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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040203

Solid Matrix-Supported Supercritical CO2 Enhances Extraction of γ-Linolenic Acid from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis and Bioactivity Evaluation of the Molecule in Zebrafish

1,5, 2,6, 1, 2,6, 1, 2,6, 1,4,* and 1,2,3,4,7,*
1
Center for Microalgal Biotechnology and Biofuels, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
3
Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
4
Key Laboratory for Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
5
College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
6
College of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
7
Beijing Key Laboratory of Algae Biomass, Microalgae Biotechnology Center, SDIC Biotech Investment Co., LTD., State Development & Investment Corp., Beijing 100142, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria II)
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Abstract

Marine cyanobacteria represent a large untapped source of functional glycolipids enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for human health. However, advanced methods for scalable isolation of diverse species containing high-purity PUFA-rich glycolipids will have to be developed and their possible pharmaceutical and nutraceutical functions identified. This paper introduces a novel solid matrix-supported supercritical CO2 extraction method for scalable isolation of the PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA)-enriched glycolipids from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, which has been the most widely used among microalgae in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Of various porous materials studied, diatomite was the best to facilitate extraction of GLA-rich glycolipids, resulting in an extraction efficiency of 98%. Gamma-linolenic acid made up 35% of total fatty acids (TFAs) in the extracts, which was considerably greater than that obtained with ethanol (26%), Bligh and Dyer (24%), and in situ transesterification (24%) methods, respectively. Lipidomics analysis revealed that GLA was exclusively associated with galactolipids. Pharmaceutical functions of GLA-rich galactolipids were investigated on a zebrafish caudal fin regeneration model. The results suggested that GLA extracted from A. platensis possessed anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities, which acted in a concerted manner to promote post-injury regeneration of zebrafish. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis; porous materials; diatomite; solid matrix-supported supercritical CO2 (SMSSC-CO2); γ-linolenic acid (GLA); bioactivity; zebrafish Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis; porous materials; diatomite; solid matrix-supported supercritical CO2 (SMSSC-CO2); γ-linolenic acid (GLA); bioactivity; zebrafish
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.; Ye, D.; Yuan, L.; Sun, Y.; Han, D.; Hu, Q. Solid Matrix-Supported Supercritical CO2 Enhances Extraction of γ-Linolenic Acid from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis and Bioactivity Evaluation of the Molecule in Zebrafish. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 203.

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