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UVA and UVB Photoprotective Capabilities of Topical Formulations Containing Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAAs) through Different Biological Effective Protection Factors (BEPFs)
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Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Aging Properties of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms in the Protection of Skin-Aging

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040222
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms)
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Abstract

Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes photoaging of the skin and induces a number of disorders, including sunburn, fine and coarse wrinkles, and skin cancer risk. Therefore, the application of sunscreen has gained much attention to reduce the harmful effects of UV irradiation on our skin. Recently, there has been a growing demand for the replacement of chemical sunscreens with natural UV-absorbing compounds. Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), promising alternative natural UV-absorbing compounds, are a group of widely distributed, low molecular-weight, water-soluble molecules that can absorb UV radiation and disperse the absorbed energy as heat, without generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 30 MAAs have been characterized, from a variety of organisms. In addition to their UV-absorbing properties, there is substantial evidence that MAAs have the potential to protect against skin aging, including antioxidative activity, anti-inflammatory activity, inhibition of protein-glycation, and inhibition of collagenase activity. This review will provide an overview of MAAs, as potential anti-aging ingredients, beginning with their structure, before moving on to discuss the most recent experimental observations, including the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which MAAs might protect the skin. In particular, we focus on the potential anti-aging activity of mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G). View Full-Text
Keywords: mycosporine-like amino acids; mycosporine-2-glycine; UV-absorbing compound; sunscreen; anti-aging; anti-oxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-protein-glycation activity mycosporine-like amino acids; mycosporine-2-glycine; UV-absorbing compound; sunscreen; anti-aging; anti-oxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-protein-glycation activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kageyama, H.; Waditee-Sirisattha, R. Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Aging Properties of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms in the Protection of Skin-Aging. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 222.

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