Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 295948

Special Issue Editor

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Interests: dermatology; skin care; contact dermatitis; cosmetic efficacy; cosmetic formulation; barrier function; skin irritation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of Cosmetics, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022”. This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome.

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • materials and ingredient research related to cosmetics
  • therapeutic options for skin, hair and body care
  • product formulations and ingredients
  • cosmetic olfactory research developments
  • technologies in cosmetic product development
  • testing of skin and hair products
  • toxicological studies of cosmetic products
  • in vivo and in vitro testing of cosmetic products
  • pure and applied research involved in skin, hair and body cosmetics
  • analytical chemistry of essential components involved in cosmetic product formulations
  • biomedicine research on biologically active components
  • regulatory and ethical issues in cosmetic research
  • dermatology, microbiology, anatomy, physiology, immunology and biochemistry of the skin
  • facial rejuvenation, laser therapy
  • cosmetic surgery and related medicine techniques

Published Papers (67 papers)

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13 pages, 1184 KiB  
Article
Effect of Oral Intake of Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake) on Skin Condition in Healthy Adult Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on Mental and Physical Health
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020057 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Nutritional foods are concentrated sources of molecules with a nutritional or physiological effect which contain nutrients. There is a category, “nutricosmetics”, defined as ingestible natural health products that enhance the function and appearance of human skin, nails, and hair. A new variety of [...] Read more.
Nutritional foods are concentrated sources of molecules with a nutritional or physiological effect which contain nutrients. There is a category, “nutricosmetics”, defined as ingestible natural health products that enhance the function and appearance of human skin, nails, and hair. A new variety of Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipes), Oki-Shirayuki 919, was explored to ascertain whether its components have functions of nutricosmetics. We focused on physiological effects for enhancing the human skin condition, such as moisturizing or barrier functions in F. velutipes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was performed between January and March 2022. Among healthy men and women (n = 30) aged 20 to 59 years, the test group (n = 15) took a test product which included F. velutipes dry powder, and the placebo group (n = 15) took a placebo (a similar product in which the F. velutipes dry powder was replaced with plum fruit paste). Since the amount of increase in skin hydration over four weeks in the test group was significantly larger than that in the placebo group, a significant difference between the two groups was observed (p = 0.033). F. velutipe was suggested to have some physiological functions such as improving skin moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 3591 KiB  
Article
Development of Emulsions Containing L-Ascorbic Acid and α-Tocopherol Based on the Polysaccharide FucoPol: Stability Evaluation and Rheological and Texture Assessment
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020056 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The main function of vitamin C, as an antioxidant, is to combat free radicals and prevent premature aging, smoothing wrinkles and expression lines. In addition, it acts directly on depigmentation and prevention of blemishes on the skin. In this study, natural oils (30 [...] Read more.
The main function of vitamin C, as an antioxidant, is to combat free radicals and prevent premature aging, smoothing wrinkles and expression lines. In addition, it acts directly on depigmentation and prevention of blemishes on the skin. In this study, natural oils (30 wt.%) and α-tocopherol (2.5 wt.%) containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized with the bacterial fucose-rich polysaccharide FucoPol were formulated, adding L-ascorbic acid as an antioxidant. The optimized formulations were obtained with 8.0 wt.% L-ascorbic acid for the Olea europaea oil formulation (C1) with a ƞ value of 2.71 Pa.s (measured at shear rate of 2.3 s−1) and E24 = 96% and with 15 wt.% L-ascorbic acid for the Prunus amygdalus dulcis formulation (C2) with a ƞ value of 5.15 Pa.s (at a shear rate of 2.3 s−1) and E24 = 99%. The stability of the FucoPol-based formulations was investigated over 45 days at 4 °C, 20 °C, and 30 °C. The results showed that all formulations maintained the organoleptic characteristics, with pH variations (5.7–6.8 for C1, and 5.5–6.03 for C2) within the regulations for cosmetic products (4 ≤ pH ≤ 7). The accelerated stability tests proved the formulations’ stability at 4 °C with EI = 95% for C1 and EI = 100% for C2. The rheological assessment demonstrated that the formulation presents a shear-thinning and liquid-like behavior. Regarding textural parameters, formulations C1 and C2 displayed an increase in firmness and consistency with similar spreadability during the shelf life. These findings further demonstrate FucoPol’s functional properties, acting as an emulsifier and stabilizer polysaccharide in cosmetic formulations containing L-ascorbic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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23 pages, 17892 KiB  
Article
A New Approach toward the Management of Patients with Premature Skin Aging Using the Predictor Effect
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020049 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Our study aimed to develop a comprehensive approach to the management of patients with involutional skin changes, considering the predictors of premature skin aging. The study included two stages, whereby 78 women with no history of aesthetic procedures that could have affected their [...] Read more.
Our study aimed to develop a comprehensive approach to the management of patients with involutional skin changes, considering the predictors of premature skin aging. The study included two stages, whereby 78 women with no history of aesthetic procedures that could have affected their perceived age were examined. In the first stage, we examined factors associated with premature skin aging. In the second stage, a blind, comparative placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of intradermal injections for the treatment of involutional skin changes was conducted. Parameters reflecting skin aging were identified. The sum of these parameters could be used to diagnose premature skin aging in patients with no history of aesthetic treatment. For other patients, we developed indicators that can be applied to determine whether there is a risk of premature skin aging. Patients with premature aging have an increased risk of adverse events, such as impaired regeneration and wound healing, postprocedural hematomas, etc. For the correction of involutional skin changes in patients with premature aging, the collagen product (Collost) had the greatest clinical efficiency and the greatest patient satisfaction. A complex product based on HA (Teosyal Redensity 1) had comparable efficiency, with slightly less patient satisfaction. The product based on native HA (Hyon 1.8%) had low efficiency in the group of patients with premature aging and high efficiency in the group of patients with normal aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Aging and the Impact of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on the Expression of Type I and Type VI Collagen
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020048 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Both endogenous and exogenous factors cause skin aging. This study aimed to compare the differential expressions of collagen type I (COL I) and collagen type VI (COL VI) in skins with biological aging and photoaging. In order to comprehend the impact of solar [...] Read more.
Both endogenous and exogenous factors cause skin aging. This study aimed to compare the differential expressions of collagen type I (COL I) and collagen type VI (COL VI) in skins with biological aging and photoaging. In order to comprehend the impact of solar radiation in the dermis and the expression of COL I and COL VI, we studied the expression and their detection in healthy skin and in skin that had been characterized by aging. The hematoxylin and eosin staining protocol was performed in tissue paraffin blocks and they were then stained immunohistochemically with rabbit monoclonal anti-COL I and anti-COL VI antibodies. A total of 201 slides were studied with an Olympus BX 41 microscope, and the expressions of COL I and COL VI in the dermis were scored on a scale of 1 to 5, and then positively and statistically analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics software. The results show that solar elastosis changes the structure of the skin’s collagen and solar elastosis was observed in the skin tissues with photoaging without appearing to be affected by its appearance in relation to age. Solar radiation divides the collagen fibers more rapidly than normal biological aging and replaces the collagen fibers of the skin. COL I and COL VI are expressed differently along the dermis of healthy skin tissue and the skin tissue subject to photoaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Photoprotection and Functional Photostability of Sunscreen Lipsticks Containing Inorganic Active Compounds
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020046 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a safe inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filter with activity against UV damage. However, the recombination of the carrier’s charge and the tendency for TiO2 aggregation are the main disadvantages. Substrate supports, such as mesoporous silica, are biocompatible [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a safe inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filter with activity against UV damage. However, the recombination of the carrier’s charge and the tendency for TiO2 aggregation are the main disadvantages. Substrate supports, such as mesoporous silica, are biocompatible strategies to incorporate TiO2, altering its interaction with the skin. Since the lips are sensitive to the adversities of the environment, including UV radiation, the application of lipstick sunscreens is of great importance and expected to provide protection for this particular area against sunburn and photoaging, among other unfavorable responses unprotected UV exposure. We investigated the in vitro photoprotective efficacy and photostability of lipstick formulations containing TiO2 incorporated into mesoporous silica (SBA-15). The samples were the lipstick base; SBA-15; TiO2 (free form); and TiO2 incorporated into SBA-15. The photoprotective efficacy was characterized in vitro using a Labsphere UV2000S. Lipsticks were irradiated in a Suntest CPS+ chamber to evaluate functional photostability. Lipstick base and SBA-15 alone did not display photoprotective efficacy. The sample containing 10.0% TiO2 incorporated into the mesoporous silica generated greater photostability and sun protection factor (SPF) value compared to the one containing only 10.0% TiO2 (free state). Our findings suggest that TiO2 + SBA-15 can be considered a broad-spectrum ingredient for innovative sunscreens, particularly for the photoprotection of the lips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser to Manage Hyperpigmentation in Asians: A Multicenter Study
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020044 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6314
Abstract
(1) Introduction: In cosmetic dermatology, benign hyperpigmentation is a prevalent issue. Solar lentigo and other melanoses are bringing patients to the attention of physicians more and more often. The Q-switched 1064/532-nanometer (nm) laser is the gold standard device to treat these conditions. A [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: In cosmetic dermatology, benign hyperpigmentation is a prevalent issue. Solar lentigo and other melanoses are bringing patients to the attention of physicians more and more often. The Q-switched 1064/532-nanometer (nm) laser is the gold standard device to treat these conditions. A new generation of these machines, able to shorten pulse duration to hundreds of picoseconds, has emerged showing better preliminary results. In order to treat hypermelanoses in Asians, we used a Q-switched laser with a picosecond pulse. (2) Methods: A retrospective recruitment of 31 Asian individuals requesting treatment for melanosis was conducted at Catanzaro’s Magna Graecia University, University of Rome Tor Vergata and Villa Bella Antiaging. Although they might have varied, the treatment settings were typically as follows: for dermic lesions, a pulse wavelength of 1064 nm with a duration of 450 picoseconds (ps) was used, and for epidermal lesions, a pulse wavelength of 532 nm with a duration of 370 ps was used. Up to four laser treatments were carried out, each at least 30 days apart. During a three-month follow-up after the final session, patient satisfaction was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Images taken prior to laser treatments and thereafter were compared, and the aesthetic effect was scored on a five-point scale by two blinded specialists. (3) Results: Of the 31 patients recruited, 25 (80.6%) were female and 6 were male (19.4%). The average stated age was 48.96 ± 13.68. During the dermatological examination, all patients were found to have nearly completely removed melanosis, with a mean VAS score of 7.03 ± 1.35 and a five-point evaluation scale of 2.71 ± 0.78. Conclusions: The Q-switched 1064/532 nm laser can be seen as a safe and effective option to treat benign hypermelanosis in Asian patients. Compared to other technologies, the use of a picosecond pulse appears to promise superior outcomes. To validate the results of this investigation, however, a clinical trial comparing the many commercially accessible therapy options is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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23 pages, 4034 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Antioxidant Plant Extracts on the Oxidation of O/W Emulsions
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020040 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
The demand for natural cosmetics has steadily increased in recent years. However, challenges occur especially in quality preservation regarding oxidative spoilage of natural cosmetic products, as the use of synthetic preservatives and antioxidants is limited. Therefore, it is important to find nature-based ingredients [...] Read more.
The demand for natural cosmetics has steadily increased in recent years. However, challenges occur especially in quality preservation regarding oxidative spoilage of natural cosmetic products, as the use of synthetic preservatives and antioxidants is limited. Therefore, it is important to find nature-based ingredients to ensure shelf life in natural cosmetic formulations. As a result, potential is seen in the use of plant-based antioxidant extracts. The aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the method combination by measuring the antioxidant activity, oxygen concentration, and volatile oxidation products via gas chromatography (hexanal) for the characterization of the influence of some plant extracts on the oxidative stability of natural cosmetic emulsions. Plant extracts of Riesling (Vitis vinifera) pomace, apple (Malus domestica) pomace, coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) husk, and coffee (Coffea arabica) powder extract were incorporated in stable O/W emulsion formulations, while an emulsion without extract functioned as blank. Afterwards, the emulsions were subjected to 3-month accelerated storage tests with and without light exposure. Their oxygen uptake was investigated, and headspace gas chromatography measurements were performed to detect the fatty acid oxidation products formed during oxidative processes in the samples. The results showed that all emulsion samples under light exposure had a higher oxygen uptake and an increase in the characteristic fatty acid oxidation products compared with those stored under light exclusion. However, differences in oxygen uptake under light exposure were observed depending on the plant extract. Therefore, for O/W emulsions, the daily oxygen consumption rate correlated exponentially with the antioxidant activity, and the hexanal concentration correlated linearly with the daily oxygen consumption rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 7048 KiB  
Article
Skin Capacitive Image Stitching and Occlusion Measurements
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010032 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1805
Abstract
The aim of this study is to develop new analysis techniques for skin capacitive image stitching and occlusion measurements. Through image stitching, small skin capacitive images can be stitched into large skin capacitive images and, therefore, provide more skin image information. Through occlusion, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to develop new analysis techniques for skin capacitive image stitching and occlusion measurements. Through image stitching, small skin capacitive images can be stitched into large skin capacitive images and, therefore, provide more skin image information. Through occlusion, e.g., keeping the measurement device on skin for a period of time, the skin health status can be studied through time-dependent response curves. Results show that time-dependent skin capacitive imaging curves can tell us the information about transdermal water loss (TEWL) as well as skin surface profiles. By using the structural similarity index measure (SSIM), the TEWL map can be constructed, which shows the water loss map on the skin surface. We first present the theoretical background and then the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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9 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Protective Effect of Topically Applied Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Human Skin through A Contact Model
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010029 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
Preparations of the Cymbopogon citratus leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes. The present study investigated the proposed anti-inflammatory properties of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC) in human skin in vivo using the methylnicotinate (MN) microinflammation skin model. [...] Read more.
Preparations of the Cymbopogon citratus leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes. The present study investigated the proposed anti-inflammatory properties of C. citratus essential oil (EOCC) in human skin in vivo using the methylnicotinate (MN) microinflammation skin model. Skin exposure to MN causes a disturbance that triggers the production of reactive oxygen species and evokes a short duration microinflammatory reaction that might be explored to meet this objective. Fourteen participants of both sexes were selected after providing informed consent. Three areas (3 cm × 3 cm) were drawn on both forearms. One randomly chosen area was treated for 14 days, twice a day, with a polyacrylic acid gel containing 5% EOCC. Remaining areas were used as controls. Results revealed a clear protective effect at the EOCC-treated site. The MN reaction showed significantly lower transepidermal water loss, blood perfusion, erythema, and edema when compared with the other areas. Furthermore, the methodology here proposed is an innovative approach to study the clinical impact of these substances on human skin, contributing to an evidence-based support regarding the interest of using these products in human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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19 pages, 5765 KiB  
Article
Skin Anti-Aging Efficacy of a Four-Botanical Blend Dietary Ingredient: A Randomized, Double Blind, Clinical Study
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010016 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5341
Abstract
Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing or reducing different skin alterations. A dietary approach based on these compounds could be a safe and effective method to slow down or prevent age-associated deterioration of skin appearance and function. In a [...] Read more.
Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing or reducing different skin alterations. A dietary approach based on these compounds could be a safe and effective method to slow down or prevent age-associated deterioration of skin appearance and function. In a previous study, a specific combination of four botanical extracts (pomegranate, sweet orange, herba Cistanche, and Centella asiatica) exhibited potential anti-aging effects in a dermal fibroblast cell model. The present study aims to clinically evaluate the safety and anti-aging efficacy of this new botanical ingredient (eternalyoung®). To this end, a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 60 Caucasian women with evident signs of both chrono- and photoaging. Product efficacy was measured as follows: skin moisturization (corneometer), transepidermal water loss (tewameter), skin radiance, and color (spectrophotometer), skin elasticity and firmness (cutometer), skin roughness (image analysis), and skin thickness (ultrasound). Both intergroup and intragroup analysis proved that the daily intake of 225 mg of the active ingredient was enough to produce visible and structural improvements to the skin and to the signs of aging without any side effects. Statistically significant improvements compared to the placebo group were observed as early as 4 weeks regarding wrinkle depth, elasticity, firmness, skin thickness, skin moisturization, transepidermal water loss, and dark spots pigmentation. In addition, the subjects who consumed the blend reported better scores on the self-assessment questionnaires. Our results suggest that the intake of the test product can positively affect the appearance, barrier function, and skin density of aged skin after 12 weeks of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
Mesoscopic Monitoring of Human Skin Explants Viscoelastic Properties
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010013 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2145
Abstract
The investigation of the mechanical properties of skin is of great interest for monitoring physiological and pathological changes in the cutaneous barrier function for dermatological and cosmetic issues. Skin constitutes a complex tissue because of its multi-layered organisation. From a rheological point of [...] Read more.
The investigation of the mechanical properties of skin is of great interest for monitoring physiological and pathological changes in the cutaneous barrier function for dermatological and cosmetic issues. Skin constitutes a complex tissue because of its multi-layered organisation. From a rheological point of view, it can be considered to be a soft tissue with viscoelastic properties. In order to characterise ex vivo mechanical properties of skin on the mesoscopic scale, a biosensor including a thickness shear mode transducer (TSM) in contact with a skin explant was used. A specific experimental set-up was developed to monitor continuously and in real-time human skin explants, including the dermis and the epidermis. These were kept alive for up to 8 days. Skin viscoelastic evolutions can be quantified with a multi-frequency impedance measurement (from 5 MHz to 45 MHz) combined with a dedicated fractional calculus model. Two relevant parameters for the non-destructive mesoscopic characterisation of skin explants were extracted: the structural parameter αapp and the apparent viscosity ηapp. In this study, the validity of the biosensor, including repeatability and viability, was controlled. A typical signature of the viscoelastic evolutions of the different cutaneous layers was identified. Finally, monitoring was carried out on stripped explants mimicking a weakened barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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8 pages, 1293 KiB  
Communication
Photoprotective Efficacy of the Association of Rosmarinic Acid 0.1% with Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate and Avobenzone
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010011 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
Innovative prototype sunscreens with reduced ultraviolet (UV) filters are required to achieve safer, more effective, and more environmentally friendly formulations. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic antioxidant and potential candidate for multifunctional sunscreens. We used RA (0.1% w/w) in combination [...] Read more.
Innovative prototype sunscreens with reduced ultraviolet (UV) filters are required to achieve safer, more effective, and more environmentally friendly formulations. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic antioxidant and potential candidate for multifunctional sunscreens. We used RA (0.1% w/w) in combination with avobenzone (2.5% and 5.0% w/w), a UVA filter, and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (10.0% w/w), a UVB filter, to evaluate in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) and critical wavelength, photostability, and the in vivo SPF. RA, in vitro, improved the SPF of F2 (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate 10.0% w/w + avobenzone 2.5% w/w + RA 0.1% w/w) and F3 (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate 10.0% w/w + avobenzone 5.0% w/w + RA 0.1% w/w), which also presented broad-spectrum profiles; however, no expressive effects were observed for the critical wavelength (nm). By the in vivo trial, RA showed an increment in the F3 SPF value and maintained the F2 effectiveness, even when avobenzone was at 2.5%. Nonetheless, no increase in photostability was observed. Our findings suggest that incorporating natural molecules with antioxidant activities into sunscreens could decrease the proportion of conventional UV filters in the final product, with the advantage of providing other functional properties. Further investigation of higher RA concentrations, even from other sources, and other UV filter combinations could reveal important data for the development of multifunctional sunscreens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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18 pages, 5404 KiB  
Article
Novel Crosslinked HA Hydrogel Films for the Immediate Release of Active Ingredients
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010006 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Novel crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel films were previously invented by reacting the HA polymer with the PT (Pentaerythritol Tetra-acrylate) crosslinker over basic pH conditions in the oven. HA is considered a natural polymer present in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical formulations. This [...] Read more.
Novel crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel films were previously invented by reacting the HA polymer with the PT (Pentaerythritol Tetra-acrylate) crosslinker over basic pH conditions in the oven. HA is considered a natural polymer present in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical formulations. This current study aimed to highlight the effect of loading method (post-loading and in situ) of selected actives (salicylic acid and niacinamide B3) in the hydrogel films and then study their release kinetics. Differential scanning colometry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis evidenced the loading of the actives and full release from the HA hydrogel films, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the morphological changes to the films during the study by comparing the average molecular weight between crosslinks (M¯c), gel fraction, crosslinking density (Ve) and mesh size (ξ) of the films. The loading percentage of the SA and B3 showed high percentage loading of actives via both loading methods. In conclusion, the (95–100%) release of the actives achieved from the HA hydrogel films within 10 min revealed that the films are an efficient immediate release system of actives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Phytocompounds Recovered from the Waste of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Vinification: Cytotoxicity (in Normal and Stressful Conditions) and In Vitro Photoprotection Efficacy in a Sunscreen System
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010002 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
We investigated plausible reuse for the dermocosmetic industry of byproducts from the winemaking process of red grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. C. Sauvignon) through the evaluation of one extract (grape pomace extract, GPE) and two fractions (one chloroform, GPE-CHF; one ethyl acetate, [...] Read more.
We investigated plausible reuse for the dermocosmetic industry of byproducts from the winemaking process of red grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. C. Sauvignon) through the evaluation of one extract (grape pomace extract, GPE) and two fractions (one chloroform, GPE-CHF; one ethyl acetate, GPE-EAF). The samples were characterized analytically by liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell culture to verify a cytosafety profile in normal and stressful environment (presence of H2O2), and by using it in a sunscreen system to observe improvements in the in vitro efficacy by diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with an integrating sphere. The HPLC results for GPE-EAF and GPE-CHF samples with the best profile of syringic and p-coumaric acids, quercetin, and trans-resveratrol were used in the further assays. GPE-EAF and GPE-CHF, both at 30.00 µg/mL, maintained the cell viability in the absence of H2O2 (normal condition). In the sequence, GPE-EAF and GPE-CHF were evaluated against the oxidative stressor H2O2 in NIH 3T3 cells. A sharp drop in viability was only observed for GPE-CHF, and cytotoxicity of GPE-EAF was considered absent even in a hostile environment. Since GPE-EAF previously developed the best results, its potential performance was investigated in a sunscreen system. The in vitro sun protection factor of the phytoderivative-free formulation was 9.0 + 2.5; by adding GPE-EAF at 10.0%, its efficacy was elevated to 15.0 + 2.5. Both samples suffered a negative effect after artificial ultraviolet exposition (500 W/m2); however, the presence of GPE-EAF improved the photostability of the sunscreen system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Methodology to Reach Full Spectral Photo-Protection by Selecting the Best Combination of Physical Filters and Antioxidants
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Antioxidants can reduce free radical formation in deeper skin layers where typical sunscreen filters may no longer be effective. Here, a general method is presented to pre-select optimum combinations of antioxidants and physical filters. The radical production of selected common physical filters after [...] Read more.
Antioxidants can reduce free radical formation in deeper skin layers where typical sunscreen filters may no longer be effective. Here, a general method is presented to pre-select optimum combinations of antioxidants and physical filters. The radical production of selected common physical filters after UV irradiation, the capacity of different antioxidants and the interaction between these compounds was investigated in solution by optical measurement of DPPH scavenging, allowing a theoretical calculation of the antioxidant amount necessary to scavenge UV-induced radicals. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the scattering properties were determined. All physical filters induced different amounts of radicals in suspensions depending on the coating. ZnO coated with polydimethylsiloxane and myristic acid (ZnOpolymyr) showed the lowest radical formation. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) provided the highest antioxidant capacity. Different formulations with different ratios of selected physical filters and antioxidants were prepared. It turned out that the high radical protection factor (RPF) of cream formulations, which originally did not contain any physical filters, was reduced when such filters were added. The data demonstrates that the addition of physical filters to antioxidant-containing formulations lowers their reduction capacity, but to varying degrees. An optimal combination of physical filters and antioxidants must be pre-selected in order to incorporate them into a formulation and verify their effect on skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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13 pages, 2718 KiB  
Article
Rosmarinic Acid Multifunctional Sunscreen: Comet Assay and In Vivo Establishment of Cutaneous Attributes
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060141 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
The skin acts as a protective barrier, guarding the body against microorganisms, chemicals, and several environmental factors. Accordingly, this all-important organ must be kept healthy to maintain its optimal functionality. One approach to maintain skin health is the application of multifunction bioactive sunscreens [...] Read more.
The skin acts as a protective barrier, guarding the body against microorganisms, chemicals, and several environmental factors. Accordingly, this all-important organ must be kept healthy to maintain its optimal functionality. One approach to maintain skin health is the application of multifunction bioactive sunscreens containing antioxidant molecule(s). Rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic compound, is known for its antioxidant activity. Herein, the safety and efficacy of a multifunction prototype sunscreen were investigated, aiming to evaluate the performance of this polyphenol with two known and widely used UV filters (bemotrizinol and octyl p-methoxycinnamate). Samples protected the DNA fragmentation compared to UV control, by the comet assay, and showed good skin compatibility in subjects. Formulations F1 and F3 were able to increase skin hydration, and, possibly, the RA interfered with this attribute. An increase in transepidermal water loss was observed for formulations F1, F2, and F4, which may be related to the vehicle, containing the RA or not. No decreases were observed in the inflammatory reaction caused by the ethyl nicotinate with any of the samples. As a perspective, we suggest trials with a greater number of subjects or protocol modifications. Altering the vehicle qualitative and quantitative composition is also a pertinent perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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8 pages, 497 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Tolerance and Trichological Efficacy of a Food Supplement in Men and Women with Telogen Effluvium-like Disorder
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060135 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2335
Abstract
Hair thinning is a very common problem in dermatology, affecting both men and women, and can strongly impact the quality of life of subjects. In this view, therapies that aim to reduce the appearance of thinning by delaying, arresting, or reversing the course [...] Read more.
Hair thinning is a very common problem in dermatology, affecting both men and women, and can strongly impact the quality of life of subjects. In this view, therapies that aim to reduce the appearance of thinning by delaying, arresting, or reversing the course of hair thinning are highly desirable. A novel nutraceutical product (NS) containing active botanicals, a patented composition comprising rutin and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), zinc, biotin, and ornithine, has been developed to improve hair growth in subjects with hair thinning. Sixty subjects with telogen effluvium-like hair loss were randomized 1:1 in two groups (NS vs. placebo) and treated for three months and evaluated at the baseline visit (T0), and after 15 days (T1) and one (T2), two (T3), and three (T4) months of treatment. Two follow-up visits one month (T5) and two months after the last assumption (T6) were also included in the protocol. Subjects were evaluated for the percentage of hair in the anagen phase, density of hair in the anagen phase (n/cm2), vellus hair (miniaturized, smaller, and thinner hair), and the entity of hair loss in the telogen phase (pull test). NS supplementation produced a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in anagen hair and hair density versus baseline from 15 days (T1) of treatment and this effect was not detectable for placebo. Moreover, a clinically/statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in vellus hair was also reported, suggesting not only a rapid reduction of the process of miniaturization of the hair but also a transformation of vellus hair into terminal hair. The NS treatment also showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in tensile strength till T6 (vs. placebo). A higher percentage of subjects who took the NS noted a reduction in daily hair loss, an increase in brightness, and the presence of stronger hair. No side effects were reported. The present study confirms the clinical efficacy and safety of novel nutraceutical supplements in men and women with hair thinning, acting as a multi-targeted therapeutic approach to hair thinning due to TE-like phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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18 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and UV Radiation Protection Properties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis), Carrot (Daucus carota), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Hop (Humulus lupulus) Extracts
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060134 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Total phenolic content using Folin–Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity by CUPRAC method and sun protection properties were measured for four different extracts of selected plants: marigold petals, carrot roots, tomato fruits and hop cones. Three types of extracts: water, oil and water-glycolic (1:4) were [...] Read more.
Total phenolic content using Folin–Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity by CUPRAC method and sun protection properties were measured for four different extracts of selected plants: marigold petals, carrot roots, tomato fruits and hop cones. Three types of extracts: water, oil and water-glycolic (1:4) were studied. Assessment of sun protection properties for extracts obtained from selected plants was first done by mathematical indication method and subsequently done spectrophotometrically. In a method of mathematical indication of UV protection based on absorption spectra, four parameters were determined regarding sun protection properties at different concentrations of selected plant extracts. Absorbance generally increased with an increase of concentration of extracts, but an expected increase of particular parameters was not obtained in all samples. The water-glycolic extract from hop cones was characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds (among all studied samples) and high antioxidant activity. It also showed high radiation protection. Data for four parameters like UVA/UVB parameter, UVA1/UV parameter, SUI parameter and critical wavelength was generated, and the three first parameters were the highest for water and water-glycolic extracts of marigold. Among all plants, hop cones were characterized by the highest SPF for all types of extracts. SPF values increased with the concentration of extracts, but an increase of the weight of dried plants used to prepared extracts did not influence sun protection factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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14 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Soothing Effect of a Cosmetic Product on Skin Discomforts Induced by a Chemical Irritant (Capsaicin) and UV-Radiation, and after Mosquito Bites and Sunburn in a Real-World Setting
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060130 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3619
Abstract
Irritated and itchy skin is a common skin condition. Consumers tend to opt for natural ingredients for irritated skin (e.g., after insect bites or sun exposure). We tested a cosmetic product with 94% of its ingredients being of natural origin, each with its [...] Read more.
Irritated and itchy skin is a common skin condition. Consumers tend to opt for natural ingredients for irritated skin (e.g., after insect bites or sun exposure). We tested a cosmetic product with 94% of its ingredients being of natural origin, each with its beneficial properties, e.g., nourishing shea butter, cooling menthol, and soothing bisabolol. Skin discomfort was induced either by a chemical irritant (capsaicin) or UV radiation by a solar simulator. In this clinical, prospective, and controlled experimental study, we investigated the soothing effect of the tested product. We observed a soothing effect on the capsaicin-induced itching and stinging sensation with a statistically significant decrease in the discomfort sensations one minute after a single application. The tested product also showed a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema (UVA+B exposure). In a real-world study, these results can be correlated with a decrease of itching and irritation after sunburn or after insect bites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 2126 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Lipid Nanoparticles Incorporated with Ferula assa-foetida L. Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060129 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) have been prepared by high-pressure homogenization and optimized in order to protect ferulic acid from Ferula assa-foetida L. extract. The influence of lipid and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size (Z-Ave), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP) [...] Read more.
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) have been prepared by high-pressure homogenization and optimized in order to protect ferulic acid from Ferula assa-foetida L. extract. The influence of lipid and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size (Z-Ave), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP) of SLN was analyzed. In addition, other parameters for the preparation of ferulic acid-loaded nanoparticles, such as extract concentration and variable parameters for the synthesis method used (e.g., pressure), were adjusted to obtain the smallest particle size and polydispersity index, as well as the highest value for zeta potential, which are characteristic of the stable SLN. The established formulation obtained from the optimized synthesis was composed of 6.0 wt.% of the lipid phase and 1.5 wt.% of surfactant, giving stable SLN with Z-Ave, PDI, and ZP values of 163.00 ± 1.06 nm, 0.16 ± 0.01, and −41.97 ± 0.47 mV, respectively. The loading of ferulic acid from Ferula assa-foetida L. extract within the SLN resulted in particles with a mean size of 155.3 ± 1.1 nm, polydispersity index of 0.16 ± 0.01, zeta potential of −38.00 ± 1.12 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 27%, the latter being quantified on the basis of RP-HPLC analysis. Our findings highlight the added value of SLN as a delivery system for phenolic phytochemical compounds extracted from Ferula assa-foetida L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Rosa davurica Rhizome for Potential Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060126 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Streptomyces species are widely studied and used in different fields, including antibiotics and pesticides, and are spread in several places as soil-derived microorganisms. However, research on anti-aging, including antioxidants obtained from Streptomyces, has not been performed as much. Skin aging due to [...] Read more.
Streptomyces species are widely studied and used in different fields, including antibiotics and pesticides, and are spread in several places as soil-derived microorganisms. However, research on anti-aging, including antioxidants obtained from Streptomyces, has not been performed as much. Skin aging due to bacterial infection, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is challenging to recover, so it is essential to prevent aging by preventing or inhibiting infection. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate Streptomyces species from Rosa davurica rhizome soil and to determine the effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the isolated strain Streptomyces chattanoogensis THA-663 (THA-663S) on the inhibition of MRSA and UVB-irradiated human skin keratinocytes, to determine whether it could be a treatment for skin aging. The MRSA inhibition and antioxidant activities were evaluated using disc diffusion, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. The expression of aging-related markers, including mitogen-activated protein kinases/activator protein 1 (MAPK)/AP-1) and transforming growth factor-β/suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) was assessed using Western blotting. The antibacterial effect on four MRSA strains, CCARM 0204, CCARM 0205, CCARM 3855, and CCARM 3089, showed that THA-663S could greatly inhibit MRSA growth. Moreover, the findings showed that THA-663S is efficient in scavenging free radicals and dose-dependently reducing ROS generation. Furthermore, THA-663S notably reduced UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression by inhibiting the MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathways and blocking extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Additionally, THA-663S improved and enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling activation to promote procollagen type I synthesis, relieving UVB-induced skin cell damage. In conclusion, THA-663S has a high potential to protect skin cells from aging, and, simultaneously, it can prevent or treat aging caused by infection due to pathogen inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 9496 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Reduction in Ceramide Content in Fingernails Due to Nail Polish Remover Use
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060125 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1931
Abstract
The amount and distribution of ceramide, an intercellular lipid, in the fingernails of three Japanese women in their twenties were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and antibody staining. In addition, the structural changes of fingernail cross sections were examined after fingernails were immersed [...] Read more.
The amount and distribution of ceramide, an intercellular lipid, in the fingernails of three Japanese women in their twenties were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and antibody staining. In addition, the structural changes of fingernail cross sections were examined after fingernails were immersed in an acetone-based nail polish remover solution. The acetone-treated fingernails had a lower water content and higher water evaporation than the inner forearm skin and healthy fingernails, suggesting that they had compromised moisturizing and barrier functions and were more susceptible to roughness and damage. These results also suggest that, compared to healthy fingernails, rough fingernails are more prone to breakage and damage. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of ceramide decreased when fingernails were immersed in nail polish remover solution. The distribution showed ceramide to be present in the ventral and dorsal regions of the free edge of the fingernail plate. After immersion in nail polish remover, the three-layered structure of the free edge of the plate was intact, but the dorsal distal edge of the plate peeled off. Gaps were observed inside the free edge of the plate, which should have been layered. These results show that the frequent use of nail polish remover may worsen condition of fingernails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 1748 KiB  
Article
The Role of Lipids in the Process of Hair Ageing
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060124 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
An obvious sign of ageing is the loss of hair colour due to a decrease or lack of melanin in hair fibres. An examination of the lipid levels and structure of grey hair determined using µ–FTIR revealed a high correlation between the characteristics [...] Read more.
An obvious sign of ageing is the loss of hair colour due to a decrease or lack of melanin in hair fibres. An examination of the lipid levels and structure of grey hair determined using µ–FTIR revealed a high correlation between the characteristics of lipids located in the cuticle and the water dynamics of the fibres. Therefore, a deep study based on external and internal lipid extraction, an analysis using thin layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionisation detector, calorimetric analyses and the physico-chemical evaluation of the delipidated fibres were performed. Hairs were evaluated to identify changes in the organisation of these lipids using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and their effect on the water dynamics of the fibres. The primary differences observed for the lipid extracts from white hair compared to brown hair were the lower amount of the internal lipids extracted, which were primarily composed of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ceramides, with a higher content of lower phase transition peaks, indicating increased unsaturated compounds that promote higher fluidity of the lipid bilayers. The virgin white fibres exhibited lower levels of embedded water, with lower binding energies and higher water diffusion, indicating higher permeability. The IR study confirmed the low lipid levels and the greater disorder of white hair. These results may be of interest for cosmetic treatments to which patients with grey hair may be subjected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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20 pages, 7595 KiB  
Article
Stability and Application Properties of Surfactant-Free Cosmetic Emulsions: An Instrumental Approach to Evaluate Their Potential
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060123 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2789
Abstract
Technological innovation in the cosmetic field must necessarily consider not only the safety and efficacy requirements but also the growing attention to environmental issues and the need for sensory pleasure during application to satisfy the consumers’ expectations. This work aimed to formulate an [...] Read more.
Technological innovation in the cosmetic field must necessarily consider not only the safety and efficacy requirements but also the growing attention to environmental issues and the need for sensory pleasure during application to satisfy the consumers’ expectations. This work aimed to formulate an oil-in-water fluid emulsion stabilized by the combination of organic and inorganic powders, namely Zea mays starch and zinc oxide associated at different ratios in presence of a polysaccharidic rheological modifier. After verifying the physical stability of the prototypes with a mechanical stress test in a centrifuge, the rheological analyses were conducted in continuous and oscillatory flow conditions, and the immersion/de-immersion test, conducted using a texture analyzer, allowed identifying the system with the viscoelastic characteristics and the parameters of textures, such as firmness, consistency, and adhesiveness, more suitable for the formulation of skin-care products with low viscosity and high spreadability. Finally, we studied the compatibility of the powders with sunscreen filters and pigments, to optimize the systems and assess their potential use in finished products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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14 pages, 4759 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Aquaporin 1 in the Motility and in the Production of Fibrillin 1 and Type I Collagen of Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060117 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Aminocarbonyl proteins increase with age in the dermal layer. Gene Chip analysis of mRNA expression in human dermal fibroblasts cultured on collagen gels treated with glyceraldehyde as an aminocarbonyl protein and on untreated collagen gels showed a decrease in the amount of aquaporin [...] Read more.
Aminocarbonyl proteins increase with age in the dermal layer. Gene Chip analysis of mRNA expression in human dermal fibroblasts cultured on collagen gels treated with glyceraldehyde as an aminocarbonyl protein and on untreated collagen gels showed a decrease in the amount of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) mRNA. In this study, we clarified the involvement of AQP1 in collagen gel contraction and the production of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. In the experiment, AQP1 siRNA was transfected into cultured human dermal fibroblasts to deplete AQP1, and the cell motility and contractile activity of the collagen gel were assessed. The production of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen was also examined by RT–qPCR and antibody staining. AQP1 depletion decreased the collagen gel contractile activity, and both the amount of mRNA and the antibody staining of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen decreased. Furthermore, the depletion of AQP1 reduced the levels of F-actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2, suggesting their involvement in reductions of the motility and collagen gel contractile activity of fibroblasts. These findings suggest that AQP1 is an important biomolecule for cell motility in human dermal fibroblasts and that decreased motility results in decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibrillin 1 and type I collagen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 2655 KiB  
Article
Development of Enzyme-Based Cosmeceuticals: Studies on the Proteolytic Activity of Arthrospira platensis and Its Efficient Incorporation in a Hydrogel Formulation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050106 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
Microalgae are a valuable source of enzymes and active ingredients due to their biochemical variability, health-beneficial properties, lower production cost and viability on an industrial scale. In addition, the growing demand for sustainable products constitutes microalgae as a viable resource for the development [...] Read more.
Microalgae are a valuable source of enzymes and active ingredients due to their biochemical variability, health-beneficial properties, lower production cost and viability on an industrial scale. In addition, the growing demand for sustainable products constitutes microalgae as a viable resource for the development of a range of innovative products. In the present work, the proteolytic activity of Arthrospira platensis lysate was assessed and characterized using kinetics analysis and zymography employing different substrates, pH values and divalent ions. The results suggest the presence of two main proteolytic enzymes in the lysate. In addition, a rapid and easy purification protocol of the proteolytic activity, under mild conditions, was developed using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG)/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The proteolytic activity of A. platensis lysate was used to develop a hydrogel formulation as an enzyme-based cosmeceutical, with potential application as a topical exfoliating agent. The incorporation of the A. platensis extract in the developed hydrogel formulation significantly improved its operational stability over time, which is a significant advantage in enzyme-based product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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9 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
Tracking Down of a Selected Panel of Parabens: A Validated Method to Evaluate Their Occurrence in Skin Layers
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050102 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
A method was set up and validated to identify and quantify seven parabens in each of the three skin layers, i.e., Stratum Corneum, Epidermis, and Dermis, because, even if only some analogues are legally allowed in Europe, forbidden parabens are also detected in [...] Read more.
A method was set up and validated to identify and quantify seven parabens in each of the three skin layers, i.e., Stratum Corneum, Epidermis, and Dermis, because, even if only some analogues are legally allowed in Europe, forbidden parabens are also detected in many personal care products and therefore can be absorbed by the skin. A solid/liquid extraction followed by a gradient elution chromatographic separation method was performed and validated according to European guidelines. Our validated method afforded the detection of all seven parabens with limit of detection values ranging from 0.026 to 0.090 μg mL−1 and recoveries ranging from 61.80 to 105.73 μg mL−1 at high and low concentration values (50.0–5.0 μg mL−1), respectively. The proposed method can help assess paraben’s skin bioaccumulation since people are repeatedly exposed to consumer goods containing parabens in their daily routine, posing a chronic risk to human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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13 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Sulfadiazine Cosmetotherapeutic Nanolotion for Burn Infections
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050093 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
Burns are highly traumatizing injuries that can be complicated by various microbial infections, leading to morbidity and mortality. The ultimate goal of burn therapy is to prevent any microbial infection and rapid wound healing with epithelization. The current study aimed to develop and [...] Read more.
Burns are highly traumatizing injuries that can be complicated by various microbial infections, leading to morbidity and mortality. The ultimate goal of burn therapy is to prevent any microbial infection and rapid wound healing with epithelization. The current study aimed to develop and investigate the potential of nanoemulsion-based cosmetotherapeutic lotion of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) for increased antimicrobial activity to treat burn injuries. Silver sulfadiazine is the standard topical treatment for burn patients, but is allied with major limitations of poor solubility, low bioavailability, and other hematologic effects, hindering its pharmaceutical applications. The nanoformulation was fabricated through the ultrasonication technique and optimized by selecting various parameters and concentrations for the formation of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. The optimized formulation depicts a smaller particle size of 213 nm with an encapsulation efficiency of approx. 80%. Further, nanoemulsion-based SSD lotion by utilizing argan oil as a cosmetotherapeutic agent was prepared for scar massaging with improved permeation properties. The designed cosmeceutical formulation was characterized in terms of physical appearance, refractive index, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and biocompatibility. The compatibility of the formulation ingredients were determined through FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The formulated nanolotion containing SSD demonstrated superior antimicrobial activities against different bacterial strains in comparison to commercialized burn creams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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21 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Design of a Sensorial-Instrumental Correlation Methodology for a Category of Cosmetic Products: O/W Emulsions
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040084 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not [...] Read more.
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not be not enough to avoid inflammatory reaction on the skin. The solution could be the substitution of sensory evaluation by instrumental measurement to predict the sensory profile before the panel. For the study, thirteen different skin care emulsions based on their composition and texture were carried out simultaneously by 12 expert panelists with a quantitative descriptive sensory evaluation profile and by rheological and textural methods. A statistical methodology was the applied to find correlation trends between both data sets. The methodology confirmed that the correlation between sensory assessment and instrumental parameters is a good solution to save time. The multiple factor analysis (MFA) showed the correlation between firmness with no visual residue attribute and the cohesion with sticky 1 min, which are evident but this methodology could be used for finding more complex correlations not found in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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9 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity of Plant-Derived Colorants for Potential Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040081 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that [...] Read more.
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that accelerate the aging process and cause skin defects. Antioxidant activity can be determined by chemical-based methods. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of plant-derived colorants (purple and red colorant) by two methods: CUPRAC and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity evaluation using both methods for colorants samples was also performed after 5, 15, 30, and 60 min of exposure to UVC irradiation. The results obtained by CUPRAC method were for purple and red colorant unexposed samples as follows: 6.87 ± 0.09 and 4.48 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg colorant expressed as caffeic acid equivalent, respectively. UVC treatment did not affect the results of the antioxidant activity for red colorant and for the purple one only a slight influence was observed. DPPH free-radical scavenging activity for unexposed samples was 70.06 ± 7.74% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the red colorant and 96.11 ± 3.80% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the purple one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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21 pages, 1453 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Interactions between Fragrances and Cosmetic Bases on the Fragrance Olfactory Performance: A Tentative to Correlate SPME-GC/MS Analysis with That of an Experienced Perfumer
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040070 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3993
Abstract
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, [...] Read more.
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, isopropyl myristate and butylene glycol, with the objective to verify how the olfactory performance of fragrances can be influenced by skin or hair care ingredients. The semiquantitative approach applied in this study aims in providing a practical solution to appropriately combine a fragrance with cosmetic ingredients. Pure fragrance and binary blends were analysed by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), based on the assumption that the solid phase microextraction is able to extract volatile compounds, mimicking the ability of the nose to capture similar volatile compounds. Fifty-seven and forty-four compounds were identified by SPME-GC/MS in pure fragrances “Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé”, respectively. Once mixed with the bases, the analysis of the blends revealed that a qualitative modification in the chromatograms could occur according to the characteristics of the bases. In general, for both fragrances, blends with glycerin and butylene glycol, which are the most hydrophilic bases among the ones tested, were able to release most of the peaks, that were thus still present in the chromatograms. Differently, in the blends with caprylic-capric triglyceride, most of the peaks are lost. Blends with paraffine, dimethicone and isopropyl myristate showed an intermediate behaviour. These results were thus compared with the sensory evaluation made by an experienced perfumer, capable of assessing the different olfactory performances of pure fragrances and their different binary blends. The evaluation made by the perfumer fitted well with the analytical results, and in the blends where most of the peaks were revealed in the chromatogram, the perfumer found a similar olfactory profile for example with glycerin, butylene glycol, while a modification of the olfactory profile was highlighted when several peaks were not still present in the chromatogram, as it was the case with caprylic-capric triglyceride. Interestingly, when the most typical peaks of a fragrance were still observed in the blend, even if some of them were lost, the olfactory performance was not lost, as was the case of paraffin and isopropyl myristate. In the case of dimethicone, its high volatility was considered responsible for a certain decrease in the fragrance “volume”. The results achieved with this investigation can be used to hypothesize that the different compounds of a fragrance, characterized for the first time by different volatility and solubility, could be differently retained by the bases: the more lipophilic are strongly retained by the lipophilic bases with a consequently reduced volatility that limits the possibility of being appreciated by the nose and that corresponds to disappearance or a percentage reduction from the chromatogram. Therefore, in a more accurate and helpful view for a formulator, we could come to the conclusion that based on the results achieved by our investigation, the inclusion of a less lipophilic base can be more appropriate to exalt more lipophilic fragrances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 1831 KiB  
Article
Permanent Make-Up (PMU) Inks Decolorization Using Plant Origin Materials
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030048 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
Permanent make-up (PMU) has become a very popular application over the last few years. The ingredients of PMU inks, used over the face area, are organic and inorganic substances very close to the chemical composition of tattoo inks. As the application rates increase, [...] Read more.
Permanent make-up (PMU) has become a very popular application over the last few years. The ingredients of PMU inks, used over the face area, are organic and inorganic substances very close to the chemical composition of tattoo inks. As the application rates increase, the demand for PMU removal rises. The aim of this study is to assess the decolorization of PMU inks using preparations originating from different plant sources. The leaves of Pelargonium zonale (PE) were extracted with water for 48 h. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of the extract was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu technique reaching 201.34 ± 4.57 μg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/mL of extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was 20.87 ± 0.36 μg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL and 3.56 ± 0.43 mg FeSO4×7H2O mL of extract when assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay respectively. The decolorization potential of PE leaf extract on five commercially available PMU inks of different hues was assessed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in comparison to polyphenol oxidases enzyme (PPO). The results demonstrated higher absorption reduction that indicates decolorization potential for the inks that have mainly ferrous oxides as colorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 6495 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Green Cosmeceutical Herbal Face Cream Containing Standardized Mangosteen Peel Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030046 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8414
Abstract
The widely reported adverse effects of synthetic ingredients encourage the development of green cosmeceuticals to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. The waste product of mangosteen (mangosteen peel) was utilized in the formulation to reduce waste production corresponding to SDG 12, in addition [...] Read more.
The widely reported adverse effects of synthetic ingredients encourage the development of green cosmeceuticals to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. The waste product of mangosteen (mangosteen peel) was utilized in the formulation to reduce waste production corresponding to SDG 12, in addition to its anti-aging and pigmentation control effects. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate novel herbal face creams containing standardized mangosteen peel extract. The mangosteen creams were formulated using natural ingredients and were evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics, rheology, spreadability and pH. Furthermore, an accelerated stability study, freeze–thaw stability study and centrifugation test were conducted. In addition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were conducted to assess its antioxidant effects, whereas tyrosinase inhibitory assay was conducted to determine its anti-tyrosinase activity. The formulated creams appeared light yellowish-brown and homogenous without phase separation. The creams displayed shear-thinning behavior and optimal pH which was ideal for topical application. The creams were stable after being subjected to various stability tests and were shown to have antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity. In conclusion, the development of mangosteen-based green cosmeceutical face cream is in line with SDG 3 and 12. It is expected to be used as a safe and effective alternative to synthetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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9 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Performance and Acceptability of a New Dexpanthenol-Containing Hand Cream in Subjects with Sensitive and Very Dry Skin: A Randomized Controlled Study
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030044 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3919
Abstract
A new dexpanthenol-containing hand cream (ND-HC) was developed for people with dry, sensitive, and/or environmentally stressed hands. To explore the performance and acceptability of ND-HC, we conducted a randomized, intraindividual comparison study in 40 healthy adult subjects with sensitive and very dry skin [...] Read more.
A new dexpanthenol-containing hand cream (ND-HC) was developed for people with dry, sensitive, and/or environmentally stressed hands. To explore the performance and acceptability of ND-HC, we conducted a randomized, intraindividual comparison study in 40 healthy adult subjects with sensitive and very dry skin on the hands. Instrumental measurements determined the effects on stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after single and/or 4 weeks’ use of ND-HC. Single and continued at least four times daily applications of ND-HC to very dry skin of the hand for 4 weeks triggered significant increases in SC hydration. On day 29, the mean change in skin capacitance from baseline was significantly greater when ND-HC was applied to the test area compared with the untreated area on the contralateral hand (12.41 vs. 4.46 a.u.; p < 0.001). Upon use of ND-HC over 4 weeks, mean TEWL decreased significantly (bilateral difference: −1.8 vs. 1.0 g/m2/h; p = 0.003), indicating an improvement in SC barrier function. A reduction in dry hand symptoms was observed over the study course. ND-HC was well tolerated and achieved a high level of acceptance and satisfaction. Our findings suggest that ND-HC complies with the required features of a state-of-the-art hand cream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 2584 KiB  
Article
Skincare Device Product Design Based on Factor Analysis of Korean Anthropometric Data
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020042 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3388
Abstract
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics [...] Read more.
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics centers, which require regular visits, the fact that their skin can be easily managed in leisure hours at home attracts consumers who value convenience. Thus, various beauty-care devices that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been launched. However, in the case of skincare devices using LEDs, pressure is expected to be applied to one’s face. Therefore, there is a need to develop a design based on ergonomic measurements that can distribute the pressure evenly on the skin. This study analyzed data to create a design for certain skincare devices that can be worn as glasses, using a three-dimensional human-measurement database of South Korean women between 30 and 49 y, as they are the major consumers of such devices. Additionally, a product design was proposed after a review of preference surveys from consumer focus group interviews and through an analysis of the direction of the light beams from the source using three-dimensional scanning data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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14 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
Study of P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) Concentrations after Hair Dye Mixing: A Call for Safety Reassessment
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020041 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7603
Abstract
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. [...] Read more.
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. The aim of this study was to test whether the limit for PPD is surplus, and hence whether the consumer may be exposed to unnecessarily PPD levels. Experimentally, the analysis of PPD was performed using HPLC, where method validation and an inter-laboratory comparison test (ILC) were conducted to evaluate method performance. Thirty-three commercial products were analyzed, and five products were chosen to study the unconsumed PPD. Successfully, the implemented method confirmed its suitability and validity for the determination of PPD. For ILC results, PPD levels were 0.97 ± 0.04% and 0.92 ± 0.02%, quantified by our laboratory and an accredited laboratory, respectively. For all products, the initial concentration (T0) of PPD was lower than the regulatory limit. After 45 min, the content of PPD significantly reduced compared to T0. One product showed unconsumed PPD to be as high as 96% following the recommended dyeing time. In conclusion, the existence of high levels of unreacted PPD increases the likelihood of allergic events and elevates the risk of PPD-related chemicals. Collaborative efforts between industries, regulatory bodies, and health-related decision makers are deemed necessary to establish safe concentrations for PPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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12 pages, 1653 KiB  
Article
Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3789
Abstract
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The [...] Read more.
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The objective of this study was to develop a topical emulsion containing leaf extract of Morus nigra L., as well as to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the formulations. A crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract of M. nigra leaves (MnCE) was submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) analysis and incorporated into an anionic base emulsion. Antioxidant activity was evaluated according to the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, and the stability of the formulation was assessed for 90 days, submitting the emulsion to storage at 4, 20, and 37 °C. Microdilution techniques evaluated the antibacterial activity and a challenge test assessed the microbiological stability. Analysis by HPLC–DAD identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercetin in the M. nigra extract. The emulsion and plant extract presented antioxidant activity, and the stability of the emulsion was preserved in terms of pH value and viscosity—which did not show significant changes, except for the spreadability, which was affected by the temperature. The antioxidant activity did not change significantly, except for the sample under 4 °C, which showed a considerable decrease in activity. The crude hydroalcoholic extract and formulation showed antimicrobial activity and the emulsion was considered stable in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and microbiological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Deciphering the Phytochemical Profile of an Alpine Rose (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) Leaf Extract for a Better Understanding of Its Senolytic and Skin-Rejuvenation Effects
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020037 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4673
Abstract
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly [...] Read more.
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly contribute to its senolytic activity and skin-rejuvenation effects. For this purpose, the dereplication method “CARAMEL”, which combines Centrifugal Partition Chromatography to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data interpretation, was directly applied to the hydro-glycerinated extract, leading to the unambiguous identification of fourteen Alpine rose metabolites, despite the strong presence of the heavy solvent glycerol. Flavonoids derived from taxifolin, quercetin, and (+)-catechin were identified as significant constituents of the extract, followed by flavanones, orcinol derivatives, phloroacetophenone, and phenolic acids, as well as the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. Given that senolytic molecules are known to selectively induce the death of senescent cells without affecting healthy proliferating cells, which can be achieved by the selective inhibition or downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and considering the well-recognized pro-apoptotic activity of hyperoside, taxifolin, naringenin and farrerol, the senolytic activity of the glycerol/water Alpine rose extract can be explained by the abundance of flavonoids present in the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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16 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Use of a Cream with Leucine and Lactic Acid Associated with Electrostimulation in Contouring and Facial Tonus: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020036 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4117
Abstract
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to [...] Read more.
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to improve contour and facial tonus in women. A total of 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups: Experimental (EG)—use of the leucine-based cream and lactic acid + electrostimulation for facial toning (mean intensity 13 Hz and protocol in progression); and placebo (GP)—use of the placebo cream (without the addition of leucine and lactic acid) + stimulation with the same protocol as the EG. Each group used their cream daily and underwent the intervention protocol three x/week with stimulation for 40 min, for a total of 8 weeks. Three main outcomes were reported: angular variation of facial contour by means of photogrammetry, muscle tone through the electromyographic activity of the masseter and zygomatic muscles during rest and functional tasks of biting and smiling. A significant effect of the intervention and between the groups was obtained for the experimental group against the placebo group for facial contour and muscle tone. An increased muscular activity of the masseter (average 28%) when smiling, and a reduction of zygomatic activity (in average 41%) when biting were found. The use of cream containing leucine and lactic acid combined with electrostimulation contributes to the improvement of facial contour and muscle tone when biting and smiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 952 KiB  
Article
Clinical Evaluation of Indian Sandalwood Oil and Its Protective Effect on the Skin against the Detrimental Effect of Exposome
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020035 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5182
Abstract
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and [...] Read more.
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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9 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Storage Effect on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020033 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid [...] Read more.
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities of the extracts were evaluated. The stability of the potential extract was then assessed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity under various storage conditions. The extractive yields of crude phenolic extract ranged from 16.61 to 28.78%. The ethanolic extract of N. lappaceum rind exhibited potential antioxidant activities and contained a high amount of phenolics and flavonoid contents. The extract remained with a high amount of the phenolic content (up to 88.79%) and retained its antioxidant property under various temperatures (4, 25, and 45 °C) after the first week of the storage period. The results suggest that phenolic content and antioxidant activity of N. lappaceum rind extract, as a nutraceutical or anti-aging ingredients in cosmetics, could be stored at a temperature from 4 °C to 45 °C with or without oxygen exposure at least for 16 weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
19 pages, 2321 KiB  
Article
Developing Eco-Friendly Skin Care Formulations with Microemulsions of Essential Oil
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020030 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6878
Abstract
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising [...] Read more.
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising delivery technology of skin care actives. Essential oils such as peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil are purported to have excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that could be used as the eco-friendly alternatives for synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the skin care formulations. This work therefore seeks to develop eco-friendly skin care formulations based on microemulsions of essential oil. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil were used as the oil phase to formulate naringin-loaded microemulsions, which demonstrated similar or better antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to the synthetic ones. When formulated into gel form, naringin-loaded microemulsion-gel formulations showed enhanced stability and release profile over their unformulated counterpart. Hence, microemulsions of essential oil developed in this work conferred a 4-fold benefits to the skin care formulations: (1) improved release (membrane permeation) of skin care active, (2) improved stability of skin care active, (3) as an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic antioxidant, and (4) a self-preserving system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 2400 KiB  
Article
Prospecting In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotective Properties of Rosmarinic Acid in a Sunscreen System Developed by QbD Containing Octyl p-Methoxycinnamate and Bemotrizinol
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020029 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3806
Abstract
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may [...] Read more.
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may potentiate the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of topical formulations. This research presents the application of the concepts of quality by design (QbD) to evaluate the critical parameters of quality and the development of an optimized cosmetic formulation with RA by means of an understanding of product design space. Samples were developed using design of experiments (DoE) and they were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity and photoprotective efficacy, as well as for photostability through artificial irradiation. We were able to achieve the RA performance regarding antioxidant and SPF properties through in vitro experiments. We obtained the equations for predicting the in vitro antioxidant activity and SPF. Considering our sunscreen system, developed with octyl p-methoxycinnamate and bemotrizinol, the presence of RA increased its antioxidant capacity; however, the in vitro SPF was reduced when both UV filters were used. The development of multifunctional sunscreens is of utmost importance; moreover, there is a need for the rational development of formulations that ensure representative statistical tests of the effects and interactions among the components of a formulation on the desired critical quality attributes, including efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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16 pages, 2769 KiB  
Article
Molecular Docking, Tyrosinase, Collagenase, and Elastase Inhibition Activities of Argan By-Products
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010024 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5193
Abstract
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and [...] Read more.
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and press cake are traditionally used by the Berber population for heating and feeding livestock. Molecular docking is an in silico approach that predicts the interaction between a ligand and a protein. This approach is mainly used in chemistry and pharmacology of natural products as a prediction tool with the purpose of selecting plant extracts or fractions for in vitro tests. The aim of this research is to study the evaluation of potential tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase inhibitory activities of argan fruit press-cake and pulp extracts. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and the major polyphenols of both press-cake and pulp extracts were submitted to molecular docking in order to determine the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Obtained results revealed that fruit pulp had the strongest dermocosmetic activities, as well as the highest TPC, with values above 55 mg gallic-acid equivalent per gram of dry matter (mgeq AG/gDM). Moreover, those results were positively correlated with the docking findings, suggesting that the pulp lead compounds have higher affinity with tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase action sites. The results here presented are very promising and open new perspectives for the exploitation of argan-tree by-products as cosmetic agents towards the development of new anti-aging products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Sunscreens on Marine Plankton
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010020 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4696
Abstract
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine [...] Read more.
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine environment, different ecotoxicological bioassays were carried out using planktonic organisms from three phyla and two different trophic levels: larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the copepod Acartia tonsa, and the microalga Tisochrysis lutea. The aim of these tests was to expose these organisms to leachates from eight sunscreen formulations. All of them showed a great variability in toxicity on the different plankton organisms. The highest toxicity level was found for cream number 4 when tested on sea urchin, exhibiting an EC50 = 122.4 mg/L. The toxicity of the UV filter 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid, exclusively present in that cream, was evaluated in sea urchin, where an EC10 = 699.6 mg/L was obtained under light exposure. According to our results, all tested creams become nontoxic to plankton upon 30,000-fold dilution in seawater; thus, only local effects are expected. This study highlights the need to understand the toxic effects generated by solar protection products, as well as their ingredients, on marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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12 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Effect of Three-Week Vibrotherapy on Selected Skin Parameters of Thighs and Buttocks in Women with Cellulite
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010016 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials [...] Read more.
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy women (age: 19–43 years) with cellulite of at least grade I on the Nurnberg–Muller scale were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving a series of 15 vibration treatments in a sitting or lying position for 30 or 60 min. Before and after the first and last treatment, selected skin parameters were measured with the use of Courage and Khazaka equipment. Results: Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of thighs and buttocks differed significantly at all time points. Post hoc tests showed that each treatment caused a decrease in TEWL but no long-term effect was observed. For skin pH, a significant difference was observed between the measurements I and IV. The lying position caused a greater reduction in the value of the acid–base balance. Conclusions: A series of vibration treatments improved the hydration and pH of the skin. The treatments limited TEWL; however, no long-term effect was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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11 pages, 2125 KiB  
Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part I: EpsilonTM 2D Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010006 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2959
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how two-dimensional (2D) skin hydration mapping can be used to describe skin properties beyond the traditional ‘single number’ approach to skin hydration. Two-dimensional skin hydration measurement data were collected at baseline and after 1 week of in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product. In addition, subject feedback regarding their skin condition obtained during the study was collected and assessed. Dividing the 2D hydration measurement device images into zones of different electrical permittivity scores enabled analysis of different aspects of the skin compared with traditional electrical skin hydration measurements. Improvement in skin flexibility as a result of use of the topical test product was demonstrated. Complete description of the skin’s hydration state through the creation of hydration histograms to describe its electrical characteristics was performed. Subject feedback data showed improvements in aspects of skin assessed using 2D hydration measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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10 pages, 3691 KiB  
Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part II: Visioscan® VC 20plus Imaging
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010005 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3881
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here was to understand what dry skin imaging can reveal about the skin and subject feedback from the use of a topical moisturizing product and how it relates to the consumer usage experience of a topical product. Images from a dry skin camera—the Visioscan® VC 20plus—during 3 weeks in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product were analyzed. Subject feedback regarding their skin condition was also collected. Strong statistical improvements (p < 0.05) were observed for a wide range of skin parameters derived from the Visioscan® VC 20plus. Skin scaliness and smoothness and parameters associated with skin health and appearance (surface, energy, contrast, homogeneity) improved as a result of topical product usage. Subjects reported their skin to feel less dry, to be smoother, and more supple and to look and feel healthier after product usage. The length of time until they felt the need to re-apply the product increased during the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

23 pages, 456 KiB  
Review
Regulatory Requirements for Exporting Cosmetic Products to Extra-EU Countries
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020062 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 11668
Abstract
In this study, an overview of the regulations in force in some extra-EU states belonging to different geoeconomic areas is provided, starting from the current EU legislation on cosmetic products. We focused on their legislative frameworks and the location of the relevant regulatory [...] Read more.
In this study, an overview of the regulations in force in some extra-EU states belonging to different geoeconomic areas is provided, starting from the current EU legislation on cosmetic products. We focused on their legislative frameworks and the location of the relevant regulatory documentation. Furthermore, for each state considered, our analysis examined the notification/authorization processes, approaches to animal testing, and allowed/prohibited ingredient lists, as these aspects are considered to be among the primary restrictions hindering the cosmetic market. It can be observed that many states are working towards standardising their regulations to promote greater international trade. However, it is essential to recognize that different countries belonging to distinct geoeconomic areas may have unique requirements, and harmonization may not necessarily be the best solution. It is crucial to consider different needs and preferences when approaching the global regulation of the cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 660 KiB  
Review
Biopigments of Microbial Origin and Their Application in the Cosmetic Industry
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020047 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8936
Abstract
Along with serving as a source of color, many microbial pigments have gained attention as interesting bioactive molecules with potential health advantages. These pigments have several applications in the food, agrochemical, medicine, and cosmetic industries. They have attracted the attention of these industries [...] Read more.
Along with serving as a source of color, many microbial pigments have gained attention as interesting bioactive molecules with potential health advantages. These pigments have several applications in the food, agrochemical, medicine, and cosmetic industries. They have attracted the attention of these industries due to their high production value, low cost, stability, and biodegradability. Recently, many consumers worldwide have noted the impact of synthetic dyes; thus, natural pigments are more in demand than synthetic colors. On the other hand, the cosmetic industry has been moving toward greener manufacturing, from the formulation to the packaging material. Microbial pigments have several applications in the field of cosmetics due to their photoprotection, antioxidant, and antiaging properties, including inhibiting melanogenesis and acting as natural colorants for cosmetics, as some microorganisms are rich in pigments. More investigations are required to estimate the safety and efficacy of employing microbial pigments in cosmetic products. Furthermore, it is necessary to obtain information about DNA sequencing, metabolic pathways, and genetic engineering. In addition, unique habitats should be explored for novel pigments and new producing strains. Thus, new microbial pigments could be of consideration to the cosmetic industry, as they are ideal for future cosmetics with positive health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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23 pages, 2204 KiB  
Review
3D Printed Hollow Microneedles for Treating Skin Wrinkles Using Different Anti-Wrinkle Agents: A Possible Futuristic Approach
Cosmetics 2023, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10020041 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4166
Abstract
Skin wrinkles are an inevitable phenomenon that is brought about by aging due to the degradation of scleroprotein fibers and significant collagen reduction, which is the fundamental basis of anti-wrinkle technology in use today. Conventional treatments such as lasering and Botulinum toxin have [...] Read more.
Skin wrinkles are an inevitable phenomenon that is brought about by aging due to the degradation of scleroprotein fibers and significant collagen reduction, which is the fundamental basis of anti-wrinkle technology in use today. Conventional treatments such as lasering and Botulinum toxin have some drawbacks including allergic skin reactions, cumbersome treatment procedures, and inefficient penetration of the anti-wrinkle products into the skin due to the high resistance of stratum corneum. Bearing this in mind, the cosmetic industry has exploited the patient-compliant technology of microneedles (MNs) to treat skin wrinkles, developing several products based on solid and dissolvable MNs incorporated with antiwrinkle formulations. However, drug administration via these MNs is limited by the high molecular weight of the drugs. Hollow MNs (HMNs) can deliver a wider array of active agents, but that is a relatively unexplored area in the context of antiwrinkle technology. To address this gap, we discuss the possibility of bioinspired 3D printed HMNs in treating skin wrinkles in this paper. We compare the previous and current anti-wrinkling treatment options, as well as the techniques and challenges involved with its manufacture and commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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17 pages, 339 KiB  
Review
Exploring Olive Pomace for Skincare Applications: A Review
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010035 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
The cosmetic industry is continuously searching for new active ingredients in an effort to attend to consumer demands which, in recent years, are focused on more natural and environmentally friendly products, obtained from sustainable resources. Nevertheless, they are required to provide cosmetologically appealing [...] Read more.
The cosmetic industry is continuously searching for new active ingredients in an effort to attend to consumer demands which, in recent years, are focused on more natural and environmentally friendly products, obtained from sustainable resources. Nevertheless, they are required to provide cosmetologically appealing skincare products, ultimately with the purpose of improving skin appearance. The olive oil industry generates a large amount of liquid and semi-solid by-products such as olive pomace. Their phytotoxicity impairs safe disposal, so valorization strategies that promote by-product reuse are needed, which may include skincare products. Hydroxytyrosol is the main phenolic compound present in olive pomace and possesses biological effects that make it a desirable active compound for cosmetic formulations such as antioxidant and anti-aging activities as well as photoprotector, depigmenting, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Other compounds present in olive pomace can also have functional properties and skin-related benefits. However, the application of this by-product can be a challenge in terms of formulation’s design, stability, and proven efficacy, so appropriate methodologies should be used to validate its incorporation and may include extraction and further encapsulation of bioactive compounds in order to achieve effective and aesthetic appealing skincare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
13 pages, 1838 KiB  
Review
The Pandemic and Your Skin—Direct and Indirect Impact of COVID-19
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010034 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4730
Abstract
Apart from well-known respiratory symptoms, less frequent symptoms also appear as a direct result of COVID-19 infection, or as indirect effects of the recommended quarantine and related lifestyle changes. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human skin is predominantly focused on in [...] Read more.
Apart from well-known respiratory symptoms, less frequent symptoms also appear as a direct result of COVID-19 infection, or as indirect effects of the recommended quarantine and related lifestyle changes. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human skin is predominantly focused on in this article. Cutaneous manifestations, including redness, chilblain-like symptoms (COVID toes), hives or urticaria rash, water blisters, and fishing net-like red-blue patterns on the skin, may appear as accompanying or as systemic COVID-19 symptoms with potential lesions at different skin sites. These symptoms were related to skin phototypes and vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, Black, Asian, and minority ethnic origin patients are found to be more sensitive to COVID-19 infection than Caucasians because of vitamin D deficiency. The region of population with lighter skin phototypes have a significantly higher chance to develop cutaneous manifestations than population with dark skin. In addition, adverse effects, such as skin barrier damage and irritation, may also occur due to extensive personal protective equipment usage (e.g., masks, protective suits, and a few others) and predominately alcohol-based sanitizers. This manuscript covers various aspects of COVID-19 and its clinical skin manifestations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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31 pages, 407 KiB  
Review
Thermal Spring Waters as an Active Ingredient in Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010027 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
Background: Thermal waters have been showing different beneficial effects on the skin due to their physicochemical composition. The beneficial effect of thermal water in the treatment of some skin diseases may thus justify its use as an active ingredient in cosmetic formulations. The [...] Read more.
Background: Thermal waters have been showing different beneficial effects on the skin due to their physicochemical composition. The beneficial effect of thermal water in the treatment of some skin diseases may thus justify its use as an active ingredient in cosmetic formulations. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate the potential of incorporating thermal water as an active ingredient in cosmetic formulations. (2) Methods: A descriptive literature review was carried out by the analysis of scientific articles in PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Twelve thermal spring waters were found (Avène, Blue Lagoon, Comano, Cró, Dead Sea, La Roche-Posay, Monfortinho, Saint-Gervais, Salies-de-Béarn, São Pedro do Sul, Uriage and Vichy) with potential as an active in cosmetic products, demonstrated through in vitro studies evaluating the different activities/properties and clinical trials in healthy volunteers or with skin pathologies. (3) Results: For these studies, in natura thermal water as well as incorporated in cosmetic formulations were used. In in vitro studies, most thermal waters have been shown to have activities on membrane fluidity, skin barrier repair, antiradical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, proliferative activity, regulation of processes involved in ageing and moisturizing properties. In clinical trials, cosmetic thermal waters reduced skin discomfort through their soothing and exhibited moisturizing and anti-irritant properties. (4) Conclusions: The effect of thermal waters on the skin and the absence of side effects reported in different studies allows them to be used as an adjuvant or in the treatment of various skin disorders and may play an important role in the cosmetics industry. However, further clinical trials are needed to assess their effectiveness and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 633 KiB  
Review
Chlorogenic Acids and Caffeine from Coffee By-Products: A Review on Skincare Applications
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010012 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 9815
Abstract
Upcycling is a modern trend in the cosmetic sector, focusing on by-products reuse and waste reduction. Consumers are more aware of the origin of cosmetic products and their environmental impact, promoting the upcycling phenomenon. Converting these raw materials into products of higher quality [...] Read more.
Upcycling is a modern trend in the cosmetic sector, focusing on by-products reuse and waste reduction. Consumers are more aware of the origin of cosmetic products and their environmental impact, promoting the upcycling phenomenon. Converting these raw materials into products of higher quality or value contributes to the final product’s sustainability. In fact, several agri-food by-products that are typically discarded have generated great interest, due to their value-added compounds with high functionality and/or bioactivity. Coffee is well known as a cosmetic ingredient, particularly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acids, and caffeine. Caffeine is widely used in cosmetic formulations due to its photoprotector and anti-aging properties, as well as lipolytic action in cellulitis, and hair regrowth. Chlorogenic acids are powerful antioxidants and exhibit anti-aging and photoprotector abilities. Coffee by-products, such as coffee beans, possess these bioactive compounds and other chemical characteristics that can provide functional properties in cosmetic formulations. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are high-volume by-products of the coffee industry. Their use has been explored in different cosmetic formulations demonstrating safety, stability, acceptability as well as skin improvement, thus supporting their valorization as natural and sustainable new ingredients in skincare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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12 pages, 12395 KiB  
Review
Factors Participating in the Occurrence of Inflammation of the Lips (Cheilitis) and Perioral Skin
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010009 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8329
Abstract
Lip inflammation may manifest as mainly reversible cheilitis, mainly irreversible, or cheilitis connected to dermatoses or systemic diseases. Therefore, knowing a patient’s medical history is important, especially whether their lip lesions are temporary, recurrent, or persistent. Sometimes temporary contributing factors, such as climate [...] Read more.
Lip inflammation may manifest as mainly reversible cheilitis, mainly irreversible, or cheilitis connected to dermatoses or systemic diseases. Therefore, knowing a patient’s medical history is important, especially whether their lip lesions are temporary, recurrent, or persistent. Sometimes temporary contributing factors, such as climate and weather conditions, can be identified and avoided—exposure to extreme weather conditions (e.g., dry, hot, or windy climates) may cause or trigger lip inflammation. Emotional and psychological stress are also mentioned in the etiology of some lip inflammations (e.g., exfoliative cheilitis) and may be associated with nervous habits such as lip licking. To better manage cheilitis, it is also helpful to look for potential concomitant comorbidities and the presence of related diseases/conditions. Some forms of cheilitis accompany dermatologic or systemic diseases (lichen, pemphigus or pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, lupus, angioedema, xerostomia, etc.) that should be uncovered. Occasionally, lip lesions are persistent and involve histological changes: actinic cheilitis, granulomatous cheilitis, glandular cheilitis, and plasmacellular cheilitis. Perioral skin inflammation with simultaneous perioral dermatitis can have various causes: the use of corticosteroids and cosmetics, dysfunction of the skin’s epidermal barrier, a contact reaction to allergens or irritants (e.g., toothpaste, dental fillings), microorganisms (e.g., Demodex spp., Candida albicans, fusiform bacteria), hormonal changes, or an atopic predisposition. Epidermal barrier dysfunction can worsen perioral dermatitis lesions and can also be related to secondary vitamin or mineral deficiencies (e.g., zinc deficiency), occlusive emollient use, sunscreen use, or excessive exposure to environmental factors such as heat, wind, and ultraviolet light. Current trends in research are uncovering valuable information concerning the skin microbiome and disruption of the epidermal barrier of persons suffering from perioral dermatitis. Ultimately, an effective approach to patient management must take all these factors and new research into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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15 pages, 1708 KiB  
Review
Cassia alata (Linnaeus) Roxburgh for Skin: Natural Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis in Asia and Their Pharmacological Activities
Cosmetics 2023, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics10010005 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 15542
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflamed skin condition with relapsing pruritus and cutaneous physiological dysfunction. This skin disorder is widespread around the world and frequently affects infants, children and adults. Natural products with bioactive lead compounds are the source of natural medicines for [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflamed skin condition with relapsing pruritus and cutaneous physiological dysfunction. This skin disorder is widespread around the world and frequently affects infants, children and adults. Natural products with bioactive lead compounds are the source of natural medicines for complementary and alternative therapy in managing AD. Cassia alata has been used traditionally as a remedy for a variety of health issues. In Asian countries, it is used as an ethnomedicine to treat skin conditions such pityriasis versicolor, ringworm, scabies, shingles, urticaria and itching. According to previously published studies, the phytochemicals in C. alata may have a wide range of significant pharmacological effects. AD management is highlighted here, as this review explores the literature on the pharmacological effects of C. alata and its phytochemical content. Specifically, antibacterial, wound healing, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects are reviewed and discussed in relation to AD management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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24 pages, 9211 KiB  
Review
Current and Prospective Applications of 3D Printing in Cosmetics: A Literature Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060115 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
3D printing (3DP) is a manufacturing technology that produces 3D objects from a design file using layer-by-layer deposition of material. It has already found applications in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, while its use in the field of topical delivery has been extensively [...] Read more.
3D printing (3DP) is a manufacturing technology that produces 3D objects from a design file using layer-by-layer deposition of material. It has already found applications in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, while its use in the field of topical delivery has been extensively studied in the last two decades. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the 3DP-based developments in topical delivery, with special emphasis on its current and potential use in the cosmetic field. This review covers the principles and main types of 3DP technology, production, and characteristics of two key 3DP skin delivery platforms (patches and microneedles—MNs), as well as topical active materials used, focusing on those for cosmetic application. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed articles in relevant databases was performed (including PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, Kosmet, ScienceDirect and Scopus) from 2004 to date. The study concludes that 3D printed MNs would gain prevalence over patches for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and that dissolving MNs have the highest potential among them. The use of 3DP technology appears to be a promising approach to the development of efficient personalised cosmetic delivery platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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20 pages, 391 KiB  
Review
Biological Activities of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera): More than a Skin-Lightening Agent
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060112 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4974
Abstract
Background: Paper mulberry is one of the most common skin-lightening agents in the beauty industry due to its strong anti-tyrosinase activity. This narrative review aims to summarize the chemical composition, biological activities, and applications of paper mulberry in cosmetics. Method: The literature for [...] Read more.
Background: Paper mulberry is one of the most common skin-lightening agents in the beauty industry due to its strong anti-tyrosinase activity. This narrative review aims to summarize the chemical composition, biological activities, and applications of paper mulberry in cosmetics. Method: The literature for this article was acquired from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases before September 2022. The keywords for searching included “paper mulberry”, “Broussonetia papyrifera”, “skin-lightening”, “skin-whitening”, “depigmentation”, “pharmacological activity”, and “biological activity”. Results: Paper mulberry consists of various components, including flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, saponins, coumarins, glycosides, and polysaccharides, which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties. Apart from its anti-tyrosinase activity, paper mulberry and its compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, anticholinesterase, antigout, antinociceptive, and hepatoprotective effects. Phenols and flavonoids were demonstrated to be the main contributors to the biological activities of paper mulberry. Paper mulberry is widely applied in cosmetics for skin lightening and skin moisturizing purposes and shows potential for application in hair care products due to the hair nourishing effects. The safety of paper mulberry for topical application was proven in clinical studies. Conclusion: The current review provides a better understanding of paper mulberry’s properties and allows us to extend the application of this plant and its bioactive components in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
13 pages, 1493 KiB  
Review
Mechanism of Action of Topical Tranexamic Acid in the Treatment of Melasma and Sun-Induced Skin Hyperpigmentation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050108 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 16921
Abstract
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has anti-plasmin activity and has been shown when administered orally to be effective against melasma, for which it is considered first-line pharmacotherapy. Several studies have shown that topically applied TXA is also effective against melasma and skin hyperpigmentation caused by [...] Read more.
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has anti-plasmin activity and has been shown when administered orally to be effective against melasma, for which it is considered first-line pharmacotherapy. Several studies have shown that topically applied TXA is also effective against melasma and skin hyperpigmentation caused by sunburn and inflammation. The TXA concentration in the epidermis and dermis/vasculature has been estimated from its distribution in the skin after closed application, and topically applied TXA has thus been shown to act on neutrophils and mast cells in the dermis and on the vascular system. It is unlikely that topically applied TXA acts on dermal neutrophils or mast cells or on the vascular system to form thrombi. As discussed in the present review, studies on the effects of topical TXA on the hyperpigmentation process indicate that the resulting skin-lightening mechanism involves the suppression of cytokine/chemical mediator production, which stimulates melanin production via the keratinocyte-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen derived from dermal vascular in the basal layer of the epidermis, thereby suppressing the production of excessive melanin to prevent hyperpigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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18 pages, 1633 KiB  
Review
Chemical Permeation Enhancers for Topically-Applied Vitamin C and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040085 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6413
Abstract
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. The calculated Log P (cLog P) values were referenced from PubChem and the dermal LD50 values were referenced from safety data sheets. Thirteen studies described the permeation-enhancing activity of 18 identified CPEs in the topical delivery of VC. Correlation analysis between ER and cLog P values for porcine (r = 0.114) and rabbit (r = 0.471) showed weak and moderate positive correlation, while mouse (r = −0.135), and reconstructed human epidermis (r = −0.438) had a negative correlation. The majority (n = 17) of the CPEs belonged to Category 5 of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification or low toxicity hazard. CPEs alone or in combination enhanced permeation (ER = 0.198–106.57) of VC in topical formulations. The combination of isopropyl myristate, sorbitan monolaurate, and polyoxyethylene 80 as CPEs for VC resulted in the highest permeation enhancement ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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13 pages, 669 KiB  
Review
Clinical Translation of Microbiome Research in Alopecia Areata: A New Perspective?
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030055 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play [...] Read more.
The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play roles in alopecia areata. A new approach is currently possible owing also to the use of omic techniques for studying the role of the microbiome in the disease by the deep understanding of microorganisms involved in the dysbiosis as well as of the pathways involved. These findings suggest the possibility to adopt a topical approach using either cosmetics or medical devices, to modulate or control, for example, the growth of overexpressed species using specific bacteriocins or postbiotics or with pH control. This will favour at the same time the growth of beneficial bacteria which, in turn, can impact positively both the structure of the scalp ecosystem on the host’s response to internal and external offenders. This approach, together with a “systemic” one, via oral supplementation, diet, or faecal transplantation, makes a reliable translation of microbiome research in clinical practice and should be taken into consideration every time alopecia areata is considered by a clinician. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

11 pages, 1570 KiB  
Case Report
Case Reports and Experts Opinions about Current Use of Leech Therapy in Dermatology and Cosmetology
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060137 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 6588
Abstract
This article aimed to determine the experts’ opinion on the use of hirudotherapy in cosmetology, to supplement knowledge, and to identify factors that, in the opinion of experts, affect the effectiveness and frequency of use of this method in eliminating skin problems. The [...] Read more.
This article aimed to determine the experts’ opinion on the use of hirudotherapy in cosmetology, to supplement knowledge, and to identify factors that, in the opinion of experts, affect the effectiveness and frequency of use of this method in eliminating skin problems. The study was conducted using the expert interview method. The research tool was a categorized expert interview questionnaire using the CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview) technique. Hirudotherapy is one of the oldest healing methods. The mechanism of action is based on the therapeutic properties of bioactive substances isolated from leech saliva. It has been shown to have a wide range of applications in the treatment of numerous diseases in various fields of medicine, including dermatology and cosmetology. Despite its therapeutic properties and effectiveness, hirudotherapy is a rarely used tool in cosmetology. It has been found effective in the treatment of many dermatoses. The most spectacular effects have been observed in the treatment of rosacea, local inflammations, lipomas, skin scars, hard to heal wounds and contusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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16 pages, 1011 KiB  
Systematic Review
Application of Niosomes in Cosmetics: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060127 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6374
Abstract
A rising volume of the literature acknowledges the significance of nanotechnology in the cosmetics industry, particularly with the invention and use of techniques based on niosomes to generate unique formulations with both medicinal and aesthetic benefits. The current study’s objectives are to undertake [...] Read more.
A rising volume of the literature acknowledges the significance of nanotechnology in the cosmetics industry, particularly with the invention and use of techniques based on niosomes to generate unique formulations with both medicinal and aesthetic benefits. The current study’s objectives are to undertake a comprehensive review of the previously published data on the use and applications of niosomes in cosmetics and to give a succinct summary of that data. Preferred Reporting standards for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used in the design of the current review. The core concept and keywords were derived from the research question using the SPIDER tool. The main steps of this review included: design of the research question, preliminary research, search strategy, searching the database, exclusion and inclusion criteria, approval by authors, title and abstract screening, reporting of the number of data selected, full text download and reading, manual research (Google Scholar, Scopus, and WoS), data extraction and quality assessment, double data checking, and manuscript writing, revision, and submission. After thorough data analysis, it was discovered that a cosmetic product’s aesthetic impact significantly improved when it was created utilising niosomes technology. The majority of cosmeceutical niosomes’ skin and hair products demonstrated an enhanced therapeutic and cosmeceutical effect. These discoveries may contribute to the treatment of skin conditions under the umbrella of cosmeceutical niosomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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8 pages, 966 KiB  
Brief Report
Anti-Wrinkle Effect of BB-1000: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030050 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3399
Abstract
Skin aging usually results from intrinsic or extrinsic stress. Photodamage promotes skin damage and stimulates the skin, manifesting as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, and loss of elasticity. We have previously found that blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5, designated [...] Read more.
Skin aging usually results from intrinsic or extrinsic stress. Photodamage promotes skin damage and stimulates the skin, manifesting as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, and loss of elasticity. We have previously found that blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5, designated BB-1000, showed an in vitro and in vivo anti-skin-aging activity. In the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of BB-1000 via a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 102 volunteers aged 35 to 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Subjects took BB-1000 or a placebo orally at 800 mg/day for 12 weeks. Skin hydration and degree of wrinkles around the eyes were measured at weeks 6 and 12. Skin hydration had no significant effect in both groups at weeks 6 and 12. Otherwise, volunteers in the BB-1000 group had a significant reduction in eye wrinkle grade at week 12. These findings suggest that BB-1000 may be considered a candidate anti-aging agent for preventing skin wrinkles as a nutricosmetic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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6 pages, 199 KiB  
Commentary
The Emotional Impact of Maskne in the Era of COVID-19: A Commentary on the Future of a Multi-Modality Approach
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030045 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Over the past two years, the world has experienced the destructive effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, better known as COVID-19. The use of surgical face masks was declared necessary by many governments around the world to protect citizens from catching the rapidly spreading [...] Read more.
Over the past two years, the world has experienced the destructive effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, better known as COVID-19. The use of surgical face masks was declared necessary by many governments around the world to protect citizens from catching the rapidly spreading virus. Albeit surgical masks contributing to stopping the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many people have reported rashes closely resembling acne on their chins ever since wearing face masks became mandatory. This article studies the acne that results from masks worn to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. Acne due to the wearing of masks (“Maskne”) is a new challenge that has affected the population and can decay the mental health of societies and individuals. The exploration of the mental and physical health effects of “Maskne” help us to form treatments that emphasize the association of improving mental health to decrease acne and enhancing quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
7 pages, 2060 KiB  
Case Report
Pigmentation and Scaring Management after Hypodermoclysis, a Case Report
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010010 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4032
Abstract
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin [...] Read more.
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin diseases and cosmetic issues are treated has altered dramatically as a result of laser technology. This is the first article to our knowledge that describes the treatment of pigmentation and scarring produced by Hypodermoclysis cutaneous damage by using laser treatment. It was vital to select the appropriate endpoint, technology, and configuration parameters. The lesion was completely resolved after five months of treatment with four laser sessions. The first session used a fractional Er-Yag laser to perform cold ablation. The remaining sessions used 1064 and 585 nm Nd-Yag Q-switch lasers to operate in the nanosecond region. To minimize the danger of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), the treated region was prepped between laser treatments with 4% hydroquinone (HQ) cream. Our protocol may reduce scars and pigmentation while minimizing adverse effects and downtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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