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Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential

1
Mycotheca Universitatis Taurinensis, Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Turin, Italy
2
Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin, Italy
3
Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Virology, Department of Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, Italy
4
Zoology, Ryan Institute, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland
5
University Nice Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Nice Institute of Chemistry, UMR 7272, Marine Natural Products Team, 60103 Nice, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040220
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract

The emergence of antibiotic resistance and viruses with high epidemic potential made unexplored marine environments an appealing target source for new metabolites. Marine fungi represent one of the most suitable sources for the discovery of new compounds. Thus, the aim of this work was (i) to isolate and identify fungi associated with the Atlantic sponge Grantia compressa; (ii) to study the fungal metabolites by applying the OSMAC approach (one strain; many compounds); (iii) to test fungal compounds for their antimicrobial activities. Twenty-one fungal strains (17 taxa) were isolated from G. compressa. The OSMAC approach revealed an astonishing metabolic diversity in the marine fungus Eurotium chevalieri MUT 2316, from which 10 compounds were extracted, isolated, and characterized. All metabolites were tested against viruses and bacteria (reference and multidrug-resistant strains). Dihydroauroglaucin completely inhibited the replication of influenza A virus; as for herpes simplex virus 1, total inhibition of replication was observed for both physcion and neoechinulin D. Six out of 10 compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria with isodihydroauroglaucin being the most promising compound (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 4–64 µg/mL) with bactericidal activity. Overall, G. compressa proved to be an outstanding source of fungal diversity. Marine fungi were capable of producing different metabolites; in particular, the compounds isolated from E. chevalieri showed promising bioactivity against well-known and emerging pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: sponges; marine fungi; biodiversity; Eurotium chevalieri; OSMAC; bioactive compounds; antibacterial; antiviral sponges; marine fungi; biodiversity; Eurotium chevalieri; OSMAC; bioactive compounds; antibacterial; antiviral
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Bovio, E.; Garzoli, L.; Poli, A.; Luganini, A.; Villa, P.; Musumeci, R.; McCormack, G.P.; Cocuzza, C.E.; Gribaudo, G.; Mehiri, M.; Varese, G.C. Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 220.

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