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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040204

In Vitro and In Silico Approaches to Generating and Identifying Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme I Inhibitory Peptides from Green Macroalga Ulva lactuca

1
School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
2
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Avenue Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain
3
Food Biosciences Department, TEAGASC, Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract

A protein extract was generated from the macroalga Ulva lactuca, which was subsequently hydrolysed using the food-grade enzyme papain and angiotensin-converting Enzyme I and renin inhibitory peptides identified using a combination of enrichment strategies employing molecular weight cutoff filtration and mass spectrometry analysis. The generated hydrolysates with the most promising in vitro activity were further purified using preparative RP-HPLC and characterised. The 1 kDa hydrolysate (1 kDa-UFH), purified and collected by preparative RP-HPLC at minutes 41‒44 (Fr41‒44), displayed statistically higher ACE-I inhibitory activities ranging from 96.91% to 98.06%. A total of 48 novel peptides were identified from these four fractions by LC-MS/MS. A simulated gastrointestinal digestion of the identified peptide sequences was carried out using in silico enzyme cleavage simulation tools, resulting in 86 peptide sequences that were further assessed for their potential activity, toxicity and allergenicity using multiple predictive approaches. All the peptides obtained in this study were predicted to be non-toxic. However, 28 out of the 86 novel peptides released after the in silico gastrointestinal digestion were identified as potential allergens. The potential allergenicity of these peptides should be further explored to comply with the current labelling regulations in formulated food products containing U. lactuca protein hydrolysates. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed protein; protein hydrolysate; ACE-I; renin; allergenicity; in silico analysis; functional food; bioactive peptide; bioinformatics seaweed protein; protein hydrolysate; ACE-I; renin; allergenicity; in silico analysis; functional food; bioactive peptide; bioinformatics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Garcia-Vaquero, M.; Mora, L.; Hayes, M. In Vitro and In Silico Approaches to Generating and Identifying Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme I Inhibitory Peptides from Green Macroalga Ulva lactuca. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 204.

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