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Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Global Distribution of Mangroves―A Comprehensive Review

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80835, Mauritius
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, 42250 Konya, Turkey
Department of Agricultural and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80835, Mauritius
Department of Biotechnology, Science Campus, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, India
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 231;
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Mangroves and Their-Associated Microbes)
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Mangroves are ecologically important plants in marine habitats that occupy the coastlines of many countries. In addition to their key ecological importance, various parts of mangroves are widely used in folklore medicine and claimed to effectively manage a panoply of human pathologies. To date, no comprehensive attempt has been made to compile and critically analyze the published literature in light of its ethnopharmacological uses. This review aims to provide a comprehensive account of the morphological characteristics, ethnobotany, global distribution, taxonomy, ethnopharmacology, phytochemical profiles, and pharmacological activities of traditionally used mangroves. Out of 84 mangrove species, only 27 species were found to be traditionally used, however not all of them are pharmacologically validated. The most common pharmacological activities reported were antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties. Mangroves traditionally reported against ulcers have not been extensively validated for possible pharmacological properties. Terpenoids, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins were the main classes of phytochemicals isolated from mangroves. Given that mangroves have huge potential for a wide array of medicinal products and drug discovery to prevent and treat many diseases, there is a dire need for careful investigations substantiated with accurate scientific and clinical evidence to ensure safety and efficient use of these plants and validate their pharmacological properties and toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioactive compounds; Bruguiera gymnorhiza; Rhizophora mucronata; Avicennia species; pneumatophores; traditional uses bioactive compounds; Bruguiera gymnorhiza; Rhizophora mucronata; Avicennia species; pneumatophores; traditional uses

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Nabeelah Bibi, S.; Fawzi, M.M.; Gokhan, Z.; Rajesh, J.; Nadeem, N.; R.R., R.K.; R.D.D.G., A.; Pandian, S.K. Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Global Distribution of Mangroves―A Comprehensive Review. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 231.

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