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Mar. Drugs, Volume 17, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Collagen plays an integral role in cartilage, and with the surge in the development of biomaterials [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Properties in Vitro and in Vivo of a Novel Sulfated Polysaccharide from Marine Green Alga Monostroma nitidum
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040247
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae have high potential as promising candidates for marine drug development. In this study, a homogeneous sulfated polysaccharide from the marine green alga Monostroma nitidum, designated MS-1, was isolated using water extraction and anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Results [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae have high potential as promising candidates for marine drug development. In this study, a homogeneous sulfated polysaccharide from the marine green alga Monostroma nitidum, designated MS-1, was isolated using water extraction and anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that MS-1 mainly consisted of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ residues, with additional branches consisting of 4-linked β-d-xylose, 4-/6-linked d-glucose, terminal β-d-glucuronic acid, and 3-/2-linked α-l-rhamnose. Sulfate ester groups substituted mainly at C-2/C-4 of →3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ and C-4 of →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→ residues, slightly at C-2 of terminal β-d-glucuronic residues. MS-1 exhibited strong anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo as evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays, and significantly decreased platelet aggregation. The anticoagulant activity mechanism of MS-1 was mainly attributed to strong potentiation thrombin by heparin cofactor-II, and it also hastened thrombin and coagulation factor Xa inhibitions by potentiating antithrombin-III. MS-1 possessed markedly thrombolytic activity evaluated by plasminogen activator inhibitior-1, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer levels using rats plasma, and recanalization rate by FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombosis in mice. MS-1 exhibited strong antithrombotic activity in vitro and in vivo evaluated by the wet weighs and lengths of thrombus, and thrombus occlusion time by electrically-induced carotid artery thrombosis in rats. These results suggested that MS-1 could be a promising marine drug for prevention and therapy of thromboembolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Application of Macroalgae-Derived Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanogels Derived from Fish Gelatin: Application to Drug Delivery System
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040246
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The gelatin extracted from mammals of porcine and bovine has been prominently used in pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic products. However, there have been some concerns for their usage due to religious, social and cultural objections, and animal-to-human infectious disease. Recently, gelatin from marine [...] Read more.
The gelatin extracted from mammals of porcine and bovine has been prominently used in pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic products. However, there have been some concerns for their usage due to religious, social and cultural objections, and animal-to-human infectious disease. Recently, gelatin from marine by-products has received growing attention as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. In this study, we demonstrate the formation of nanogels (NGs) using fish gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and their application possibility to the drug delivery system. The fabrication of fish GelMA NGs is carried out by crosslinking through the photopolymerization of the methacryloyl substituent present in the nanoemulsion droplets, followed by purification and redispersion. There were different characteristics depending on the aqueous phase in the emulsion and the type of solvent used in redispersion. The PBS-NGs/D.W., which was prepared using PBS for the aqueous phase and D.W. for the final dispersion solution, had a desirable particle size (<200 nm), low PdI (0.16), and high drug loading efficiency (77%). Spherical NGs particles were observed without aggregation in TEM images. In vitro release tests of doxorubicin (DOX)-GelMA NGs showed the pH-dependent release behavior of DOX. Also, the MTT experiments demonstrated that DOX-GelMA NGs effectively inhibited cell growth, while only GelMA NGs exhibit higher percentages of cell viability. Therefore, the results suggest that fish GelMA NGs have a potential for nano-carrier as fine individual particles without the aggregation and cytotoxicity to deliver small-molecule drugs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A General Strategy for the Stereoselective Synthesis of the Furanosesquiterpenes Structurally Related to Pallescensins 1–2
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040245
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Here, we describe a general stereoselective synthesis of the marine furanosesquiterpenes structurally related to pallescensins 1–2. The stereoisomeric forms of the pallescensin 1, pallescensin 2, and dihydropallescensin 2 were obtained in high chemical and isomeric purity, whereas isomicrocionin-3 was synthesized for the first [...] Read more.
Here, we describe a general stereoselective synthesis of the marine furanosesquiterpenes structurally related to pallescensins 1–2. The stereoisomeric forms of the pallescensin 1, pallescensin 2, and dihydropallescensin 2 were obtained in high chemical and isomeric purity, whereas isomicrocionin-3 was synthesized for the first time. The sesquiterpene framework was built up by means of the coupling of the C10 cyclogeranyl moiety with the C5 3-(methylene)furan moiety. The key steps of our synthetic procedure are the stereoselective synthesis of four cyclogeraniol isomers, their conversion into the corresponding cyclogeranylsulfonylbenzene derivatives, their alkylation with 3-(chloromethyl)furan, and the final reductive cleavage of the phenylsulfonyl functional group to afford the whole sesquiterpene framework. The enantioselective synthesis of the α-, 3,4-dehydro-γ- and γ-cyclogeraniol isomers was performed using both a lipase-mediated resolution procedure and different regioselective chemical transformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic and Biosynthetic Approaches to Marine Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Peptide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) to Suppress Metastasis and Vasculogenic Mimicry of Tumor Cells and Enhance Anti-Tumor Effect In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040244
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formed by tumor cells plays a vital role in the progress of tumor, because it provides nutrition for tumor cells and takes away the metabolites. Therefore, the inhibition of VM is crucial to the clinical treatment of tumors. In this [...] Read more.
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formed by tumor cells plays a vital role in the progress of tumor, because it provides nutrition for tumor cells and takes away the metabolites. Therefore, the inhibition of VM is crucial to the clinical treatment of tumors. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of a novel peptide, KVEPQDPSEW (AATP), isolated from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) on HT1080 cells by migration, invasion analysis and the mode of action. The results showed that AATP effectively inhibited MMPs by blocking MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, leading to the downregulation of metastasis of tumor cells. Moreover, AATP significantly inhibited VM and pro-angiogenic factors, including VEGF and MMPs by suppression of AKT/mTOR signaling. In addition, molecular docking was used to study the interaction of AATP and HIF-1α, and the results showed that AATP was combined with an active site of HIF-1α by a hydrogen bond. The effect of AATP on anti-metastatic and anti-vascular in HT1080 cells revealed that AATP may be a potential lead compound for treatment of tumors in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Broad-Spectrum Anti-Adhesive Coating Based on an Extracellular Polymer from a Marine Cyanobacterium
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040243
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Medical device-associated infections are a major health threat, representing about half of all hospital-acquired infections. Current strategies to prevent this problem based on device coatings with antimicrobial compounds (antibiotics or antiseptics) have proven to be insufficient, often toxic, and even promoting bacterial resistance. [...] Read more.
Medical device-associated infections are a major health threat, representing about half of all hospital-acquired infections. Current strategies to prevent this problem based on device coatings with antimicrobial compounds (antibiotics or antiseptics) have proven to be insufficient, often toxic, and even promoting bacterial resistance. Herein, we report the development of an infection-preventive coating (CyanoCoating) produced with an extracellular polymer released by the marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. CCY 0110. CyanoCoating was prepared by spin-coating and its bacterial anti-adhesive efficiency was evaluated against relevant etiological agents (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and platelets, both in the presence or absence of human plasma proteins. CyanoCoating cytotoxicity was assessed using the L929 fibroblasts cell line. CyanoCoating exhibited a smooth topography, low thickness and high hydrophilic properties with mild negative charge. The non-cytotoxic CyanoCoating prevented adhesion of all the bacteria tested (≤80%) and platelets (<87%), without inducing platelet activation (even in the presence of plasma proteins). The significant reduction in protein adsorption (<77%) confirmed its anti-adhesive properties. The development of this anti-adhesive coating is an important step towards the establishment of a new technological platform capable of preventing medical device-associated infections, without inducing thrombus formation in blood-contacting applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Astaxanthin as a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulator: Its Therapeutic Implications
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040242
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are part of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily that plays a pivotal role in functions such as glucose and lipid homeostasis. Astaxanthin (ASX) is a lipid-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid synthesized by many microorganisms and various types of marine life that [...] Read more.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are part of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily that plays a pivotal role in functions such as glucose and lipid homeostasis. Astaxanthin (ASX) is a lipid-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid synthesized by many microorganisms and various types of marine life that is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, and anticancer activities. As such, it is a promising nutraceutical resource. ASX-mediated modulation of PPARs and its therapeutic implications in various pathophysiological conditions are described in this review. ASX primarily enhances the action of PPARα and suppresses that of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, but it has also been confirmed that ASX displays the opposite effects on PPARs, depending on the cell context. Anti-inflammatory effects of ASX are mediated by PPARγ activation, which induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and gastric epithelial cells. The PPARγ-agonistic effect of ASX treatment results in the inhibition of cellular growth and apoptosis in tumor cells. Simultaneous and differential regulation of PPARα and PPARγ activity by ASX has demonstrated a hepatoprotective effect, maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis and preventing related hepatic problems. Considering additional therapeutic benefits of ASX such as anti-gastric, cardioprotective, immuno-modulatory, neuroprotective, retinoprotective, and osteogenic effects, more studies on the association between ASX-mediated PPAR regulation and its therapeutic outcomes in various pathophysiological conditions are needed to further elucidate the role of ASX as a novel nutraceutical PPAR modulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent)
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Open AccessReview
Marine Macrolides with Antibacterial and/or Antifungal Activity
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040241
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Currently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics is a serious problem. Marine organisms are the source of thousands of substances, which also have antibacterial and antifungal effects. Among them, marine macrolides are significant. In this review, the antibacterial and/or antifungal activities of [...] Read more.
Currently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics is a serious problem. Marine organisms are the source of thousands of substances, which also have antibacterial and antifungal effects. Among them, marine macrolides are significant. In this review, the antibacterial and/or antifungal activities of 34 groups of marine macrolides are presented. Exemplary groups are chalcomycins, curvulides, halichondramides, lobophorins, macrolactins, modiolides, scytophycins, spongistatins, or zearalanones. In the paper, 74 antibiotics or their analog sets, among which 29 with antifungal activity, 25 that are antibacterial, and 20 that are both antifungal and antibacterial are summarized. Also, 36 macrolides or their sets are produced by bacteria, 18 by fungi, ten by sponges, seven by algae, two by porifera, and one by nudibranch. Moreover, the chemical structures of representatives from each of the 34 groups of these antibiotics are presented. To summarize, marine organisms are rich in natural macrolides. Some of these may be used in the future in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. Marine macrolides can also be potential drugs applicable against pathogens resistant to currently known antibiotics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Actinomycin D Biosynthetic Pathway from Marine-Derived Streptomyces costaricanus SCSIO ZS0073
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040240
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomycetes are important sources of lead compounds in current drug development. Streptomyces costaricanus SCSIO ZS0073, a mangrove-derived actinomycete, produces actinomycin D, a clinically used therapeutic for Wilm’s tumor of the kidney, trophoblastic tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomycetes are important sources of lead compounds in current drug development. Streptomyces costaricanus SCSIO ZS0073, a mangrove-derived actinomycete, produces actinomycin D, a clinically used therapeutic for Wilm’s tumor of the kidney, trophoblastic tumors and rhabdomyosarcoma. In this work, we identified the actinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) acn by detailed analyses of the S. costaricanus SCSIO ZS0073 genome. This organism produces actinomycin D with a titer of ~69.8 μg mL−1 along with traces of actinomycin X. The acn cluster localized to a 39.8 kb length region consisting of 25 open reading frames (ORFs), including a set of four genes that drive the construction of the 4-methyl-3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid (4-MHA) precursor and three non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) that generate the 4-MHA pentapeptide semi-lactone, which, upon dimerization, affords final actinomycin D. Furthermore, the acn cluster contains four positive regulatory genes acnWU4RO, which were identified by in vivo gene inactivation studies. Our data provide insights into the genetic characteristics of this new mangrove-derived actinomycin D bioproducer, enabling future metabolic engineering campaigns to improve both titers and the structural diversities possible for actinomycin D and related analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Antifungal and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Polymers Obtained from Nontraditional Polybius henslowii Sources
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040239
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 24 March 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the [...] Read more.
Chitin was extracted from Polybius henslowii, a swimming crab, captured in large quantities throughout the Portuguese coast by purse seine vessels as bycatch. After standard chitin extraction procedures, water-soluble chitosan products were obtained via two different methods: (1) N-acetylation with the addition of acetic anhydride and (2) a reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The chemical structure and molecular weight of chitosan derivatives, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) and chitooligosaccharides (COS), were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Antioxidant and metal chelation activities were evaluated, and the growth inhibition capacity was tested on four phytopatogens. The chitooligosaccharides from pereopods (pCOS) and shell body parts (sCOS) inhibited all fungal species tested, particularly Cryphonectria parasitica with 84.7% and 85.5%, respectively. Both radical scavenging and antifungal activities proved to be dose-dependent. Chitooligosaccharides with a low molecular weight (2.7, 7.4, and 10.4 Kg·mol−1) showed the highest activity among all properties tested. These results suggested that chitosan derivatives from P. henslowii raw material could potentially be used against phytopathogens or as ingredient in cosmetics and other products related to oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Activation Studies of the γ-Carbonic Anhydrases from the Antarctic Marine Bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and Colwellia psychrerythraea with Amino Acids and Amines
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040238
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
The γ-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) present in the Antarctic marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and Colwellia psychrerythraea, herein referred to as PhaCA and CpsCA, respectively, were investigated for their activation with a panel of 24 amino acids and amines. Both bacteria are [...] Read more.
The γ-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) present in the Antarctic marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis and Colwellia psychrerythraea, herein referred to as PhaCA and CpsCA, respectively, were investigated for their activation with a panel of 24 amino acids and amines. Both bacteria are considered Antarctic models for the investigation of photosynthetic and metabolic pathways in organisms adapted to live in cold seawater. PhaCA was much more sensitive to activation by these compounds compared to the genetically related enzyme CpsCA. The most effective PhaCA activators were d-Phe, l-/d-DOPA, l-Tyr and 2-pyridyl-methylamine, with the activation constant KA values of 0.72–3.27 µM. d-His, l-Trp, d-Tyr, histamine, dopamine, serotonin anddicarboxylic amino acids were also effective activators of PhaCA, with KA values of 6.48–9.85 µM. CpsCA was activated by d-Phe, d-DOPA, l-Trp, l-/d-Tyr, 4-amino-l-Phe, histamine, 2-pyridyl-methylamine and l-/d-Glu with KA values of 11.2–24.4 µM. The most effective CpsCA activator was l-DOPA (KA of 4.79 µM). Given that modulators of CAs from Antarctic bacteria have not been identified and investigated in detail for their metabolic roles to date, this research sheds some light on these poorly understood processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrase in Marine Organism)
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Open AccessArticle
Dokdolipids A−C, Hydroxylated Rhamnolipids from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040237
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
Three new hydroxylated rhamnolipids, dokdolipids A−C (13) were obtained from the marine actinomycete Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, which was isolated from a sediment sample collected off the coasts of Dokdo island, Republic of Korea. The structures of the isolated compounds [...] Read more.
Three new hydroxylated rhamnolipids, dokdolipids A−C (13) were obtained from the marine actinomycete Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, which was isolated from a sediment sample collected off the coasts of Dokdo island, Republic of Korea. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data analyses. Their absolute configurations were assigned using the modified Mosher’s method and specific rotation values, as well as acid hydrolysis, chemical derivatizations and subsequent HPLC analysis to determine the configuration of the sugar moieties. All new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against six cancer cell lines, HCT-15, NUGC-3, NCI-H23, ACHN, PC-3 and MDA-MB-231. Compounds 13 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against all the cell lines tested with IC50 values ranging from 13.7−41.5 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids with Biological Interest)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Injectable Fucoidan and Biological Macromolecules Hybrid Hydrogels for Intra-Articular Delivery of Platelet-Rich Plasma
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040236
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is rich in growth factors and has commonly been utilized in the repair and regeneration of damaged articular cartilage. However, the major drawbacks of direct PRP injection are unstable biological fixation and fast or burst release of growth factors. Fucoidan [...] Read more.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is rich in growth factors and has commonly been utilized in the repair and regeneration of damaged articular cartilage. However, the major drawbacks of direct PRP injection are unstable biological fixation and fast or burst release of growth factors. Fucoidan is a heparinoid compound that can bind growth factors to control their release rate. Furthermore, fucoidan can reduce arthritis through suppressing inflammatory responses and thus it has been reported to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis, promote bone regeneration and accelerate healing of cartilage injury. Injectable hydrogels can be used to deliver cells and growth factors for an alternative, less invasive treatment of cartilage defects. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) and fucoidan (FD) was blended with gelatin (GLT) and the GLT/HA/FD hybrid was further cross-linked with genipin (GP) to prepare injectable GP-GLT/HA/FD hydrogels. The gelation rate was affected by the GP, GLT, HA and FD concentrations, as well as the pH values. The addition of HA and FD to GLT networks improved the mechanical strength of the hydrogels and facilitated the sustained release of PRP growth factors. The GP-GLT/HA/FD hydrogel showed adequate injectability, shape-persistent property and strong adhesive ability, and was more resistant to enzymatic degradation. The PRP-loaded GP-GLT/HA/FD hydrogel promoted cartilage regeneration in rabbits, which may lead to an advanced PRP therapy for enhancing cartilage repair. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
C-phycocyanin from Limnothrix Species KNUA002 Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity by Blocking the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in Auditory Cells
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040235
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Ototoxicity, or adverse pharmacological effects on the inner ear or auditory nerve, is a common side effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based drug widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Although the incidence of ototoxicity is high among patients that receive cisplatin therapy, there is currently [...] Read more.
Ototoxicity, or adverse pharmacological effects on the inner ear or auditory nerve, is a common side effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based drug widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Although the incidence of ototoxicity is high among patients that receive cisplatin therapy, there is currently no effective treatment for it. The generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to be the major cause of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a blue phycobiliprotein found in cyanobacteria and red algae, has antioxidant and anticancer activities in different experimental models in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we tested the ability of C-PC from Limnothrix sp. KNUA002 to protect auditory cells from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in vitro. Pretreatment with C-PC from Limnothrix sp. KNUA002 inhibited apoptosis and protected mitochondrial function by preventing ROS accumulation in cisplatin-treated House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells, a mouse auditory cell line. Cisplatin increased the expression of Bax and reduced the expression of Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit, respectively, the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in response to oxidative stress. Pretreatment with C-PC prior to cisplatin treatment caused the Bax and Bcl-2 levels to stay close to the levels in untreated control cells. Our results suggest that C-PC from Limnothrix sp. KNUA002 protects cells against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Compound 3-Bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde Protects Skin Cells against Oxidative Damage via the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040234
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we aimed to illustrate the potential bio-effects of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3-BDB) on the antioxidant/cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in keratinocytes. The antioxidant effects of 3-BDB were examined via reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, HO-1 activity assay, and immunocytochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to illustrate the potential bio-effects of 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3-BDB) on the antioxidant/cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in keratinocytes. The antioxidant effects of 3-BDB were examined via reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, HO-1 activity assay, and immunocytochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was performed to test for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binding to the antioxidant response element of the HO-1 promoter. Furthermore, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that the cytoprotective effects of 3-BDB were mediated by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) signaling. Moreover, 3-BDB induced the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, while inhibitors of ERK and Akt abrogated the 3-BDB-enhanced levels of HO-1 and Nrf2. Finally, 3-BDB protected cells from H2O2- and UVB-induced oxidative damage. This 3-BDB-mediated cytoprotection was suppressed by inhibitors of HO-1, ERK, and Akt. The present results indicate that 3-BDB activated Nrf2 signaling cascades in keratinocytes, which was mediated by ERK and Akt, upregulated HO-1, and induced cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates from Different Habitats as Sources of PUFAs
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040233
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to [...] Read more.
Recent studies have clearly shown the importance of omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human and animal health. The long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6ω-3) are especially recognized for their nutritional value, and ability to alleviate many diseases in humans. So far, fish oil has been the main human source of EPA and DHA, but alternative sources are needed to satisfy the growing need for them. Therefore, we compared a fatty acid profile and content of 10 diatoms and seven dinoflagellates originating from marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. These two phytoplankton groups were chosen since they are excellent producers of EPA and DHA in aquatic food webs. Multivariate analysis revealed that, whereas the phytoplankton group (46%) explained most of the differences in the fatty acid profiles, habitat (31%) together with phytoplankton group (24%) explained differences in the fatty acid contents. In both diatoms and dinoflagellates, the total fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs were markedly higher in freshwater than in brackish or marine strains. Our results show that, even though the fatty acid profiles are genetically ordered, the fatty acid contents may vary greatly by habitat and affect the ω-3 and ω-6 availability in food webs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Sources and Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Marine Spirotetronates: Biosynthetic Edifices That Inspire Drug Discovery
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040232
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Spirotetronates are actinomyces-derived polyketides that possess complex structures and exhibit potent and unexplored bioactivities. Due to their anticancer and antimicrobial properties, they have potential as drug hits and deserve further study. In particular, abyssomicin C and tetrocarcin A have shown significant promise against [...] Read more.
Spirotetronates are actinomyces-derived polyketides that possess complex structures and exhibit potent and unexplored bioactivities. Due to their anticancer and antimicrobial properties, they have potential as drug hits and deserve further study. In particular, abyssomicin C and tetrocarcin A have shown significant promise against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and tuberculosis, as well as for the treatment of various lymphomas and solid tumors. Improved synthetic routes to these compounds, particularly the class II spirotetronates, are needed to access sufficient quantities for structure optimization and clinical applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Global Distribution of Mangroves―A Comprehensive Review
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040231
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Mangroves are ecologically important plants in marine habitats that occupy the coastlines of many countries. In addition to their key ecological importance, various parts of mangroves are widely used in folklore medicine and claimed to effectively manage a panoply of human pathologies. To [...] Read more.
Mangroves are ecologically important plants in marine habitats that occupy the coastlines of many countries. In addition to their key ecological importance, various parts of mangroves are widely used in folklore medicine and claimed to effectively manage a panoply of human pathologies. To date, no comprehensive attempt has been made to compile and critically analyze the published literature in light of its ethnopharmacological uses. This review aims to provide a comprehensive account of the morphological characteristics, ethnobotany, global distribution, taxonomy, ethnopharmacology, phytochemical profiles, and pharmacological activities of traditionally used mangroves. Out of 84 mangrove species, only 27 species were found to be traditionally used, however not all of them are pharmacologically validated. The most common pharmacological activities reported were antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties. Mangroves traditionally reported against ulcers have not been extensively validated for possible pharmacological properties. Terpenoids, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins were the main classes of phytochemicals isolated from mangroves. Given that mangroves have huge potential for a wide array of medicinal products and drug discovery to prevent and treat many diseases, there is a dire need for careful investigations substantiated with accurate scientific and clinical evidence to ensure safety and efficient use of these plants and validate their pharmacological properties and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Mangroves and Their-Associated Microbes)
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Open AccessArticle
Anverenes B–E, New Polyhalogenated Monoterpenes from the Antarctic Red Alga Plocamium cartilagineum
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040230
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The subtidal red alga Plocamium cartilagineum was collected from the Western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2011 and 2017 austral summers. Bulk collections from specific sites corresponded to chemogroups identified by Young et al. in 2013. One of the chemogroups yielded several known acyclic [...] Read more.
The subtidal red alga Plocamium cartilagineum was collected from the Western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2011 and 2017 austral summers. Bulk collections from specific sites corresponded to chemogroups identified by Young et al. in 2013. One of the chemogroups yielded several known acyclic halogenated monoterpenes (25) as well as undescribed compounds of the same class, anverenes B–D (68). Examination of another chemogroup yielded an undescribed cyclic halogenated monoterpene anverene E (9) as its major secondary metabolite. Elucidation of structures was achieved through one-dimensional (1D) and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Compounds 19 show moderate cytotoxicity against cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids from Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Chlorophyll Derivatives from Marine Cyanobacteria with Lipid-Reducing Activities
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040229
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described [...] Read more.
Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a (1) and the new compound 132-hydroxy-pheofarnesin a (2). The structure elucidation of the new compound 2 was established based on one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant neutral lipid-reducing activity in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay after 48 h of exposure with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 8.9 ± 0.4 µM for 1 and 15.5 ± 1.3 µM for 2. Both compounds additionally reduced neutral lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 multicellular spheroids of murine preadipocytes. Molecular profiling of mRNA expression of some target genes was evaluated for the higher potent compound 1, which indicated altered peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression. Lipolysis was not affected. Different food materials (Spirulina, Chlorella, spinach, and cabbage) were evaluated for the presence of 1, and the cyanobacterium Spirulina, with GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status for human consumption, contained high amounts of 1. In summary, known and novel chlorophyll derivatives were discovered from marine cyanobacteria with relevant lipid-reducing activities, which in the future may be developed into nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Antiangiogenic Potential of Solomonamide A Bioactive Precursors: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences of the Inhibitory Activity of Solo F-OH During Angiogenesis
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040228
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Marine sponges are a prolific source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the putative antiangiogenic potential of a series of synthetic precursors of Solomonamide A, a cyclic peptide isolated from a marine sponge, was evaluated. By means of an in vitro screening, based [...] Read more.
Marine sponges are a prolific source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the putative antiangiogenic potential of a series of synthetic precursors of Solomonamide A, a cyclic peptide isolated from a marine sponge, was evaluated. By means of an in vitro screening, based on the inhibitory activity of endothelial tube formation, the compound Solo F–OH was selected for a deeper characterization of its antiangiogenic potential. Our results indicate that Solo F–OH is able to inhibit some key steps of the angiogenic process, including the proliferation, migration, and invasion of endothelial cells, as well as diminish their capability to degrade the extracellular matrix proteins. The antiangiogenic potential of Solo F–OH was confirmed by means of two different in vivo models: the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the zebrafish yolk membrane (ZFYM) assays. The reduction in ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in endothelial cells treated with Solo F–OH denotes that this compound could target the upstream components that are common to both pathways. Taken together, our results show a new and interesting biological activity of Solo F–OH as an inhibitor of the persistent and deregulated angiogenesis that characterizes cancer and other pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
The Ameliorating Effect of Plasma Protein from Tachypleus tridentatus on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040227
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
In the study, the protective effect of plasma protein from Tachypleus tridentatus (PPTT) on acute kidney injury (AKI) and the related molecular mechanisms were first investigated by Western blotting analyses, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry. It was found that PPTT [...] Read more.
In the study, the protective effect of plasma protein from Tachypleus tridentatus (PPTT) on acute kidney injury (AKI) and the related molecular mechanisms were first investigated by Western blotting analyses, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry. It was found that PPTT had an obviously inhibitory effect on Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-exposed mice. Furthermore, results demonstrated that the renal cell death mode is due to inducing apoptosis and autophagy inhibited by dose-dependent PPTT in mice treated with CTX by decreasing the protein expression of bax, beclin-1, and LC3 and increasing the expression of bcl-2. Moreover, the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were observed to take part in the PPTT-induced renal cell growth effect by enhancing the upregulation of the expression of Akt and p-Akt as well as the downregulation of the expression of p38 and p-p38, which indicated a PPTT ameliorating effect on AKI CTX-induced in mice through p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Briefly, this article preliminarily studies the mechanism of the PPTT ameliorating effect on AKI CTX-induced in mice, which helps to provide a reference for PPTT clinical application in AKI therapy. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Total Synthesis of Mycalisine B
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040226
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
The first total synthesis of the marine nucleoside Mycalisine B—a naturally occurring and structurally distinct 4,5-unsaturated 7-deazapurine nucleoside—has been accomplished in 10 linear steps with 27.5% overall yield from commercially available 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-ribose and tetracyanoethylene. Key steps of the approach include: (1) [...] Read more.
The first total synthesis of the marine nucleoside Mycalisine B—a naturally occurring and structurally distinct 4,5-unsaturated 7-deazapurine nucleoside—has been accomplished in 10 linear steps with 27.5% overall yield from commercially available 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-ribose and tetracyanoethylene. Key steps of the approach include: (1) I2 catalyzed acetonide formation from 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetylribose and acetone at large scale; (2) Vorbrüggen glycosylation using N4-benzoyl-5-cyano-6-bromo-7H-pyrrolo[2,3–d]pyrimidine as a nucleobase to avoid formation of N-3 isomer; (3) mild and scalable reaction conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Phloroglucinol on Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis through Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040225
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
Phloroglucinol (PG) is a component of phlorotannins, which are abundant in marine brown alga species. Recent studies have shown that PG is beneficial in protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of PG in HaCaT human skin [...] Read more.
Phloroglucinol (PG) is a component of phlorotannins, which are abundant in marine brown alga species. Recent studies have shown that PG is beneficial in protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of PG in HaCaT human skin keratinocytes stimulated with oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). The results showed that PG significantly inhibited the H2O2-induced growth inhibition in HaCaT cells, which was associated with increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). PG remarkably reversed H2O2-induced excessive ROS production, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Additionally, H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was related to a decrease in ATP levels, and in the presence of PG, these changes were significantly impaired. Furthermore, the increases of cytosolic release of cytochrome c and ratio of Bax to Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 by the H2O2 were markedly abolished under the condition of PG pretreatment. However, the inhibition of HO-1 function using zinc protoporphyrin, a HO-1 inhibitor, markedly attenuated these protective effects of PG against H2O2. Overall, our results suggest that PG is able to protect HaCaT keratinocytes against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and apoptosis through activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antioxidant)
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Open AccessArticle
Eight Collagen Peptides from Hydrolysate Fraction of Spanish Mackerel Skins: Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040224
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
A previous report indicated that collagen hydrolysate fraction (F7) from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skins showed high reducing power and radical scavenging activities on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 value of 1.57 mg/mL) and hydroxyl (EC50 value of 1.20 mg/mL). In [...] Read more.
A previous report indicated that collagen hydrolysate fraction (F7) from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skins showed high reducing power and radical scavenging activities on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 value of 1.57 mg/mL) and hydroxyl (EC50 value of 1.20 mg/mL). In this work, eight peptides were isolated from F7 and identified as Gly-Pro-Tyr (GPY, 335.31 Da), Gly-Pro-Thr-Gly-Glu (GPTGE, 459.47 Da), Pro-Phe-Gly-Pro-Asp (PFGPD, 531.52 Da), Gly-Pro-Thr-Gly-Ala-Lys (GPTGAKG, 586.65 Da), Pro-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Lys-Gly (PYGAKG, 591.69 Da), Gly-Ala-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gln-Gly (GATGPQG, 586.61 Da), Gly-Pro-Phe-Gly-Pro-Met (GPFGPM, 604.73 Da), and Tyr-Gly-Pro-Met (YGPM, 466.50 Da), respectively. Among them, PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM exhibited strong radical scavenging activities on DPPH (EC50 values of 0.80, 3.02, and 0.72 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), hydroxyl (EC50 values of 0.81, 0.66, and 0.88 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), superoxide anion (EC50 values of 0.91, 0.80, and 0.73 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively), and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) cation (EC50 values of 0.86, 1.07, and 0.82 mg/mL for PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM, respectively) in a positive concentration–activity relationship. Furthermore, PFGPD, PYGAKG, and YGPM could effectively reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Hence, eight collagen peptides from hydrolysate of Spanish mackerel skins might be served as antioxidant candidates for various industrial applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Isolation and Characterisation of Major and Minor Collagens from Hyaline Cartilage of Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae)
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040223
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
The composition and properties of collagen in teleost (bony fish) cartilage have never been studied. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterise all collagen species in the nasal cartilage of hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae). Four native collagen species were extracted [...] Read more.
The composition and properties of collagen in teleost (bony fish) cartilage have never been studied. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterise all collagen species in the nasal cartilage of hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae). Four native collagen species were extracted using two techniques, and isolated with differential salt precipitation. We were able to assign the identity of three of these collagen species on the basis of solubility, SDS-PAGE and amino acid analyses. We found that hoki cartilage contains the major collagen, type II, and the minor collagens, type IX and type XI, which are homologous to those found in mammal and chicken cartilage. Using these extraction protocols, we also isolated a full-length type IX collagen from cartilage for the first time. In addition, we detected a 90 kDa, highly glycosylated collagen that has not been identified in any other species. For each isolate, structural and biochemical characterisations were performed using circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, and the thermal denaturation properties were determined. Our results showed that the properties of hoki cartilage-derived collagens are similar to those of collagens in mammalian cartilage, indicating that teleost cartilage could provide biological ingredients for the development of biomaterials to treat cartilage-related illnesses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Aging Properties of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms in the Protection of Skin-Aging
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040222
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photoaging of the skin and induces a number of disorders, including sunburn, fine and coarse wrinkles, and skin cancer risk. Therefore, the application of sunscreen has gained much attention to reduce the harmful effects of UV [...] Read more.
Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photoaging of the skin and induces a number of disorders, including sunburn, fine and coarse wrinkles, and skin cancer risk. Therefore, the application of sunscreen has gained much attention to reduce the harmful effects of UV irradiation on our skin. Recently, there has been a growing demand for the replacement of chemical sunscreens with natural UV-absorbing compounds. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), promising alternative natural UV-absorbing compounds, are a group of widely distributed, low molecular-weight, water-soluble molecules that can absorb UV radiation and disperse the absorbed energy as heat, without generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 30 MAAs have been characterized, from a variety of organisms. In addition to their UV-absorbing properties, there is substantial evidence that MAAs have the potential to protect against skin aging, including antioxidative activity, anti-inflammatory activity, inhibition of protein-glycation, and inhibition of collagenase activity. This review will provide an overview of MAAs, as potential anti-aging ingredients, beginning with their structure, before moving on to discuss the most recent experimental observations, including the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which MAAs might protect the skin. In particular, we focus on the potential anti-aging activity of mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms)
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Open AccessReview
Marine-Derived Natural Compounds for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040221
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to the motor dysfunctions of patients. Although the etiology of PD is still unclear, the death of dopaminergic neurons during PD progress was revealed to be associated with [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to the motor dysfunctions of patients. Although the etiology of PD is still unclear, the death of dopaminergic neurons during PD progress was revealed to be associated with the abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein, the elevation of oxidative stress, the dysfunction of mitochondrial functions, and the increase of neuroinflammation. However, current anti-PD therapies could only produce symptom-relieving effects, because they could not provide neuroprotective effects, stop or delay the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Marine-derived natural compounds, with their novel chemical structures and unique biological activities, may provide anti-PD neuroprotective effects. In this study, we have summarized anti-PD marine-derived natural products which have shown pharmacological activities by acting on various PD targets, such as α-synuclein, monoamine oxidase B, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, marine-derived natural compounds currently evaluated in the clinical trials for the treatment of PD are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040220
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
The emergence of antibiotic resistance and viruses with high epidemic potential made unexplored marine environments an appealing target source for new metabolites. Marine fungi represent one of the most suitable sources for the discovery of new compounds. Thus, the aim of this work [...] Read more.
The emergence of antibiotic resistance and viruses with high epidemic potential made unexplored marine environments an appealing target source for new metabolites. Marine fungi represent one of the most suitable sources for the discovery of new compounds. Thus, the aim of this work was (i) to isolate and identify fungi associated with the Atlantic sponge Grantia compressa; (ii) to study the fungal metabolites by applying the OSMAC approach (one strain; many compounds); (iii) to test fungal compounds for their antimicrobial activities. Twenty-one fungal strains (17 taxa) were isolated from G. compressa. The OSMAC approach revealed an astonishing metabolic diversity in the marine fungus Eurotium chevalieri MUT 2316, from which 10 compounds were extracted, isolated, and characterized. All metabolites were tested against viruses and bacteria (reference and multidrug-resistant strains). Dihydroauroglaucin completely inhibited the replication of influenza A virus; as for herpes simplex virus 1, total inhibition of replication was observed for both physcion and neoechinulin D. Six out of 10 compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria with isodihydroauroglaucin being the most promising compound (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 4–64 µg/mL) with bactericidal activity. Overall, G. compressa proved to be an outstanding source of fungal diversity. Marine fungi were capable of producing different metabolites; in particular, the compounds isolated from E. chevalieri showed promising bioactivity against well-known and emerging pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Divergolides T–W with Apoptosis-Inducing Activity from the Mangrove-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. KFD18
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040219
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Four new ansamycins, named divergolides T–W (14), along with two known analogs were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. KFD18. The structures of the compounds, including the absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons, were [...] Read more.
Four new ansamycins, named divergolides T–W (14), along with two known analogs were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. KFD18. The structures of the compounds, including the absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons, were determined by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 14 showed cytotoxic activity against the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the human leukemic cell line K562, the HeLa cell line, and the human lung carcinoma cell line A549, with 1 being the most active while compounds 5 and 6 were inactive against all the tested cell lines. Compounds 1 and 3 showed very potent and specific cytotoxic activities (IC50 2.8 and 4.7 µM, respectively) against the SGC-7901 cells. Further, the apoptosis-inducing effect of 1 and 3 against SGC-7901 cells was demonstrated by two kinds of staining methods for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Altercrasins A–E, Decalin Derivatives, from a Sea-Urchin-Derived Alternaria sp.: Isolation and Structural Analysis Including Stereochemistry
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040218
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
In order to find out the seeds of antitumor agents, we focused on potential bioactive materials from marine-derived microorganisms. Marine products include a number of compounds with unique structures, some of which may exhibit unusual bioactivities. As a part of this study, we [...] Read more.
In order to find out the seeds of antitumor agents, we focused on potential bioactive materials from marine-derived microorganisms. Marine products include a number of compounds with unique structures, some of which may exhibit unusual bioactivities. As a part of this study, we studied metabolites of a strain of Alternaria sp. OUPS-117D-1 originally derived from the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina, and isolated five new decalin derivatives, altercrasins A–E (15). The absolute stereostructure of altercrasins A (1) had been decided by chemical transformation and the modified Mosher’s method. In this study, four decalin derivatives, altercrasins B–E (25) were purified by silica gel chromatography, and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC), and their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of them were deduced by the comparison with 1 in the NMR chemical shifts, NOESY correlations, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectral analyses. As a result, we found out that compound pairs of 1/2 and 4/5 were respective stereoisomers. In addition, their cytotoxic activities using murine P388 leukemia, human HL-60 leukemia, and murine L1210 leukemia cell lines showed that 4 and 5 exhibit potent cytotoxicity, in especially, the activity of 4 was equal to that of 5-fluorouracil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Marine Heterocyclic Compounds)
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