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Article

Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization

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Integrated Chemical BioPhysics Research, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology & Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040073
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 1 August 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
An oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion formulation containing kojic monooleate (KMO) in thin film system was developed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize and analyzed the effect of three variables, namely concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (20–30% w/w), concentration of propylene glycol (PG) (1–10% w/w), and shear rate of high shear homogenizer (3000–9000 rpm) on droplet size as a response, while other compositions remained constant such as KMO (10.0% w/w), Tween 80 (3.19% w/w), castor oil (3.74% w/w), xanthan gum (0.70% w/w), and germall plus (0.7% w/w, PG (and) diazolidinyl urea (and) iodopropynyl butylcarbamate). The optimized KMO nanoemulsion formulation with desirable criteria was PVA (27.61% w/w) and PG (1.05% w/w), and shear rate (8656.17 rpm) with a predicted droplet size (110.21 nm) and actual droplet size (105.93 nm) with a residual standard error (RSE) of less than 2.0% was obtained. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the fitness of the quadratic polynomial fit the experimental data with a F-value of 65.30, p–value of p < 0.0001, and a non-significant lack-of-fit. The optimized KMO formulation shows the desired criteria of the thin film system and the physicochemical properties (Zeta potential −37.37 mV, PDI 0.13, pH 4.74) and stability at four different conditions indicate its suitability for cosmeceutical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; formulation; thin film system; response surface methodology; kojic monooleate nanoemulsion; formulation; thin film system; response surface methodology; kojic monooleate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jaslina, N.F.; Faujan, N.H.; Mohamad, R.; Ashari, S.E. Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization. Cosmetics 2020, 7, 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040073

AMA Style

Jaslina NF, Faujan NH, Mohamad R, Ashari SE. Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization. Cosmetics. 2020; 7(4):73. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jaslina, Nur F., Nur H. Faujan, Rosfarizan Mohamad, and Siti E. Ashari 2020. "Effect of Addition of PVA/PG to Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion Kojic Monooleate Formulation on Droplet Size: Three-Factors Response Surface Optimization and Characterization" Cosmetics 7, no. 4: 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040073

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