Special Issue "Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 49032

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Interests: dermatology; skin care; contact dermatitis; cosmetic efficacy; cosmetic formulation; barrier function; skin irritation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of Cosmetics, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022”. This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome.

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • materials and ingredient research related to cosmetics
  • therapeutic options for skin, hair and body care
  • product formulations and ingredients
  • cosmetic olfactory research developments
  • technologies in cosmetic product development
  • testing of skin and hair products
  • toxicological studies of cosmetic products
  • in vivo and in vitro testing of cosmetic products
  • pure and applied research involved in skin, hair and body cosmetics
  • analytical chemistry of essential components involved in cosmetic product formulations
  • biomedicine research on biologically active components
  • regulatory and ethical issues in cosmetic research
  • dermatology, microbiology, anatomy, physiology, immunology and biochemistry of the skin
  • facial rejuvenation, laser therapy
  • cosmetic surgery and related medicine techniques

Published Papers (37 papers)

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Article
Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Rosa davurica Rhizome for Potential Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060126 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Streptomyces species are widely studied and used in different fields, including antibiotics and pesticides, and are spread in several places as soil-derived microorganisms. However, research on anti-aging, including antioxidants obtained from Streptomyces, has not been performed as much. Skin aging due to [...] Read more.
Streptomyces species are widely studied and used in different fields, including antibiotics and pesticides, and are spread in several places as soil-derived microorganisms. However, research on anti-aging, including antioxidants obtained from Streptomyces, has not been performed as much. Skin aging due to bacterial infection, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is challenging to recover, so it is essential to prevent aging by preventing or inhibiting infection. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate Streptomyces species from Rosa davurica rhizome soil and to determine the effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the isolated strain Streptomyces chattanoogensis THA-663 (THA-663S) on the inhibition of MRSA and UVB-irradiated human skin keratinocytes, to determine whether it could be a treatment for skin aging. The MRSA inhibition and antioxidant activities were evaluated using disc diffusion, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. The expression of aging-related markers, including mitogen-activated protein kinases/activator protein 1 (MAPK)/AP-1) and transforming growth factor-β/suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) was assessed using Western blotting. The antibacterial effect on four MRSA strains, CCARM 0204, CCARM 0205, CCARM 3855, and CCARM 3089, showed that THA-663S could greatly inhibit MRSA growth. Moreover, the findings showed that THA-663S is efficient in scavenging free radicals and dose-dependently reducing ROS generation. Furthermore, THA-663S notably reduced UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression by inhibiting the MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathways and blocking extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Additionally, THA-663S improved and enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling activation to promote procollagen type I synthesis, relieving UVB-induced skin cell damage. In conclusion, THA-663S has a high potential to protect skin cells from aging, and, simultaneously, it can prevent or treat aging caused by infection due to pathogen inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Experimental Study of the Reduction in Ceramide Content in Fingernails Due to Nail Polish Remover Use
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060125 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The amount and distribution of ceramide, an intercellular lipid, in the fingernails of three Japanese women in their twenties were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and antibody staining. In addition, the structural changes of fingernail cross sections were examined after fingernails were immersed [...] Read more.
The amount and distribution of ceramide, an intercellular lipid, in the fingernails of three Japanese women in their twenties were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography and antibody staining. In addition, the structural changes of fingernail cross sections were examined after fingernails were immersed in an acetone-based nail polish remover solution. The acetone-treated fingernails had a lower water content and higher water evaporation than the inner forearm skin and healthy fingernails, suggesting that they had compromised moisturizing and barrier functions and were more susceptible to roughness and damage. These results also suggest that, compared to healthy fingernails, rough fingernails are more prone to breakage and damage. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of ceramide decreased when fingernails were immersed in nail polish remover solution. The distribution showed ceramide to be present in the ventral and dorsal regions of the free edge of the fingernail plate. After immersion in nail polish remover, the three-layered structure of the free edge of the plate was intact, but the dorsal distal edge of the plate peeled off. Gaps were observed inside the free edge of the plate, which should have been layered. These results show that the frequent use of nail polish remover may worsen condition of fingernails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
The Role of Lipids in the Process of Hair Ageing
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060124 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
An obvious sign of ageing is the loss of hair colour due to a decrease or lack of melanin in hair fibres. An examination of the lipid levels and structure of grey hair determined using µ–FTIR revealed a high correlation between the characteristics [...] Read more.
An obvious sign of ageing is the loss of hair colour due to a decrease or lack of melanin in hair fibres. An examination of the lipid levels and structure of grey hair determined using µ–FTIR revealed a high correlation between the characteristics of lipids located in the cuticle and the water dynamics of the fibres. Therefore, a deep study based on external and internal lipid extraction, an analysis using thin layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionisation detector, calorimetric analyses and the physico-chemical evaluation of the delipidated fibres were performed. Hairs were evaluated to identify changes in the organisation of these lipids using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and their effect on the water dynamics of the fibres. The primary differences observed for the lipid extracts from white hair compared to brown hair were the lower amount of the internal lipids extracted, which were primarily composed of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ceramides, with a higher content of lower phase transition peaks, indicating increased unsaturated compounds that promote higher fluidity of the lipid bilayers. The virgin white fibres exhibited lower levels of embedded water, with lower binding energies and higher water diffusion, indicating higher permeability. The IR study confirmed the low lipid levels and the greater disorder of white hair. These results may be of interest for cosmetic treatments to which patients with grey hair may be subjected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Stability and Application Properties of Surfactant-Free Cosmetic Emulsions: An Instrumental Approach to Evaluate Their Potential
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060123 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Technological innovation in the cosmetic field must necessarily consider not only the safety and efficacy requirements but also the growing attention to environmental issues and the need for sensory pleasure during application to satisfy the consumers’ expectations. This work aimed to formulate an [...] Read more.
Technological innovation in the cosmetic field must necessarily consider not only the safety and efficacy requirements but also the growing attention to environmental issues and the need for sensory pleasure during application to satisfy the consumers’ expectations. This work aimed to formulate an oil-in-water fluid emulsion stabilized by the combination of organic and inorganic powders, namely Zea mays starch and zinc oxide associated at different ratios in presence of a polysaccharidic rheological modifier. After verifying the physical stability of the prototypes with a mechanical stress test in a centrifuge, the rheological analyses were conducted in continuous and oscillatory flow conditions, and the immersion/de-immersion test, conducted using a texture analyzer, allowed identifying the system with the viscoelastic characteristics and the parameters of textures, such as firmness, consistency, and adhesiveness, more suitable for the formulation of skin-care products with low viscosity and high spreadability. Finally, we studied the compatibility of the powders with sunscreen filters and pigments, to optimize the systems and assess their potential use in finished products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Involvement of Aquaporin 1 in the Motility and in the Production of Fibrillin 1 and Type I Collagen of Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060117 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Aminocarbonyl proteins increase with age in the dermal layer. Gene Chip analysis of mRNA expression in human dermal fibroblasts cultured on collagen gels treated with glyceraldehyde as an aminocarbonyl protein and on untreated collagen gels showed a decrease in the amount of aquaporin [...] Read more.
Aminocarbonyl proteins increase with age in the dermal layer. Gene Chip analysis of mRNA expression in human dermal fibroblasts cultured on collagen gels treated with glyceraldehyde as an aminocarbonyl protein and on untreated collagen gels showed a decrease in the amount of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) mRNA. In this study, we clarified the involvement of AQP1 in collagen gel contraction and the production of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. In the experiment, AQP1 siRNA was transfected into cultured human dermal fibroblasts to deplete AQP1, and the cell motility and contractile activity of the collagen gel were assessed. The production of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen was also examined by RT–qPCR and antibody staining. AQP1 depletion decreased the collagen gel contractile activity, and both the amount of mRNA and the antibody staining of fibrillin 1 and type I collagen decreased. Furthermore, the depletion of AQP1 reduced the levels of F-actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2, suggesting their involvement in reductions of the motility and collagen gel contractile activity of fibroblasts. These findings suggest that AQP1 is an important biomolecule for cell motility in human dermal fibroblasts and that decreased motility results in decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibrillin 1 and type I collagen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Development of Enzyme-Based Cosmeceuticals: Studies on the Proteolytic Activity of Arthrospira platensis and Its Efficient Incorporation in a Hydrogel Formulation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050106 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Microalgae are a valuable source of enzymes and active ingredients due to their biochemical variability, health-beneficial properties, lower production cost and viability on an industrial scale. In addition, the growing demand for sustainable products constitutes microalgae as a viable resource for the development [...] Read more.
Microalgae are a valuable source of enzymes and active ingredients due to their biochemical variability, health-beneficial properties, lower production cost and viability on an industrial scale. In addition, the growing demand for sustainable products constitutes microalgae as a viable resource for the development of a range of innovative products. In the present work, the proteolytic activity of Arthrospira platensis lysate was assessed and characterized using kinetics analysis and zymography employing different substrates, pH values and divalent ions. The results suggest the presence of two main proteolytic enzymes in the lysate. In addition, a rapid and easy purification protocol of the proteolytic activity, under mild conditions, was developed using a polyethyleneglycol (PEG)/phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The proteolytic activity of A. platensis lysate was used to develop a hydrogel formulation as an enzyme-based cosmeceutical, with potential application as a topical exfoliating agent. The incorporation of the A. platensis extract in the developed hydrogel formulation significantly improved its operational stability over time, which is a significant advantage in enzyme-based product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Tracking Down of a Selected Panel of Parabens: A Validated Method to Evaluate Their Occurrence in Skin Layers
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050102 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
A method was set up and validated to identify and quantify seven parabens in each of the three skin layers, i.e., Stratum Corneum, Epidermis, and Dermis, because, even if only some analogues are legally allowed in Europe, forbidden parabens are also detected in [...] Read more.
A method was set up and validated to identify and quantify seven parabens in each of the three skin layers, i.e., Stratum Corneum, Epidermis, and Dermis, because, even if only some analogues are legally allowed in Europe, forbidden parabens are also detected in many personal care products and therefore can be absorbed by the skin. A solid/liquid extraction followed by a gradient elution chromatographic separation method was performed and validated according to European guidelines. Our validated method afforded the detection of all seven parabens with limit of detection values ranging from 0.026 to 0.090 μg mL−1 and recoveries ranging from 61.80 to 105.73 μg mL−1 at high and low concentration values (50.0–5.0 μg mL−1), respectively. The proposed method can help assess paraben’s skin bioaccumulation since people are repeatedly exposed to consumer goods containing parabens in their daily routine, posing a chronic risk to human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Sulfadiazine Cosmetotherapeutic Nanolotion for Burn Infections
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050093 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Burns are highly traumatizing injuries that can be complicated by various microbial infections, leading to morbidity and mortality. The ultimate goal of burn therapy is to prevent any microbial infection and rapid wound healing with epithelization. The current study aimed to develop and [...] Read more.
Burns are highly traumatizing injuries that can be complicated by various microbial infections, leading to morbidity and mortality. The ultimate goal of burn therapy is to prevent any microbial infection and rapid wound healing with epithelization. The current study aimed to develop and investigate the potential of nanoemulsion-based cosmetotherapeutic lotion of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) for increased antimicrobial activity to treat burn injuries. Silver sulfadiazine is the standard topical treatment for burn patients, but is allied with major limitations of poor solubility, low bioavailability, and other hematologic effects, hindering its pharmaceutical applications. The nanoformulation was fabricated through the ultrasonication technique and optimized by selecting various parameters and concentrations for the formation of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. The optimized formulation depicts a smaller particle size of 213 nm with an encapsulation efficiency of approx. 80%. Further, nanoemulsion-based SSD lotion by utilizing argan oil as a cosmetotherapeutic agent was prepared for scar massaging with improved permeation properties. The designed cosmeceutical formulation was characterized in terms of physical appearance, refractive index, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and biocompatibility. The compatibility of the formulation ingredients were determined through FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The formulated nanolotion containing SSD demonstrated superior antimicrobial activities against different bacterial strains in comparison to commercialized burn creams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Design of a Sensorial-Instrumental Correlation Methodology for a Category of Cosmetic Products: O/W Emulsions
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040084 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not [...] Read more.
The validation of a cosmetic product is performed by physical analyses and sensory assessment. However, the recruitment of panelists takes a long time and is expensive. Moreover, to apply the product on the skin, microbiology analyses and safety are required but may not be not enough to avoid inflammatory reaction on the skin. The solution could be the substitution of sensory evaluation by instrumental measurement to predict the sensory profile before the panel. For the study, thirteen different skin care emulsions based on their composition and texture were carried out simultaneously by 12 expert panelists with a quantitative descriptive sensory evaluation profile and by rheological and textural methods. A statistical methodology was the applied to find correlation trends between both data sets. The methodology confirmed that the correlation between sensory assessment and instrumental parameters is a good solution to save time. The multiple factor analysis (MFA) showed the correlation between firmness with no visual residue attribute and the cohesion with sticky 1 min, which are evident but this methodology could be used for finding more complex correlations not found in literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity of Plant-Derived Colorants for Potential Cosmetic Application
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040081 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that [...] Read more.
Application of plant-derived colorants in products, i.e., cosmetics or food, apart from imparting the desired color without harming the environment, may provide other benefits. Valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations include antioxidants showing an advantageous effect on the skin by neutralizing free radicals that accelerate the aging process and cause skin defects. Antioxidant activity can be determined by chemical-based methods. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of plant-derived colorants (purple and red colorant) by two methods: CUPRAC and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity evaluation using both methods for colorants samples was also performed after 5, 15, 30, and 60 min of exposure to UVC irradiation. The results obtained by CUPRAC method were for purple and red colorant unexposed samples as follows: 6.87 ± 0.09 and 4.48 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg colorant expressed as caffeic acid equivalent, respectively. UVC treatment did not affect the results of the antioxidant activity for red colorant and for the purple one only a slight influence was observed. DPPH free-radical scavenging activity for unexposed samples was 70.06 ± 7.74% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the red colorant and 96.11 ± 3.80% DPPH/100 mg colorant for the purple one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Impact of the Interactions between Fragrances and Cosmetic Bases on the Fragrance Olfactory Performance: A Tentative to Correlate SPME-GC/MS Analysis with That of an Experienced Perfumer
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040070 - 29 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, [...] Read more.
Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé” fragrances were mixed to form a binary blend with chemically stable, non-volatile, odourless, simple bases of different lipophilicity widely used in skin care and hair care formulations, such as caprylic-capric triglyceride, glycerine, paraffin, dimethicone, isopropyl myristate and butylene glycol, with the objective to verify how the olfactory performance of fragrances can be influenced by skin or hair care ingredients. The semiquantitative approach applied in this study aims in providing a practical solution to appropriately combine a fragrance with cosmetic ingredients. Pure fragrance and binary blends were analysed by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), based on the assumption that the solid phase microextraction is able to extract volatile compounds, mimicking the ability of the nose to capture similar volatile compounds. Fifty-seven and forty-four compounds were identified by SPME-GC/MS in pure fragrances “Seta e Ciliegia” and “Narguilé”, respectively. Once mixed with the bases, the analysis of the blends revealed that a qualitative modification in the chromatograms could occur according to the characteristics of the bases. In general, for both fragrances, blends with glycerin and butylene glycol, which are the most hydrophilic bases among the ones tested, were able to release most of the peaks, that were thus still present in the chromatograms. Differently, in the blends with caprylic-capric triglyceride, most of the peaks are lost. Blends with paraffine, dimethicone and isopropyl myristate showed an intermediate behaviour. These results were thus compared with the sensory evaluation made by an experienced perfumer, capable of assessing the different olfactory performances of pure fragrances and their different binary blends. The evaluation made by the perfumer fitted well with the analytical results, and in the blends where most of the peaks were revealed in the chromatogram, the perfumer found a similar olfactory profile for example with glycerin, butylene glycol, while a modification of the olfactory profile was highlighted when several peaks were not still present in the chromatogram, as it was the case with caprylic-capric triglyceride. Interestingly, when the most typical peaks of a fragrance were still observed in the blend, even if some of them were lost, the olfactory performance was not lost, as was the case of paraffin and isopropyl myristate. In the case of dimethicone, its high volatility was considered responsible for a certain decrease in the fragrance “volume”. The results achieved with this investigation can be used to hypothesize that the different compounds of a fragrance, characterized for the first time by different volatility and solubility, could be differently retained by the bases: the more lipophilic are strongly retained by the lipophilic bases with a consequently reduced volatility that limits the possibility of being appreciated by the nose and that corresponds to disappearance or a percentage reduction from the chromatogram. Therefore, in a more accurate and helpful view for a formulator, we could come to the conclusion that based on the results achieved by our investigation, the inclusion of a less lipophilic base can be more appropriate to exalt more lipophilic fragrances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Permanent Make-Up (PMU) Inks Decolorization Using Plant Origin Materials
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030048 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Permanent make-up (PMU) has become a very popular application over the last few years. The ingredients of PMU inks, used over the face area, are organic and inorganic substances very close to the chemical composition of tattoo inks. As the application rates increase, [...] Read more.
Permanent make-up (PMU) has become a very popular application over the last few years. The ingredients of PMU inks, used over the face area, are organic and inorganic substances very close to the chemical composition of tattoo inks. As the application rates increase, the demand for PMU removal rises. The aim of this study is to assess the decolorization of PMU inks using preparations originating from different plant sources. The leaves of Pelargonium zonale (PE) were extracted with water for 48 h. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of the extract was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu technique reaching 201.34 ± 4.57 μg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/mL of extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was 20.87 ± 0.36 μg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL and 3.56 ± 0.43 mg FeSO4×7H2O mL of extract when assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay respectively. The decolorization potential of PE leaf extract on five commercially available PMU inks of different hues was assessed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in comparison to polyphenol oxidases enzyme (PPO). The results demonstrated higher absorption reduction that indicates decolorization potential for the inks that have mainly ferrous oxides as colorants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Green Cosmeceutical Herbal Face Cream Containing Standardized Mangosteen Peel Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030046 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
The widely reported adverse effects of synthetic ingredients encourage the development of green cosmeceuticals to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. The waste product of mangosteen (mangosteen peel) was utilized in the formulation to reduce waste production corresponding to SDG 12, in addition [...] Read more.
The widely reported adverse effects of synthetic ingredients encourage the development of green cosmeceuticals to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3. The waste product of mangosteen (mangosteen peel) was utilized in the formulation to reduce waste production corresponding to SDG 12, in addition to its anti-aging and pigmentation control effects. This study aimed to formulate and evaluate novel herbal face creams containing standardized mangosteen peel extract. The mangosteen creams were formulated using natural ingredients and were evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics, rheology, spreadability and pH. Furthermore, an accelerated stability study, freeze–thaw stability study and centrifugation test were conducted. In addition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were conducted to assess its antioxidant effects, whereas tyrosinase inhibitory assay was conducted to determine its anti-tyrosinase activity. The formulated creams appeared light yellowish-brown and homogenous without phase separation. The creams displayed shear-thinning behavior and optimal pH which was ideal for topical application. The creams were stable after being subjected to various stability tests and were shown to have antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity. In conclusion, the development of mangosteen-based green cosmeceutical face cream is in line with SDG 3 and 12. It is expected to be used as a safe and effective alternative to synthetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Performance and Acceptability of a New Dexpanthenol-Containing Hand Cream in Subjects with Sensitive and Very Dry Skin: A Randomized Controlled Study
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030044 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1668
Abstract
A new dexpanthenol-containing hand cream (ND-HC) was developed for people with dry, sensitive, and/or environmentally stressed hands. To explore the performance and acceptability of ND-HC, we conducted a randomized, intraindividual comparison study in 40 healthy adult subjects with sensitive and very dry skin [...] Read more.
A new dexpanthenol-containing hand cream (ND-HC) was developed for people with dry, sensitive, and/or environmentally stressed hands. To explore the performance and acceptability of ND-HC, we conducted a randomized, intraindividual comparison study in 40 healthy adult subjects with sensitive and very dry skin on the hands. Instrumental measurements determined the effects on stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after single and/or 4 weeks’ use of ND-HC. Single and continued at least four times daily applications of ND-HC to very dry skin of the hand for 4 weeks triggered significant increases in SC hydration. On day 29, the mean change in skin capacitance from baseline was significantly greater when ND-HC was applied to the test area compared with the untreated area on the contralateral hand (12.41 vs. 4.46 a.u.; p < 0.001). Upon use of ND-HC over 4 weeks, mean TEWL decreased significantly (bilateral difference: −1.8 vs. 1.0 g/m2/h; p = 0.003), indicating an improvement in SC barrier function. A reduction in dry hand symptoms was observed over the study course. ND-HC was well tolerated and achieved a high level of acceptance and satisfaction. Our findings suggest that ND-HC complies with the required features of a state-of-the-art hand cream. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Skincare Device Product Design Based on Factor Analysis of Korean Anthropometric Data
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020042 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1516
Abstract
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics [...] Read more.
The “beauty device” market, which enables simple skincare for those with busy lives, is growing steadily as an increasing number of people are trying to take care of their skin at home to save time and money. As opposed to dermatologists and esthetics centers, which require regular visits, the fact that their skin can be easily managed in leisure hours at home attracts consumers who value convenience. Thus, various beauty-care devices that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been launched. However, in the case of skincare devices using LEDs, pressure is expected to be applied to one’s face. Therefore, there is a need to develop a design based on ergonomic measurements that can distribute the pressure evenly on the skin. This study analyzed data to create a design for certain skincare devices that can be worn as glasses, using a three-dimensional human-measurement database of South Korean women between 30 and 49 y, as they are the major consumers of such devices. Additionally, a product design was proposed after a review of preference surveys from consumer focus group interviews and through an analysis of the direction of the light beams from the source using three-dimensional scanning data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Study of P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) Concentrations after Hair Dye Mixing: A Call for Safety Reassessment
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020041 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. [...] Read more.
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical that is widely used in hair dyes. Multiple safety and regulatory agencies have categorized PPD as a potent sensitizer. In addition, PPD has carcinogenicity and genotoxicity attributes and, consequently, it is regulated at a maximal concentration of 2.0%. The aim of this study was to test whether the limit for PPD is surplus, and hence whether the consumer may be exposed to unnecessarily PPD levels. Experimentally, the analysis of PPD was performed using HPLC, where method validation and an inter-laboratory comparison test (ILC) were conducted to evaluate method performance. Thirty-three commercial products were analyzed, and five products were chosen to study the unconsumed PPD. Successfully, the implemented method confirmed its suitability and validity for the determination of PPD. For ILC results, PPD levels were 0.97 ± 0.04% and 0.92 ± 0.02%, quantified by our laboratory and an accredited laboratory, respectively. For all products, the initial concentration (T0) of PPD was lower than the regulatory limit. After 45 min, the content of PPD significantly reduced compared to T0. One product showed unconsumed PPD to be as high as 96% following the recommended dyeing time. In conclusion, the existence of high levels of unreacted PPD increases the likelihood of allergic events and elevates the risk of PPD-related chemicals. Collaborative efforts between industries, regulatory bodies, and health-related decision makers are deemed necessary to establish safe concentrations for PPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The [...] Read more.
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The objective of this study was to develop a topical emulsion containing leaf extract of Morus nigra L., as well as to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the formulations. A crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract of M. nigra leaves (MnCE) was submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) analysis and incorporated into an anionic base emulsion. Antioxidant activity was evaluated according to the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, and the stability of the formulation was assessed for 90 days, submitting the emulsion to storage at 4, 20, and 37 °C. Microdilution techniques evaluated the antibacterial activity and a challenge test assessed the microbiological stability. Analysis by HPLC–DAD identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercetin in the M. nigra extract. The emulsion and plant extract presented antioxidant activity, and the stability of the emulsion was preserved in terms of pH value and viscosity—which did not show significant changes, except for the spreadability, which was affected by the temperature. The antioxidant activity did not change significantly, except for the sample under 4 °C, which showed a considerable decrease in activity. The crude hydroalcoholic extract and formulation showed antimicrobial activity and the emulsion was considered stable in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and microbiological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Deciphering the Phytochemical Profile of an Alpine Rose (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) Leaf Extract for a Better Understanding of Its Senolytic and Skin-Rejuvenation Effects
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020037 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly [...] Read more.
Rhododendron ferrugineum, commonly named Alpine rose, is an emblematic medicinal plant of European mountains. In this study, the chemical profile of a glycerol/water extract developed from this plant as a cosmetic ingredient is investigated to understand the extract constituent(s) that could mostly contribute to its senolytic activity and skin-rejuvenation effects. For this purpose, the dereplication method “CARAMEL”, which combines Centrifugal Partition Chromatography to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data interpretation, was directly applied to the hydro-glycerinated extract, leading to the unambiguous identification of fourteen Alpine rose metabolites, despite the strong presence of the heavy solvent glycerol. Flavonoids derived from taxifolin, quercetin, and (+)-catechin were identified as significant constituents of the extract, followed by flavanones, orcinol derivatives, phloroacetophenone, and phenolic acids, as well as the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. Given that senolytic molecules are known to selectively induce the death of senescent cells without affecting healthy proliferating cells, which can be achieved by the selective inhibition or downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and considering the well-recognized pro-apoptotic activity of hyperoside, taxifolin, naringenin and farrerol, the senolytic activity of the glycerol/water Alpine rose extract can be explained by the abundance of flavonoids present in the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Effect of the Use of a Cream with Leucine and Lactic Acid Associated with Electrostimulation in Contouring and Facial Tonus: A Randomized Clinical Controlled Trial
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020036 - 24 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to [...] Read more.
Evidence has supported the use of leucine as a promising agent for the maintenance of muscle tone. This study aimed to assess the combined effect of leucine and cream-based lactic acid (novel cosmetic product), associated with the use of surface electrical stimulation to improve contour and facial tonus in women. A total of 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups: Experimental (EG)—use of the leucine-based cream and lactic acid + electrostimulation for facial toning (mean intensity 13 Hz and protocol in progression); and placebo (GP)—use of the placebo cream (without the addition of leucine and lactic acid) + stimulation with the same protocol as the EG. Each group used their cream daily and underwent the intervention protocol three x/week with stimulation for 40 min, for a total of 8 weeks. Three main outcomes were reported: angular variation of facial contour by means of photogrammetry, muscle tone through the electromyographic activity of the masseter and zygomatic muscles during rest and functional tasks of biting and smiling. A significant effect of the intervention and between the groups was obtained for the experimental group against the placebo group for facial contour and muscle tone. An increased muscular activity of the masseter (average 28%) when smiling, and a reduction of zygomatic activity (in average 41%) when biting were found. The use of cream containing leucine and lactic acid combined with electrostimulation contributes to the improvement of facial contour and muscle tone when biting and smiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Clinical Evaluation of Indian Sandalwood Oil and Its Protective Effect on the Skin against the Detrimental Effect of Exposome
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020035 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and [...] Read more.
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene monohydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Storage Effect on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020033 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid [...] Read more.
Preparation of potential antioxidant extracts with less process for storing in a long period is preferable. N. lappaceum rind, well known as a promising source of phenolic antioxidants agricultural residue, was employed to prepare crude extracts by different solvents. The phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant, and anti-tyrosinase activities of the extracts were evaluated. The stability of the potential extract was then assessed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity under various storage conditions. The extractive yields of crude phenolic extract ranged from 16.61 to 28.78%. The ethanolic extract of N. lappaceum rind exhibited potential antioxidant activities and contained a high amount of phenolics and flavonoid contents. The extract remained with a high amount of the phenolic content (up to 88.79%) and retained its antioxidant property under various temperatures (4, 25, and 45 °C) after the first week of the storage period. The results suggest that phenolic content and antioxidant activity of N. lappaceum rind extract, as a nutraceutical or anti-aging ingredients in cosmetics, could be stored at a temperature from 4 °C to 45 °C with or without oxygen exposure at least for 16 weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
Article
Developing Eco-Friendly Skin Care Formulations with Microemulsions of Essential Oil
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020030 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising [...] Read more.
With the rising public awareness of environmental issues, consumers are increasingly demanding skin care products that create less environmental impact but still provide the same or even greater efficacy. In the skin care arena, microemulsions have been receiving increased attention as the promising delivery technology of skin care actives. Essential oils such as peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil are purported to have excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that could be used as the eco-friendly alternatives for synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the skin care formulations. This work therefore seeks to develop eco-friendly skin care formulations based on microemulsions of essential oil. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and eucalyptus oil were used as the oil phase to formulate naringin-loaded microemulsions, which demonstrated similar or better antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to the synthetic ones. When formulated into gel form, naringin-loaded microemulsion-gel formulations showed enhanced stability and release profile over their unformulated counterpart. Hence, microemulsions of essential oil developed in this work conferred a 4-fold benefits to the skin care formulations: (1) improved release (membrane permeation) of skin care active, (2) improved stability of skin care active, (3) as an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic antioxidant, and (4) a self-preserving system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Prospecting In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotective Properties of Rosmarinic Acid in a Sunscreen System Developed by QbD Containing Octyl p-Methoxycinnamate and Bemotrizinol
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020029 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may [...] Read more.
Progressively growing diagnoses of skin cancer trigger public health concerns about excessive sun exposure, awareness of the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, and the proper use of sunscreens. Studies show that bioactive molecules, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), may potentiate the photoprotective and antioxidant activity of topical formulations. This research presents the application of the concepts of quality by design (QbD) to evaluate the critical parameters of quality and the development of an optimized cosmetic formulation with RA by means of an understanding of product design space. Samples were developed using design of experiments (DoE) and they were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity and photoprotective efficacy, as well as for photostability through artificial irradiation. We were able to achieve the RA performance regarding antioxidant and SPF properties through in vitro experiments. We obtained the equations for predicting the in vitro antioxidant activity and SPF. Considering our sunscreen system, developed with octyl p-methoxycinnamate and bemotrizinol, the presence of RA increased its antioxidant capacity; however, the in vitro SPF was reduced when both UV filters were used. The development of multifunctional sunscreens is of utmost importance; moreover, there is a need for the rational development of formulations that ensure representative statistical tests of the effects and interactions among the components of a formulation on the desired critical quality attributes, including efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Molecular Docking, Tyrosinase, Collagenase, and Elastase Inhibition Activities of Argan By-Products
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010024 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and [...] Read more.
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and press cake are traditionally used by the Berber population for heating and feeding livestock. Molecular docking is an in silico approach that predicts the interaction between a ligand and a protein. This approach is mainly used in chemistry and pharmacology of natural products as a prediction tool with the purpose of selecting plant extracts or fractions for in vitro tests. The aim of this research is to study the evaluation of potential tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase inhibitory activities of argan fruit press-cake and pulp extracts. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and the major polyphenols of both press-cake and pulp extracts were submitted to molecular docking in order to determine the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Obtained results revealed that fruit pulp had the strongest dermocosmetic activities, as well as the highest TPC, with values above 55 mg gallic-acid equivalent per gram of dry matter (mgeq AG/gDM). Moreover, those results were positively correlated with the docking findings, suggesting that the pulp lead compounds have higher affinity with tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase action sites. The results here presented are very promising and open new perspectives for the exploitation of argan-tree by-products as cosmetic agents towards the development of new anti-aging products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Sunscreens on Marine Plankton
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010020 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2127
Abstract
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine [...] Read more.
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine environment, different ecotoxicological bioassays were carried out using planktonic organisms from three phyla and two different trophic levels: larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the copepod Acartia tonsa, and the microalga Tisochrysis lutea. The aim of these tests was to expose these organisms to leachates from eight sunscreen formulations. All of them showed a great variability in toxicity on the different plankton organisms. The highest toxicity level was found for cream number 4 when tested on sea urchin, exhibiting an EC50 = 122.4 mg/L. The toxicity of the UV filter 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid, exclusively present in that cream, was evaluated in sea urchin, where an EC10 = 699.6 mg/L was obtained under light exposure. According to our results, all tested creams become nontoxic to plankton upon 30,000-fold dilution in seawater; thus, only local effects are expected. This study highlights the need to understand the toxic effects generated by solar protection products, as well as their ingredients, on marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Effect of Three-Week Vibrotherapy on Selected Skin Parameters of Thighs and Buttocks in Women with Cellulite
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010016 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials [...] Read more.
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy women (age: 19–43 years) with cellulite of at least grade I on the Nurnberg–Muller scale were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving a series of 15 vibration treatments in a sitting or lying position for 30 or 60 min. Before and after the first and last treatment, selected skin parameters were measured with the use of Courage and Khazaka equipment. Results: Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of thighs and buttocks differed significantly at all time points. Post hoc tests showed that each treatment caused a decrease in TEWL but no long-term effect was observed. For skin pH, a significant difference was observed between the measurements I and IV. The lying position caused a greater reduction in the value of the acid–base balance. Conclusions: A series of vibration treatments improved the hydration and pH of the skin. The treatments limited TEWL; however, no long-term effect was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part I: EpsilonTM 2D Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010006 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how two-dimensional (2D) skin hydration mapping can be used to describe skin properties beyond the traditional ‘single number’ approach to skin hydration. Two-dimensional skin hydration measurement data were collected at baseline and after 1 week of in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product. In addition, subject feedback regarding their skin condition obtained during the study was collected and assessed. Dividing the 2D hydration measurement device images into zones of different electrical permittivity scores enabled analysis of different aspects of the skin compared with traditional electrical skin hydration measurements. Improvement in skin flexibility as a result of use of the topical test product was demonstrated. Complete description of the skin’s hydration state through the creation of hydration histograms to describe its electrical characteristics was performed. Subject feedback data showed improvements in aspects of skin assessed using 2D hydration measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part II: Visioscan® VC 20plus Imaging
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010005 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here was to understand what dry skin imaging can reveal about the skin and subject feedback from the use of a topical moisturizing product and how it relates to the consumer usage experience of a topical product. Images from a dry skin camera—the Visioscan® VC 20plus—during 3 weeks in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product were analyzed. Subject feedback regarding their skin condition was also collected. Strong statistical improvements (p < 0.05) were observed for a wide range of skin parameters derived from the Visioscan® VC 20plus. Skin scaliness and smoothness and parameters associated with skin health and appearance (surface, energy, contrast, homogeneity) improved as a result of topical product usage. Subjects reported their skin to feel less dry, to be smoother, and more supple and to look and feel healthier after product usage. The length of time until they felt the need to re-apply the product increased during the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Current and Prospective Applications of 3D Printing in Cosmetics: A Literature Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060115 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
3D printing (3DP) is a manufacturing technology that produces 3D objects from a design file using layer-by-layer deposition of material. It has already found applications in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, while its use in the field of topical delivery has been extensively [...] Read more.
3D printing (3DP) is a manufacturing technology that produces 3D objects from a design file using layer-by-layer deposition of material. It has already found applications in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries, while its use in the field of topical delivery has been extensively studied in the last two decades. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the 3DP-based developments in topical delivery, with special emphasis on its current and potential use in the cosmetic field. This review covers the principles and main types of 3DP technology, production, and characteristics of two key 3DP skin delivery platforms (patches and microneedles—MNs), as well as topical active materials used, focusing on those for cosmetic application. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed articles in relevant databases was performed (including PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, Kosmet, ScienceDirect and Scopus) from 2004 to date. The study concludes that 3D printed MNs would gain prevalence over patches for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications and that dissolving MNs have the highest potential among them. The use of 3DP technology appears to be a promising approach to the development of efficient personalised cosmetic delivery platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review
Biological Activities of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera): More than a Skin-Lightening Agent
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060112 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Background: Paper mulberry is one of the most common skin-lightening agents in the beauty industry due to its strong anti-tyrosinase activity. This narrative review aims to summarize the chemical composition, biological activities, and applications of paper mulberry in cosmetics. Method: The literature for [...] Read more.
Background: Paper mulberry is one of the most common skin-lightening agents in the beauty industry due to its strong anti-tyrosinase activity. This narrative review aims to summarize the chemical composition, biological activities, and applications of paper mulberry in cosmetics. Method: The literature for this article was acquired from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases before September 2022. The keywords for searching included “paper mulberry”, “Broussonetia papyrifera”, “skin-lightening”, “skin-whitening”, “depigmentation”, “pharmacological activity”, and “biological activity”. Results: Paper mulberry consists of various components, including flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, saponins, coumarins, glycosides, and polysaccharides, which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties. Apart from its anti-tyrosinase activity, paper mulberry and its compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, anticholinesterase, antigout, antinociceptive, and hepatoprotective effects. Phenols and flavonoids were demonstrated to be the main contributors to the biological activities of paper mulberry. Paper mulberry is widely applied in cosmetics for skin lightening and skin moisturizing purposes and shows potential for application in hair care products due to the hair nourishing effects. The safety of paper mulberry for topical application was proven in clinical studies. Conclusion: The current review provides a better understanding of paper mulberry’s properties and allows us to extend the application of this plant and its bioactive components in cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
Review
Mechanism of Action of Topical Tranexamic Acid in the Treatment of Melasma and Sun-Induced Skin Hyperpigmentation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9050108 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has anti-plasmin activity and has been shown when administered orally to be effective against melasma, for which it is considered first-line pharmacotherapy. Several studies have shown that topically applied TXA is also effective against melasma and skin hyperpigmentation caused by [...] Read more.
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has anti-plasmin activity and has been shown when administered orally to be effective against melasma, for which it is considered first-line pharmacotherapy. Several studies have shown that topically applied TXA is also effective against melasma and skin hyperpigmentation caused by sunburn and inflammation. The TXA concentration in the epidermis and dermis/vasculature has been estimated from its distribution in the skin after closed application, and topically applied TXA has thus been shown to act on neutrophils and mast cells in the dermis and on the vascular system. It is unlikely that topically applied TXA acts on dermal neutrophils or mast cells or on the vascular system to form thrombi. As discussed in the present review, studies on the effects of topical TXA on the hyperpigmentation process indicate that the resulting skin-lightening mechanism involves the suppression of cytokine/chemical mediator production, which stimulates melanin production via the keratinocyte-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen derived from dermal vascular in the basal layer of the epidermis, thereby suppressing the production of excessive melanin to prevent hyperpigmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review
Chemical Permeation Enhancers for Topically-Applied Vitamin C and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9040085 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1352
Abstract
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the permeation-enhancing properties and safety of different chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) on the topical delivery of vitamin C (VC) and its derivatives. A literature search using search keywords or phrases was done in PubMed®, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE databases. The calculated Log P (cLog P) values were referenced from PubChem and the dermal LD50 values were referenced from safety data sheets. Thirteen studies described the permeation-enhancing activity of 18 identified CPEs in the topical delivery of VC. Correlation analysis between ER and cLog P values for porcine (r = 0.114) and rabbit (r = 0.471) showed weak and moderate positive correlation, while mouse (r = −0.135), and reconstructed human epidermis (r = −0.438) had a negative correlation. The majority (n = 17) of the CPEs belonged to Category 5 of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification or low toxicity hazard. CPEs alone or in combination enhanced permeation (ER = 0.198–106.57) of VC in topical formulations. The combination of isopropyl myristate, sorbitan monolaurate, and polyoxyethylene 80 as CPEs for VC resulted in the highest permeation enhancement ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Review
Clinical Translation of Microbiome Research in Alopecia Areata: A New Perspective?
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030055 - 30 May 2022
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play [...] Read more.
The continuous research advances in the microbiome field is changing clinicians’ points of view about the involvement of the microbiome in human health and disease, including autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata (AA). Both gut and cutaneous dysbiosis have been considered to play roles in alopecia areata. A new approach is currently possible owing also to the use of omic techniques for studying the role of the microbiome in the disease by the deep understanding of microorganisms involved in the dysbiosis as well as of the pathways involved. These findings suggest the possibility to adopt a topical approach using either cosmetics or medical devices, to modulate or control, for example, the growth of overexpressed species using specific bacteriocins or postbiotics or with pH control. This will favour at the same time the growth of beneficial bacteria which, in turn, can impact positively both the structure of the scalp ecosystem on the host’s response to internal and external offenders. This approach, together with a “systemic” one, via oral supplementation, diet, or faecal transplantation, makes a reliable translation of microbiome research in clinical practice and should be taken into consideration every time alopecia areata is considered by a clinician. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Systematic Review
Application of Niosomes in Cosmetics: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9060127 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
A rising volume of the literature acknowledges the significance of nanotechnology in the cosmetics industry, particularly with the invention and use of techniques based on niosomes to generate unique formulations with both medicinal and aesthetic benefits. The current study’s objectives are to undertake [...] Read more.
A rising volume of the literature acknowledges the significance of nanotechnology in the cosmetics industry, particularly with the invention and use of techniques based on niosomes to generate unique formulations with both medicinal and aesthetic benefits. The current study’s objectives are to undertake a comprehensive review of the previously published data on the use and applications of niosomes in cosmetics and to give a succinct summary of that data. Preferred Reporting standards for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used in the design of the current review. The core concept and keywords were derived from the research question using the SPIDER tool. The main steps of this review included: design of the research question, preliminary research, search strategy, searching the database, exclusion and inclusion criteria, approval by authors, title and abstract screening, reporting of the number of data selected, full text download and reading, manual research (Google Scholar, Scopus, and WoS), data extraction and quality assessment, double data checking, and manuscript writing, revision, and submission. After thorough data analysis, it was discovered that a cosmetic product’s aesthetic impact significantly improved when it was created utilising niosomes technology. The majority of cosmeceutical niosomes’ skin and hair products demonstrated an enhanced therapeutic and cosmeceutical effect. These discoveries may contribute to the treatment of skin conditions under the umbrella of cosmeceutical niosomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Brief Report
Anti-Wrinkle Effect of BB-1000: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030050 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Skin aging usually results from intrinsic or extrinsic stress. Photodamage promotes skin damage and stimulates the skin, manifesting as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, and loss of elasticity. We have previously found that blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5, designated [...] Read more.
Skin aging usually results from intrinsic or extrinsic stress. Photodamage promotes skin damage and stimulates the skin, manifesting as wrinkles, dryness, roughness, and loss of elasticity. We have previously found that blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5, designated BB-1000, showed an in vitro and in vivo anti-skin-aging activity. In the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of BB-1000 via a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 102 volunteers aged 35 to 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Subjects took BB-1000 or a placebo orally at 800 mg/day for 12 weeks. Skin hydration and degree of wrinkles around the eyes were measured at weeks 6 and 12. Skin hydration had no significant effect in both groups at weeks 6 and 12. Otherwise, volunteers in the BB-1000 group had a significant reduction in eye wrinkle grade at week 12. These findings suggest that BB-1000 may be considered a candidate anti-aging agent for preventing skin wrinkles as a nutricosmetic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Commentary
The Emotional Impact of Maskne in the Era of COVID-19: A Commentary on the Future of a Multi-Modality Approach
Cosmetics 2022, 9(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9030045 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Over the past two years, the world has experienced the destructive effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, better known as COVID-19. The use of surgical face masks was declared necessary by many governments around the world to protect citizens from catching the rapidly spreading [...] Read more.
Over the past two years, the world has experienced the destructive effects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, better known as COVID-19. The use of surgical face masks was declared necessary by many governments around the world to protect citizens from catching the rapidly spreading virus. Albeit surgical masks contributing to stopping the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many people have reported rashes closely resembling acne on their chins ever since wearing face masks became mandatory. This article studies the acne that results from masks worn to prevent the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2. Acne due to the wearing of masks (“Maskne”) is a new challenge that has affected the population and can decay the mental health of societies and individuals. The exploration of the mental and physical health effects of “Maskne” help us to form treatments that emphasize the association of improving mental health to decrease acne and enhancing quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
Case Report
Pigmentation and Scaring Management after Hypodermoclysis, a Case Report
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010010 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin [...] Read more.
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin diseases and cosmetic issues are treated has altered dramatically as a result of laser technology. This is the first article to our knowledge that describes the treatment of pigmentation and scarring produced by Hypodermoclysis cutaneous damage by using laser treatment. It was vital to select the appropriate endpoint, technology, and configuration parameters. The lesion was completely resolved after five months of treatment with four laser sessions. The first session used a fractional Er-Yag laser to perform cold ablation. The remaining sessions used 1064 and 585 nm Nd-Yag Q-switch lasers to operate in the nanosecond region. To minimize the danger of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), the treated region was prepped between laser treatments with 4% hydroquinone (HQ) cream. Our protocol may reduce scars and pigmentation while minimizing adverse effects and downtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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