of rabbit ear membranes and their subsequent performance comparison against two synthetic membranes (cellulose and Strat-MTM). For this, the rabbit ear stratum corneum was isolated and characterized histologically, using the Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining protocol along with light microscopy and image analysis. Then, the Frank diffusion cell (FC) model was employed to evaluate and compare the permeability of the model compound Naproxen sodium (NPX) between the three membrane systems. The results show that NPX permeability is strongly affected by the type of membrane, and the implementation of rabbit ear membranes shows high reproducibility, demonstrating that this model could be implemented during pre-formulation studies of cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fermented Oils on Alpha-Biodiversity and Relative Abundance of Cheek Resident Skin Microbiota
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020034 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
The skin microbiome is in a very close mutualistic relationship with skin cells, influencing their physiology and immunology and participating in many dermatological conditions. Today, there is much interest in cosmetic ingredients that may promote a healthy microbiome, especially postbiotics, mainly derived from [...] Read more.
The skin microbiome is in a very close mutualistic relationship with skin cells, influencing their physiology and immunology and participating in many dermatological conditions. Today, there is much interest in cosmetic ingredients that may promote a healthy microbiome, especially postbiotics, mainly derived from fermented products. In the present work, we studied the effects on skin microbiota of new patented natural oils obtained by unique fermentation technology in vivo. Three fermented oils were evaluated: F-Shiunko (FS), F-Artemisia® (FA) and F-Glycyrrhiza® (FG). The active components were included as single active component or in combination (FSAG) in an emulsion system. A total of 20 healthy women were recruited, and skin microbiota from cheek were analyzed by mean of swab sampling at T0 and T1 (after 4 weeks of a one-day treatment). 16S sequencing revealed that the treatment with fermented oils improved microbiome composition and alpha-diversity. It was shown that higher biodiversity reflects in a healthier microbial ecosystem since microbial diversity decreases in the presence of a disease or due to aging. The treatment also resulted in a more “beneficial” and “younger” microbial community since a significant decrease in Proteobacteria and the increase in Staphylococcus were reported after the treatment with fermented oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Mosaic-CLSM Assessment of Bacterial Spatial Distribution in Cosmetic Matrices According to Matrix Viscosity and Bacterial Hydrophobicity
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020032 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
The reliability of the challenge test depends, among other parameters, on the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the matrix. The present study aims to quickly identify factors that are susceptible to impair a uniform distribution of inoculated bacteria in cosmetic matrices in this [...] Read more.
The reliability of the challenge test depends, among other parameters, on the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the matrix. The present study aims to quickly identify factors that are susceptible to impair a uniform distribution of inoculated bacteria in cosmetic matrices in this context. We used mosaic confocal laser scanning microscopy (M-CLSM) to obtain rapid assessment of the impact of the composition and viscosity of cosmetic matrices on S. aureus spatial distribution. Several models of cosmetic matrices were formulated with different concentrations of two thickeners and were inoculated with three S. aureus strains having different levels of hydrophobicity. The spatial distribution of S. aureus in each matrix was evaluated according to the frequency distribution of the fluorescence values of at least 1350 CLSM images. We showed that, whatever the thickener used, an increasingly concentration of thickener results in increasingly bacterial clustered distribution. Moreover, higher bacterial hydrophobicity also resulted in a more clustered spatial distribution. In conclusion, CLSM-based method allows a rapid characterization of bacterial spatial distribution in complex emulsified systems. Both matrix viscosity and bacterial surface hydrophobicity affect the bacterial spatial distribution which can have an impact on the reliability of bacterial enumeration during challenge test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Photodynamic Therapy by Diaryl-Porphyrins to Control the Growth of Candida albicans
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020031 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes skin infections such as oral thrush, nail fungus, athlete’s foot, and diaper rash. Under particular conditions, C. albicans alters the natural balance of the host microbiota, and as a result, the skin or its [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes skin infections such as oral thrush, nail fungus, athlete’s foot, and diaper rash. Under particular conditions, C. albicans alters the natural balance of the host microbiota, and as a result, the skin or its accessory structures lose their function and appearance. Conventional antimycotic drugs are highly toxic to host tissues, and long-lasting drug administration induces the arising of resistant strains that make the antimycotic therapy ineffective. Among new antimicrobial approaches to combine with traditional drugs, light-based techniques are very promising. In this study, a panel of dyes was considered for photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications to control the growth of the model strain C. albicans ATCC 14053. The chosen photosensitizers (PSs) belong to the family of synthetic porphyrins, and in particular, they are diaryl-porphyrins. Among these, two monocationic PSs were shown to be particularly efficient in killing C. albicans upon irradiation with light at 410 nm, in a light-dose-dependent manner. The elicited photo-oxidative stress induced the loss of the internal cellular architecture and death. The photodynamic treatment was also successful in inhibiting the biofilm formation of clinical C. albicans strains. In conclusion, this study supports the great potential of diaryl-porphyrins in antimicrobial PDT to control the growth of yeasts on body tissues easily reachable by light sources, such as skin and oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Age-Deterring and Skin Care Function of a Polyphenol Rich Sugarcane Concentrate
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020030 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stress, such as UV radiation, generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin cells, leading to histochemical changes including skin disorders and aging, hyper pigmentation, and increased formation of wrinkles. Besides the defensive system in skin composed of [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stress, such as UV radiation, generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin cells, leading to histochemical changes including skin disorders and aging, hyper pigmentation, and increased formation of wrinkles. Besides the defensive system in skin composed of vitamins and intrinsic antioxidant enzymes, topical and skin conditioning products have been used commonly to eradicate or eliminate these skin ailments. Among various ingredients providing nourishing and moisturizing effect in skin, antioxidants have been reported to be a key ingredient to counteract skin aging processes and skin disorders. Derived from a patented extraction process, a polyphenol rich sugarcane concentrate (Officinol™) becomes the focus of this study due to its rich content of polyphenols known to be strong antioxidants. In this work, we carried out a series of cell-based in vitro studies to examine the use of Officinol™ in anti-aging and skin care functions. Our studies show that Officinol™ activated telomerase, a major biomarker that have been reported to be associated with slowed cellular aging process. When skin cells were under environmental stress such as UV radiation, Officinol™ inhibited MMP-1, an interstitial collagenase in skin cells, and deterred the breakdown of collagen that provides supple texture in skin. Officinol™ also inhibited cellular expression of melanin pigmentation and tyrosinase activity, two major biomarkers causing skin pigmentation and aging spots, and inhibited elastase, an enzyme that facilities the reduction of skin elasticity. At the end of the investigation, we carried out a 10-person, pilot study to examine the effect of Officinol™ on skin lightening and fine line and wrinkle reduction in human skin. The combination of the in vitro and the human pre-study indicates that Officinol™ could provide significant preventative and protective functions including antioxidant, anti-aging, wrinkle reduction, and skin brightening for human skin suffering from aging and other stress. These findings are to be confirmed with a larger scale clinical study at a later stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Controlled Release of Retinol in Cationic Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles for Topical Application
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020029 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Retinol is a compound used in many skin care formulations to act against skin conditions like acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as an active ingredient, its efficacy is limited by an extreme sensitivity to light and temperature. Retinol can [...] Read more.
Retinol is a compound used in many skin care formulations to act against skin conditions like acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as an active ingredient, its efficacy is limited by an extreme sensitivity to light and temperature. Retinol can also generate toxicity at high concentrations. Microencapsulation is an alternative method to help overcome these issues. In this study, we develop a new encapsulation of retinol by solvent evaporation using a cationic polymer. We show that our particles have a narrow size distribution (350 nm), can encapsulate retinol with high efficiency, and protect it from oxidation for at least eight weeks. Finally, to demonstrate that the release of retinol from the particles can be controlled, we performed a kinetic study and showed that the particle releases the drug during 18 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Hemocompatible Chitin-Chitosan Composite Fibers
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020028 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Composite chitosan fibers filled with chitin nanofibrils (CNF) were obtained by the wet spinning method. The paper discusses the mechanical properties of such type fibers and their hemocompatibility, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It was [...] Read more.
Composite chitosan fibers filled with chitin nanofibrils (CNF) were obtained by the wet spinning method. The paper discusses the mechanical properties of such type fibers and their hemocompatibility, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It was shown that low CNF concentration (about 0.5%) leads to an increase in fiber tensile strength due to the additional orientation of chitosan macromolecules. At the same time, with an increase in the content of CNF, the stability of the mechanical properties of composite fibers in a humid medium increases. All chitosan fibers, except 0.5% CNF, showed good hemocompatibility, even on prolonged contact with human blood. The addition of chitin nanofibers leads to decrease in hemoglobin molecules sorption due to the decline in optical density at wavelengths of 414 nm and 540 nm. Nevertheless, the hemolysis of fibers was comparable or even lesser that carbon hemosorbent, which is actively used in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Simil-Microfluidic Nanotechnology in Manufacturing of Liposomes as Hydrophobic Antioxidants Skin Release Systems
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020022 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Novel nanotechnologies represent the most attractive and innovative tools to date exploited by cosmetic companies to improve the effectiveness of their formulations. In this context, nanoliposomes have had a great impact in topical preparations and dermocosmetics, allowing the transcutaneous penetration and absorption of [...] Read more.
Novel nanotechnologies represent the most attractive and innovative tools to date exploited by cosmetic companies to improve the effectiveness of their formulations. In this context, nanoliposomes have had a great impact in topical preparations and dermocosmetics, allowing the transcutaneous penetration and absorption of several active ingredients and improving the stability of sensitive molecules. Despite the recent boom of this class of delivery systems, their industrial production is still limited by the lack of easily scalable production techniques. In this work, nanoliposomes for the topical administration of vitamin D3, K2, E, and curcumin, molecules with high antioxidant and skin curative properties but unstable and poorly absorbable, were produced through a novel simil-microfluidic technique. The developed high-yield semi continuous method is proposed as an alternative to face the problems linked with low productive conventional methods in order to produce antioxidant formulations with improved features. The novel technique has allowed to obtain a massive production of stable antioxidant vesicles of an 84–145 nm size range, negatively charged, and characterized by high loads and encapsulation efficiencies. The obtained products as well as the developed high-performance technology make the achieved formulations very interesting for potential topical applications in the cosmetics/cosmeceutical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cosmetically Acceptable Dye Product to Improve Detection of Head Louse Eggs and Nits
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010019 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
Removing head louse eggshells and nits after a successful pediculicide treatment is often made more difficult because it is not easy to see them all amongst the hairs. Therefore, a treatment that makes louse eggs more visible potentially makes the task of removal [...] Read more.
Removing head louse eggshells and nits after a successful pediculicide treatment is often made more difficult because it is not easy to see them all amongst the hairs. Therefore, a treatment that makes louse eggs more visible potentially makes the task of removal easier and reduces the risk that children would be sent home from school or over-treated. This project involved the development of a hair treatment gel concept that was easy to apply, wash out, and that stained louse eggs and nits but without staining the hair and skin. A series of food-grade dyes were evaluated for their ability to stain the eggshells, and various copolymer-based rheology modifiers were tested for dye compatibility and stability. Several dyes were rejected because either they failed to stain louse eggshells or else stained skin too easily. Two dyes, Patent Blue and Ponceau 4R, were eventually selected for different product developments, one specifically for post-treatment nit removal and the other for pre-treatment diagnosis. In clinical field studies, both were found to make the treated eggshells contrast sufficiently with the hair to enable identification of persistent nits. Use of a nit stain product can enable easier detection of louse eggs and nits, thus facilitating the removal process and reducing the risk that persistent eggshells could be mistaken for signs of a continuing infestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Symurban Nanocrystals for Advanced Anti-Pollution Skincare
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010017 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Several of most common dermatoses worldwide, e.g., psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are worsened in their clinical picture when the skin is regularly exposed to an increased air pollution level, e.g., particulate matter. This is explainable by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor [...] Read more.
Several of most common dermatoses worldwide, e.g., psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are worsened in their clinical picture when the skin is regularly exposed to an increased air pollution level, e.g., particulate matter. This is explainable by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the skin, which results in an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Symurban is a competitive AhR antagonist and thus allows the effective protection of skin. In order to improve its dermal bioavailability as a poorly soluble active agent (0.25 µg/mL), nanocrystals were prepared and evaluated. Nanocrystals are pure active crystals reduced in particle size to the submicron range of 100 to 1000 nm. They feature the properties of nanocrystals, such as increased saturation solubility and dissolution velocity, without having to be declared as nanomaterial. Production methods and parameters were systematically investigated. Wet bead milling at 2000 rpm for 30 min yielded the best results. A z-average of 280 nm was achieved for a 10% Symurban suspension with a polydispersity index of 0.20, indicating a narrow size distribution. For the long-term stabilization of the nanocrystal suspension, the performance of 15 surfactants of different categories and HLB values were investigated and evaluated. It was found that non-ionic surfactants in general were better able to stabilize the system than anionic or amphoteric surfactants. Highest stability of over 12 months at 25 °C was achieved with 2% Plantacare 810 UP, an ECOCERT surfactant with high skin tolerance. The suspension was also chemically long-term stable with >97% of remaining Symurban over 12 months. The saturation solubility of Symurban as nanocrystals was significantly increased from 0.25 to 2.9 μg/mL, which corresponds to a factor of >11. In a case study of one male volunteer with healthy skin conditions, penetration profiles of Symurban nanocrystal hydrogel and commercial anti-pollution serum containing an identical amount of Symurban were determined and compared. After 20 min of exposure, the relative Symurban concentration in the deeper skin layers (tape 19-30) was more than two times higher for nanocrystal hydrogel (16%) than the commercial serum (7%). These results suggest that nanocrystals are a promising delivery system for the poorly soluble anti-pollution agent Symurban. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Calcium and Silicon Delivery to Artificial and Human Nails from Nail Polish Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010015 - 09 Mar 2020
Abstract
A deteriorating nail standard is a growing problem as the global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Systemic treatment with mineral supplements may not be recommended, mainly due to the high doses required to deliver optimal therapeutic concentrations. In this work, we evaluate nail [...] Read more.
A deteriorating nail standard is a growing problem as the global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Systemic treatment with mineral supplements may not be recommended, mainly due to the high doses required to deliver optimal therapeutic concentrations. In this work, we evaluate nail polish formulations for the local delivery of strengthening elements to the nail plate. Specifically, we assess calcium and silicon release from nail polish base coat formulations containing three different concentrations of White Portland Cement to water, as well as to artificial and human nails. The delivery of calcium and silicon to the dorsal nail plate was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that such dual elemental delivery to human nails can be achieved from nail polish formulations. Hence, this work may form the basis for new inventions where therapeutic functionalities can be integrated with the mechanical and cosmetic properties of a base coat nail polish. Future permeability studies are required to verify long-term effects on the nail standard, induced by the formulations under study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Applications of Natural, Semi-Synthetic, and Synthetic Polymers in Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040075 - 25 Sep 2020
Abstract
Cosmetics composed of synthetic and/or semi-synthetic polymers, associated or not with natural polymers, exhibit a dashing design, with thermal and chemo-sensitive properties. Cosmetic polymers are also used for the preparation of nanoparticles for the delivery of, e.g., fragrances, with the purpose to modify [...] Read more.
Cosmetics composed of synthetic and/or semi-synthetic polymers, associated or not with natural polymers, exhibit a dashing design, with thermal and chemo-sensitive properties. Cosmetic polymers are also used for the preparation of nanoparticles for the delivery of, e.g., fragrances, with the purpose to modify their release profile and also reducing the risk of evaporation. Besides, other cosmetically active nutrients, dermal permeation enhancers, have also been loaded into nanoparticles to improve their bioactivities on the skin. The use of natural polymers in cosmetic formulations is of particular relevance because of their biocompatible, safe, and eco-friendly character. These formulations are highly attractive and marketable to consumers, and are suitable for a plethora of applications, including make-up, skin, and hair care, and as modifiers and stabilizers. In this review, natural synthetic, semi-synthetic, and synthetic polymers are discussed considering their properties for cosmetic applications. Their uses in conventional and novel formulations are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis Inhibition by Indigenous African Plants: A Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030060 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives [...] Read more.
The indiscriminate use of non-regulated skin lighteners among African populations has raised health concerns due to the negative effects associated with skin lightener toxicity. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the cosmetic development of plants and their metabolites as alternatives to available chemical-derived skin lightening formulations. Approximately 90% of Africa’s population depends on traditional medicine, and the continent’s biodiversity holds plant material with various biological activities, thus attracting considerable research interest. This study aimed to review existing evidence and document indigenous African plant species capable of inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase and melanogenesis for potential incorporation into skin lightening products. Literature search on melanin biosynthesis, skin lightening, and tyrosinase inhibitors resulted in the identification of 35 plant species were distributed among 31 genera and 21 families across 15 African countries and 9 South African provinces. All plants identified in this study showed competent tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibitory capabilities. These results indicate that African plants have the potential to serve as alternatives to current chemically-derived skin lighteners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
How to Use the Normalized Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) Concept for the Formulation of Equilibrated and Emulsified Surfactant-Oil-Water Systems for Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Products
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030057 - 14 Jul 2020
Abstract
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted [...] Read more.
The effects of surfactant molecules involved in macro-, mini-, nano-, and microemulsions used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are related to their amphiphilic interactions with oil and water phases. Basic ideas on their behavior when they are put together in a system have resulted in the energy balance concept labeled the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD) from optimum formulation. This semiempirical equation integrates in a simple linear relationship the effects of six to eight variables including surfactant head and tail, sometimes a cosurfactant, oil-phase nature, aqueous-phase salinity, temperature, and pressure. This is undoubtedly much more efficient than the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) which has been used since 1950. The new HLD is quite important because it allows researchers to model and somehow predict the phase behavior, the interfacial tension between oil and water phases, their solubilization in single-phase microemulsion, as well as the corresponding properties for various kinds of macroemulsions. However, the HLD correlation, which has been developed and used in petroleum applications, is sometimes difficult to apply accurately in real cases involving ionic–nonionic surfactant mixtures and natural polar oils, as it is the case in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This review shows the confusion resulting from the multiple definitions of HLD and of the surfactant parameter, and proposes a “normalized” Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation (HLDN) equation with a surfactant contribution parameter (SCP), to handle more exactly the effects of formulation variables on the phase behavior and the micro/macroemulsion properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Biosurfactants as Key Multifunctional Ingredients for Sustainable Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020046 - 11 Jun 2020
Abstract
A polar head and an apolar tail chemically characterize surfactants, they show different properties and are categorized by different factors such as head charge and molecular weight. They work by reducing the surface tension between oil and water phases to facilitate the formation [...] Read more.
A polar head and an apolar tail chemically characterize surfactants, they show different properties and are categorized by different factors such as head charge and molecular weight. They work by reducing the surface tension between oil and water phases to facilitate the formation of one homogeneous mixture. In this respect, they represent unavoidable ingredients, their main application is in the production of detergents, one of if not the most important categories of cosmetics. Their role is very important, it should be remembered that it was precisely soaps and hygiene that defeated the main infectious diseases at the beginning of the last century. Due to their positive environmental impact, the potential uses of microbial sourced surfactants are actively investigated. These compounds are produced with different mechanisms by microorganisms in the aims to defend themselves from external threats, to improve the mobility in the environment, etc. In the cosmetic field, biosurfactants, restricted in the present work to those described above, can carry high advantages, in comparison to traditional surfactants, especially in the field of sustainable and safer approaches. Besiede this, costs still remain an obsatcle to their diffusion; in this regard, exploration of possible multifunctional actions could help to contain application costs. To highlight their features and possible multifunctional role, on the light of specific biological profiles yet underestimated, we have approached the present review work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessReview
Biotechnology Applied to Cosmetics and Aesthetic Medicines
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020033 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
Biotechnology uses microorganisms and/or enzymes to obtain specific products through fermentative processes and/or genetic engineering techniques. Examples of these products are active ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, kojic acid, resveratrol, and some enzymes, which are used in skin anti-aging products. In addition, certain [...] Read more.
Biotechnology uses microorganisms and/or enzymes to obtain specific products through fermentative processes and/or genetic engineering techniques. Examples of these products are active ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, kojic acid, resveratrol, and some enzymes, which are used in skin anti-aging products. In addition, certain growth factors, algae, stem cells, and peptides have been included in cosmetics and aesthetic medicines. Thus, biotechnology, cosmetics and aesthetic medicines are now closely linked, through the production of high-quality active ingredients, which are more effective and safer. This work describes the most used active ingredients that are produced from biotechnological processes. Although there are a vast number of active ingredients, the number of biotechnological active ingredients reported in the literature is not significantly high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Enigmatic Microalgae from Aeroterrestrial and Extreme Habitats in Cosmetics: The Potential of the Untapped Natural Sources
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020027 - 18 Apr 2020
Abstract
With the increasing demand for natural and safe products in cosmetics, algae with their diverse and valuable bioactive compounds are gaining vital importance. Until now, cosmetics have focused mainly on the use of freshwater and marine algae. However, algae are not restricted to [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for natural and safe products in cosmetics, algae with their diverse and valuable bioactive compounds are gaining vital importance. Until now, cosmetics have focused mainly on the use of freshwater and marine algae. However, algae are not restricted to aquatic habitats. They are found in essentially every type of aeroterrestrial and extreme environment on the Earth. There, they have to cope with harsh ecological conditions and have developed special strategies to thrive in these inimical habitats. Although not thoroughly studied, their adaptations include protective biochemical compounds which can find their application or are already used in the field of cosmetics. With proper cultivation techniques, algae from these habitats can provide novel sources of high-value functional products for the cosmetics industry, which have the advantage of being obtained in eco-friendly and cost-effective processes. However, it has to be considered that a few aeroterrestrial and extremophilic algae can be toxin producers, and in order to ensure conformity to the safe quality standards, all new ingredients must be properly tested. The aim of the present review is to unveil the hidden and underestimated potential of the enigmatic algae of aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats for the rapidly developing modern cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessReview
Physicochemical Aspects of the Performance of Hair-Conditioning Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020026 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Most of the currently used products for repairing and conditioning hair rely on the deposition of complex formulations, based on mixtures involving macromolecules and surfactants, onto the surface of hair fibers. This leads to the partial covering of the damaged areas appearing in [...] Read more.
Most of the currently used products for repairing and conditioning hair rely on the deposition of complex formulations, based on mixtures involving macromolecules and surfactants, onto the surface of hair fibers. This leads to the partial covering of the damaged areas appearing in the outermost region of capillary fibers, which enables the decrease of the friction between fibers, improving their manageability and hydration. The optimization of shampoo and conditioner formulations necessitates a careful examination of the different physicochemical parameters related to the conditioning mechanism, e.g., the thickness of the deposits, its water content, topography or frictional properties. This review discusses different physicochemical aspects which impact the understanding of the most fundamental bases of the conditioning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
New Insights on Unique Features and Role of Nanostructured Materials in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020024 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The cosmetics industry has boomed in recent years as one of the markets that holds enormous growth potential. Among several industrial sectors, the cosmetics industry has considered nanotechnology-based principles and implemented in product management practices. Out of 1000 registered products available on the [...] Read more.
The cosmetics industry has boomed in recent years as one of the markets that holds enormous growth potential. Among several industrial sectors, the cosmetics industry has considered nanotechnology-based principles and implemented in product management practices. Out of 1000 registered products available on the global market, up to 13% were referred to as products for cosmetic use. A large number of nanoscale materials with unique physicochemical properties are currently being used in the cosmetics formulations or recommended for future use as nano-systems or novel nanocarriers to encapsulate active ingredients for their efficient delivery through the skin barriers. These nano-systems have demonstrated potential in targeted-oriented drug delivery and offered remarkable features such as better stability, site-specificity, excellent encapsulation efficiency, prolonged action, enhanced skin penetration, and high drug-loading capability. Nevertheless, nanotoxicology research has raised concerns over the excessive use of nanomaterials/nanoparticles in cosmetics, as nanoparticles might enter the skin resulting in health problems. This review provides insights on the characteristic physicochemical features and the potential use of various nanostructured materials, including liposomes, noisome, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials (graphene, fullerenes), carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, and nanospheres in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, the regulatory aspects of nanomaterials in cosmetics, along with concluding remarks and outlook in this field, were also vetted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Topical Minoxidil-Loaded Nanotechnology Strategies for Alopecia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020021 - 27 Mar 2020
Abstract
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a multifactorial and age-related condition characterized by substantial hair loss affecting both men and women. Conventional treatments include the use of topical minoxidil (MNX) formulations to stimulate hair growth and restore hair condition. However, those treatments are associated with [...] Read more.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a multifactorial and age-related condition characterized by substantial hair loss affecting both men and women. Conventional treatments include the use of topical minoxidil (MNX) formulations to stimulate hair growth and restore hair condition. However, those treatments are associated with limited performance and a lack of tolerability and compliance due to the emergence of adverse effects. Considering that the development of nanotechnology-based formulations as hair loss therapeutic strategies has been clearly growing, topical MNX delivery by means of these innovative formulations is known to enhance MNX skin permeation and depot formation into hair follicles, allowing for MNX-controlled release, increased MNX skin bioavailability and enhanced therapeutic efficacy with minimal adverse effects. This review highlights the potential of nanotechnology-based MNX delivery formulations for improved hair loss therapeutics, including a thorough assessment of their in vitro and in vivo performances, as well as regulatory and nanosafety considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
The Beast of Beauty: Environmental and Health Concerns of Toxic Components in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010013 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Cosmetic products are used in large quantities across the world. An increasing number of chemical compounds are being added to the formulation of cosmetic products as additives, fragrances, preservatives, stabilizers, surfactants, dye and shine to potentiate their quality, property and shelf life. Owing [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products are used in large quantities across the world. An increasing number of chemical compounds are being added to the formulation of cosmetic products as additives, fragrances, preservatives, stabilizers, surfactants, dye and shine to potentiate their quality, property and shelf life. Owing to their widespread use, active residues of cosmetic products are continuously introduced into the environment in several ways. Many of these chemicals are bioactive and are characterized by potential bioaccumulation ability and environmental persistence, thus exerting a major risk to humans and the health of ecosystems. Hence, the indiscriminate consumption of cosmetics may present a looming issue with significant adverse impacts on public health. This review intends to spotlight a current overview of toxic ingredients used in formulating cosmetics such as parabens, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, 1,4-dioxane, plastic microbeads, formaldehyde, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, sunscreen elements (organic and inorganic UV filters) and trace metals. Specific focus is given to illustrate the biological risks of these substances on human health and aquatic system in terms of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, neurotoxicity mutagenicity, and estrogenicity. In addition to conclusive remarks, future directions are also suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessBrief Report
Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci Associated with Sensitive Skin
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020049 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
Individuals suffering from sensitive skin often have other skin conditions and/or diseases, such as fair skin, freckles, rosacea, or atopic dermatitis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for some of these conditions, but not for sensitive skin. In this study, a total [...] Read more.
Individuals suffering from sensitive skin often have other skin conditions and/or diseases, such as fair skin, freckles, rosacea, or atopic dermatitis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for some of these conditions, but not for sensitive skin. In this study, a total of 23,426 unrelated participants of European ancestry from the 23andMe database were evaluated for self-declared sensitive skin, other skin conditions, and diseases using an online questionnaire format. Responders were separated into two groups: those who declared they had sensitive skin (n = 8971) and those who declared their skin was not sensitive (controls, n = 14,455). A GWAS of sensitive skin individuals identified three genome-wide significance loci (p-value < 5 × 10−8) and seven suggestive loci (p-value < 1 × 10−6). Of the three most significant loci, all have been associated with pigmentation and two have been associated with acne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Tentative Title: Physico-chemical approaches for preliminary evaluation of the performance of hair-conditioning formulations
Tentative Authors: Laura Fernández-Peña and Eduardo Guzmán
Affiliations: Department of Physical Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

2. Tentative Title: Investigation utilizing HLB concept for development of moisturizing cream/lotion: characterization and stability evaluation
Tentative Authors: Md. Shoaib Alam1, Mohammed S. Algahtani2, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad2, Javed Ahmad2*
Affiliations:1. Research & Development, Jamjoom Pharmaceuticals, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tentative Abstract: The current study is aimed to utilize the concept of HLB value of ingredients for the formulation development of stable moisturizing cream/lotion for cosmetic application. The developed cosmetic formulation was water-in-oil emulsion based system. It was characterized for pH, viscosity, spreadability, rheology and droplet morphology. The influence of thickening agent on rheology of the product was investigated and found to be significant for conversion of cream formulation into lotion. The formulation system developed utilizing the concept of HLB was compared to product developed through conventional approach. It was observed that moisturizing cream/lotion developed exploiting the concept of HLB, really a promising approach to design stable emulsion-based system easily without involving the exhaustive optimization process.
Keywords: Moisturizer, cream/lotion, cosmetics, HLB value, rheology, stability

3. Tentative Title: ITALIAN (MOUNT AMIATA, TUSCANY) CHESTNUT LEAF EXTRACT AS A NOVEL ANTI-AGING AGENT
Tentative Authors: Giulia Baini, Elisabetta Miraldi1, Giorgio Cappellucci1, Marisanna Centini2, Giovanna Rigillo3, Marco Biagi1
Affiliations: 1. DSFTA, University of Siena
2. DBCF, University of Siena
3. DSV, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Tentative Abstract: Modern cosmetics is approaching medicinal plants with ethnobotanical importance, tradition and pre-validated use. In different Italian regions, chestnut leaves have a long history of use by local people for dermatologic and cosmetic applications. Here, we studied the Italian chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagaceae) from Monte Amiata's forests, Tuscany, focusing on leaf extract, driven by recent studies reported in literature, suggesting a scavenger and antioxidant activity of this byproduct.
First, we compared extracts obtained using different solvents and leaves collected in different seasons by means of colorimetric and HPLC-DAD phytochemical analyses and antiradicalic essays. Then, our experimental protocol was focused on a 75% v/v ethanol extract of leaves collected in August, the richest in polyphenols and flavonoids. Biological tests conducted on human skin cells showed that the extract improved fibroblast metabolism and viability and it protects keratinocytes from UVA oxidative damage. The extract activity is primarily related to free-radical scavenging capacity, since cell levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species decreased when cells were treated with extract, while superoxide dismutase activity was not affected. Italian chestnut leaf extract exerted an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase and collagenase activity, as well. The extract, incorporated in an oil/water emulsion exhibited sun protection factor booster activity. The Mount Amiata Italian chestnut leaf extract could be a new effective agent in the treatment of extrinsic aging, in which the neutralization of free radicals has a dramatic role.

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