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Article

Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

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Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology (RENORBIO), Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife 52171-900, Pernambuco, Brazil
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Center for Studies and Research of Medicinal Plants (NEPLAME), Federal University of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina 56304-205, Pernambuco, Brazil
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LEPABE—Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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ALiCE—Associate Laboratory in Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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Research Team on Biological Engineering, Agrifood and Aquaculture, Polydisciplinary Faculty of Larache FPL, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan 95000, Morocco
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Cosmetics 2022, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039
Received: 18 February 2022 / Revised: 25 March 2022 / Accepted: 26 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
Morus nigra L. is a species popularly known in the Northeast of Brazil as “amora miúra”. This species is a source of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. Antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of cosmetic formulations, and they neutralize free radicals. The objective of this study was to develop a topical emulsion containing leaf extract of Morus nigra L., as well as to evaluate the stability, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the formulations. A crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract of M. nigra leaves (MnCE) was submitted to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) analysis and incorporated into an anionic base emulsion. Antioxidant activity was evaluated according to the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, and the stability of the formulation was assessed for 90 days, submitting the emulsion to storage at 4, 20, and 37 °C. Microdilution techniques evaluated the antibacterial activity and a challenge test assessed the microbiological stability. Analysis by HPLC–DAD identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercetin in the M. nigra extract. The emulsion and plant extract presented antioxidant activity, and the stability of the emulsion was preserved in terms of pH value and viscosity—which did not show significant changes, except for the spreadability, which was affected by the temperature. The antioxidant activity did not change significantly, except for the sample under 4 °C, which showed a considerable decrease in activity. The crude hydroalcoholic extract and formulation showed antimicrobial activity and the emulsion was considered stable in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and microbiological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Morus nigra; black mulberry; phytocosmetics; plant extracts; antioxidants; antibacterial; stability of cosmetics; cosmetic formulations; topical emulsions Morus nigra; black mulberry; phytocosmetics; plant extracts; antioxidants; antibacterial; stability of cosmetics; cosmetic formulations; topical emulsions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melo, R.S.d.; Reis, S.A.G.B.; Guimarães, A.L.; Silva, N.D.d.S.; Rocha, J.M.; El Aouad, N.; Almeida, J.R.G.d.S. Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities. Cosmetics 2022, 9, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039

AMA Style

Melo RSd, Reis SAGB, Guimarães AL, Silva NDdS, Rocha JM, El Aouad N, Almeida JRGdS. Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities. Cosmetics. 2022; 9(2):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melo, Rafaela Santos de, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim Reis, Amanda Leite Guimarães, Naiane Darklei dos Santos Silva, Joao Miguel Rocha, Noureddine El Aouad, and Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida. 2022. "Phytocosmetic Emulsion Containing Extract of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae): Development, Stability Study, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities" Cosmetics 9, no. 2: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9020039

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