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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 216;

Soritesidine, a Novel Proteinous Toxin from the Okinawan Marine Sponge Spongosorites sp.

Faculty and Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808, Japan
School of Marine Bioscience, Kitasato University, Minato City, Tokyo 108-0072, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Discovery: In Honor of Late Prof. Tatsuo Higa)
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A novel protein, soritesidine (SOR) with potent toxicity was isolated from the marine sponge Spongosorites sp. SOR exhibited wide range of toxicities over various organisms and cells including brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae, sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) eggs, mice, and cultured mammalian cells. Toxicities of SOR were extraordinary potent. It killed mice at 5 ng/mouse after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection, and brine shrimp and at 0.34 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity for cultured mammalian cancer cell lines against HeLa and L1210 cells were determined to be 0.062 and 12.11 ng/mL, respectively. The SOR-containing fraction cleaved plasmid DNA in a metal ion dependent manner showing genotoxicity of SOR. Purified SOR exhibited molecular weight of 108.7 kDa in MALDI-TOF MS data and isoelectric point of approximately 4.5. N-terminal amino acid sequence up to the 25th residue was determined by Edman degradation. Internal amino acid sequences for fifteen peptides isolated from the enzyme digest of SOR were also determined. None of those amino acid sequences showed similarity to existing proteins, suggesting that SOR is a new proteinous toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: sponge; protein; cytotoxicity; mouse lethality; brine shrimp; genotoxin sponge; protein; cytotoxicity; mouse lethality; brine shrimp; genotoxin

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sakai, R.; Tanano, K.; Ono, T.; Kitano, M.; Iida, Y.; Nakano, K.; Jimbo, M. Soritesidine, a Novel Proteinous Toxin from the Okinawan Marine Sponge Spongosorites sp.. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 216.

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