Special Issue "Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 51986

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Interests: dermatology; skin care; contact dermatitis; cosmetic efficacy; cosmetic formulation; barrier function; skin irritation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of Cosmetics, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021”. This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome.

Dr. Enzo Berardesca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • materials and ingredient research related to cosmetics
  • therapeutic options for skin, hair and body care
  • product formulations and ingredients
  • cosmetic olfactory research developments
  • technologies in cosmetic product development
  • testing of skin and hair products
  • toxicological studies of cosmetic products
  • in vivo and in vitro testing of cosmetic products
  • pure and applied research involved in skin, hair and body cosmetics
  • analytical chemistry of essential components involved in cosmetic product formulations
  • biomedicine research on biologically active components
  • regulatory and ethical issues in cosmetic research
  • dermatology, microbiology, anatomy, physiology, immunology and biochemistry of the skin
  • facial rejuvenation, laser therapy
  • cosmetic surgery and related medicine techniques

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Article
Exploring the Adsorption Properties of Zeolite in a New Skin Care Formulation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010026 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Introduction: Zeolites are natural or synthetic aluminosilicates, characterized by a regular and microporous crystalline structure that plays a particularly active role in neutralizing free radicals, screening UV rays and in the adsorption of toxins and heavy metals. Skin is one of the main [...] Read more.
Introduction: Zeolites are natural or synthetic aluminosilicates, characterized by a regular and microporous crystalline structure that plays a particularly active role in neutralizing free radicals, screening UV rays and in the adsorption of toxins and heavy metals. Skin is one of the main areas for the accumulation of toxic substances released by environmental pollutants. The biological scavenger activity of zeolite opens a wide spectrum of applications in cosmetics and dermatology. Up to now, there is little evidence related to the use of natural zeolite in cosmetics. Aim: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of zeolite to retain heavy metals in a new skin care formulation, in order to provide a proof of principle of its employment in the field of cosmetics. Materials and Methods: Taking the advantages of spiked samples, we studied the in vitro adsorption properties of zeolite in a new skin care formulation. The removal capacities of Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Nickel and Cobalt were studied, using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). First of all, the better concentration of zeolite was defined, testing two different proportions of zeolite, from 1% to 3%, keeping all other components constant. Then, on the 3% formulation, the adsorption properties of each single metal were measured. Results and Conclusions: Our preliminary study demonstrated the selectivity of zeolite in retaining Cadmium (p < 0.0001), Nickel (p = 0.026), in a 3% zeolite-based formulation. This work provides a proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. Based on the data collected, our work provides a scientific proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. New and extensive research will be needed to explore all the potential benefits of zeolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Communication
Food Loss and Food Waste for Green Cosmetics and Medical Devices for a Cleaner Planet
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010019 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
To stay wealthy in a world where all can live in prosperity and wellbeing, it is necessary to develop sustainable growth at net zero emissions to stop climate change, neutralizing both risks and diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities. Changing the [...] Read more.
To stay wealthy in a world where all can live in prosperity and wellbeing, it is necessary to develop sustainable growth at net zero emissions to stop climate change, neutralizing both risks and diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities. Changing the worldwide use of the great quantity of food loss and waste can help to move in this direction. At this purpose, it seems useful to transform food waste into richness, extracting and using its content in natural ingredients and biopolymers to make new sustainable products and goods, including cosmetics and medical devices. Many of these ingredients are not only bioactive molecules considered of interest to produce these consumer products but are also useful in reducing the environmental footprint. The active agents may be obtained, for example, from waste material such as grapes or olive pomace, which include, among others natural polymers, phythosterols, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids. Among the polymers, chitin and lignin have shown particular interest because biodegradable, nontoxic, skin- and environmentally friendly ingredients can be obtained at low cost from food and forestry waste, respectively. According to our experience, these polymers may be used to make nanocomposites and micro-nanoparticles that encapsulate different active ingredients, and which may be embedded into gel and non-woven tissues to realize advanced medications and smart cosmeceuticals. However, to utilize food waste in the best possible way, a better education of both industry and the consumer is considered necessary, introducing all to change the ways of production and living. The consumer has to understand the need to privilege, food, cosmetics and goods by selecting products known to be effective that also have a low release of carbon dioxide. Thus, they must pay heed to purchasing cosmetics and medical devices made by natural ingredients and packaged by biodegradable and/or reusable containers that are possibly plastic free. Conversely, the industry must try to use natural raw materials obtained from waste by changing their actual production methods. Therefore, both industry and the consumer should depart from the linear economy, which is based on taking, making, and producing waste, to move into a circular economy, which is based on redesigning, reducing, reusing and recycling. Some examples will report on the possibility to use natural polymers, including chitin and lignin, to produce new cosmeceutical tissues. These innovative tissues, to be used as biodegradable carriers for making smart cosmetics and medical devices, may be produced at zero waste to save our health and the planet biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
A Promising Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment with a Nanoemulsion-Based Cream with a Generic Pentavalent Antimony (Ulamina) as the Active Ingredient
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040115 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of Leishmaniasis, a tropical disease that affects around 15 million people in about 90 countries. The chosen therapy for this disease is based on antimony V compounds, such as meglumine antimoniate. It can be administered as a [...] Read more.
Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of Leishmaniasis, a tropical disease that affects around 15 million people in about 90 countries. The chosen therapy for this disease is based on antimony V compounds, such as meglumine antimoniate. It can be administered as a parenteral, subcutaneous or perilesional form as successive infiltrations with pre-established doses localized in the border of the granuloma that characterizes the wound of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Herein, a topical pharmaceutical recipe, such as an emulsion, is proposed to eliminate the trauma caused by administering the medicine in parenteral form to the face or other difficult access zones. The evaluation of this vehicle was performed by analyzing parameters such as pH, viscosity, homogeneity and droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the emulsion was proved by in vitro experiments using Strat-M synthetic membranes, showing that the transdermal passage of the antimonial complex is guaranteed. Moreover, complete healing of the wound has been attained in patients with CL, as shown with two clinical cases in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Alaskan Bog Blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) Extract as an Innovative Topical Approach to Prevent UV-Induced Skin Damage
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040112 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Our body is continuously exposed to various exogenous aggressors, and, in particular, the skin represents the main target for outdoor stressors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV exposure is well-known to be associated with the development/worsening of extrinsic photoaging and a multitude of skin [...] Read more.
Our body is continuously exposed to various exogenous aggressors, and, in particular, the skin represents the main target for outdoor stressors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV exposure is well-known to be associated with the development/worsening of extrinsic photoaging and a multitude of skin conditions. Considering the role of photoprotection in skin health, the research of natural photoprotective molecules becomes of great importance. Therefore, in this work we wanted to evaluate the beneficial protective effects of ripe berries of Vaccinium uliginosum (Alaska bog blueberry (BB)) extract (100 μg/mL) for preventing the cutaneous oxidative, inflammatory, and structural damage induced by exposure to 200 mJ of UVA/UVB radiation. We observed that the topical application of BB extract on human ex vivo skin explants averted the UV-induced cutaneous OxInflammatory phenomenon by quenching the increase in the oxidative and inflammatory marker levels, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); as well as by counteracting the loss of structural proteins (filaggrin and involucrin) induced by UV radiation. Our data propose the use of a topical application of Alaska bog blueberry extract as a natural and valuable approach to ensure photoprotection against UV-induced skin damage and premature aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Analysis and Quantification of Alkyl (C12-22) Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride Content in Cosmetics: Regulatory Compliance Gap Analysis
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040103 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Background: Exceeding the recommended Alkyl (C12-22) trimethyl ammonium bromide and chloride levels in cosmetics and personal care products is a serious health threat. Objectives: To quantify and investigate Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride in cosmetics and personal care products in the UAE market [...] Read more.
Background: Exceeding the recommended Alkyl (C12-22) trimethyl ammonium bromide and chloride levels in cosmetics and personal care products is a serious health threat. Objectives: To quantify and investigate Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride in cosmetics and personal care products in the UAE market to gauge whether or not they adhered to requirements for safety and health. Methods: A total of 164 cosmetics products were collected and analyzed in this study. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride surfactants in cosmetics products. With each product, Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride (%) were calculated. To test cross-group differences in Cetrimonium chloride and Behentrimonium chloride (%), Kruskal–Wallis test was applied. Results: Of the 125 tested cosmetics and personal care products, five (4%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level in rinse-off hair products (2.5%), 10 (8%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level in leave-on hair products (1%), and 24 (61.5%) exceeded the recommended Cetrimonium chloride level used as a preservative in cosmetics products. Moreover, of the 125 tested cosmetics and personal care products, 21 (53.8%) exceeded the recommended Behentrimonium chloride level used as preservatives in cosmetics products. Conclusions: Although several structures for cosmetics quality and control across the globe are fairly comprehensive and intricate, there is a need to make them more rigorous to apply compliance with GMP and ensure regulatory control. Doing so would help enhance the inspection and regulation of cosmetics containing Behentrimonium chloride/Cetrimonium chloride preservatives. Furthermore, there is a dire need to establish a unified cosmetovigilance worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Article
Exploring the Utility of Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) as a Novel Tool for Early Detection of Stability Issues in Cosmetic Emulsions
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040099 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
In the current cosmetic and personal care industry, it is of great importance to have a technique that detects instabilities quickly and effectively, as consumers are demanding more innovative and sustainable ingredients. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) is a potential solution as it is [...] Read more.
In the current cosmetic and personal care industry, it is of great importance to have a technique that detects instabilities quickly and effectively, as consumers are demanding more innovative and sustainable ingredients. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) is a potential solution as it is a modern optical technique that can measure the spatial movement of particles or droplets in an emulsion—i.e., the mean square displacement (MSD), as a function of time. In the current investigation, systematic visual and diffusion behavior emulsion stability studies over a 3-h period on jojoba and avocado oil emulsions containing varying equal percentages of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) were conducted. The turbid emulsions studied had differing stabilities with unknown instability mechanisms to further explore if diffusing wave spectroscopy can offer a fast and early identification of problem cosmetic formulations. It was observed that, for emulsions displaying instability from 4 to 123 h, the greater the change in the MSD values over a 3-h period, the greater the instability of the emulsion. For all systems, the MSD values lowered and shifted to the right from hour 0 to hour 3. We conjecture that the emulsion droplets began to aggregate, potentially growing and giving rise to larger particles. The increasing particle size was the cause for the slowing down of the dynamics and thus diffusion, giving rise to the lowering of the MSD values. Our findings indicate that by testing an emulsion over a 3-h period, it is possible to determine whether it will be a problem formulation using DWS. Studies into this technology should be continued on a wider range of emulsions with known instability mechanisms to further our understanding of using DWS as a vital emulsion instability detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Addressing Human Skin Ethnicity: Contribution of Tissue Engineering to the Development of Cosmetic Ingredients
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040098 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Recent publications describe various skin disorders in relation to phototypes and aging. The highest phototypes (III to VI) are more sensitive to acne, with the appearance of dark spots due to the inflammation induced by Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes). Dryness with [...] Read more.
Recent publications describe various skin disorders in relation to phototypes and aging. The highest phototypes (III to VI) are more sensitive to acne, with the appearance of dark spots due to the inflammation induced by Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes). Dryness with aging is due to a lower activity of specific enzymes involved in the maturation of lipids in the stratum corneum. To observe and understand these cutaneous issues, tissue engineering is a perfect tool. Since several years, pigmented epidermis with melanocytes derived from specific phototypes allow to develop in vitro models for biological investigations. In the present study, several models were developed to study various skin disorders associated with phototypes and aging. These models were also used to evaluate selected ingredients’ ability to decrease the negative effects of acne, inflammation, and cutaneous dryness. Hyperpigmentation was observed on our reconstructed pigmented epidermis after the application of C. acnes, and pollutant (PM10) application induced increased inflammatory cytokine release. Tissue engineering and molecular biology offer the capability to modify genetically cells to decrease the expression of targeted proteins. In our case, GCase was silenced to decrease the maturation of lipids and in turn modify the epidermal barrier function. These in vitro models assisted in the development of ethnic skin-focused cosmetic ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
The Potential of Sky Fruit as an Anti-Aging and Wound Healing Cosmeceutical Agent
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030079 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
There are many extrinsic factors that can contribute to the premature aging of the skin. In recent years, the demand for natural cosmetic from the general population has noticeable grow. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the bioproperties of sky fruit (Swietenia [...] Read more.
There are many extrinsic factors that can contribute to the premature aging of the skin. In recent years, the demand for natural cosmetic from the general population has noticeable grow. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the bioproperties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrophylla) seed extract that could help to inhibit premature skin aging. Firstly, the extract and its fractions were tested on HaCaT cells for their wound healing properties. The presence of sky fruit’s extract and its fractions on scratch wound significantly improved cellular proliferation, migration, and closure of the wound. These effects were distinctly observed following the treatment with S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla water fraction (SMWF). Our continuous research study revealed that SMWF had antioxidant properties, which might be one of the factors contributing to its emerging wound healing properties because antioxidants are known to act as suppressors of the inflammatory pathway and aid the transition towards cell proliferation. In addition, all samples had critical wavelengths that indicated that they were able to absorb the whole UVB range and some parts of the UVA wavelength. This suggested that S. macrophylla might contain potential photoprotective bioactive compounds, which could be developed into anti-UVB photoprotective sunscreens. Thus, this warrants further studies focusing on isolation and identifications of the bioactive compounds responsible for both its photoprotective and wound healing properties. A deeper study on mechanisms of the pathways that were affected by these compounds should be conducted as well to better understand this natural product and develop it into a potential cosmeceutical ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Impact of Processing Conditions on Rheology, Tribology and Wet Lubrication Performance of a Novel Amino Lipid Hair Conditioner
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030077 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of a novel cationic amino lipid surfactant, Brassicyl Valinate Esylate (BVE), in contrast to conventional alkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats), through a study of the effects of process [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of a novel cationic amino lipid surfactant, Brassicyl Valinate Esylate (BVE), in contrast to conventional alkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats), through a study of the effects of process mixing speed on its overall rheological, tribological and wet lubrication performance in comparison to BTAC and CTAC, two cationic surfactants widely used in cosmetics. The major cosmetic application of cationic surfactants is in the preparation of hair conditioners. Hence, this analysis was done firstly by conducting tensile combing tests to evaluate reduction in wet lubrication which translates to conditioning performance. The combing results serve as a testing metric that adequately corresponds to consumer perception of conditioned hair. To correlate this technically, yield stress measurements were conducted to establish rheologic profiles of the conditioner formulations, and in vitro tribological testing of the emulsion systems between two steel surfaces were done to technically simulate the spreading and rubbing of conditioner on the hair. The effect of processing conditions on the formulations was then evaluated. BVE was found to be an effective conditioning surfactant suitable as an eco-friendly replacement for BTAC and CTAC in hair conditioner formulations. The results showed that higher shear mixing rates during formulation lead to poorer performance effects evident through decreased yield stress values, lower percentage reduction in combing force and a higher coefficient of friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Why Are Wet Wipes So Difficult to Preserve? Understanding the Intrinsic Causes
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030073 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Over the last two decades, significant advances have been made in developing disposable baby wet wipes. Wet wipes consist of two main components: nonwoven fabric and liquid. Being more than 90% water, wet wipes are more susceptible to microbial growth than typical personal [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, significant advances have been made in developing disposable baby wet wipes. Wet wipes consist of two main components: nonwoven fabric and liquid. Being more than 90% water, wet wipes are more susceptible to microbial growth than typical personal care products; hence, high concentrations of preservative compounds are often used to ensure extended protection against contamination. However, there is an obvious tendency to minimize the concentration of irritating actives. Baby wet wipes should contain particularly mild surfactants, well-tolerated preservatives, and a buffer system maintaining the formulation pH at a suitable level for the infant’s skin. Efforts have been centered on removing ingredients with irritation potential, such as phenoxyethanol. In addition, a move towards more natural fabrics is occurring. However, these modifications provoke new challenges in preserving the final products. The nature and composition of the fiber can influence the interactions between the preservative and the wipe, subsequently affecting the performance of the preservative system. In this study, we analyzed the causes of the challenge in preserving wet wipes. We found that fabrics containing natural fibers are the main source of contamination, promoting the generation of biofilms on their surfaces. Moreover, the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) was utilized to rationalize the physicochemical interactions between the fabric and the preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
UVB Radiation Protective Effect of Brown Alga Padina australis: A Potential Cosmeceutical Application of Malaysian Seaweed
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030058 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Marine natural products are a good source of antioxidants due to the presence of a wide range of bioactive compounds. Accumulating evidence proves the potential use of seaweed-derived ingredients in skincare products. This study aims to evaluate the ultraviolet (UV) protective activity of [...] Read more.
Marine natural products are a good source of antioxidants due to the presence of a wide range of bioactive compounds. Accumulating evidence proves the potential use of seaweed-derived ingredients in skincare products. This study aims to evaluate the ultraviolet (UV) protective activity of the ethanol and water extracts of Padina australis. As the preliminary attempt for this discovery, the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured, followed by the in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing the power to shed light on its bioactivity. The UVB protective activity was examined on HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. The findings of this study reveal that the P. australis ethanol extract serves as a promising source of antioxidants, as it exhibits stronger antioxidant activities compared with the water extract in DPPH and the reducing power assays. The P. australis ethanol extract also demonstrated a higher level of total phenolic (76 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (50 mg QE/g). Meanwhile, both the ethanol (400 µg/mL) and water extracts (400 µg/mL) protected the HaCaT cells from UVB-induced cell damage via promoting cell viability. Following that, LCMS analysis reveals that the P. australis ethanol extract consists of sugar alcohol, polysaccharide, carotenoid, terpenoid and fatty acid, whereas the water extract contains compounds from phenol, terpenoid, fatty acid, fatty alcohol and fatty acid amide. In summary, biometabolites derived from P. australis have diverse functional properties, and they could be applied to the developments of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Comprehensive Characterization of Plant-Pigment-Based Tattoos and Dyes Formulations
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020055 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
There has been little research on emerging natural-pigment-based temporary tattoos and their constituents so far. This study focused on the characterization of natural henna and jagua tattoos and dyes in commercial samples. Sample manipulation and treatment were minimal to analyze natural pigments as [...] Read more.
There has been little research on emerging natural-pigment-based temporary tattoos and their constituents so far. This study focused on the characterization of natural henna and jagua tattoos and dyes in commercial samples. Sample manipulation and treatment were minimal to analyze natural pigments as they are marketed. The characterization of active compounds was performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). A novel untargeted characterization was also applied for these types of samples, searching for compounds ranging from the original ingredients to other additives of interest they may contain. The fact that these products may also be a source of unlabelled allergens was considered. This work showed that not all of the 34 samples analyzed contained their characteristic active ingredients, and in addition, 70 substances of a different nature were found. Therefore, a rapid and high-throughput methodology has been developed for the identification of the components of these dyes, providing a necessary approach for quality control or identification of suspicious substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
The Use of Catalytic Amounts of Selected Cationic Surfactants in the Design of New Synergistic Preservative Solutions
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020054 - 20 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Preservation using combinations of antibacterial molecules has several advantages, such as reducing the level of usage and broadening their antimicrobial spectrum. More specifically, the use of quaternary ammonium surfactants (QAS)—which are profusely used in hair care products and some are known as efficient [...] Read more.
Preservation using combinations of antibacterial molecules has several advantages, such as reducing the level of usage and broadening their antimicrobial spectrum. More specifically, the use of quaternary ammonium surfactants (QAS)—which are profusely used in hair care products and some are known as efficient antimicrobial agents—is limited due to some potential cytotoxicity concerns. This study shows that the concentration of some widely used cosmetic preservatives can be decreased when combined with very small quantities of QAS, i.e., Polyquaternium-80 (P-80) and/or Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). The antimicrobial activity of their mixtures was first evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) before and after the addition of QAS. Following up on this finding and targeting an ultimate consumer friendly antimicrobial blend, yet with optimal safety, we chose to utilize the food-grade preservative Maltol as the main natural origin antimicrobial agent mixed with minimum concentrations of QAS to improve its moderate antimicrobial properties. The preservatives were tested for MIC values, challenge tests and synergy using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). The antimicrobial efficacy of Maltol was found to be synergistically improved by introducing catalytic amounts of P-80 and/or DDAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Characterization and Stability of a Formulation Containing Antioxidants-Enriched Castanea sativa Shells Extract
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020049 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The cosmetic industry is a field on rise where the search for novel antioxidant ingredients, preferably from natural matrixes, became a new challenge. The reuse of Castanea sativa shells as a source of phytochemicals with pro-healthy effects in skin care products may be [...] Read more.
The cosmetic industry is a field on rise where the search for novel antioxidant ingredients, preferably from natural matrixes, became a new challenge. The reuse of Castanea sativa shells as a source of phytochemicals with pro-healthy effects in skin care products may be a valuable alternative to valorize this underexploited agro-industrial by-product. A previous study of our research group demonstrated the antioxidant properties of chestnut shells extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), as well as its safeness on skin cell lines, namely keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Based on the extract richness in antioxidants, a formulation containing C. sativa shells extract obtained by this environmentally friendly technology was successfully developed in the present study. The oil-in-water (O/W) cream incorporating the chestnut shells extract was further characterized regarding organoleptic and technological properties, namely color, pH, droplets size, and viscosity. A stability study over time was also accomplished. The results demonstrate that the formulation not only displayed pleasant organoleptic characteristics attractive to consumers but also a pH compatible with skin and a suitable viscosity for topical application. The stability study revealed minor changes to droplet size and color, without affecting the general stability of the formulation. In conclusion, this study emphasized the prominent benefits of chestnut shells extract as a novel ingredient for skin care formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Nanoemulsions for the Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Actives
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020045 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
This work analyzes the dispersion of two highly hydrophobic actives, (9Z)-N-(1,3-dihydroxyoctadecan-2-yl)octadec-9-enamide (ceramidelike molecule) and 2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine 1-oxide (minoxidil), using oil-in-water nanoemulsions with the aim of preparing stable and safe aqueous-based formulations that can be exploited for enhancing the penetration of active compounds through cosmetic [...] Read more.
This work analyzes the dispersion of two highly hydrophobic actives, (9Z)-N-(1,3-dihydroxyoctadecan-2-yl)octadec-9-enamide (ceramidelike molecule) and 2,6-diamino-4-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine 1-oxide (minoxidil), using oil-in-water nanoemulsions with the aim of preparing stable and safe aqueous-based formulations that can be exploited for enhancing the penetration of active compounds through cosmetic substrates. Stable nanoemulsions with a droplet size in the nanometric range (around 200 nm) and a negative surface charge were prepared. It was possible to prepare formulations containing up to 2 w/w% of ceramide-like molecules and more than 10 w/w% of minoxidil incorporated within the oil droplets. This emulsions evidenced a good long-term stability, without any apparent modification for several weeks. Despite the fact that this work is limited to optimize the incorporation of the actives within the nanoemulsion-like formulations, it demonstrated that nanoemulsions should be considered as a very promising tool for enhancing the distribution and availability of hydrophobic molecules with technological interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Facial Treatment with 3-O-Cetyl Ascorbic Acid for Improvement of Skin Texture: Uptake, Effectiveness, and In Vitro Carcinogenicity Assessment
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020038 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found at high concentrations in normal skin. The important and well-known benefits of using AA in skin health include the stimulation of collagen synthesis and the assistance of protection against photo-oxidative damages. To maintain [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is found at high concentrations in normal skin. The important and well-known benefits of using AA in skin health include the stimulation of collagen synthesis and the assistance of protection against photo-oxidative damages. To maintain stability and improve drug delivery to the active site, a variety of AA derivatives have been chemically synthesized. Among these compounds, we focus here on a lipophilic derivative, 3-O-cetyl ascorbic acid (3-CetylAA), which remains poorly characterized for cosmetic applications. Uptake analysis in three healthy human volunteers’ skin was conducted using a serial tape-stripping technique detecting 3-CetylAA (on average, 128 ± 27 pmol per µg) in the stratum corneum after a 5-h topical treatment when treated with 25 mM 3-CetylAA-containing cream for 13 days twice daily and continuously. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging of vertical cryosections of pig skin revealed the presence of 3-CetylAA in the epidermal layer after topical treatment with 3-CetylAA-containing cream. In sun-exposed human skin, 3-CetylAA improved the texture after treatment with 25 mM 3-CetylAA-containing cream for 4 weeks or more when used twice daily or continuously. An in vitro transformation assay using BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells demonstrated that 10 µM 3-CetylAA, which is the same concentration exhibited in vitro biological activities in another lipophilic AA derivative, 2-O-octadecyl ascorbic acid, was non-carcinogenic and did not potentiate the UVC-induced transformation frequency when applied for 3 days after UVC irradiation. These results demonstrate that 3-CetylAA is a promising candidate as a lipophilic derivative of AA for cosmetic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Curcuminoid Analogues and Inhibition Kinetics Studies
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020035 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Natural tyrosinase inhibitors from herbal plants are promising therapeutic agents for skincare and cosmetic products. Natural curcuminoids exhibit weak antityrosinase properties. The structural modification of curcumin, the major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa, gave 14 analogues. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the natural [...] Read more.
Natural tyrosinase inhibitors from herbal plants are promising therapeutic agents for skincare and cosmetic products. Natural curcuminoids exhibit weak antityrosinase properties. The structural modification of curcumin, the major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa, gave 14 analogues. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the natural curcuminoids and the modified analogues on both L-tyrosine and DOPA substrates were evaluated. The inhibition kinetics were also undertaken. For analogues with potent activity on the L-tyrosine substrate, the isoxazole analogue 12 and two reduced analogues, hexahydrocurcumin (16) and the α,β-unsaturated analogue 17, showed IC50 values of 8.3, 14.6 and 9.4 µM, and were 20.9-, 11.9- and 18.4-fold more active, respectively, than kojic acid, the reference compound. For the analogues with potent antityrosinase on DOPA substrate, the dimethylated analogue 5 exhibited the strongest antityrosinase activity against the DOPA substrate, with the IC50 value of 8.0 µM, which was 16.6-fold more active than kojic acid. The inhibition kinetics revealed that curcuminoid 5 could bind with both free enzyme and with the enzyme–substrate complex. It acted as a competitive–uncompetitive mixed-II type inhibitor. Curcuminoid 17 could bind with both free enzyme and the enzyme–substrate complex. The results indicated that 17 acted as a competitive–uncompetitive mixed-I type inhibitor, while curcuminoid 12 was a noncompetitive inhibitor which bound with both free enzymes and the enzyme–substrate complex. These potent analogues might serve as new potential tyrosinase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Extract
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020031 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3585
Abstract
The use of calendula for its lenitive properties’ dates to the XII century. This plant contains several bioactive compounds, including terpenoids, terpenes, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Calendula flower extract is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye [...] Read more.
The use of calendula for its lenitive properties’ dates to the XII century. This plant contains several bioactive compounds, including terpenoids, terpenes, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Calendula flower extract is used in soothing cosmetics, such as after-sun, sensitive skin and eye contour products. The anti-inflammatory properties of this ingredient were demonstrated in an animal model, but the mechanism of action is poorly understood. Therefore, our work explored the effect of a calendula flower extract on NO production, a pro-inflammatory radical produced by nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and highly released by innate immune cells in inflammatory-related pathologies. NO production was evoked by the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages, using concentrations that did not compromise cells viability. This ingredient exhibited a dose-dependent NO inhibition, reaching 50% at 147 μL/mL without cytotoxicity. Together with previous literature, these results provide experimental evidence on the anti-inflammatory properties of calendula flower extract, as well as its usefulness in cosmetics with soothing properties and adjunctive skin care in the treatment of the diseases associated with dysregulation of the NO signaling cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Fingerprint of Nature—Skin Penetration Analysis of a Stinging Nettle PlantCrystals Formulation
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8010021 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Background: PlantCrystals are a new concept to produce plant-based formulations. Their principle is based on the diminution of parts of or whole plants. In this study, the effect of a surfactant on stinging nettle leaf PlantCrystals was investigated. Secondly, the contents of bulk [...] Read more.
Background: PlantCrystals are a new concept to produce plant-based formulations. Their principle is based on the diminution of parts of or whole plants. In this study, the effect of a surfactant on stinging nettle leaf PlantCrystals was investigated. Secondly, the contents of bulk material and the PlantCrystals formulation were compared. In addition, for the very first time, the skin penetration of PlantCrystals was investigated. Methods: Stinging nettle leaves were milled with high-pressure homogenization. Sizes were analyzed via light microscopy and static light scattering. To investigate the effect of the milling, the flavonoid and total carotenoid content were determined, and the antioxidant capacity of the formulation was measured via total polyphenol content and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Finally, the impact on skin penetration was investigated. Results: Size analysis showed a stabilizing effect of the surfactant, and the chemical analysis revealed higher flavonoid and polyphenol contents for PlantCrystals. The penetration of the formulation into the stratum corneum was shown to be promising; PlantCrystals possessed a visually perceived higher fluorescence and homogeneity compared to the bulk material. Conclusion: The concept of PlantCrystals improved the availability of valuable constituents and the penetration efficacy. The utilization of the natural chlorophyll fluorescence for skin penetration analysis of plant-based formulations proved itself highly effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review

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Review
Sample Preparation of Cosmetic Products for the Determination of Heavy Metals
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010021 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
The sample preparation of a cosmetic specimen in Cosmetic Science for the purpose of determining the analytical composition of heavy and toxic metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) is of particular importance due to the difficulty of [...] Read more.
The sample preparation of a cosmetic specimen in Cosmetic Science for the purpose of determining the analytical composition of heavy and toxic metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) is of particular importance due to the difficulty of handling the sample. There are two main methods of sample preparation. The first method is the wet digestion of the sample with strong acids such as H2SO4, HNO3, HF, and HNO3/HCl (1:3) and the combination of a strong acid with H2O2. Liquid digestion of the sample under the influence of strong acids damages the organic material of the sample and converts the carbon into carbon dioxide. The contained metals are oxidized to the highest oxidizing step and converted to soluble salts. A problem with this method is the loss of metals during digestion because it occurs at high temperatures as well as the decrease in the concentration of the residual acid. The second method of preparation is the wet liquid digestion of the sample with strong acids in a microwave oven in a closed vessel. The acids that are used are mainly HNO3 or mixtures of acids such as HNO3–HCl and HNO3–H2SO4. When the sample in the acid’s solvent is exposed to microwave energy, it can reach temperatures substantially above the boiling temperature of the acid solution. The result is the decomposition of the organic material, the oxidation of the metals, and their conversion to soluble nitrates. The advantages of using microwaves are the ability to control the temperature, pressure, and loss of metals and, thus, avoid erroneous measurement results. Simultaneously with the above, extraction methods have been, for almost a decade, very effective complementary processes that we can use to enrich a sample of a cosmetic product. Liquid–liquid dispersion micro-extraction (DLLME) and solid phase extraction (SPE) are the two main methods used in sample preparation and are usually applied after the digestion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Afro-Ethnic Hairstyling Trends, Risks, and Recommendations
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010017 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Hairstyling trends among Black women fluctuate with social, cultural, and environmental pressures. Dermatologists should be aware of current trends and their associated risks in order to provide the best care to this population. In order to summarize the updated trends and associated health [...] Read more.
Hairstyling trends among Black women fluctuate with social, cultural, and environmental pressures. Dermatologists should be aware of current trends and their associated risks in order to provide the best care to this population. In order to summarize the updated trends and associated health risks for the most common hairstyles worn by Black women, a literature review was performed. PubMed and EMBASE were used to identify articles related to hair styling practices, studies on the effects or risks of various styling practices, and magazine articles citing current styling trends among women of African descent. All hairstyles were found to have associated health risks; however, natural styles had the fewest adverse associations of all styles reviewed. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) is the most cited hair disorder in this population, possibly linked to both chemical relaxants and traction styles. Additional studies are needed to further establish causality between these styles and CCCA. Additionally, while acceptance of natural hairstyles is on the rise, there is more work to be done throughout society to help protect and encourage women who choose to wear Afrocentric styles. Dermatologists should be well versed in these hairstyles and ready to lend appropriate advice to patients when it is requested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Review
Essential Oils and Their Individual Components in Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040114 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential [...] Read more.
The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential oils (EOs) emerge as very common natural ingredients in cosmetics and toiletries as a result of both their odorous character for the design and manufacturing of fragrances and perfumes, and the many beneficial properties of their individual components (EOCs), e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, nowadays, the cosmetic industry includes EOs or different mixtures of their individual components (EOCs), either as active ingredients or as preservatives, in various product ranges (e.g., moisturizers, lotions and cleanser in skin care cosmetics; conditioners, masks or antidandruff products in hair care products; lipsticks, or fragrances in perfumery). However, the unique chemical profile of each individual essential oil is associated with different benefits, and hence it is difficult to generalize their potential applications in cosmetics and toiletries, which often require the effort of formulators in seeking suitable mixtures of EOs or EOCs for obtaining specific benefits in the final products. This work presents an updated review of the available literature related to the most recent advances in the application of EOs and EOCs in the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Furthermore, some specific aspects related to the safety of EOs and EOCs in cosmetics will be discussed. It is expected that the information contained in this comprehensive review can be exploited by formulators in the design and optimization of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Natural Antioxidants from Plant Extracts in Skincare Cosmetics: Recent Applications, Challenges and Perspectives
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040106 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
In recent years, interest in the health effects of natural antioxidants has increased due to their safety and applicability in cosmetic formulation. Nevertheless, efficacy of natural antioxidants in vivo is less documented than their prooxidant properties in vivo. Plant extracts rich in vitamins, [...] Read more.
In recent years, interest in the health effects of natural antioxidants has increased due to their safety and applicability in cosmetic formulation. Nevertheless, efficacy of natural antioxidants in vivo is less documented than their prooxidant properties in vivo. Plant extracts rich in vitamins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds can induce oxidative damage by reacting with various biomolecules while also providing antioxidant properties. Because the biological activities of natural antioxidants differ, their effectiveness for slowing the aging process remains unclear. This review article focuses on the use of natural antioxidants in skincare and the possible mechanisms underlying their desired effect, along with recent applications in skincare formulation and their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Topical Probiotics Do Not Satisfy New Criteria for Effective Use Due to Insufficient Skin Microbiome Knowledge
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030090 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
We propose a set of criteria for topical probiotics to adhere to for safe and effective use for the skin microbiome. To form the basis of the criteria, we redefine the term “probiotics” and discuss successful and unsuccessful high-profile examples of the artificial [...] Read more.
We propose a set of criteria for topical probiotics to adhere to for safe and effective use for the skin microbiome. To form the basis of the criteria, we redefine the term “probiotics” and discuss successful and unsuccessful high-profile examples of the artificial addition of organisms to ecosystems in nature to understand what worked and what did not. Probiotics are often immediately assumed to have health benefits. However, as ecologists are aware, interfering with ecosystems is potentially catastrophic. The addition or removal of just one organism can significantly upset the delicate ecosystem balance. If our criteria are not met, we argue that topical probiotics could also cause damage and will not be beneficial. Due to the large intra- and inter-personal variation of the skin microbiome, our current knowledge of a healthy skin microbiome composition is not complete enough to fully satisfy the criteria. In follow-up work, we will investigate whether current topical probiotics research and commercial products meet our new criteria. We will also discuss problems with how to measure their effectiveness and suggest alternative solutions to replacing the lost biodiversity of the skin microbiome that was stripped away by environmental factors in the Western world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Review
Lipid Nanoparticles Based Cosmetics with Potential Application in Alleviating Skin Disorders
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030084 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The lipids mainly oils, fats, waxes and phospholipids are of substantial importance in the development and functioning of cosmetic products. The lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic product is highly capable of protecting the skin against harmful radiations and is utilized for anti-aging therapy. Naturally derived [...] Read more.
The lipids mainly oils, fats, waxes and phospholipids are of substantial importance in the development and functioning of cosmetic products. The lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic product is highly capable of protecting the skin against harmful radiations and is utilized for anti-aging therapy. Naturally derived antioxidants such as carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols could be employed for their antioxidant properties as therapeutics and skincare active moieties in cosmetic products. Such a lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetic formulation consisting of antioxidants are very effective against irritated and inflamed skin and very promising for treating skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Therefore, the present review provides an insight into lipid nanoparticles based cosmetics and the mechanistic of their percutaneous absorption. The manuscript discussion highlights the role of lipid nanoparticles-based cosmetics/cosmeceuticals employing active ingredients of synthetic and natural origin in alleviating dermatological disorders and enhancing skin health and appeal. Furthermore, the manuscript also updates about contemporary research studies carried on the concept of lipid nanoparticles based formulation design of cosmetic preparation and significant outcome to alleviate skin disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Towards Optimal pH of the Skin and Topical Formulations: From the Current State of the Art to Tailored Products
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030069 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Acidic pH of the skin surface has been recognized as a regulating factor for the maintenance of the stratum corneum homeostasis and barrier permeability. The most important functions of acidic pH seem to be related to the keratinocyte differentiation process, the formation and [...] Read more.
Acidic pH of the skin surface has been recognized as a regulating factor for the maintenance of the stratum corneum homeostasis and barrier permeability. The most important functions of acidic pH seem to be related to the keratinocyte differentiation process, the formation and function of epidermal lipids and the corneocyte lipid envelope, the maintenance of the skin microbiome and, consequently, skin disturbances and diseases. As acknowledged extrinsic factors that affect skin pH, topically applied products could contribute to skin health maintenance via skin pH value control. The obtained knowledge on skins’ pH could be used in the formulation of more effective topical products, which would add to the development of the so-called products ‘for skin health maintenance’. There is a high level of agreement that topical products should be acidified and possess pH in the range of 4 to 6. However, formulators, dermatologists and consumers would benefit from some more precise guidance concerning favorable products pH values and the selection of cosmetic ingredients which could be responsible for acidification, together with a more extensive understanding of the mechanisms underlaying the process of skin acidification by topical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
From Cosmetics to Innovative Cosmeceuticals—Non-Woven Tissues as New Biodegradable Carriers
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030065 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Due to pollution and climate-change fear, further increased by the COVID19 pandemic, consumers are looking for body and mind health by the request of more effective and safe products, including the anti-aging skincare cosmeceuticals.. The term “cosmeceuticals” was coined in 1962 as a [...] Read more.
Due to pollution and climate-change fear, further increased by the COVID19 pandemic, consumers are looking for body and mind health by the request of more effective and safe products, including the anti-aging skincare cosmeceuticals.. The term “cosmeceuticals” was coined in 1962 as a fusion of cosmetic and pharmaceutical to cover a new class of products able to achieve aesthetic and drug-like benefits. They not only improve the skin’s appearance, but also treat different dermatological conditions, through a physiological activity, shown by in vitro and in vivo studies. This new category of cosmetics should contain no recognized drugs, but nonetheless have medicinal value. Consumers, in fact, are looking for products able to regenerate the skin and maintain not only a youthful appearance together with well-ness and well-being, but preserving the environment also. Consequently, they are searching for cosmetics and food made with high-quality natural ingredients, packaged with biodegradable materials and realized by sustainable technologies, possibly at zero waste. Consumers, in fact, are afraid of the pollution and plastics invading lands and oceans, causing many frequent disasters on our planet. New and smart tissues and films, made by polysaccharides and natural active ingredients, are proposed as innovative cosmeceuticals. These non-woven tissues, embedded by micro/nano complexes of chitin and lignin encapsulating different active ingredients, could represent a new category of vehicles that are characterized for their high effectiveness and safeness. Moreover, they do not induce allergic nor sensitizing phenomena, being biodegradable; skin- and environmentally friendly; and free of preservatives, emulsifiers, colors, fragrances and any kind of chemicals. Last but not least, polysaccharides, chitin and lignin may be obtained from industrial and agro-forestry waste, safeguarding the natural raw materials for the future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Review
Lipids from Microalgae for Cosmetic Applications
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020052 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using microalgal lipids in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Several microalgal species can accumulate appreciable lipid quantities and therefore are characterized as oleaginous. In cosmetic formulations, lipids and their derivatives are one [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using microalgal lipids in the food, chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Several microalgal species can accumulate appreciable lipid quantities and therefore are characterized as oleaginous. In cosmetic formulations, lipids and their derivatives are one of the main ingredients. Different lipid classes are great moisturizing, emollient, and softening agents, work as surfactants and emulsifiers, give consistence to products, are color and fragrance carriers, act as preservatives to maintain products integrity, and can be part of the molecules delivery system. In the past, chemicals have been widely used but today’s market and customers’ demands are oriented towards natural products. Microalgae are an extraordinary source of lipids and other many bioactive molecules. Scientists’ attention to microalgae cultivation for their industrial application is increasing. For the high costs associated, commercialization of microalgae and their products is still not very widespread. The possibility to use biomass for various industrial purposes could make microalgae more economically competitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Other

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Project Report
Strategy for the Development of a New Lipstick Formula
Cosmetics 2021, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8040105 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The strategy to adopt for the development of a new lipstick formula requires, as a first step, the definition of the most important characteristics of a modern product. Successively, the identification of the key properties of any innovative ingredient is necessary. Then, a [...] Read more.
The strategy to adopt for the development of a new lipstick formula requires, as a first step, the definition of the most important characteristics of a modern product. Successively, the identification of the key properties of any innovative ingredient is necessary. Then, a comprehension of the key parameters in the establishment of a stable equilibrium among the different formula components in the solid state is important. Moreover, it is necessary to study the interactions among the new ingredients and the other structural components in the formula. Finally, an evaluation of the sensory properties of the different final formulae for fine-tuning of practical performances needs to be carefully carried out. In this study, a systematic formulation approach tried to obtain a new lipstick formula using a new vegetal-derived emollient *(INCLUDING COCO-CAPRYLATE/CAPRATE, HYDROGENATED OLIVE OIL UNSAPONIFIABLES) with sensorial properties similar to some types of silicones. Some application trials of the new raw material were carried out. The following aspects of this ingredient were investigated: (1) Compatibility and thickening with waxes, (2) dispersion power of pigments, and (3) influence on sensory characteristics of the formulated lipstick. This new emollient has been shown to improve some aspects of a lipstick formula, in particular shine, homogeneity, and covering effect. The optimization of the formula, in order to increase the sensation of softness on the lips, is described. *Plantasens Olive LD SP ECO, supplier Clariant Gmbh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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