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Horticulturae, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 102 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Aquaponics combines raising fish and growing plants by recycling water and nutrients to reduce water consumption and reliance on chemical fertilizers. Decoupled aquaponics systems send mineralized fish effluent and wastewater unidirectionally to an independent hydroponic loop which allows for pH adjustments and complementary nutrient additions. In this study, basil was grown in decoupled aquaponic (DAP), nutrient-complemented decoupled aquaponic (DAP+), or chemical-based conventional hydroponic (CON) nutrient solutions for 21 days at pH 5.8. We found that adding a targeted blend of complementary nutrients to a decoupled aquaponic solution enhanced basil performance to be similar, but not equal, to a conventional hydroponic solution. Further research is needed in this exciting field. View this paper
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Article
Effects of NaHSO3 on Cellular Metabolic Energy, Photosynthesis and Growth of Iris pseudacorus L.
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020185 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
According to the law of energy conservation, the energy consumed by plants to resist adversity is equal to the difference between photosynthetic energy and growth energy consumption and cellular metabolic energy in plants. The cellular metabolic energy is calculated based on the electrical [...] Read more.
According to the law of energy conservation, the energy consumed by plants to resist adversity is equal to the difference between photosynthetic energy and growth energy consumption and cellular metabolic energy in plants. The cellular metabolic energy is calculated based on the electrical signals in plants. This study mainly investigated the effect of NaHSO3 on the growth and energy traits of the aquatic plant Iris pseudacorus L. and explored the effect of NaHSO3 on energy consumption in the process of plant development. In this study, NaHSO3 was used for simulating sulfur pollution in water medium. During the 20-day experiment period, the response of I. pseudocorus to the polluted water sources simulated by adding different concentrations of NaHSO3 (0, 0.5, 2, 4, 10 mmol·L−1) was monitored, and the internal mechanism of the relationship between the forms of energy and the removal of sulfur pollution was analyzed. After the 20-day exposure experiment, the growth and nutrient absorption capacity were significantly inhibited, and this inhibition proved to be concentration-dependent. In addition, high concentrations (4 and 10 mmol·L−1) of NaHSO3 might affect photosynthesis by disrupting cell membrane systems as it may interfere with membrane proteins and lipids and thus alter membrane integrity. Therefore, the cellular metabolic energy was increased and the sulfur absorption by I. pseudocorus was promoted under the low concentration (0.5 mmol/L−1) compared with the control, the role of NaHSO3 in promoting the growth of I. pseudocorus is much greater than its toxic effect under low concentrations. Under the hydroponic culture which contained 0.5 mmol·L−1 of NaHSO3, I. pseudocorus grew well and absorbed more sulfur. The results can be used as a reference for the cultivation of aquatic plants dealing with sulfur pollution, and dilution strategy can be set up to treat water medium that is seriously polluted with sulfur. Full article
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Article
Effects of Integrated and Organic Management on Strawberry (cv. Camarosa) Plant Growth, Nutrition, Fruit Yield, Quality, Nutraceutical Characteristics, and Soil Fertility Status
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020184 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Strawberry plants (cv. Camarosa) were cultivated under organic (ORG) and integrated management (INT) practices to assess possible differences in plant growth, fruit production and quality, soil fertility, and plant nutrition. Two integrated fertilizer schemes were used, differentiating based on the origin of the [...] Read more.
Strawberry plants (cv. Camarosa) were cultivated under organic (ORG) and integrated management (INT) practices to assess possible differences in plant growth, fruit production and quality, soil fertility, and plant nutrition. Two integrated fertilizer schemes were used, differentiating based on the origin of the major organic fertilizer used, i.e., chicken manure (I-ACT) versus fermented fungal biomass (I-AGR). Plant growth was higher under I-ACT treatment, whereas leaf area did not differ among treatments. The two integrated schemes resulted in higher fruit production. The organoleptic characteristics of the fruits did not differ, and this was also confirmed by a taste panel. The antioxidant capacity and flavanol concentration of organically produced fruits were higher, as well as fruit carbohydrate and total organic acid concentration. Leaf nitrogen concentration was higher under I-ACT, followed by ORG. I-ACT resulted in high leaf potassium concentration, as well as iron and manganese (together with I-AGR). Under ORG management, soil EC was found to be lower, whereas soil available phosphorus concentration was highest. Discriminant analysis taking into account fruit quality and phytochemical properties distinguished ORG management from the two integrated management practices, and when soil properties and leaf nutrient concentration were considered; all three systems were separated, indicating that the type of fertilizers used plays a significant role. Full article
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Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Sex-Biased Expression of Hormone-Related Genes at an Early Stage of Sex Differentiation in Red Bayberry (Morella rubra)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020183 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
The molecular mechanism of sex development and differentiation in the economically important dioecious fruit tree, red bayberry (Morella rubra), was revealed using next-generation transcriptome sequencing (NGS), and comparative analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in female and male [...] Read more.
The molecular mechanism of sex development and differentiation in the economically important dioecious fruit tree, red bayberry (Morella rubra), was revealed using next-generation transcriptome sequencing (NGS), and comparative analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in female and male flower buds. A total of 7029 of these DEGs were identified at two early development stages. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that plant hormone signal transduction was significantly overrepresented, and 91 genes related to hormones were identified. An analysis of 7029 DEGs revealed 161 hormone-related genes, with the 42 related to auxin and 26 related to ethylene being the most highly represented. A total of 62 genes were significantly up-regulated in females and 29 were in males, with 18 of them specifically expressed in females and 10 in males. A total of 415 transcription factors were identified, with 129 genes up-regulated in females and 53 in males. Moreover, 38 had female-specific expression and 18 had male-specific expression. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), two modules were found to be associated with sexual type. In the module coded light-green, there were five genes related to hormones, one to flower development and ten transcription factors with four genes specifically expressed in the males and four in females. The hub gene in the light-green module is MR0TCONS_00017483.1 (ACO), which is involved in ethylene biosynthesis and had male-specific expression. Among the transcription factors, three of the four male-specific expressed genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, including the MYB gene MR1TCONS_00020658.1 and two BHLH genes, MR6G001563.1 and MR8G020751.1, played important roles in male floral differentiation. In the dark-cyan module, six hormone-related genes, five transcription factors and three flower development genes were identified with the hub gene MR1G019545.1 (ETR1), which participates in the ethylene signaling pathway, and MR4G023618.1, which encodes the C3H zinc finger transcription factor. These results indicate that ethylene is the key hormone that interacts with other hormones and transcription factors to regulate sex differentiation in the red bayberry, which also provides new insights into the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the red bayberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Trees)
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Article
The Differential Response of Intracellular Water Metabolism Derived from Intrinsic Electrophysiological Information in Morus alba L. and Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. Subjected to Water Shortage
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020182 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Plant electrical signals can quickly respond to the shifting environment. Almost all life activities of plants are dependent on water. The measurement of plant electrophysiological indices provides a more convenient method for studying the intracellular water utilization. In this study, Morus alba L. [...] Read more.
Plant electrical signals can quickly respond to the shifting environment. Almost all life activities of plants are dependent on water. The measurement of plant electrophysiological indices provides a more convenient method for studying the intracellular water utilization. In this study, Morus alba L. (Morus alba or M. alba) and Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. (Broussonetia papyrifera or B. papyrifera) were experimental materials, and the parameters were measured in two habitats (waterfront, well-water and arid slopes, deficient-water). The physiological and electrophysiological responses of leaves to different habitats were analyzed. The theoretically intrinsic relationships between the clamping force and leaf impedance (Z), capacitive reactance (Xc), resistance (R), and inductive reactance (Xl) were revealed as 3-parameter exponential decay and linear models based on bioenergetics, respectively. Leaf intrinsic electrophysiological parameters were successfully obtained by using the above-mentioned relationships and were used to manifest metabolic activity in plants. The intracellular water-holding capacity (IWHC), water use efficiency (IWUE), water-holding time (IWHT), and water transfer rate (WTR) of plant leaves were defined based on the intrinsic electrophysiological parameters and were used to reflect the intracellular water metabolism. The correlation between the physiological and electrophysiological parameters of the two plant species in the two habitats was also analyzed. The results showed that Morus alba continuously adapted to the shifting environment, the intracellular water metabolism was insensitive to soil water shortage and was independent from the external physiological state. The intracellular water metabolism in Broussonetia papyrifera was very sensitive to soil water shortage, and both intracellular water metabolism and immediate physiological parameters could characterize the response of Broussonetia papyrifera growth and development to soil water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Physiology under Abiotic Stresses)
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Article
Comparison of Risk Assessment Schemes in GHPs and HACCP, FSMA Preventive Controls for Human Food, ISO 22000, and GFSI Recognized Standards with Risk Scoring Guidance in General Use with Fresh Produce
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020181 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The intention of this qualitative research study was to provide a basic risk concept by comparing food risk assessment schemes and preparing general food risk scoring guidance for developing a simple and reliable practical fruit and vegetable qualitative food safety risk matrices for [...] Read more.
The intention of this qualitative research study was to provide a basic risk concept by comparing food risk assessment schemes and preparing general food risk scoring guidance for developing a simple and reliable practical fruit and vegetable qualitative food safety risk matrices for fresh produce entrepreneurs. These practical food safety risk matrices were verified using FDA fruit and vegetable food safety risk data. The FDA data were converted to a qualitative risk matrix referring to the fruit and vegetable 3 × 3 qualitative food safety risk matrix reference model. Other common qualitative risk matrix models, namely 3 × 3, 4 × 3, and 5 × 5, were constructed based on probability and severity scores for each hazard, as given in the FDA data. These were designated as practical fruit and vegetable 3 × 3, 4 × 3, and 5 × 5 qualitative food safety risk matrix models. The results of these models were compared with the fruit and vegetable 3 × 3 reference model. The two best compatible models are the 5 × 5 and 3 × 3 qualitative food safety risk matrix models. A preference test from focus group containing 12 participants showed good satisfaction overall, indicating that the practical fruit and vegetable 3 × 3, 4 × 3, and 5 × 5 qualitative food safety risk matrix models are useful for entrepreneurs. Understanding of basic risk concepts and verified scientific referencing of food safety risk matrices can improve entrepreneur’s risk assessment. This can be performed by using practical–scientific food safety risk matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Quality and Safety of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce)
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Article
Identification of New Sources of Resistance to Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum horii among Persimmon Germplasms
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020180 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) anthracnose, predominantly caused by Colletotrichum horii, is a destructive disease of persimmon. Thus, the evaluation of resistance resources is imperative for persimmon breeding and resistant variety deployment. In this study, the isolate from persimmon branches was identified [...] Read more.
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) anthracnose, predominantly caused by Colletotrichum horii, is a destructive disease of persimmon. Thus, the evaluation of resistance resources is imperative for persimmon breeding and resistant variety deployment. In this study, the isolate from persimmon branches was identified as C. horii by using molecular and morphological characteristics. A total of 142 varieties were tested for anthracnose disease response by inoculation with the conidial suspension of C. horii. A significant variability was observed among the studied accessions. Only two accessions, which had a hypersensitive reaction with a slight lesion at the infection site at 14 days post inoculation, were highly resistant to anthracnose. A total of 7 and 24 accessions exhibited resistant and susceptible responses, respectively, to anthracnose. A total of 109 varieties with the highest proportion (76.76%) of accessions showed high susceptibility to C. horii. A total of 43 persimmon main cultivars were selected for the re-evaluation of the resistance level by counting the natural disease incidence of branches and fruits that showed similar resistant response. Moreover, nine of highly resistant or resistant accessions possessed desirable agronomic characters, including high fruit weight and strong growth potential. These resistant accessions could be used in the breeding of anthracnose-resistant persimmon varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Trees)
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Article
Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides and Fruit Flies Rhagoletis batava: Search for Volatile Semiochemicals Involved in Pest Attraction
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020179 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Rhagoletis batava (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits. For detection and monitoring of R. batava, traps supplied with nonspecific attractants are used. Thus, new, more specific attractants for environment-friendly pest control are needed. Such attractants could be [...] Read more.
Rhagoletis batava (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits. For detection and monitoring of R. batava, traps supplied with nonspecific attractants are used. Thus, new, more specific attractants for environment-friendly pest control are needed. Such attractants could be fruit-related semiochemicals that are involved in the host location by flies. Behavioural Y-olfactometer tests revealed that R. batava males were attracted to ripe fruit odour, while females preferred unripe and semi-ripe fruits. Thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed substantial quantitative and qualitative changes in volatiles between unripe and ripe fruits. In the unripe fruit emission, 41 volatile compounds were isolated, whereas 64 compounds were sampled from the ripe fruits. The total amount of volatiles increased five times during the fruit ripening. Gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and GC-MS analyses of the fruit headspace volatiles revealed at least 26 compounds in unripe and 27 compounds in ripe fruits eliciting antennal responses of R. batava for both sexes. The fruits of these two ripening stages differed qualitatively in the single EAD-active compound only, i.e., 3-methylbutyl 2-methylpropionate. Esters were the most abundant volatiles, composing 84% and 93% of EAD-active compounds in the emissions of unripe and ripe fruits, respectively. Based on the persistent EAG responses, 17 compounds were selected as the most promising candidates for kairomone attractants of the sea buckthorn pest R. batava. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Pest Management in Horticultural Production)
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Article
Effects of Light Intensity and Temperature on the Photosynthesis Characteristics and Yield of Lettuce
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020178 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Lettuce is an important vegetable in horticulture, but information about the interactive effects of light and temperature on its photosynthetic characteristics was inadequate. This work investigated the effects of three temperatures (15/10 (T15), 23/18 (T23), and 30/23 °C (T30)) and five light treatments [...] Read more.
Lettuce is an important vegetable in horticulture, but information about the interactive effects of light and temperature on its photosynthetic characteristics was inadequate. This work investigated the effects of three temperatures (15/10 (T15), 23/18 (T23), and 30/23 °C (T30)) and five light treatments (100 (P100), 200 (P200), 350 (P350), 500 (P500), and 600 μmol·m−2·s−1 (P600)) on the light–response curves, chlorophyll content, and yield of lettuce. The results showed that the maximum photosynthetic rate, light saturation point, chlorophyll content, and yield of lettuce were all the highest at T23 compared with T15 and T30 under different light intensities. Under the same temperature conditions, the photosynthesis capacity and yield of lettuce in the P350 and P500 treatments at T15, P350, P500, and P600 treatments at T23 and P500, and P600 treatments at T30 were larger than other light treatments. The results suggested that temperature play had a more pronounced influence on photosynthesis and yield in lettuce, but the appropriate levels of light intensity improved its potential photosynthetic capacity and yield under different temperature conditions. Full article
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Article
Graded Moisture Deficit Effect on Secondary Metabolites, Antioxidant, and Inhibitory Enzyme Activities in Leaf Extracts of Rosa damascena Mill. var. trigentipetala
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020177 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 372
Abstract
Drought affects plant growth and yield in many agricultural areas worldwide by producing negative water potentials in the root zone that reduce water availability, affecting plant development and metabolism. This study investigated the effect of varying moisture regimes (100% field capacity (FC), well-watered [...] Read more.
Drought affects plant growth and yield in many agricultural areas worldwide by producing negative water potentials in the root zone that reduce water availability, affecting plant development and metabolism. This study investigated the effect of varying moisture regimes (100% field capacity (FC), well-watered plants, 50% FC (moderate water stress), and 25% FC (severe water stress)) on growth parameters, chlorophyll content, and bioactive molecule patterns, and the impact on antioxidant, lipoxygenase (LOX), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in Rosa damascena. The water deficit treatments reduced biomass production for both treatments (−29 and −33%, respectively, for MWS and SWS) and total chlorophyll (−18 and −38% respectively for MWS and SWS), relative to the control. The 50% FC treatment had the greatest effect on the phenolic profiles and their respective functionalities, with significant increases in the levels of total phenolic, benzoic (gallic, p-coumaric, and syringic acids) (+32%), and cinnamic (caffeic and trans-cinnamic acid) acids (+19%) and flavonoids (epicatechin-3-O-gallate) (+15%) compared to well-watered leaves (control leaves). The 50% FC treatment also exhibited the highest potential antioxidant activities (apart from NO-quenching activity), evidenced by the lowest IC50 and EC50 values. The inhibitory LOX and AChE capacities varied depending on the severity of stress, with superior activity in the 50% FC treatment. Overall, the drought tolerance in rose was associated mainly with its suitable manipulation of antioxidant production and orderly regulation of LOX and AChE activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Stress in Horticultural Plants)
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Article
Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Key Regulatory Pathways and Differentially Expressed Genes in Blueberry Flower Bud Endo- and Ecodormancy Release
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020176 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Endodormancy is the stage that perennial plants must go through to prepare for the next seasonal cycle, and it is also an adaptation that allows plants to survive harsh winters. Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are known to have high nutritional and commercial value. [...] Read more.
Endodormancy is the stage that perennial plants must go through to prepare for the next seasonal cycle, and it is also an adaptation that allows plants to survive harsh winters. Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are known to have high nutritional and commercial value. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of bud dormancy release, the transcriptomes of flower buds from the southern highbush blueberry variety “O’Neal” were analyzed at seven time points of the endo- and ecodormancy release processes. Pairwise comparisons were conducted between adjacent time points; five kinds of phytohormone were identified via these processes. A total of 12,350 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from six comparisons. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that these DEGs were significantly involved in metabolic processes and catalytic activity. KEGG pathway analysis showed that these DEGs were predominantly mapped to metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in endodormancy release, but these DEGs were significantly enriched in RNA transport, plant hormone signal transduction, and circadian rhythm pathways in the process of ecodormancy release. The contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) decreased in endo- and ecodormancy release, and the jasmonic acid (JA) level first decreased in endodormancy release and then increased in ecodormancy release. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptomic data associated with hormone contents generated 25 modules, 9 of which were significantly related to the change in hormone content. The results of this study have important reference value for elucidating the molecular mechanism of flower bud dormancy release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Trees)
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Article
Influence of Drought Stress on Growth and Essential Oil Yield of Ocimum Species
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020175 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of drought stress on growth and secondary compound accumulation of Ocimum species, in a semi-controlled greenhouse during the year 2020. The experiment was performed as a factorial that was based on a randomized complete [...] Read more.
A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of drought stress on growth and secondary compound accumulation of Ocimum species, in a semi-controlled greenhouse during the year 2020. The experiment was performed as a factorial that was based on a randomized complete design with three species of basil namely O. basilicum ‘Genovese’, O. x africanum, and O. americanum, and three levels of water supply (70, 50, and 30% soil water capacity-SWC) that were replicated twice. The results revealed that severe drought conditions (30% SWC) significantly lowered the relative water content and, as a consequence, plants were shorter, narrower in the canopy, and produced smaller leaves which, in turn, resulted in a 50% fresh and dry herb yield loss. Furthermore, severe drought stress negatively affected the essential oil content (except O. x africanum where no change was seen), essential oil yield, and the antioxidant capacity. However, slight enhancements of glandular hair density were observed in the drought treatment than in the control. Regardless of the soil water capacity variation, the major compound of the essential oil and total polyphenol content remained unchanged. Besides drought, morphological and chemical variations were also detected among the Ocimum species. Sweet basil cultivar Genovese produced the maximum biomass (344.7 g/plant) whereas O. x africanum accumulated higher essential oil (2.79%). The major compounds that were identified were linalool in O. basilicum; 1, 8-cineole, and camphor in O. x africanum; and O. americanum had more neral and geranial. In conclusion, a higher water supply is recommended for higher biomass and essential oil yield production in the tested basil species. Full article
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Article
Response of Tomato-Pseudomonas Pathosystem to Mild Heat Stress
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020174 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Higher plants suffer from mild heat stress when temperatures increase by 5 °C above optimum growth temperatures. This produces changes at the cellular and metabolic levels, allowing plants to adapt to heat conditions. This study investigated an increase of 5 °C above the [...] Read more.
Higher plants suffer from mild heat stress when temperatures increase by 5 °C above optimum growth temperatures. This produces changes at the cellular and metabolic levels, allowing plants to adapt to heat conditions. This study investigated an increase of 5 °C above the optimum growth temperature (26 °C) of tomato plants in the tomato—Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato pathosystem. A temperature increase above 26 °C affects plant development, the defensive pathways activated against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (PstDC3000), and the bacterial growth and virulence machinery. The results demonstrated that tomato plants were able to acclimate to mild heat stress, showing no symptoms of damage. Moreover, plants subjected to a 5 °C increase (T31 °C plants) showed higher basal levels of metabolites such as proline and putrescine, which probably act as compatible osmolytes. This demonstrates their importance as key components of thermotolerance. When grown under mild heat stress, plants were less susceptible to PstDC3000 and showed increased accumulation of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid-isoleucine, and spermine. In addition, the temperature increase negatively affected the infectivity of PstDC3000. Inhibition of the genes responsible for quorum sensing establishment and synthesis of flagellin and coronatine was observed in bacteria extracted from T31 °C plants. Analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the type III secretion system indicates the important role of this system in bacterial growth under these conditions. As the known resistance mechanisms involved in the defense against PstDC3000 were not activated, the changes in its virulence mechanisms under high temperatures may explain the lower infection observed in the T31 °C plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Pathogen Interaction in Climate Change Scenario)
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Review
Molecular and Metabolic Changes under Environmental Stresses: The Biosynthesis of Quality Components in Preharvest Tea Shoots
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020173 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Severe environments impose various abiotic stresses on tea plants. Although much is known about the physiological and biochemical responses of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under environmental stresses, little is known about how these stresses impact the biosynthesis of quality components. This [...] Read more.
Severe environments impose various abiotic stresses on tea plants. Although much is known about the physiological and biochemical responses of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under environmental stresses, little is known about how these stresses impact the biosynthesis of quality components. This review summarizes and analyzes the changes in molecular and quality components in tea shoots subjected to major environmental stresses during the past 20 years, including light (shade, blue light, green light, and UV-B), drought, high/low temperature, CO2, and salinity. These studies reveal that carbon and nitrogen metabolism is critical to the downstream biosynthesis of quality components. Based on the molecular responses of tea plants to stresses, a series of artificial methods have been suggested to treat the pre-harvest tea plants that are exposed to inhospitable environments to improve the quality components in shoots. Furthermore, many pleiotropic genes that are up- or down-regulated under both single and concurrent stresses were analyzed as the most effective genes for regulating multi-resistance and quality components. These findings deepen our understanding of how environmental stresses affect the quality components of tea, providing novel insights into strategies for balancing plant resistance, growth, and quality components in field-based cultivation and for breeding plants using pleiotropic genes. Full article
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Article
A Win–Win Situation: Performance and Adaptability of Petite Sweetpotato Production in a Temperate Region
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020172 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
New-found interest in sweetpotato production in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Sweetpotatoes are usually grown for fresh market use and novel marketing strategies and new consumer niches are providing farmers options of growing new [...] Read more.
New-found interest in sweetpotato production in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. has been steadily increasing in the last several years. Sweetpotatoes are usually grown for fresh market use and novel marketing strategies and new consumer niches are providing farmers options of growing new sweetpotato varieties with exciting colors and flavor profiles that are adapted to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Petite sweetpotatoes have gained market attention because they are easier to handle and faster to cook compared to U.S. No. 1 storage roots. The goal of this research was to determine the performance and adaptableness of eight commercial sweetpotato varieties and two unreleased accessions for U.S. No.1 and Petite sweetpotato production under black plastic mulch tailored for the mild temperate growing conditions of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Two in-row spacings (15 cm and 30 cm) and two harvest dates (90 and 120 days after planting, DAP) were evaluated during the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons. Our results showed that the ideal harvest time is at least 120 DAP compared to an early harvest at 90 DAP as there was a 2-fold difference in marketable yield at both 15 and 30 cm in-row spacing with marketable yield between 20 and 54 t ha−1. ‘Averre’ and ‘Beauregard’ produced the highest U.S. No. 1 and Petite yields under both in-row spacing treatments harvested at 120 DAP for both years evaluated, though the general effect of in-row spacing and DAP interaction (separate years) on yield performance was cultivar specific. We also found that growing degree days is a better predictor for harvest than days after planting, with an accumulation of at least ~700 GDD (base temperature 15.5 °C) or ~1300 GDD (base temperature 10 °C) for both U.S. No. 1 and Petite roots. Additional studies are required to identify the stability of cultivars tested and treatments imposed with environmental interactions in this region. In addition, there is an urgency for updated sweetpotato management practices exclusively designed for sweetpotato varieties for the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern U.S. Full article
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Review
Underutilized Fruit Crops of Indian Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: Importance, Conservation and Utilization Strategies
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020171 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a large demand for nutrient-dense fruits to promote nutritional and metabolic human health. The production of commercial fruit crops is becoming progressively input-dependent to cope with the losses caused by biotic and abiotic stresses. A wide variety of underutilized crops, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a large demand for nutrient-dense fruits to promote nutritional and metabolic human health. The production of commercial fruit crops is becoming progressively input-dependent to cope with the losses caused by biotic and abiotic stresses. A wide variety of underutilized crops, which are neither commercially cultivated nor traded on a large scale, are mainly grown, commercialized and consumed locally. These underutilized fruits have many advantages in terms of ease to grow, hardiness and resilience to climate changes compared to the major commercially grown crops. In addition, they are exceptionally rich in important phytochemicals and have medicinal value. Hence, their consumption may help to meet the nutritional needs of rural populations, such as those living in fragile arid and semi-arid regions around the world. In addition, local people are well aware of the nutritional and medicinal properties of these crops. Therefore, emphasis must be given to the rigorous study of the conservation and the nutritional characterization of these crops so that the future food basket may be widened for enhancing its functional and nutritional values. In this review, we described the ethnobotany, medicinal and nutritional values, biodiversity conservation and utilization strategies of 19 climate-resilient important, underutilized fruit crops of arid and semi-arid regions (Indian jujube, Indian gooseberry, lasora, bael, kair, karonda, tamarind, wood apple, custard apple, jamun, jharber, mahua, pilu, khejri, mulberry, chironji, manila tamarind, timroo, khirni). Full article
Article
Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalization in Kiwifruit
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020170 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 365
Abstract
Reference genes are used for the correction of qRT-PCR data, and it is necessary to investigate the optimum reference gene under certain conditions. The expression levels of seven traditional reference genes ACT1, ACT2, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, UBQ, TUB [...] Read more.
Reference genes are used for the correction of qRT-PCR data, and it is necessary to investigate the optimum reference gene under certain conditions. The expression levels of seven traditional reference genes ACT1, ACT2, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, UBQ, TUB and CYP were analyzed using qRT-PCR in different varieties, tissues, developmental stages and hormone (or pollen polysaccharide) treatments in kiwifruit. Gene expression stability was assessed with the help of three common software (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper), and the minimum number of reference genes necessary for normalization was also determined. GAPDH, ACT1 and ACT2 were selected as reference genes for different genotypes of kiwifruit. GAPDH and UBQ were the best combinations of reference genes for root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit. GAPDH and ACT1 could be the preferred reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data during fruit development. The pairing of ACT1 and UBQ constituted the optimal combination of reference genes in kiwifruit treated with different hormones (or pollen polysaccharide). This study provides a new and reliable option for the use of reference genes in the analysis of gene expression patterns of interest in kiwifruit. Full article
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Article
Effects of Metribuzin Herbicide on Some Morpho-Physiological Characteristics of Two Echinacea Species
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020169 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 379
Abstract
Echinacea is a perennial plant that is used for its phytotherapeutic potential. Echinacea crops are often affected by invasive weeds. One of the most effective strategies in weed control is the use of chemicals such as herbicides. However, herbicides also affect the physiological [...] Read more.
Echinacea is a perennial plant that is used for its phytotherapeutic potential. Echinacea crops are often affected by invasive weeds. One of the most effective strategies in weed control is the use of chemicals such as herbicides. However, herbicides also affect the physiological and morphological processes of Echinacea. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of different dosages (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 g ha−1) of the postemergent herbicide metribuzin on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia collected from different locations in Iran (E. purpurea from the Shiraz and Isfahan regions and E. angustifolia from the Ardestan and Kazerun regions). Application of metribuzin decreased leaf dry weight for both Echinacea species at high doses (750 and 1250 g ha−1). At high metribuzin dose (1250 g ha−1), E. purpurea Shiraz leaves showed an increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) up to 9.14, while in other species the MDA content was lower. Minimum and maximum fluorescence increased at both the registered dosage (500 g ha1) and at high doses (750–1250 g ha−1) of metribuzin treatments in both species. The Fv/Fm (maximum quantum yield) value was reduced in herbicide treated species, compared to the control, starting at the 250 g ha−1 dose, and was lowest at 750 g ha−1 dose. The results of this study indicate that metribuzin has adverse effects on the physiology and morphology of Echinacea species at dosages above 500 g ha−1. Full article
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Article
Measuring the Supply Chain Performance of the Floricultural Sector Using the SCOR Model and a Multicriteria Decision-Making Method
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020168 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
This study aims to highlight the usefulness of studying the performance of supply chains (SC) at the sectoral level in greater detail through the combination of a disaggregated supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model, with a multicriteria decision-making approach, specifically using an AHP, [...] Read more.
This study aims to highlight the usefulness of studying the performance of supply chains (SC) at the sectoral level in greater detail through the combination of a disaggregated supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model, with a multicriteria decision-making approach, specifically using an AHP, to adjust the analysis to the particularities of the sector under study by stakeholders’ judgements. The methodology was applied to the Ecuadorian flower industry, and the data for the analysis was from a survey of a group of companies that represent this sector. In addition, a focus group of SC experts weighted the model constructs as part of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and then the performance level for each construct was determined. According to the results methodologies, this model allows the classification of companies by their performance, as well as the performance of the aggregate sector. The processes that Ecuadorian flower companies need to improve on are planning, procurement, and manufacturing. The study’s main contribution is developing a general framework for measuring the overall performance of SCs and how the results are obtained. This tool could help managers, consultants, industries, and governments to assess the performance of SCs, as well as improving SC management in order to increase the sector’s competitiveness in the international market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Ornamental Plant Production)
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Article
Metabolic Profiling of Organic Acids Reveals the Involvement of HuIPMS2 in Citramalic Acid Synthesis in Pitaya
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020167 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Pitayas are rich in organic acids, especially citramalic acid, which is significantly higher than the plants. However, the mechanism of citramalic acid biosynthesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, organic acid compositions and contents, as well as expression patterns of key [...] Read more.
Pitayas are rich in organic acids, especially citramalic acid, which is significantly higher than the plants. However, the mechanism of citramalic acid biosynthesis remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, organic acid compositions and contents, as well as expression patterns of key genes related to organic acid metabolism were analyzed during fruit maturation of four different pitaya cultivars i.e., ‘Guanhuabai’ (GHB), ‘Guanhuahong’ (GHH), ‘Wucihuanglong’ (WCHL), and ‘Youcihuanglong’ (YCHL). The total organic acid contents increased first and then declined during fruit maturation. The main organic acids were citramalic acid during the early stages of GHB, GHH, and WCHL pitayas, and dominated by malic acid as fruit maturation. In comparison, citric acid and malic acid were main organic acid for ‘YCHL’ pitaya. Citramalate synthase (IPMS) was involved in the synthesis of citramalic acid, and three types of HuIPMS i.e., HuIPMS1, HuIPMS2, and HuIPMS3, were obtained in our study. Highest expression levels of HuIPMS1 were detected in sepals, while HuIPMS2 and HuIPMS3 exhibited preferential expression in tender stems and ovaries. The expression levels of HuIPMS2 and HuIPMS3 were positively correlated with the content of citramalic acid in the four pitaya cultivars. HuIPMS2 was a chloroplast-localized protein, while HuIPMS3 presented a cytoplasmic-like and nuclear subcellular localization. These findings provide an important basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism that leads to citramalic acid metabolism during pitaya fruit maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fruit Quality Formation and Regulation)
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Review
Development Status and Perspectives of Crop Protection Machinery and Techniques for Vegetables
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020166 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Diseases and pests are important factors in vegetable cultivation; they not only affect the growth and appearance of vegetables but also affect the yield and quality. The disease and pest control of vegetables is dominated by chemical sprays, for now. As a result, [...] Read more.
Diseases and pests are important factors in vegetable cultivation; they not only affect the growth and appearance of vegetables but also affect the yield and quality. The disease and pest control of vegetables is dominated by chemical sprays, for now. As a result, the excessive use of pesticides has been a crucial factor of pesticides’ non-point source pollution, and it is also the main cause of excessive pesticide residues in vegetables. Therefore, the design of efficient plant protection machinery and technology has become an urgent demand in order to ensure the quality and safety of vegetables. In this review, the machinery and technologies for vegetable protection are introduced from the aspects of chemical control and physical control. In the aspect of chemical control, handheld sprayers, self-propelled or track sprayers, fixed-pipe spray systems, vertical and horizontal boom sprayers, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and vegetable seed treatment techniques are introduced. In the aspect of physical control, soil physical disinfection, pest trapping technologies and ozone sterilizers are introduced. Finally, the existing problems and perspectives of pesticide application sprayers and physical control equipment for vegetables are summarized. This paper can provide references for vegetable growers and researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Vegetable Cultivation)
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Article
Construction of an Intragenic SSR-Based Linkage Map and QTL Mapping for Agronomic Traits in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020165 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important vegetables in China. Constructing an effective genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to yield and leafy head morphology is of [...] Read more.
Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important vegetables in China. Constructing an effective genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to yield and leafy head morphology is of great importance for molecular breeding of Chinese cabbage. Using two diverse Chinese cabbage inbred lines, ZHB and G291, as parents, an F2 segregating population consisting of 240 individuals was prepared for genetic map construction and phenotype investigation in this study. The two parents are significantly different in both shape and size. Sixteen important agronomic traits of F2 individuals were investigated. A genetic map of 105 intragenic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across 10 linkage groups (LGs) was constructed, which was 2034.1 cM in length and had an average inter-locus distance of 21.75 cM. We identified 48 QTLs for the tested important agronomic traits on the studied LGs, with LOD scores of 2.51–12.49, which explained the phenotypic variance of 3.41–26.66%. The QTLs identified in this study will facilitate further genetic analysis and marker-assisted genetic improvement of Chinese cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Brassica Crops Genomics and Breeding)
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Article
Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR in Eustoma grandiflorum under Different Experimental Conditions
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020164 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Eustoma grandiflorum, commonly known as prairie gentian or Texas bluebells, is among the most popular agriculturally propagated species of cut flowers. Due to its widespread appeal, there is increasing interest in understanding the molecular genetic factors underlying floral development and resistance to [...] Read more.
Eustoma grandiflorum, commonly known as prairie gentian or Texas bluebells, is among the most popular agriculturally propagated species of cut flowers. Due to its widespread appeal, there is increasing interest in understanding the molecular genetic factors underlying floral development and resistance to abiotic stresses. We analyzed 18 potential reference genes in different organs, at different floral developmental stages and under drought- and salt-stress treatments, for use in RT-qPCR analysis. A total of four analytical tool packages, including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were employed to determine the most appropriate reference genes under each treatment condition. The results demonstrate that different reference genes should be used for normalization under different experimental treatments. EgPP and EgPP2A2 were the most stable internal control genes across different organ types, EgPP and Eg18S were the most stable under salt-stress, EgPP and EgACT1 were the most stable across different floral development stages, and EgEF1A and EgTUA were the most stable reference genes under drought-stress. Additional gene expression analyses of EgMIXTA1, EgTOE1, and EgP5CS1 further confirmed the applicability of these reference genes. The results represent a significant contribution to future studies of reference gene selection for the normalization of gene expression in Eustoma grandiflorum. Full article
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Essay
A Note on the Economics of Fruit Wines: State of the Arts and Research Gaps
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020163 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The paper presents a critical survey for spurring research on the economics of fruit wines. The study performs a bibliometric and content analysis on around 6000 articles on fruit wines for a double purpose. First, the paper aims to describe the state of [...] Read more.
The paper presents a critical survey for spurring research on the economics of fruit wines. The study performs a bibliometric and content analysis on around 6000 articles on fruit wines for a double purpose. First, the paper aims to describe the state of the art of research, including economic research, on fruit wines. Second, focusing on economic research, the paper wants to highlight and critically discuss the gaps that need to be addressed by research in the economics of fruit wines. The main results of the analysis suggest that economic research on fruit wines, different from economic research on grape wines, are very limited in the number of publications and fields/methods of application, except for the economics of apple cider wine. The main paper contributions are (1) informative about the current state of the arts of research on fruit wines and (2) propositional concerning developing economic research that analyzes key market aspects, like production and consumption patterns, price formation, market failures, and distortions, and possible corrections and remedies. The analysis of those aspects represents stimulating research and can provide important insights for strategies and policymaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Wines: Production, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties)
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Article
Membrane Fatty Acids and Physiological Disorders in Cold-Stored ‘Golden Delicious’ Apples Treated with 1-MCP and Calcium Chloride
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020162 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The present research intents to study skin fatty acids and physiological disorders developed during cold storage in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples treated with 1-MCP and calcium. Harvested fruits were treated with calcium chloride (Ca), 1-MCP (MCP), Ca + MCP or no treatment (control) and [...] Read more.
The present research intents to study skin fatty acids and physiological disorders developed during cold storage in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples treated with 1-MCP and calcium. Harvested fruits were treated with calcium chloride (Ca), 1-MCP (MCP), Ca + MCP or no treatment (control) and then subjected to cold storage at 0.5 °C for 6 months. Fatty acids’ composition, malondialdehyde (MDA) and the physiological disorders bitter pit (BP), superficial scald and diffuse skin browning (DSB) were measured at harvest and after storage plus 7 days of shelf-life at room temperature ≈22 °C. Palmitic acid decreased and linoleic acid increased over time, while oleic and stearic acids had few changes. Generally, unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and MDA increased over the storage period. Treatment with Ca showed that, at the end of the experiment, the lowest MDA values and the highest unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio were mainly due to higher linoleic and lower palmitic acids concentrations, which are coincident with less severe BP. There was no clear correlation between the measured fatty acids (palmitic, linoleic, oleic and stearic), unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio or MDA with chilling skin physiological disorders. Further research is needed to clarify the changes in membrane properties and the effect of some treatments in response to chilling injury during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Crops)
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Article
Effects of Biogenic ZnO Nanoparticles on Growth, Physiological, Biochemical Traits and Antioxidants on Olive Tree In Vitro
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020161 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
Currently, there is an increasing interest in nanotechnology, since some nanomaterials can enhance crop growth, yield, nutritional status, and antioxidant defences. This work aimed to investigate for the first time the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the in vitro growth and [...] Read more.
Currently, there is an increasing interest in nanotechnology, since some nanomaterials can enhance crop growth, yield, nutritional status, and antioxidant defences. This work aimed to investigate for the first time the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the in vitro growth and biochemical parameters of the olive tree (cv. Moraiolo). With this goal, biogenic ZnO-NPs (spherical shape and dimensions in the range of 10–20 nm), deriving from a green synthesis carried out with a Lemna minor L. extract were used. Different concentrations (0, 2, 6 and 18 mg L−1) of ZnO-NPs were added to the olive growth medium (OM substrate), and three sub-cultures of 45 days each were carried out. ZnO-NPs at 6 and 18 mg L−1 enhanced some growth parameters in the olive tree explants, such as the number of shoots, green fresh and total dry weight. Moreover, the abovementioned concentrations raised the chlorophyll a and b content and soluble protein. Finally, concerning the dosage applied, the treatments stimulated the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenol content (TPC), and the radical scavenging activity towards DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). In conclusion, this study highlighted that biogenic ZnO-NPs exerted beneficial effects on the olive tree explants in vitro, improving the effectiveness of the micropropagation technique. Full article
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Article
Root Knot Nematode Presence and Its Integrated Management in Pomegranate Orchards Located in Indian Arid Areas
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020160 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 344
Abstract
Nematodes are a serious problem across pomegranate-growing areas worldwide, but the severity is higher in light sandy soils of arid regions. The present study was carried out to explore the integrated approaches for the control of nematodes in pomegranate. Three different experiments were [...] Read more.
Nematodes are a serious problem across pomegranate-growing areas worldwide, but the severity is higher in light sandy soils of arid regions. The present study was carried out to explore the integrated approaches for the control of nematodes in pomegranate. Three different experiments were carried out during 2017–2020 to (a) delineate nematode abundance in major pomegranate areas, (b) screen pomegranate genotypes against nematode, and (c) assess the efficacy of integrated management for the control of root knot nematode in pomegranate. The survey results revealed that none of the pomegranate orchards were found to be free from nematode infestation. Moreover, the majority of the orchards (78%) showed moderate incidence (10.1 to 40%) of infestation. A significant yield reduction (40.2%) and a decrease in fruit size was observed in nematode-affected trees. Pattern of cuticular markings in the perineal area of the mature female confirmed the occurrence of Meloidogyne incognita only in all the surveyed orchard of pomegranate. All the evaluated genotypes and varieties were found susceptible to root knot nematodes, but the severity of the attack varied among them. Hence, more detailed screening is needed on a larger population. Nematode population (number of galls g−1 root) can be minimized significantly with the combined applications of Carbofuran at 20 g + Fluensulfone at 20 g per plant or Neemcake 500 g + Paecilomyceslilacinus at 25 mL + Carbofuran at 20 g + Fluensulfone at 20 g per plant in April and August. Full article
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Article
Tolerance and Recovery Capacity to Reclaimed Wastewater Irrigation of Salvia officinalis and Asteriscus maritimus Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020159 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 335
Abstract
This work attempts to identify which of two species with different levels of salinity tolerance, Salvia officinalis L. or Asteriscus maritimus L., is more suitable for irrigation with reclaimed wastewater, as well as the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus iranicum on the [...] Read more.
This work attempts to identify which of two species with different levels of salinity tolerance, Salvia officinalis L. or Asteriscus maritimus L., is more suitable for irrigation with reclaimed wastewater, as well as the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza Glomus iranicum on the plant. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber with a first phase, where both species were irrigated with good quality water, a second phase in which the plants were irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, and a third phase in which the plants were irrigated with good quality water again (recovery). Salinity caused a reduction in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis in both species. The percentage of mycorrhization was higher in Asteriscus than in Salvia, mitigating the decrease in leaf water potential. There was osmotic adjustment in Salvia, although the proline content increased in both species. The damages produced were clearer in Salvia, in which lipid peroxidation values were higher. Likewise, the visual appearance of the leaves showed symptoms of toxicity in this species, although the mycorrhizae diminished these effects. Irrigation with good quality water induced the recovery of lipid peroxidation in both species, as well as the appearance of new leaves in Salvia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Roles in Horticultural Plants)
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Article
Chinese Cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) ARF7 Participates in Root Development and Responds to Drought and Low Phosphorus
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020158 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
In this paper, an auxin-responsive transcription factor, CpARF7, was isolated from the roots of Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl. Cv. “Manao Hong”). CpARF7 is highly homologous to AtARF7 or AtARF19 in Arabidopsis, and PavARF1 or PavARF14 in sweet cherry. However, [...] Read more.
In this paper, an auxin-responsive transcription factor, CpARF7, was isolated from the roots of Chinese cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl. Cv. “Manao Hong”). CpARF7 is highly homologous to AtARF7 or AtARF19 in Arabidopsis, and PavARF1 or PavARF14 in sweet cherry. However, in the phenotype of transgenic tomatoes, the root morphology changed, the main root elongated, and the lateral root increased. Both drought treatment and low-phosphorus conditions can elongate the roots of transgenic tomatoes. In addition, the drought resistance and low-phosphorus tolerance of the transgenic lines are improved, and the POD, SOD, and CAT activities under drought and low-phosphorus environments are increased. There is an effect on the tomato somatotropin suppressor gene, SlIAAs, in which SlIAA1/14/19/29 are up-regulated and SlIAA2/11/12/16 are down-regulated. These results indicate that CpARF7 plays an essential regulatory role in root formation and abiotic stress response, and deepens the understanding of auxin-responsive genes in root growth and abiotic stress. Full article
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Article
Shortening the Vegetative Growth Stage of Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ by Controlling Light with Calcium Ammonium Nitrate Levels under Enriched CO2
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020157 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The vegetative growth, photosynthetic, and stomatal characteristics were investigated in Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ to determine light’s influence with calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) levels under 800 μmol·mol−1 CO2. Two lights (150 ± 20 and 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s [...] Read more.
The vegetative growth, photosynthetic, and stomatal characteristics were investigated in Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ to determine light’s influence with calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) levels under 800 μmol·mol−1 CO2. Two lights (150 ± 20 and 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1) and CAN levels were employed for 40 weeks: calcium, ammonium, and nitrate levels by 0.90, 0.55, and 2.97 mmol·L−1 (CAN1), 8.63, 1.11, and 6.05 mmol·L−1 (CAN2), 12.80, 1.72, and 9.13 mmol·L−1 (CAN3), and 18.80, 2.27, and 12.20 mmol·L−1 (CAN4), respectively. The number of leaves increased in the plants grown at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 with CAN1 compared to control. Plants grown at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 with CAN4 had the lowest number of leaves among all plants. The time to the mature leaf span decreased in the plants grown at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 with CAN1. The net CO2 uptake was higher in the plants grown at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 than those grown at 150 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 with CAN1–3 conditions. The water-use efficiency is higher in the plants grown with CAN1 than those with CAN2–4 at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1. The maximum stomatal aperture was the largest in the plants grown at 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 with CAN1–2 among all plants. Consequently, light levels of 300 ± 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 in Phalaenopsis Queen Beer ‘Mantefon’ must be accompanied by nutrient CAN1 to improve photosynthesis and stomatal activity and promote leaf growth under 800 μmol·mol−1 CO2 conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ornamental Plant Cultivation and Physiology)
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Article
Phytochemicals, Proximate Composition, Mineral Analysis and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Calligonum crinitum Boiss
Horticulturae 2022, 8(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8020156 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Medicinal herbs are potential sources of biomolecules and their analogues that have great relevance in the preparation of modern medicines. Calligonum crinitum, a perennial shrub growing in the United Arab Emirates, has been utilized in the study to validate the therapeutic properties [...] Read more.
Medicinal herbs are potential sources of biomolecules and their analogues that have great relevance in the preparation of modern medicines. Calligonum crinitum, a perennial shrub growing in the United Arab Emirates, has been utilized in the study to validate the therapeutic properties exploited in the traditional medicinal system of UAE. The phytochemical screening of the plant employing different solvents of methanolics and ethyl-acetates, expressed varied proportions of monosaccharides and carbohydrates along with tannins and saponins, which are high potency molecules for therapeutic applications. The presence of total phenol and flavonoid contents derived from methanolic extracts indicates antioxidant potentials and the defense mechanisms of the plant. Proximate and mineral nutrient analysis validates the significance of the extracts with a high amount of carbohydrates and proteins along with significantly high amounts of Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg and K involved in various metabolic reactions. Similarly, the ABTS radical scavenging activity varied significantly (p < 0.05) and ranged from 10 to 160 µg GAE/g in the methanolic extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity exhibited a significantly high DPPH activity in methanolic extracts with free radical scavenging activity of 72%. Hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity was also found to be high in the Calligonum extracts along with SOD (49–83%, compared to the standard GAE 37–58%). Nitric oxide scavenging was also found to be high in the extracts, thereby decreasing the content of NO. Thus, our results confirm that the derived extracts have potential antioxidants, and this legitimizes their use in folkloric medicine. These results are highly significant as they can pave the way for future scientific validation of the traditional knowledge of this important medicinal plant. Full article
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