Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential
AbstractThe emergence of antibiotic resistance and viruses with high epidemic potential made unexplored marine environments an appealing target source for new metabolites. Marine fungi represent one of the most suitable sources for the discovery of new compounds. Thus, the aim of this work was (i) to isolate and identify fungi associated with the Atlantic sponge Grantia compressa; (ii) to study the fungal metabolites by applying the OSMAC approach (one strain; many compounds); (iii) to test fungal compounds for their antimicrobial activities. Twenty-one fungal strains (17 taxa) were isolated from G. compressa. The OSMAC approach revealed an astonishing metabolic diversity in the marine fungus Eurotium chevalieri MUT 2316, from which 10 compounds were extracted, isolated, and characterized. All metabolites were tested against viruses and bacteria (reference and multidrug-resistant strains). Dihydroauroglaucin completely inhibited the replication of influenza A virus; as for herpes simplex virus 1, total inhibition of replication was observed for both physcion and neoechinulin D. Six out of 10 compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria with isodihydroauroglaucin being the most promising compound (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 4–64 µg/mL) with bactericidal activity. Overall, G. compressa proved to be an outstanding source of fungal diversity. Marine fungi were capable of producing different metabolites; in particular, the compounds isolated from E. chevalieri showed promising bioactivity against well-known and emerging pathogens. View Full-Text
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Bovio, E.; Garzoli, L.; Poli, A.; Luganini, A.; Villa, P.; Musumeci, R.; McCormack, G.P.; Cocuzza, C.E.; Gribaudo, G.; Mehiri, M.; Varese, G.C. Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 220.
Bovio E, Garzoli L, Poli A, Luganini A, Villa P, Musumeci R, McCormack GP, Cocuzza CE, Gribaudo G, Mehiri M, Varese GC. Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential. Marine Drugs. 2019; 17(4):220.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bovio, Elena; Garzoli, Laura; Poli, Anna; Luganini, Anna; Villa, Pietro; Musumeci, Rosario; McCormack, Grace P.; Cocuzza, Clementina E.; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Mehiri, Mohamed; Varese, Giovanna C. 2019. "Marine Fungi from the Sponge Grantia compressa: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity, and Biotechnological Potential." Mar. Drugs 17, no. 4: 220.
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