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Proceedings, 2018, IRCSEEME 2018

The 2nd International Research Conference on Sustainable Energy, Engineering, Materials and Environment

Mieres, Spain | 25–27 July 2018

Issue Editors: Eduardo Alvarez Alvarez, Manuel Rico Secades, Antonio Navarro Manso and Mónica Gandum Martins 


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This Issue of the journal Proceedings includes selected extended abstracts presented at the 2nd [...] Read more.
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Open AccessProceedings
Thermal and Hygric Inertia and Its Effects on Indoor Air Condition in a Traditional Asturian House: A Field Study
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231386 - 29 Nov 2018
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Thermal and hygric inertia are determining factors when studying residences habitability, most particularly when no HVAC systems are available. Since the Asturian house under consideration is a listed building that, due to its protection grade, cannot be artificially air-conditioned, such is precisely the [...] Read more.
Thermal and hygric inertia are determining factors when studying residences habitability, most particularly when no HVAC systems are available. Since the Asturian house under consideration is a listed building that, due to its protection grade, cannot be artificially air-conditioned, such is precisely the case. When it was built, living spaces were limited to the ground floor (where social and working activities were to take place) and the first floor (where private family rooms were set). By contrast, the attic was the house store and both the entrance and the stairs were (and still are) passing areas. The results of the field study confirm the adequacy of inner spaces to the purpose they were meant for. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of Attached Sunspaces on Indoor Thermal Comfort. The Case Study of a Traditional Asturian House
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231392 - 29 Nov 2018
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Attached sunspaces are widely employed in the higher floors of traditional residences in the North of Spain. More specifically, in Asturias, it is easy to find them south-oriented and cantilever-positioned. This helps to take the greatest advantage of sun rays, especially during long [...] Read more.
Attached sunspaces are widely employed in the higher floors of traditional residences in the North of Spain. More specifically, in Asturias, it is easy to find them south-oriented and cantilever-positioned. This helps to take the greatest advantage of sun rays, especially during long winter months, and provides a ground-leveled, rain-protected, arcaded space. The function of such space is being a passing area (if it is to be found in a city house), or an exterior mudroom (if it is to be found in a country estate). With respect to the thermal impact of attached sunspaces in inner comfort condition, it is worth determining whether they are truly valuable elements, suitable to be employed in contemporary passive residences in the Atlantic area, or if their climate-dependant performance invalidates such use. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
CBM Resources Estimations for the Development of Coal Mine Methane in the Asturian Central Basin, Spain
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231404 - 26 Nov 2018
Viewed by 398
Abstract
New technological development and a best knowledge of the basin allow to have justified expectation to find coalbed methane reserves. Measurements of gas content in unexploited coal seams are made in order to estimate the CBM could revive the economic interest of the [...] Read more.
New technological development and a best knowledge of the basin allow to have justified expectation to find coalbed methane reserves. Measurements of gas content in unexploited coal seams are made in order to estimate the CBM could revive the economic interest of the Asturian Central Coal Basin (ACCB). According to first estimations based on the studies accomplished, the minimum resources of coalbed methane in the whole of the Asturian Central Coal Basin are in the order of 25,000 Mm3 and the gas content of the coal seams range from 6 m3 to 14 m3/t. The introduction should briefly place the study in a broad context and define the purpose of the work and its significance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Use & Re-Use of Water Resources in the Exploration Non-Conventional Hydrocarbons
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231405 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The water cycle in hydraulic fracturing shows five stages that includes, from the water supply, the manufacture of the fracturing fluid, the injection, recovery of the flowback and water produced, and the management of the same. Finally, the case applied in the Asturian [...] Read more.
The water cycle in hydraulic fracturing shows five stages that includes, from the water supply, the manufacture of the fracturing fluid, the injection, recovery of the flowback and water produced, and the management of the same. Finally, the case applied in the Asturian coal basin (ACCB) is analyzed for the development of the exploration and production of methane gas from coal layers (CBM). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of the Addition of Y2O3 on the Microstructure of Polycrystalline Alumina Ceramics
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231407 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 495
Abstract
In the scope of this study, a powder mixture was prepared that contained 3 Al2O3-Y2O3 consisting of 99.99% pure Al2O3 and aluminum oxide of 65–67% and 70% by weight of 99.999% pure Y [...] Read more.
In the scope of this study, a powder mixture was prepared that contained 3 Al2O3-Y2O3 consisting of 99.99% pure Al2O3 and aluminum oxide of 65–67% and 70% by weight of 99.999% pure Y2O3 powders. After the powders were weighed on a precision scale, the milling process was carried out in a vibratory disc mill. For the granulation, 3 powder mixtures that were subject to sintering were sieved to a size of less than 106 µm in a powder sieve shaker. The powders were shaped with a cold isostatic press after this step and the 3 acquired samples were sintered for 12 h under a temperature of 1923 K. Selected physical and mechanical behaviors were taken by evaluating microhardness measurements, bending strength XRD analysis and electron microscope images of the 3 sintered samples. The changes in the Y2O3 additive and phase composition, microstructure, and mechanic properties were examined. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Computational Tools for Analysing Air Pollutants Dispersion: A Comparative Review
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231408 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
Atmospheric pollution is one of the biggest problems and concerns in modern society, especially in industrial and highly populated areas. Poor air quality can have adverse impact on human health and ecosystems. For this reason, air quality forecasting becomes increasingly important, especially for [...] Read more.
Atmospheric pollution is one of the biggest problems and concerns in modern society, especially in industrial and highly populated areas. Poor air quality can have adverse impact on human health and ecosystems. For this reason, air quality forecasting becomes increasingly important, especially for governments and administrations, which use these predictions to enhance the design of mitigation actions in order to reduce air pollution in urban areas. In this framework, process of pollutant dispersion simulation is the best way to predict the most affected areas by industrial and other kinds of emissions. To carry out these simulations, there is a great number of computational tools currently available. However, not all of them have the same functionalities, nor can they be applied to the same case studies, so it is necessary to establish the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them in order to choose the most suitable tool in each case. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify the main available simulation tools and to make a comparative review between them in order to define advantages and disadvantages. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Industry 4.0 Approach for Photovoltaic Plants Monitoring
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231409 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 480
Abstract
The exploitation of photovoltaic energy has experienced a great growth worldwide in recent years. Photovoltaic installations are characterized by the presence of a large number of devices and elements. This situation makes the operation and performance of a photovoltaic installation dependent of a [...] Read more.
The exploitation of photovoltaic energy has experienced a great growth worldwide in recent years. Photovoltaic installations are characterized by the presence of a large number of devices and elements. This situation makes the operation and performance of a photovoltaic installation dependent of a large number of parameters and variables. Moreover, due to the size of some photovoltaic installations, a high volume of heterogeneous data is produced. Traditional approaches cannot tackle with such a huge amount of generated data. Through the adoption of a software architecture based on Industry 4.0. Key Enabling Technologies (such as Internet of Things and Big Data, among others), it is possible to improve the monitoring and operation procedures of photovoltaic plants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
NPSH Experimental Data for Two Centrifugal Pumps
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231410 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 469
Abstract
Cavitation consists in a local mass and heat transfer phenomenon, which involves the formation and collapse of vapor cavities. For industrial applications, the interest is focused on Fluid Machinery, increasing the difficulties due to the complex geometrical arrangements and working conditions. Within such [...] Read more.
Cavitation consists in a local mass and heat transfer phenomenon, which involves the formation and collapse of vapor cavities. For industrial applications, the interest is focused on Fluid Machinery, increasing the difficulties due to the complex geometrical arrangements and working conditions. Within such frame, the work on cavitation for centrifugal pumps has been a matter of study in the last decades. The main conclusion of the present study is to show the NPSH curves for two available geometries with different impeller diameters and, then, a comparison is done. The results open the test case to possible numerical implementation and future analysis. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Methodology for the Generation of Hydropedological Parameters Associated with Edaphic GIS Coverage and Databases for Hydrological Modeling
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231411 - 13 Dec 2018
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The long-term simulation of soil erosion and transport of contaminants and nutrients process in a river basin allows us to predict the impacts generated by the alterations of the environment and the scope of the potential contamination. The use of modeling tools such [...] Read more.
The long-term simulation of soil erosion and transport of contaminants and nutrients process in a river basin allows us to predict the impacts generated by the alterations of the environment and the scope of the potential contamination. The use of modeling tools such as SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) that integrates basin-level information on land use and management for hydrological simulation, requires specific data of soil and land use to define the Hydrological Response Units (HRU). These HRU are the basis of the simulation, grouping HRU according to hydrological response characteristics. The availability of quality data at the regional level is a key factor for obtaining robust models. One of the greatest shortcomings is found in obtaining hydropedological data bases associated with soil GIS shape. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Induced Mobilization of as Contained in Metallurgical Waste Using Electrokinetic Remediation Technology: Environmental Implications and Technical Limitations in soil Remediation of Orphan Mining Areas
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231412 - 23 Nov 2018
Viewed by 410
Abstract
This work focuses on the analysis of the electrokinetic decontamination of soils with high contents in As. Based on the data obtained from the laboratory on different materials in previous works. It has been sought to combine these with current laboratory and field [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the analysis of the electrokinetic decontamination of soils with high contents in As. Based on the data obtained from the laboratory on different materials in previous works. It has been sought to combine these with current laboratory and field work to infer the environmental and technical implementation implications of the As mobility in sediments and soils. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Performance Curve of a Radial Flow Turbine for an OWC Plant
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231413 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 444
Abstract
In this article, the performance of a radial flow turbine is determined in the framework of oscillating water column installations (OWC). The studied turbine redesigned and adapted from previous studies to this application, is analyzed in detail using CFD Fluent v16.2 and TurboGrid [...] Read more.
In this article, the performance of a radial flow turbine is determined in the framework of oscillating water column installations (OWC). The studied turbine redesigned and adapted from previous studies to this application, is analyzed in detail using CFD Fluent v16.2 and TurboGrid for mesh preprocessing. In particular, a 3D numerical model with high-quality hexahedral meshes (necessary to analyze the unsteady phenomena in the blade passages of the turbine) has been developed to obtain an enhanced prediction of the flow patterns. The results obtained through a full unsteady RANS resolution of the viscous and three-dimensional flow structures reveal the optimal performance of the radial turbine and confirm the expected improvements introduced during the redesign of the machine. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Methodology for the Study of the Air Dispersion of the Industrial Contaminants Taking into Account the Orography
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231414 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Air pollution is one of the consequences of the industrial development, which causes a lot of health and environmental problems. For these reasons, the quality of the air is one of the major concerns of regional, national and European governments. All of them [...] Read more.
Air pollution is one of the consequences of the industrial development, which causes a lot of health and environmental problems. For these reasons, the quality of the air is one of the major concerns of regional, national and European governments. All of them are developing strict normative to reduce the emissions of contaminants. The quality of the air can be analysed by means of numerical simulations. In this paper, a methodology based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is described. This technique allows evaluating the dispersion of industrial-type air pollutants in a relatively large area, taking into account the orography, buildings and so on. Also, specific models are studied in order to consider the specific characteristics of the industrial contaminants and particles. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Energy Refurbishment Assessment of an Existing Educational Building. A Case Study
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231415 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The building sector is the highest energy consumer (38.1%) in the European Union. This consumption has to be reduced in both new and existing buildings. Respect to the existing ones, they need an effective energy renovation as the current European Directives reflect. Specifically, [...] Read more.
The building sector is the highest energy consumer (38.1%) in the European Union. This consumption has to be reduced in both new and existing buildings. Respect to the existing ones, they need an effective energy renovation as the current European Directives reflect. Specifically, all countries have to refurbish 3% of their public buildings per year since 2014. In this paper, several refurbishment measures have been applied to the Energy Department Building of the University of Oviedo, using simulation tools. The measures proposed modify the thermal envelope according to the climatic variables and normative restrictions. Also, a parametric analysis has been made studying the influence of these measures in the heating and cooling demand and quantifying their cost. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Offshore Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Asturias (N Spain)
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231416 - 20 Nov 2018
Viewed by 480
Abstract
This work assesses for the first time the offshore wind energy resource in Asturias, a region in the North of Spain. Numerical model and observational databases are used to characterize the gross wind energy resource at different points throughout the area of study. [...] Read more.
This work assesses for the first time the offshore wind energy resource in Asturias, a region in the North of Spain. Numerical model and observational databases are used to characterize the gross wind energy resource at different points throughout the area of study. The production of several wind turbines is then forecasted on the basis of each technology power curve and the wind speed distributions. The results are mapped for a better interpretation and discussion. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Effect of the Strain Rate on the Fracture Behaviour of High Pressure Pre-Charged Samples
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231417 - 11 Dec 2018
Viewed by 444
Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the effect of the displacement rate on the hydrogen embrittlement of two different structural steels grades used in energetic applications. With this purpose, samples were pre-charged with gaseous hydrogen at 19.5 MPa and 450 °C [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to study the effect of the displacement rate on the hydrogen embrittlement of two different structural steels grades used in energetic applications. With this purpose, samples were pre-charged with gaseous hydrogen at 19.5 MPa and 450 °C for 21 h. Then, fracture tests of the pre-charged specimens were performed, using different displacement rates. It is showed that the lower is the displacement rate and the largest is the steel strength, the strongest is the reduction of the fracture toughness due to the presence of internal hydrogen. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of the Hydrogen Induced Cracking by Means of the Small Punch Test: Effect of the Specimen Geometry and the Hydrogen Pre-Charge Mode
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231418 - 23 Nov 2018
Viewed by 392
Abstract
This paper presents a simplified procedure to analyse the Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) of structural steels by means of the Small Punch Test (SPT). Two types of notched specimens were used: one with through-thickness lateral notch and another with surface longitudinal notch. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simplified procedure to analyse the Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) of structural steels by means of the Small Punch Test (SPT). Two types of notched specimens were used: one with through-thickness lateral notch and another with surface longitudinal notch. The results for conventional specimens were compared with those for hydrogen pre-charged specimens. For this purpose, two different methods to introduce hydrogen in the specimens were used: cathodic/electrochemical pre-charging and pressurized gaseous hydrogen pre-charging. The results obtained with both methods are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analyses of Different Adhesives on Pure Mode I and Mode II Delamination Growth of Composite Bonded Joints
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231419 - 27 Nov 2018
Viewed by 508
Abstract
This work aims to study the behaviour against delamination under static modes I and II of adhesive bonded joints in unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy prepreg. The double cantilever beam and end notched flexure tests were used to characterize the influence on the interlaminar fracture toughness [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the behaviour against delamination under static modes I and II of adhesive bonded joints in unidirectional carbon-fibre/epoxy prepreg. The double cantilever beam and end notched flexure tests were used to characterize the influence on the interlaminar fracture toughness under pure mode I and pure mode II, respectively. Three structural adhesives from different manufacturers were tested in comparison with the original material, that is, without adhesive bonded. The fracture surfaces were also examined for each joint system. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study on the Potential of Forest Biomass Residues for Bio-Energy
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231420 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
The Kyoto protocol officially recognised the role of forests as carbon sinks in the mitigation of global climate change factors, basically by reducing the atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The utilization of forest biomass residues for bio-energy can help meet the need [...] Read more.
The Kyoto protocol officially recognised the role of forests as carbon sinks in the mitigation of global climate change factors, basically by reducing the atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The utilization of forest biomass residues for bio-energy can help meet the need for renewable energy production. The aim of this research work is the development of a methodology to quantify and yield cartography of the prospective energy production of residual biomass from the most representative forest species of Biscay, province of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (ACBC, Spain), using a Geographic Information System (GIS) computer tool. A model of indirect estimation has been used in order to estimate the evolution of forest masses throughout in any area of Biscay. In the study area, residues from forest represent a large biomass potential. The stock of total forest biomass (aboveground and underground) (TB) existing in the forests of the province of Biscay in the year 2016 amounted to 16.380 Tg of dry material, which implies a sequestration of 29.874 Tg of CO2. The results obtained after the statistical analyses of the data showed that the amount of mean forest biomass residue achieved with a 95% confidence interval was 73,216.7 Mg year1. The estimation of biomass quantities that may generate forest activity will allow us to accomplish its planned exploitation, taking into account both economic and environmental aspects, with the aim of determining which the optimum location for setting up an energy production plant is. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Transverse Distribution of Concentrated Loads on Timber Composite Floors
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231421 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Timber-concrete composite floors can be seen as bi-dimensional elements constituted by repeatable longitudinal elements (timber beams) connected through an element capable to spread the load on the transverse direction (concrete slab). This is usually a fact to “take advantage of” in terms of [...] Read more.
Timber-concrete composite floors can be seen as bi-dimensional elements constituted by repeatable longitudinal elements (timber beams) connected through an element capable to spread the load on the transverse direction (concrete slab). This is usually a fact to “take advantage of” in terms of design, in the light of current regulations, with the analysis of a “T-shape” beam. Nevertheless, when concerning the action of concentrated loads, considering them supported entirely by the beam to which they are applied can result in a disadvantage rather than an advantage. This study focus on the distribution of load in the transverse direction when composite floors are subjected to concentrated loads. There were analyzed not only timber-concrete composite floors, that already have proven their value, but also relatively new solutions as those using cross laminated timber (CLT) combined with steel beams. The results show that the load received by “the loaded beam” can be far from 100%. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Wave Energy Converter CECO: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231423 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 477
Abstract
This work reviews the advances in the development of CECO, a wave energy converter (WEC) of the floating oscillating bodies subgroup that has its motions and power take-off system (PTO) restricted to an inclined direction. For this purpose, the review is conducted on [...] Read more.
This work reviews the advances in the development of CECO, a wave energy converter (WEC) of the floating oscillating bodies subgroup that has its motions and power take-off system (PTO) restricted to an inclined direction. For this purpose, the review is conducted on the basis of the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), the most frequently used metric to assess the maturity of a technology. The main conclusions and milestones of each stage are also presented along with an introduction to the ongoing works and a general picture of future research lines. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Criteria for the Selection of Working Fluids for Geothermal Power Plants: A Case Study in Spain
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231424 - 26 Nov 2018
Viewed by 368
Abstract
An important key in binary geothermal power plant is the selection of working fluid. This design decision has great implications for the operation of this power plant. While there are many options available for working fluids, there are also many restrictions on the [...] Read more.
An important key in binary geothermal power plant is the selection of working fluid. This design decision has great implications for the operation of this power plant. While there are many options available for working fluids, there are also many restrictions on the selection that relate to the thermodynamic properties of fluids, as well as considerations of salt, safety and environmental impact. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Circular Economy in the Manufacture of Bioplastics: From Sewage Sludge to Plastic Bottle
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231425 - 26 Nov 2018
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The main objective of this study is the potential evaluation of obtaining bioplastics through biodegradable polyesters synthesized by bacteria, present in the anaerobic treatment of urban and industrial wastewater, which have a series of characteristics to consider as their processing as material bioplastic [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is the potential evaluation of obtaining bioplastics through biodegradable polyesters synthesized by bacteria, present in the anaerobic treatment of urban and industrial wastewater, which have a series of characteristics to consider as their processing as material bioplastic In Asturias, more than 70,000 tons of sludge are produced and, by applying circular economy criteria and technologies for the production of bioplastics from wastewater, a synergy could be obtained that would allow the reuse of sludge by valorization as raw material. to produce bioplastics. This valorization can be carried out mainly through the combination of two technologies, on the one hand, anaerobic fermentation to produce volatile fatty acids and on the other the generation of bacterial populations that produce Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA’s). The PHAs are obtained from the microorganisms present in the sludge generated in the wastewater treatment process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sustainable Building: High Performance Timber Bridges
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231426 - 15 Jan 2019
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Steel and concrete are fantastic materials that will continue to be fundamental in the future, but we cannot ignore their high energy costs and carbon footprint. As well as is expected a transition from fossils fuels to renewable energy sources, the change from [...] Read more.
Steel and concrete are fantastic materials that will continue to be fundamental in the future, but we cannot ignore their high energy costs and carbon footprint. As well as is expected a transition from fossils fuels to renewable energy sources, the change from fossil fuel-based building materials to renewables will also be inevitable in the future of construction. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Conjugated Heat Transfer Analysis in a Host Rock–Drift System at Deep Underground Mines
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231428 - 07 Dec 2018
Viewed by 367
Abstract
On behalf of the European Commission, a ‘critical raw materials’ list has been created, including rare materials susceptible of special location and exploitation thereby their importance in the stability of global economy development and current life quality. This fact, confers primary importance to [...] Read more.
On behalf of the European Commission, a ‘critical raw materials’ list has been created, including rare materials susceptible of special location and exploitation thereby their importance in the stability of global economy development and current life quality. This fact, confers primary importance to Geophysics and new ore bodies operation as using of existing reserves in order to be able to supply current requirements of global production. One of the most important effects at underground environment is higher host-rock temperature triggered by geothermal gradient. In addition of this thermal loads, diesel fluxes are also important, as well as air humidity and drift ventilation. Thermal loads analysis for dimensioning cooling systems is strongly influenced by the high thermal inertia of host-rock in underground mines, which involves the appearance of long-term transient processes during the setting up. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Karst Detection, Prevention and Correction: A Case Study along the Riyadh Metro Line 3 (Saudi Arabia)
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231429 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
In the framework of the largest urban-transit system ever built from scratch, the Riyadh Metro Project (6 lines totaling 176 km), a comprehensive investigation was carried out for karst detection, prevention and correction. This case study of the Metro Line 3 (41.6 km) [...] Read more.
In the framework of the largest urban-transit system ever built from scratch, the Riyadh Metro Project (6 lines totaling 176 km), a comprehensive investigation was carried out for karst detection, prevention and correction. This case study of the Metro Line 3 (41.6 km) seeks to show how the multi-technique geophysical survey (seismic refraction, electrical resistivity and ground penetration radar down to 40–50 m depth) was found to be a successful tool in detecting karst features. Preventive measures included systematic probing drilling to anticipate karst cavities below foundations (653 piers) and tunnel lining evaluation using 2D finite elements. Finally, this paper provides initial guidance of the corrective techniques used for each engineering challenge, such as cavity filling with grouting, geogrid reinforcement, etc. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Estimation of PM10 Distribution using Landsat5 and Landsat8 Remote Sensing
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231430 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems, especially in industrial and highly populated areas. Remote sensing image is a rich source of information with many uses. This paper is focused on estimation of air pollutants using Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI [...] Read more.
Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems, especially in industrial and highly populated areas. Remote sensing image is a rich source of information with many uses. This paper is focused on estimation of air pollutants using Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. Particulate Matter with particle size less than 10 microns (PM10) is estimated for the study area of Principado de Asturias (Spain). When a satellite records the radiance of the surface received at sensor, does not represent the true radiance of the surface. A noise caused by Aerosol and Particulate Matters attenuate that radiance. In many applications of remote sensing, that noise called path radiance is removed during pre-processing. Instead, path radiance was used to estimate the PM10 concentration in the air. A relationship between the path radiance and PM10 measurements from ground stations has been established using Random Forest (RF) algorithm and a PM10 map was generated for the study area. The results show that PM10 estimation through satellite image is an efficient technique and it is suitable for local and regional studies. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Modelling and Simulation of a Building Energy Hub
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231431 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
The development of technologies such as efficient multi-generation system, lead to realizing the benefits of integrated energy infrastructure such as electricity, natural gas, and heating networks, and thus a rapid movement toward multi-energy systems (MES). In such systems, different energy carriers and systems [...] Read more.
The development of technologies such as efficient multi-generation system, lead to realizing the benefits of integrated energy infrastructure such as electricity, natural gas, and heating networks, and thus a rapid movement toward multi-energy systems (MES). In such systems, different energy carriers and systems interact together in a synergistic way. An Energy hub (EH) can be defined as the place where the production, conversion, storage and consumption of different energy carriers takes place, is a promising option for integrated management of MES. In this work we present the hourly Schedule along a year of a building energy hub, with local generation of heat and power, energy storage and electrical and thermal loads. We include PVT systems and a CHP system in the local generation of heat and power, and a gas boiler. A battery is considered as electrical storage and a water tank as thermal storage. The system is connected to the mail grids of power and gas. The typical thermal and electrical load of a building has been considered, with a heat pump that is considered as a deferral load. The model for all the components has been developed, and a yearly simulation has been carried out in which prices of electricity and gas have been considered. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Wiping Systems: Influence of the Surface Tension in Water Film Rupture
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231432 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Wiping system are widely employed in industrial processes to remove liquid residue from the final product. Therefore, the performance of the impingement of a gas jet upon a liquid surface or molten bath is relevant in many industrial and metallurgical processes. This work [...] Read more.
Wiping system are widely employed in industrial processes to remove liquid residue from the final product. Therefore, the performance of the impingement of a gas jet upon a liquid surface or molten bath is relevant in many industrial and metallurgical processes. This work is focused on wiping systems used in steel cold rolling, where a system composed of air jets impinging on the steel strip should remove the thin film of lubricant emulsion coming from the rolling bite. In the bibliography there are references of analytical cases of reduction of coating thickness by means of an air jet, such as galvanizing processes, which do not take into account surface tension. In the case of drying systems film rupture exists. A lot of variables are implied in the film rupture theory. Upon all of them the most important variable is the surface tension. The aim of this work is to study the influence of surface tension in film rupture. For this reason, a model of a jet wiping a film of water upon a strip is developed with and without surface tension. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Thermal Performance of Wet Swales Designed as Multifunctional Green Infrastructure Systems for Water Management and Energy Saving
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231433 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Lack of city space and conventional drainage systems failures have derived in the need to implement Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) techniques which provide multifunctional areas capable of managing stormwater, treating the pollutants present in the runoff, bringing back biodiversity to the urban environment, [...] Read more.
Lack of city space and conventional drainage systems failures have derived in the need to implement Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) techniques which provide multifunctional areas capable of managing stormwater, treating the pollutants present in the runoff, bringing back biodiversity to the urban environment, and providing amenity whilst improving livability. In this context, swales were studied as a potential multifunctional GSI for water management and energy saving. This research successfully proposed the combination of a wet swale with a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system. The materials used within the cross section of a standard wet swale provided good isolation properties within the temperature performance ranges (20–50 °C), showing great potential for a swale to be developed together with GSHP elements, opening a new research area for water management and energy saving. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Structural Properties Ni20Cr10Al2Y Coatings for Geothermal Conditions
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231434 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
The chromium carbide hard phases powders are used for the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coating technique. This paper investigates samples coated with Ni20Cr10Al2Y on carbon steel plates. The coatings were designed to improve the erosion corrosion properties of carbon steel. The specific [...] Read more.
The chromium carbide hard phases powders are used for the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coating technique. This paper investigates samples coated with Ni20Cr10Al2Y on carbon steel plates. The coatings were designed to improve the erosion corrosion properties of carbon steel. The specific agglomerated nanosized Cr3C2 particles on the coated layer provide new physical, mechanical and chemical properties. The multilayer composite technique could be successfully used to protect turbine working in geothermal system. The samples were investigated using nanoindentation to determine the coated samples mechanical properties. The experimental procedure involved obtaining X-ray diffraction patterns of the specimens, micro mechanical tests and SEM investigation to provide detailed information about adhesion of protective layers and morphological modifications. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Determining the Thermal Diffusivity of the Ground from an Experimental Geothermal Borehole
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231435 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This article presents a method for determining in-situ ground apparent thermal diffusivity based on heat transfer by conduction. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Separation and Capture of CO2 through A Zeolitic Membrane
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231436 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
This paper presents the development and evaluation of a technology for CO2 separation and capture from a mixture of post-combustion gases through a zeolitic membrane. A silicalite-1 membrane was hydrothermally synthesized to selectively separate CO2 from a CO2/N2 [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development and evaluation of a technology for CO2 separation and capture from a mixture of post-combustion gases through a zeolitic membrane. A silicalite-1 membrane was hydrothermally synthesized to selectively separate CO2 from a CO2/N2 mixture and permeation tests were performed on the mixture and the simple gases. The composition and morphology of the silicalite-1 crystals were confirmed by XRD and SEM/EDS. The recovered CO2 was used as raw material for its transformation into inorganic media like carbonates. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of New Strategies to Reach Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs)
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231437 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The need to reduce CO2 emissions makes it necessary to review most areas of human activity because we are the main source of these emissions. In particular, the building sector is one of its main responsible. Through a State of the Art, [...] Read more.
The need to reduce CO2 emissions makes it necessary to review most areas of human activity because we are the main source of these emissions. In particular, the building sector is one of its main responsible. Through a State of the Art, several papers published in various scientific journals about nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) studies are reviewed. After carrying out an analysis of said documentation, it is considered that a new way of study can be developed with a multidisciplinary approach. For this, another series of articles are analyzed, where different advances in the field of building construction have been developed and are summarized. It is concluded that the Model Predictive Control (MPC) can also be a useful tool to optimize energy consumption in buildings, especially for public use, in order to achieve the goal of achieving nZEB, through the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Fostering Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency in the Water Sector Using PATs and Wheels
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231438 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 549
Abstract
REDAWN project will foster the adoption of hydropower energy recovery technology in built water networks in the Atlantic Area (AA). REDAWN will develop an adequate institutional, social and technological environment to foster greater resource efficiency in water networks. Pumps working as turbines (PAT) [...] Read more.
REDAWN project will foster the adoption of hydropower energy recovery technology in built water networks in the Atlantic Area (AA). REDAWN will develop an adequate institutional, social and technological environment to foster greater resource efficiency in water networks. Pumps working as turbines (PAT) and other converters (wheels) became attractive to improve the water sector energy efficiency. However, the behavior of these devices are complex and it is difficult know its behavior. To overcome this problem, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used in conjunction with the conceptualization and laboratory tests to explore its performance. Different modes were tested and simulated: single PAT mode and in parallel in pressurized pipe systems and a wheel in an open channel flow. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Solutions in Drinking Water Networks. Lifehygenet Project
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231439 - 13 Nov 2018
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The main aim of this project is focused on designing, developing and installing a modular system to generate electricity, using kinetic and potential energy currently wasted in distributions and water supplies networks. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Energy Saving Measures in Pressurized Irrigation Networks: A New Challenge for Power Generation
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231440 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 520
Abstract
In Spain and other countries, open channel distribution networks have been replaced by on demand-pressurized networks to improve the water-use efficiency of the water distribution systems, but at the same time the energy requirements have dramatically risen. Under this scenario, methodologies to reduce [...] Read more.
In Spain and other countries, open channel distribution networks have been replaced by on demand-pressurized networks to improve the water-use efficiency of the water distribution systems, but at the same time the energy requirements have dramatically risen. Under this scenario, methodologies to reduce the energy consumption are critical such as: irrigation network sectoring, critical hydrant detection, improving the efficiency of the pumping system and the irrigation system, or introducing solar energy for water supply. But once these measures are undertaken, the recovery of the energy inherent in excess pressure in the network should be investigated. Hydropower energy recovery in irrigation is still largely unexplored and requires further investigation and demonstration. All of these methodologies should be considered as useful tools for both, the reduction of energy consumption and the recovery of the excess energy in pressurized irrigation networks. To accomplish this, the REDAWN project (Reducing Energy Dependency in Atlantic Area Water Networks) aims to improve the energy efficiency of water networks through the installation of innovative micro-hydropower (MHP) technology. This technology will recover wasted energy in existing pipe networks across irrigation, public water supply, process industry, and waste-water network settings. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Thermal Coals Revalue: Environmental Implications
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231441 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 444
Abstract
Being thermal coal such an abundant resource in Spain, we are looking for alternative uses for it. This would enable its future use in different fields, same of them already classic, such as: new materials (graphene, activated carbon, molecular sieves, etc.), nano-technology, in [...] Read more.
Being thermal coal such an abundant resource in Spain, we are looking for alternative uses for it. This would enable its future use in different fields, same of them already classic, such as: new materials (graphene, activated carbon, molecular sieves, etc.), nano-technology, in situ energy use (gasification and liquefaction), CBM (coal bed methane), ECBM (coal bed methane with CO2 injection) and CMM (coal mine methane). It could also be used in other innovative areas with high added value, such as gastronomy and biomedicine. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Vibrations in Leaking Spherical Valves with Annular Seal
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231444 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 437
Abstract
Hydroelectric power plants are used worldwide to cover varying electricity demands. The Salime hydroelectric power plant, which is located at Asturias, Spain, has four hydro turbines with a total design capacity of 128 MW. Each turbine has a ball valve with two maintenance [...] Read more.
Hydroelectric power plants are used worldwide to cover varying electricity demands. The Salime hydroelectric power plant, which is located at Asturias, Spain, has four hydro turbines with a total design capacity of 128 MW. Each turbine has a ball valve with two maintenance seals to ensure a closure as complete as possible when the group ceases to operate. Unfortunately, at some occasions the seals did not really perform their sealing function properly, but started to develop periodic vibrations of indefinite duration. This phenomenon generates periodic leakage flow as well as high amplitude pressure fluctuations in the penstocks, which are not acceptable. This phenomenon corresponds to the field of flow-induced vibrations, in particular to the type of self-excited vibrations. The purpose of the research now reported was to develop a simplified theoretical model that can explain the excitation mechanism for the seal vibrations and that can estimate the behavior of the hydro-mechanical system depending on the relevant geometrical and physical parameters. In order to calculate the pressure and flow rate fluctuations, the energy equation for unsteady, unidirectional, incompressible and viscous flow has been applied along each pipe of the hydraulic system, together with continuity considerations at each pipe junction and the seal equation of motion. The perturbation technique has been used to solve the system variables. The mathematical model was solved by means of a specially designed MATLAB code, which allows simulating the time evolution of the annular seal vibration as well as the unsteady flow and pressure induced throughout the system for different system configurations. The results show that the system stability depends on the behavior of the hydraulic pressure force acting on the seal and the gap flow rate after system disturbance. Besides, the results obtained support that, at standing group situation, seal vibrations are less prone to occur when operating at either low reservoir energy level or very large reservoir energy level. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Control and Monitoring System for Hydraulic Microturbines Test Benches
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231445 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The present project aims to design the control and monitoring system for a test bench that will help to calculate the power level that can be extracted from wind vertical axis hydrokinetic microturbines. The workbench includes a hydraulic system calculated to, through a [...] Read more.
The present project aims to design the control and monitoring system for a test bench that will help to calculate the power level that can be extracted from wind vertical axis hydrokinetic microturbines. The workbench includes a hydraulic system calculated to, through a recirculation between two tanks, achieve high fluid speed in the canal, and the monitoring and power electronics systems to adjust different hydraulic parameters and to control the operation of the microturbine under test, providing the necessary measures to obtain the power coefficient versus tip speed ratio (Cp-λ) curves of the microturbine which will help to extract the Maximum Power Point. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Gurney Flap Implementation on a DU91W250 Airfoil
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231448 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
The increasing capability of Wind Turbine (WT) based power generation systems has derived in an increment of the WT rotor diameter, i.e., longer rotor blades. This results in an increase of the electrical power generated but also in instabilities in the operation of [...] Read more.
The increasing capability of Wind Turbine (WT) based power generation systems has derived in an increment of the WT rotor diameter, i.e., longer rotor blades. This results in an increase of the electrical power generated but also in instabilities in the operation of the WT, especially due to the mechanical fatigue loads generated in its elements. In this context, flow control has appeared as a solution to improve the aerodynamic performance of the blades. These devices not only increase lift coefficient but also reduce mechanical fatigue loads. This paper presents a detailed numerical analysis of the effects of placing a passive flow control element, a Gurney Flap (GF), in a DU91W250 airfoil. Moreover, a numerical study of the influence of the GF length on the aerodynamic performance of the blade has been carried out. This study is considered as a basis for the development of an optimization technique of the GF length for long WT blades. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Software for Obtaining the Solar Coverage of a Solar Thermal Energy Installation for Domestic Hot Water Supply by Applying the f-Chart Method
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231449 - 21 Nov 2018
Viewed by 464
Abstract
This project presents the design of a simple software for the determination of solar coverage (f-Chart method) in domestic hot water installations. This program allows to determine in a fast and simple way, the fulfillment of the minimum needs of solar thermal energy [...] Read more.
This project presents the design of a simple software for the determination of solar coverage (f-Chart method) in domestic hot water installations. This program allows to determine in a fast and simple way, the fulfillment of the minimum needs of solar thermal energy supply according to the Technical Building Code. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Silicomanganese and Ferromanganese Slags Treated with Concentrated Solar Energy
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231450 - 15 Nov 2018
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Solar energy when properly concentrated offers a great potential in high temperature applications as those required in metallurgical processes. Even when concentrated solar energy cannot compete with conventional metallurgical processes, it could find application in the treatment of wastes from these processes. These [...] Read more.
Solar energy when properly concentrated offers a great potential in high temperature applications as those required in metallurgical processes. Even when concentrated solar energy cannot compete with conventional metallurgical processes, it could find application in the treatment of wastes from these processes. These by-products are characterized by their high metallic contents, which make them interesting as they could be a raw material available in the own factory. Slags are one of these by-products. Slags are most of them disposed in controlled landfill with environmental impact, but also with economic impact associated to the storing costs and the metallic losses. Here we propose the treatment of ferromanganese and silicomanganese slags with concentrated solar energy with the purpose of evaluating the recovery of manganese from these slags. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Earth Dam Monitoring in the Soil Take Care Project
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231451 - 21 Nov 2018
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The Cartagena-La Unión mountain range was the focus of an intense mining activity between early XIX and late XX centuries. Most of Spanish national production of lead and zinc was extracted from its mines. During the ore concentration process, contaminated wastes containing heavy [...] Read more.
The Cartagena-La Unión mountain range was the focus of an intense mining activity between early XIX and late XX centuries. Most of Spanish national production of lead and zinc was extracted from its mines. During the ore concentration process, contaminated wastes containing heavy metal minerals, cyanides and sulfates were produced and deposited in earth dams. The Spanish National Institute of Geology and Mining had catalogued 75 earth dams in the councils of Cartagena and La Unión. These deposits pose a potential risk for the environment and nearby populations. Without suitable and precautionary measures, contaminated particles can be transported far away due to the wind action and runoff water, and may be incorporated to the food chain. This risk is increase due to the fact that it is a seismically active area, and breakage of these dams can lead to the dumping of thousands of tons of contaminated wastes. The SOIL TAKE CARE Project is an international project co financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the Interreg Sudoe Cooperation Programme. It aims to improve the management and rehabilitation of contaminated soils in South-Western Europe that includes Spain, Portugal and south of France. The University of Oviedo takes part of that Project by the instrumentation and monitoring of two of those earth dams. Among the work realized so far highlights the perforation of two boreholes and the installation of several sensors. It aims a double objective: to analyze the erosion and infiltration capacity of rainfall into the dams and to detect possible symptoms of slope instability. Although the investigation is still in course, preliminary results shows fast rainfall infiltration into the superficial soil layers, being discharge curves much more extended. This water retention capacity, coupled with the existence of impermeable layers into the dams, could lead to a complete saturation of superficial soil layers and trigger slope instability processes. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
5 MW Wind Turbine Annual Energy Production Improvement by Flow Control Devices
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231452 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
Several flow control devices have been studied in recent years. Majority of them were designed firstly for aeronautical purposes. At present many research is aimed to introduce these devices in wind turbines (WTs) in order to optimize their aerodynamic performance. The main goal [...] Read more.
Several flow control devices have been studied in recent years. Majority of them were designed firstly for aeronautical purposes. At present many research is aimed to introduce these devices in wind turbines (WTs) in order to optimize their aerodynamic performance. The main goal of the present work is to analyze the influence of passive flow control devices, Vortex Generators and Gurney Flaps, on the Annual Energy Production (AEP) of a large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). Consequently, BEM based calculations were performed in order to study their effect on the NREL offshore 5 MW Baseline Wind Turbine. Obtained results show an increment in the maximum value of the power coefficient, Cp_max, and a considerable improvement of the AEP. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Multifunctional Porous Concrete Urban Pavements for a More Sustainable and Resilient Future
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231453 - 14 Nov 2018
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Many cities around the world are handling many problems derived from urbanization, resulting in an uncontrolled growth of cities. Moreover, Climate Change effects are affecting all countries and specially cities. In this context, urban drainage and paving strategies demand a bigger economical investment [...] Read more.
Many cities around the world are handling many problems derived from urbanization, resulting in an uncontrolled growth of cities. Moreover, Climate Change effects are affecting all countries and specially cities. In this context, urban drainage and paving strategies demand a bigger economical investment to avoid a great impact in citizens quality of life, and in the environment. The main objective of this research is to contribute, in an innovative way, with the construction of concrete urban pavements by studying, quantifying and trying to join together a series of characteristics and benefits that are analyzed nowadays, but in a separately way. Trying to achieve an integrated pavement, with resilient properties (adapted to Climate Change) and more sustainable (economically, socially and environmentally). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminated Timber (CLT)
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231454 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 526
Abstract
In the research for sustainable construction, cross-laminated timber (CLT) has gained popularity and become a widely used engineered timber product. However, there are few numerical studies of the structural behaviour of CLT. Among other issues, the orthotropic properties of CLT complicate finite element [...] Read more.
In the research for sustainable construction, cross-laminated timber (CLT) has gained popularity and become a widely used engineered timber product. However, there are few numerical studies of the structural behaviour of CLT. Among other issues, the orthotropic properties of CLT complicate finite element analysis (FEA). This paper presents a finite element model (FEM) to predict the structural behaviour of CLT beams subjected to sustained flexural loading. This numerical model includes a material model based on the orthotropic material properties of different timber species. Furthermore, the orientation and the properties of each layer are considered. Most of the previous studies simulate CLT beams as a homogeneous material. However, in this work the CLT beam is modelled as a composite material made up of five layers with different orientations and properties. Bonded contacts are used to define the interaction between layers. In addition, nonlinearities, such as large displacement, are used to simulate the behaviour of CLT beams. The model provides the load-displacement relationship and stress concentration. Tsai-Wu failure criteria is used in the simulation to predict the failure modes of the CLT beams studied. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Syngas Quality as a Key Factor in the Design of an Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Plant for Scrap Tyres
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231455 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 431
Abstract
In 2016 4.94 million tonnes of tyres were produced. Each tyre eventually become waste and pyrolysis has been considered an effective way of utilizing scrap tyres for several decades. However, pyrolysis has failed many times because the process has a great energy demand [...] Read more.
In 2016 4.94 million tonnes of tyres were produced. Each tyre eventually become waste and pyrolysis has been considered an effective way of utilizing scrap tyres for several decades. However, pyrolysis has failed many times because the process has a great energy demand and the quality of products is unstable or insufficient for commercial use. Usually plants are focused on the production of pyrolytic oil or char and the gaseous phase is only a by-product. In this paper the importance of composition and quality of pyrolytic gas is emphasized. The main chemical properties make this gas a valuable biofuel that may satisfy energy requirements of the whole process (except for the start-up phase). Available data from literature concerning composition and other features of the pyrolytic gas from scrap tyres obtained at temperatures up to 1000 °C are compared with experimental results. The quality of evolved gases is discussed in the context of the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), too. Finally, an analysis of the mass balances obtained allows a decision about the business profile and profitability. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) in Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Management: A Review
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231457 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
This paper reviews around 41 articles providing the trends, characteristics, research gaps and challenges of these studies that may help e-waste management-related academics and practitioners with an overview of the need for such tool to be applied. The results and highlighted future research [...] Read more.
This paper reviews around 41 articles providing the trends, characteristics, research gaps and challenges of these studies that may help e-waste management-related academics and practitioners with an overview of the need for such tool to be applied. The results and highlighted future research perspectives discussed in this study will definitely help to analyze e-waste management systems with more critical aspects, i.e., hidden and known flows of waste products and associated materials, economic assessment of material recovery and the role of responsible authorities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Mineral Processing Technologies for the Remediation of Soils Polluted by Trace Elements
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231458 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Soil washing is a remediation technology based on the adaptation of techniques habitually used in mineral processing to recover contaminants from polluted soils. Its main scope is the reduction of the total volume of contaminated soil, which could later be treated by biological, [...] Read more.
Soil washing is a remediation technology based on the adaptation of techniques habitually used in mineral processing to recover contaminants from polluted soils. Its main scope is the reduction of the total volume of contaminated soil, which could later be treated by biological, chemical, or thermal procedures. Since the contaminants are usually associated to the soil finer fractions, direct classification is the most widely employed technique. Moreover, other procedures, such as indirect classification, density and magnetic separation, as well as froth flotation are also extended. Soil washing is usually applied by means of on-site mobile plants which are located in the study sites. However, previously to these field applications, a detailed soil characterization and some trials are required in order to optimize the process. In this work, soils affected by heavy metals as a result of mining, metallurgical, and industrial activities are evaluated and pilot-scale treated. The diversity of soils and residues treated, together with the variety of the methodologies employed enabled the elaboration of a general feasibility protocol. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Environmental Threats of Ancient Pb Mining and Metallurgical Activities in the Linares Mining District (Southern Spain)
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231459 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Former industrial sites are now dedicated to other land uses in the Linares mining district. Here we selected five residential/farming areas (squares of 1 km2 each) and sought to evaluate the levels of contamination by Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) of the soils, [...] Read more.
Former industrial sites are now dedicated to other land uses in the Linares mining district. Here we selected five residential/farming areas (squares of 1 km2 each) and sought to evaluate the levels of contamination by Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) of the soils, and also to offer an insight into the threat these pollutants may pose to human health or the environment by means of risk assessment. High concentrations especially of Pb, and also of As, Cd, Cu and Zn were found in quantities that are considerably bioavailable. Moreover, risk assessment revealed unacceptable concentrations for Pb and As in all the areas as well as for Cd and Cu in some squares. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Determination of the Theoretical Spectrum of Gamma Emission Generated by DGNAA in Samples of Ashes of Thermal Power Plants
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231460 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 392
Abstract
In this article the methodology for the determination of the theoretical gamma spectrum originated by applying DGNAA (delayed gamma neutron analysis activation) techniques for the elemental analysis of ash from thermal power plants is exposed. This is a study must be prior to [...] Read more.
In this article the methodology for the determination of the theoretical gamma spectrum originated by applying DGNAA (delayed gamma neutron analysis activation) techniques for the elemental analysis of ash from thermal power plants is exposed. This is a study must be prior to the experimentation in order to define the parameters of the test to obtain the optimal conditions for the detection of each element present in the sample. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis Technique by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Powder Mineral and Slurry Samples
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231461 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 479
Abstract
In this article, the results of a methodology to perform the elemental analysis of samples from mining borehole samples using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique are presented. The developed method can be carried out either on powder and on slurry samples, which [...] Read more.
In this article, the results of a methodology to perform the elemental analysis of samples from mining borehole samples using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique are presented. The developed method can be carried out either on powder and on slurry samples, which would comparable to the samples obtained in a mineral processing plant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Overview of Rare Earth Elements in Sewage Sludges and Their Ashes
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231462 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
In this work, data about REY concentrations in sewage sludges and their ashes have been analysed. The source of REY in them is mainly geogenic, which is why sludges from regions like China and Brazil have higher concentrations. Thus, the combustion or co-combustion [...] Read more.
In this work, data about REY concentrations in sewage sludges and their ashes have been analysed. The source of REY in them is mainly geogenic, which is why sludges from regions like China and Brazil have higher concentrations. Thus, the combustion or co-combustion of sewage sludge as a way of recovery its energy potential and, secondarily, the processing of their ashes in order to obtain REY may be interesting, in certain regions, depending on the techno-economic and environmental context of the moment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Fluid-Dynamic Study of the Avilés Port. Remedial Measures on the Environmental Impact of the Exterior Storage of Powdery Products
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231463 - 08 Nov 2018
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Ports are one of the most commonly used places to perform the exterior storage of powdery products and as a consequence their surrounding areas usually face important problems of pollution. The Avilés Port, located in Asturias at the centre of the northern coast [...] Read more.
Ports are one of the most commonly used places to perform the exterior storage of powdery products and as a consequence their surrounding areas usually face important problems of pollution. The Avilés Port, located in Asturias at the centre of the northern coast of Spain, asked for a fluid-dynamic study of their docks under the hypothesis of maximum capacity of powdery products, considering different piles of carbon, clinker, zinc concentrate and phosphates, in order to analyse: (a) the environmental impact under the two predominant winds in the port, east and north-east at the maximum wind speed, (b) different options of wind fences (location, gap to the piles, height and porosity) as a remedial measure, (c) the environmental impact of placing the proper wind fences along all the docks. The analyses were carried out by means of numerical simulation using the software ANSYS-CFX® and according to EPA “AP-42. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors” showed a pollutant emission reduction of 50% using the final strategy of wind fences decided by the Avilés Port Authority. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Proposal of an Optimized Airfoil Geometry for Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231464 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 459
Abstract
In this work, an airfoil geometry optimized for vertical-axis wind turbine applications is presented. Different airfoil shapes have been analyzed with JavaFoil, a panel method software. Then, the results from the analysis have been used to optimize the performance of the proposed airfoil [...] Read more.
In this work, an airfoil geometry optimized for vertical-axis wind turbine applications is presented. Different airfoil shapes have been analyzed with JavaFoil, a panel method software. Then, the results from the analysis have been used to optimize the performance of the proposed airfoil shape (UO-17-LDA). This airfoil presents a high lift-to-drag ratio and a delayed stall angle with respect to the original FX-63-137 airfoil, making it suitable for vertical-axis wind turbine applications. The practicality of JavaFoil for the comparison of different airfoil geometries has been verified, as it is capable of obtaining results for a wide number of flow conditions in small computational times and with a user-friendly interface. Nevertheless, the results diverge from the actual solution for high angles of attack (beyond stall). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Aerodynamic Design of a Small-Scale Model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231465 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
Wind tunnel testing of small-scale models is one of the most useful techniques to predict the performance of real-scale applications. In this work, the aerodynamic design and the construction of a small-scale model of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine for wind tunnel [...] Read more.
Wind tunnel testing of small-scale models is one of the most useful techniques to predict the performance of real-scale applications. In this work, the aerodynamic design and the construction of a small-scale model of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine for wind tunnel testing has been performed. Using a double multiple streamtube model (DMST), different solidity values for the turbine and different airfoil geometries were compared to select the final design. Once an optimal design was selected, a numerical simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was performed in order to obtain a more precise description of the flow field as well as the performance of the model. Future work will comprise the characterization of the model and the comparison of the experimental and numerical results. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Sensor for the Web of Things
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231466 - 14 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 564
Abstract
Many Internet of Things platforms use dedicated software coupled with proprietary devices and interfaces, creating silo solutions with no interoperability. The Web of Things paradigm promotes using open Web standards to connect physical objects to the Internet through an application layer. In this [...] Read more.
Many Internet of Things platforms use dedicated software coupled with proprietary devices and interfaces, creating silo solutions with no interoperability. The Web of Things paradigm promotes using open Web standards to connect physical objects to the Internet through an application layer. In this paper, we propose a low-cost, indoor air quality monitoring sensor implementing a minimal servient building block recommended by the Web of Things Working Group of the World Wide Web Consortium. The proposed sensor runs a Web server on a low-power system-on-chip microcontroller, which provides temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide measurements to the Internet through a REST API. Any client on the Internet able to manage the HTTP protocol may access this sensor, making it compatible with any air quality monitoring platform that uses HTTP. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Drying of Brewers’ Spent Grain
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231467 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 661
Abstract
Brewing industry generates a main residue, brewers’ spent grain (BSG), which has good properties both for use in animal consumption and for thermal use, but contains a very high content of moisture (20–25% dry matter content), so that its elimination or treatment should [...] Read more.
Brewing industry generates a main residue, brewers’ spent grain (BSG), which has good properties both for use in animal consumption and for thermal use, but contains a very high content of moisture (20–25% dry matter content), so that its elimination or treatment should be immediate, since it can cause degeneration problems of the product. Currently, brewers often supply this material at low cost for use as livestock feed. This solution is not efficiently carried out without reporting too much benefit to the brewers more than to eliminate waste from their facilities. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas due to its low price, availability throughout the year and a valuable chemical composition, so it seems necessary to look for an alternative use to give value to these characteristics. In this paper a drying study is carried out in order to establish the foundations for its energy use by thermal of BSG. BSG has been used from a craft brewery located at Badajoz, Spain. Drying analysis was carried out for various temperatures and inlet air flow by means a convective dryer. The properties studied show that BSG can be used for thermal utilization in large installations, being necessary heat drying processes as a pretreatment in order to obtain a biofuel with acceptable efficiency. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Causes of Ground Settlements in Upper Reservoir of Hydro-Wind Plant of El Hierro and Method Implemented for Soil Improvement
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231468 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 414
Abstract
This article exposes one of the main engineering problems in the design and construction of the upper reservoir of El Hierro hydro-wind plant, relative to the high settlement of the bottom in the southeast area. The high settlements measured during the construction phase [...] Read more.
This article exposes one of the main engineering problems in the design and construction of the upper reservoir of El Hierro hydro-wind plant, relative to the high settlement of the bottom in the southeast area. The high settlements measured during the construction phase are consequence of the geological-geotechnical settings of the site, a natural depression of a volcanic crater occupied by highly deformable soils derived from the weathering of volcanic materials. Ground improvement was carried out by partial preloading (mobile dune), preceded by the execution of a trial embankment in the southeast area of the reservoir, where the greatest thickness of deformable soils was identified. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Removal of Fluoride in Water with Mexican Natural Zeolite
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231470 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
This work presents the results of the fluoride removal in water, through an adsorption process with the use of a natural Mexican zeolite conditioned with calcium, manganese or iron in a fixed bed column system. The XRD and FTIR characterization results demonstrated that [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of the fluoride removal in water, through an adsorption process with the use of a natural Mexican zeolite conditioned with calcium, manganese or iron in a fixed bed column system. The XRD and FTIR characterization results demonstrated that the conditioning modifies the surface chemical composition of the zeolite and the SEM/EDS analysis corroborates the increase of the exchanged ions. The conditioning of the zeolite generated an increase in the adsorption capacity of fluorine, the best percentage of removal obtained from fluoride ions was 98%, for a water with a concentration of 10 mg·L−1 with the conditioned zeolite with iron. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Removal of Formaldehyde by CWO
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231471 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 563
Abstract
A large part of the wastewater generated by the Chemical and Transformation Industries are discharged with the presence of organic pollutants, in many cases they contain refractory organic compounds such as formaldehyde in a very low concentration for their recovery to be profitable, [...] Read more.
A large part of the wastewater generated by the Chemical and Transformation Industries are discharged with the presence of organic pollutants, in many cases they contain refractory organic compounds such as formaldehyde in a very low concentration for their recovery to be profitable, but it is high enough for to constitute a source of important pollution, which causes a loss of biodiversity and retards sustainable development. In the present work, the elimination of formaldehyde by the catalytic wet oxidation reaction is evaluated as part of the tertiary treatment of aqueous effluents in a three-phase reaction system, using copper and cobalt mixed oxides catalysts supported in alumina (alpha phase), the results of the characterization of the catalyst used are also shown, by conventional techniques. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Net Zero Energy for Industrial and Commercial Microgrids: Approaches and Challenges
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231472 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 586
Abstract
This paper addresses the concept of net zero energy and net metering in efficient buildings in order to assist in the study and development of future microgrids for buildings with annual zero energy consumption. There are several definitions for zero energy buildings available [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the concept of net zero energy and net metering in efficient buildings in order to assist in the study and development of future microgrids for buildings with annual zero energy consumption. There are several definitions for zero energy buildings available in the literature with a distinct set of project goals and interests, but this work is focused on the definition that accounts for energy losses by converting each energy type to source energy. Finally, a case study is presented to evaluate whether four distinct all-electric buildings can achieve annual zero energy by deploying on-site renewable sources within their site boundary. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Detection of Outliers in Pollutant Emissions from the Soto de Ribera Coal-Fired Plant Using Functional Data Analysis: A Case Study in Northern Spain
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231473 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
The present research uses two different functional data analysis methods called functional high-density region (HDR) boxplot and functional bagplot. Both methodologies were applied for the outlier detection in the time pollutant emissions curves that were built using as inputs the discrete information available [...] Read more.
The present research uses two different functional data analysis methods called functional high-density region (HDR) boxplot and functional bagplot. Both methodologies were applied for the outlier detection in the time pollutant emissions curves that were built using as inputs the discrete information available from an air quality monitoring data record station. Although the record of pollutant emissions is made in a discrete way, these methodologies consider pollutant emissions over time as curves, with outliers obtained by a comparison of curves instead of vectors. Then the concept of outlier passes from been a point to a curve that employed the functional depth as the indicator of curve distances. In this study, the referred methodologies are applied to the detection of outliers in pollutant emissions from the Soto de Ribera coal-fired plant which is in the nearby of the city of Oviedo, located in the Principality of Asturias, Spain. Finally, the advantages of the functional method are reported. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Techno-Economic Assessment of BIPV Systems in Three Cities of Iran
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231474 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 477
Abstract
In all over the world, huge parts of energy are consumed by buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems have attracted much attention with the purpose of providing energy demand of buildings. This paper introduces the examinations of BIPV system on a residential building [...] Read more.
In all over the world, huge parts of energy are consumed by buildings. Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems have attracted much attention with the purpose of providing energy demand of buildings. This paper introduces the examinations of BIPV system on a residential building under different climatic conditions of Iran by considering different PV modules. The building orientation has been analysed in order to find higher efficiency rate of PV modules through DesignBuilder. It was found the maximum rate of energy generation for all three cities occurs in south side of the building. Also for Tehran and Tabriz the minimum ratio of energy consumption is at the angle of 180° while for Bandar Abas it is in north side. Moreover, applying Cd-Te modules contribute to reducing payback time. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Energy Optimization of Distribution Centers of the Dairy Industry of the Dominican Republic through Photovoltaic Installations and Saving and Efficiency Measures
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231475 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Analysis for the energy optimization of 5 centers of distribution (COD) of dairy products that includes measures of saving and efficiency and implantation of photovoltaic solar energy that solves the problem of the instability of the electric network of the country. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Power Generation from Bioenergy Crops by Technical and Economic Feasibility Assessment
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231476 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Biomass offers opportunities to generate alternative sources of energy. The introduction of energy crops as a source of raw material for power generation is a challenge in Spain. The objective of this work is to know whether in a power plant the use [...] Read more.
Biomass offers opportunities to generate alternative sources of energy. The introduction of energy crops as a source of raw material for power generation is a challenge in Spain. The objective of this work is to know whether in a power plant the use of a natural resource as energy crops for electricity production is technically and economically feasible. In the energy field, a simulation model is performed, depicting the model plant previously defined, whose main input variables are, on one hand, the resource and on the other hand, the configuration of the energy conversion system. Forestry data together with energy plant investment and operation costs will also be input parameters for the economic model. With all the resources and the results of energy research, the appropriate economic model is applied to show the barriers of energy crops for electricity generation. The results show the difficulties in the use of energy crops. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Fractographic Analysis of the Temperature Influence in the Mode I Fatigue Delamination of Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231477 - 14 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
The present research shows a fractographic analysis, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), based in previous experimental tests of the delamination under mode I fatigue loading for two aeronautical quality composite materials at different test temperatures (90, 20 and −60 °C) in order [...] Read more.
The present research shows a fractographic analysis, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), based in previous experimental tests of the delamination under mode I fatigue loading for two aeronautical quality composite materials at different test temperatures (90, 20 and −60 °C) in order to analyze the matrix and temperature influence (flight conditions). The materials employed are composed of two different epoxy matrixes and the same unidirectional carbon fiber reinforcement. This study suggests a variable behavior depending on the temperature and the type of matrix used. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Low Temperature and Resin Effects on the Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness in Aeronautical Quality Polymer Composites
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231478 - 14 Nov 2018
Viewed by 508
Abstract
In the present research the fracture behavior in mode I under static loading of two aircraft quality composites materials has been analyzed at different test temperatures. The composites under study are made of the same unidirectional AS4 carbon fiber reinforcement and had different [...] Read more.
In the present research the fracture behavior in mode I under static loading of two aircraft quality composites materials has been analyzed at different test temperatures. The composites under study are made of the same unidirectional AS4 carbon fiber reinforcement and had different matrix of epoxy resin, one made of epoxy type 3501-6, and the other with epoxy type 8552 (modified to increase its toughness). Double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens were tested for different temperatures: 20 °C (room temperature), 0 °C, −30 °C and −60 °C, in order to simulate flight conditions. The results obtained from the static tests were analyzed using the Gompertz function. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Torrefaction of Short Rotation Coppice of Poplar under Oxidative and Non-Oxidative Atmospheres
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231479 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 492
Abstract
Torrefaction improves some of the poorest characteristics of biomass such as hygroscopicity, low energy density, or poor grindability which may cause some problems during its handling, storage and combustion. The aim of this work is to apply the torrefaction process to a Short [...] Read more.
Torrefaction improves some of the poorest characteristics of biomass such as hygroscopicity, low energy density, or poor grindability which may cause some problems during its handling, storage and combustion. The aim of this work is to apply the torrefaction process to a Short Rotation Coppice of Poplar (SRCP) and characterize the new fuel. Therefore, both non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction of SRCP were conducted in a tube furnace reactor within the range 200–240 °C and the torrefied biomass was fully characterize, i.e., proximate, ultimate, compositional and heating value analysis as well as wettability studies. In addition, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was performed at optimal torrefaction temperature. Torrefaction kinetics were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer at optimal torrefaction temperature. Minimum mass and energy yields were found to be respectively 85.0% and 87.4% for oxidative torrefaction and 87.5% and 94.1% for non-oxidative option. Moisture was reduced from 6.97% to 4.8% and 4.4% for oxidative and non-oxidative torrefaction, respectively. Wettability studies carried out show an increase in hydrophobic behavior. Lignin was affected by torrefaction since decomposition products from guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units were released during Py-GC/MS experiments. The reaction orders were 1.92 and 1.82 for oxidative and non-oxidative torrefaction, respectively and kinetic constant values were 5.99·× 10−5 and 2.98·× 10−5 s−1. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Bioenergy Valuation of Poultry Litter by Applying an Enzyme Product for Environmental Purposes: A New Applied Technology
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231480 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The increase and intensification of food production entail some potential risks to the environment due to emissions of greenhouse gases, acid rain and other pollutants. European policies are focused on environmental protection and particularly on the health and welfare of animals intended for [...] Read more.
The increase and intensification of food production entail some potential risks to the environment due to emissions of greenhouse gases, acid rain and other pollutants. European policies are focused on environmental protection and particularly on the health and welfare of animals intended for human consumption. The transposition of the Directive of water protection (91/676/EEC) and the increase botulism cases in countries such as Ireland have necessitated the search for alternative solutions for the management of poultry manure, which has traditionally been used as a fertilizer. Research has targeted eco-friendly, techno-economical and time-effective solutions, together with a simplified large-scale operational approach. Given this scenario, this project aims to study the use of Colombian enzyme product, called Bioterre, in European farms. This product is used in that country as a stabilizer and composting accelerator of organic waste for fertilizer production. After experimental testing application the average moisture content of the poultry litter in treated sheds of the different farms, at the end of the cycle, is 27%, versus 47% in the untreated sheds. This product decreases the moisture content in the biomass increasing the Lower Heating Value (LHV). Equipment based on this technology could be used mainly in the food processing industry and their bioenergy sustainable projects. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Bioenergy as an Environmental Alternative in Energy Systems: A Case Study
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231481 - 13 Nov 2018
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The growing decrease of traditional fuels leads to the development of a new energy model. Biomass poses as an energy alternative that can substitute fossil fuels. In this context, this work aims to study the necessities and possible solutions in biomass production for [...] Read more.
The growing decrease of traditional fuels leads to the development of a new energy model. Biomass poses as an energy alternative that can substitute fossil fuels. In this context, this work aims to study the necessities and possible solutions in biomass production for conventional energy systems in populated-industrial environments. The methodology applied evaluates the use of biomass by collecting both the integrity of the management process and the transformation of the existing resources to start up bioenergy plants for domestic and industrial markets. The results show both the energetical and environmental importance that biomass shows in said locations in terms of reducing Greenhouse Gasses (GHG) and the development of future environmentally sustainable systems through energy-renewable projects. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Universal Solar Battery Charger for Off-Grid Storage Systems
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231482 - 15 Nov 2018
Viewed by 449
Abstract
A solar battery charged is designed, developed and tested in order to prove it as low-cost solution for isolated storage systems. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Study of Explosive Intervals of Ternary Gas Mixtures
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231483 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The use of hydrogen as an energy vector seems today one of the most viable alternatives, although its use involves safety problems due to the generation of explosive atmospheres. Lower and upper flammability limits are one of the most important parameters at the [...] Read more.
The use of hydrogen as an energy vector seems today one of the most viable alternatives, although its use involves safety problems due to the generation of explosive atmospheres. Lower and upper flammability limits are one of the most important parameters at the time of characterize and handle flammable gases. This paper is focused on the evaluation of the safety prevention measures more commonly applied to explosive atmospheres, specifically the inertization, by means of a non-flammable gas (CO2) in air-hydrogen mixtures. In this study both theoretical and experimental methods to determine the flammability interval have been carried out. The flammability limits and the LOC value are represented in a ternary diagram enable to determine the explosive area containing the entire range of explosive mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted in a flameproof chamber of 0.5 dm3 volume, designed to withstand explosions inside. The results show that the theoretical approaches are only valid as a previous step to the experimental tests, since the observed differences between both implies that the use of such approaches could lead to important safety risks. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study of the Architecture of a Smart City
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231485 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
In recent years, we are experiencing a digital revolution in many contexts, the digitalization of industry (Industry 4.0), the digitalization of public administrations, the digitalization of people and things (Internet of Things) and, of course, the digitization of cities under the name of [...] Read more.
In recent years, we are experiencing a digital revolution in many contexts, the digitalization of industry (Industry 4.0), the digitalization of public administrations, the digitalization of people and things (Internet of Things) and, of course, the digitization of cities under the name of Smart Cities. Although the digitization process is based on 3 main pillars: data, talent and innovation. It is necessary to make a mixture of these 3 pillars in different percentages to achieve digitization. In the case of cities, great weight lies in the technology deployed that makes up the architecture of the city. This technology is very incipient and lacks standards that allow interoperability between different devices. This article tries to show a picture of the possible architectures existing today from the point of view of sustainability and energy efficiency. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Small-Scale Hydropower Generation in Water Distribution Networks by Using Pumps as Turbines
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231486 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 427
Abstract
In this work, a procedure for the optimal design of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks was applied, aimed at both maximizing the hydropower generation and exploiting the excess pressure. The design of the main characteristic PAT parameters, namely the flow rate [...] Read more.
In this work, a procedure for the optimal design of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks was applied, aimed at both maximizing the hydropower generation and exploiting the excess pressure. The design of the main characteristic PAT parameters, namely the flow rate and the head drop at Best Efficiency Point, the rotational speed and the impeller’s diameter was assessed, under the hypothesis of applying the Electrical Regulation. The procedure allowed to estimate both the produced power and the exploited head at any simulated time-step, as well as the overall daily energy, in compliance with the hydraulic and technical constraints of the system. The model was tested on a simplified Water Distribution Network and a preliminary Cost-Benefit analysis was performed, showing interesting reliefs against short Payback Period. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Impact of Multiple Parameters on Energy Performance of PV-DSF Buildings
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231487 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 517
Abstract
Double Skin Façade (DSF) has been widely used in buildings to enhance energy efficiency and bring daylight and aesthetic benefits. Solar photovoltaic (PV) modules can be integrated in DSF to fully or partially meet the electricity demand. Therefore, in this study, the energy [...] Read more.
Double Skin Façade (DSF) has been widely used in buildings to enhance energy efficiency and bring daylight and aesthetic benefits. Solar photovoltaic (PV) modules can be integrated in DSF to fully or partially meet the electricity demand. Therefore, in this study, the energy performance of a 3-storey PV-DSF building is analyzed for three cities of Iran with distinctive climates namely Tehran, Tabriz and Kish Island considering different orientations, cavity widths and different optical properties for the PV system. The results indicated that the south facing PV-DSF have the maximum electricity generation and the minimum net electricity consumption. With increase in cavity width from 0.4 to 1.2 m, the annual electricity consumption is reduced by 5.88, 5.19 and 7.49 MWh for Tehran, Tabriz and Kish, respectively. The cavity width tends to have negligible impact on electricity generation. The analysis of the outer PV skin showed that the glazing with lower Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) offers more energy saving benefits for all the considered cities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Investigation on the Acoustic Scattering Matrix for a Centrifugal Pump
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231489 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Fluid-dynamic noise in centrifugal pumps as a significant sound source in piping systems has gained high attention due to the requirements of vibration and noise reduction in many fields. The acoustic characteristics of the fluid-dynamic noise from pumps are bound to be affected [...] Read more.
Fluid-dynamic noise in centrifugal pumps as a significant sound source in piping systems has gained high attention due to the requirements of vibration and noise reduction in many fields. The acoustic characteristics of the fluid-dynamic noise from pumps are bound to be affected by the pipe ports and other piping components during the operation of the pump system. Therefore, the direct measurement of pressure pulsations in the pipeline of a test pump does not directly reflect the acoustic properties of the pump itself, because the coupling effects of the hydraulic system, which can even cause standing waves, may be seriously misleading in some situations. In this paper, an alternative experimental method has been applied to identify the so-called acoustic scattering matrix of a laboratory centrifugal pump. The elements of the scattering matrix characterize how the acoustic pressure waves are transmitted or reflected from the pump ports, i.e., it summarizes the passive acoustic properties of the pumps. For the tests, the test pump was connected in parallel to another auxiliary pump driven with a variable-frequency that played the role of an external sound source. The acoustic pressure waves induced in the suction and discharge pipes were mathematically decomposed into the corresponding incoming and exiting pressure waves travelling in the positive (P+) and negative (P) directions respectively, by means of the two-microphone procedure. This paper shows the elements of the scattering matrix determined for the test pump as a function of frequency. These results represent a reference for subsequent theoretical research on the acoustic scattering matrix of centrifugal pumps. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Towards Circular Economy: Different Strategies for Polyurethane Waste Recycling and the Obtaining of New Products
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231490 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
As a consequence of the high production and simultaneous consumption of polyurethanes (PU) a great volume of PU waste is landfilled. In this scenario, suitable and efficient routes for PU waste recycling have been searched for many years. In this work two series [...] Read more.
As a consequence of the high production and simultaneous consumption of polyurethanes (PU) a great volume of PU waste is landfilled. In this scenario, suitable and efficient routes for PU waste recycling have been searched for many years. In this work two series of PUs using different recycled PU sources were synthesized: a thermoplastic PU series using a glycolysated polyol obtained from the glycolysis of elastomeric PU waste (chemical recycling) and a PU flexible foam series loaded with PU dust waste created in the shaping of PU surf tables (mechanical recycling). Results showed that the incorporation of recycled components in the formulation improved mechanical properties both in the case of thermoplastic polyurethanes and polyurethane foams. The optimum glycolysated polyol was fixed in 15% over the total polyol weight for thermoplastic PUs. In the case of foams, a maximum of 20% PU dust over the polyol weight was incorporated. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Integration of the Iberian Natural Gas Infrastructure into the European Energy Transition to Renewable Sources
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231492 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The natural gas is broadly envisaged as a transition fuel in the energy decarbonisation. However, demand scenarios to 2050 differs largely depending on the share captured in the power generation and transport sectors. In such an uncertain context, an intertemporal spatial equilibrium model [...] Read more.
The natural gas is broadly envisaged as a transition fuel in the energy decarbonisation. However, demand scenarios to 2050 differs largely depending on the share captured in the power generation and transport sectors. In such an uncertain context, an intertemporal spatial equilibrium model is implemented, to optimize the deployment of the future EU infrastructures over the period 2015-2050. The Iberian sub region is emphasized, so that the role of its regasification capacity and the interconnection with the rest of the EU is stated. As a result, additional investments on regasification plants are not required, provided that the EU- Iberian interconnection is properly expanded, in line with the planned project MIDCAT. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Source of Raw Materials for the Synthesis of Polyurethanes
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231493 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Precursors have been satisfactorily synthesized from lignocellulosic biomass for later use in the synthesis of polyurethanes resulting in competitive final properties with those of petroleum derived polyurethanes. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
New Equipment for Complementary Petrophysical Characterization of Rocks for Deep Geological Storage
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231494 - 11 Nov 2018
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The geological storage of CO2 in coal seams is an emerging option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. A background study focused to the selection of favorable sites for CO2 geological storage are necessary [...] Read more.
The geological storage of CO2 in coal seams is an emerging option in the portfolio of mitigation actions for reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. A background study focused to the selection of favorable sites for CO2 geological storage are necessary steps, and in the selection of reservoirs for CO2 sequestration a complete petrophysical characterization of the sample is necessary. To complement the classical petrophysical parameters measured on the rocks of the geological formation with potential to be used to store the injected CO2, a new equipment has been designed and constructed to simulate at a laboratory scale the inter-action between the rock and the injected CO2, at different pressure conditions simulating depths of the geological formations up to 1000 m. The design and construction of this equipment allows us to investigate known physical and chemical processes that occur between the rocks store/seal and the fluid injected into geological storage. Essays focused to study the alterability of the rock in contact with CO2 either in subcritical or supercritical state, as well as essays for CO2 injectivity on the rock can be accomplished. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Possibilities for Use of Coal Bed Methane & Coal Bed Mine in Asturias
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231495 - 02 Nov 2018
Viewed by 387
Abstract
There is a number of risk issues associated with CBM/CMM operations: sealing the mine shafts; pumping the mine water; evacuating air from the mine and air ingress into the mine. Our team has investigated the details of the initial phase of the business [...] Read more.
There is a number of risk issues associated with CBM/CMM operations: sealing the mine shafts; pumping the mine water; evacuating air from the mine and air ingress into the mine. Our team has investigated the details of the initial phase of the business plan and, by extrapolation of key parameters, was able to form an opinion on the larger plan. The details investigated include: the methods to calculate the volume of gas entrapped in the coal; the sealing of the mine shafts to trap the gas escape; and the process to keep the mines pumped dry by removing the underground water that drains into the mine workings. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Design, Construction and Commissioning of an Apparatus for Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Geothermal Grouting Materials Based on the Transient Hot Wire Method
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231496 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to develop an apparatus for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of geothermal grouting materials. The apparatus, named MCT, is designed and constructed as a direct application of a mathematical model of heat transference for conduction [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to develop an apparatus for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of geothermal grouting materials. The apparatus, named MCT, is designed and constructed as a direct application of a mathematical model of heat transference for conduction in an infinite homogeneous isotropic medium using a linear heat source of infinite length, infinitesimal radius and radial heat flow. This application is known as the transient hot wire method. The apparatus mainly consists of a hot wire, a power supply, a temperature sensor and a datalogger. The commissioning of the developed apparatus is carried out by means of the calibration of the temperature sensor, as well as measurements of thermal conductivity using four reference samples whose thermal conductivity is known. Each of the reference samples is formed of two solid rectangular prisms of the same material and of the same dimensions. MCT is precise and accurate. In good experimental conditions the uncertainty of the measurements is within 10%. In addition, the MCT apparatus is light and with reduced dimensions. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study of the Thermal Conductivity of Different Geothermal Grouting Materials with a Homemade Apparatus
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231497 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Thermal conductivity is an essential property of the geothermal grout, which in turn is considered the most important element in a vertical closed-loop ground heat exchanger. The main aim of this work is to determine the thermal conductivity of four of the most [...] Read more.
Thermal conductivity is an essential property of the geothermal grout, which in turn is considered the most important element in a vertical closed-loop ground heat exchanger. The main aim of this work is to determine the thermal conductivity of four of the most commonly used geothermal grouting materials using a homemade apparatus, developed by the research team. The tests were also performed with a commercial thermal conductivity meter, the Shotherm QTM-F1. Both the homemade apparatus, called MCT, and the commercial thermal conductivity meter are based on the transient hot wire method. The components used to make the specimens are cement, silica sand, bentonite, water and superplasticizer. A laboratory mortar mixer was used to prepare all mixtures. Later, the samples were cured in a water bath for 7 days and finally the samples were dried at 60 °C for 24 h before testing. Each of the samples tested is formed of two solid rectangular prisms of the same material and of the same dimensions (180 mm × 70 mm × 50 mm). The obtained results with the MCT apparatus are similar to the data reported in the literature and to those obtained using the Shotherm QTM-F1thermal conductivity meter. The deviations of the values measured with the MCT apparatus are, in all cases, less than 10%. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Computational Study on the Damping-Amplitude Dependence and Estimation of the Limit Cycle Oscillations for Normal Triangular Arrays with One Tube Undergoing Fluidelastic Instability
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231498 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 497
Abstract
While the estimation of the critical velocity for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays has received considerable attention for decades, the studies intended to analyze the post-stable behavior have been scarce. However, the behavior of the system under instability, is also interesting in order [...] Read more.
While the estimation of the critical velocity for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays has received considerable attention for decades, the studies intended to analyze the post-stable behavior have been scarce. However, the behavior of the system under instability, is also interesting in order to characterize the amount of energy transferred from fluid to structure. A computational study has been carried out for the case of one tube vibrating in a normal triangular array by means of a CFD model previously developed with Fluent by the authors. This model incorporates the motion of the vibrating tube by means of user defined functions for both forced and free oscillations, so that the tube position can be updated and the mesh rebuilt at every time step. First, predictions of limit-cycle oscillations (zero net damping) were obtained for pitch ratios P/d = 1.25 and 1.375, so that the experimental response curves (amplitude against flow velocity) measured in other experimental studies could be used for contrast purposes. After validation, the CFD model was used to investigate how the net damping of the fluid-structure system depends on the vibration amplitude for a given flow velocity, which shows the non-linear nature of the tube response. Finally, special simulation series were conducted to explore the effects of pitch ratio, Reynolds number and structural damping on the net damping of the system for constant vibration amplitude. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Estimation of the Size of the Battery for Hybrid Electric Trolley Busses Using Backward Quasi-Static Modelling
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231499 - 26 Nov 2018
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The city of Arnhem is known for its trolley busses, which operates in a network of over-head grid lines, leading to zero local emission. However, extending the driving range of the trolley busses beyond the over-head grid network is technically challenging and economically [...] Read more.
The city of Arnhem is known for its trolley busses, which operates in a network of over-head grid lines, leading to zero local emission. However, extending the driving range of the trolley busses beyond the over-head grid network is technically challenging and economically demanding due to the infrastructure requirements. This led to their participation in EUREGIO project e-Bus 2020 IMC. The aim of the project is to develop, design and optimize a hybrid driveline for trolley busses using an additional traction battery. Using the over-head grid network for In Motion Charging (IMC), eliminates the need for a separate charging infrastructure needed for regular electric busses. This paper presents a backward quasi-static modeling approach to estimate the battery capacity for the required range extension. The viability of the battery is verified using a scenario analysis. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Thermal Water Vapor Arc Plasma as an Oily Soil Remediation Technique
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231500 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Contaminated soil remediation with plasma is a new and little explored method. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate thermal water vapor arc plasma suitability to remediate soil polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel). Also, the impact of different initial pollutant concentrations [...] Read more.
Contaminated soil remediation with plasma is a new and little explored method. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate thermal water vapor arc plasma suitability to remediate soil polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel). Also, the impact of different initial pollutant concentrations was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data showed that soil surface morphology depends on diesel fuel concentration in the soil. Results obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicated that carbon content in soil decreased after the treatment process and became similar to the carbon content in the clean soil. Furthermore, the measurements taken with gas analyzer revealed the thermal water vapor arc plasma suitability to remediate contaminated soil as well as generate by-product—synthesis gas (H2 + CO). It was observed that the amount of generated synthesis gas depends on the soil moisture content. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Experimental Study on the Propagation of the Pressure Fluctuations Induced in a Tube Array under Forced Vibration
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231501 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Tube arrays subject to cross flow may exhibit large amplitude self-excited vibrations referred to as Fluidelastic Instability (FEI). Due to its potential for damaging the equipment in an extremely sort operational time, FEI is considered the most destructive mechanism within the flow induced [...] Read more.
Tube arrays subject to cross flow may exhibit large amplitude self-excited vibrations referred to as Fluidelastic Instability (FEI). Due to its potential for damaging the equipment in an extremely sort operational time, FEI is considered the most destructive mechanism within the flow induced vibration phenomena and has been extensively analysed in the literature in the past, however, the underlying mechanism for FEI onset remains unclear. A number of models, based on very different assumptions about the fluidmechal phenomenon has been developed with the common conclusion that the key factor for stability onset is in the relationship between tube motion and flow perturbation in terms of amplitude and phase. In the present study an experimental approach in a water channel especially designed and developed by the authors for the present investigation is proposed. The empirical set-up, consisting in a tube array in which one tube is forced to vibrate while pressure fluctuations due to is motion are monitored in several points of the array, allows to correlate tube motion and pressure perturbations. The FFT postprocess of those signals allows for the study of the perturbations propagation pattern and indeed in the understanding of the FEI phenomenon. Finally present experimental results will allow for the validation, adjust and improvement of a CFD model previously developed by authors. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Impact of Hot Metal Temperature on CO2 Emissions from BOF Steelmaking
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231502 - 07 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
Recycled steel is a key material for sustainable development. However, not all steel demand can be met by recycling, and therefore new metallic iron must be introduced in the global cycle. The transformation of iron oxides into steel requires carbon which is oxidized [...] Read more.
Recycled steel is a key material for sustainable development. However, not all steel demand can be met by recycling, and therefore new metallic iron must be introduced in the global cycle. The transformation of iron oxides into steel requires carbon which is oxidized into CO2. This paper focuses on the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) where molten iron is transformed into liquid steel. The process is modelled using mass and energy balances in order to assess the effect of molten iron temperature on CO2 emissions. Model results show that, for a typical converter charge, a slight change of 10 °C in the hot metal temperature can led to a direct variation of 0.01 t of CO2 per ton of liquid steel. Finally, different actuation levers for carbon mitigation are suggested. It can be concluded that operation and modelling improvements should be jointly addressed to exploit their full potential for carbon footprint reduction. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Environmental Forensic Study and Remediation Feasibility in an Abandoned Industrial Site
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231503 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
An environmental forensic study was developed in a former industrial area in southern Spain. Previous information about the site revealed arsenic and hydrocarbons affection exceeding soil screening levels. A full characterisation of arsenic affection was thus performed. In this regard, the bioavailable fractions, [...] Read more.
An environmental forensic study was developed in a former industrial area in southern Spain. Previous information about the site revealed arsenic and hydrocarbons affection exceeding soil screening levels. A full characterisation of arsenic affection was thus performed. In this regard, the bioavailable fractions, arsenic speciation and grain-size distribution were determined. Two different polluted types of soils/fillers were identified. The first one is affected by non-bioavailability As(V) concentrations on the finer fraction, and the other one is affected by As(III) and As(V) with higher bioavailability than the other case, affecting all grain-size fractions homogeneously. Notably the textures are very heterogeneous within the site. On the other hand, hydrocarbons affection was also studied. Cuantitative and cualitative organic analyses revealed the presence of organic products with differing degree of degradation (naphthas). An additional microbiological study revealed regular microbial counts for a non-fertilized soil, and an edaphological characterization showed alkaline soils with low levels of nutrients and natural organic matter. The information gathered was used to evaluate remediation feasibility. Soil washing was selected as an interesting possibility for arsenic removal, although grain-size distribution must be studied carefully because of high variability. As regards as organics, bioremediation is a valuable option due to the suitable microbiology and the type of hydrocarbons found, together with the usual low costs of techniques such as landfarming or biopiles. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Harnessing the Energy of Tidal Currents: State-of-the-Art and Proposal of Use in EV Charging Points
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231504 - 13 Nov 2018
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The implantation of floating platforms for the generation of electricity from tidal currents is possible due to the development of new hydrokinetic microturbines. This article presents an analysis of the situation in which the exploitation of tidal currents is nowadays, the state of [...] Read more.
The implantation of floating platforms for the generation of electricity from tidal currents is possible due to the development of new hydrokinetic microturbines. This article presents an analysis of the situation in which the exploitation of tidal currents is nowadays, the state of art of the existing technologies and the principal projects that are currently underway. In addition, it focuses on the different aspects and criteria to consider for building one of these plants. Finally, an installation by floating platform is proposed to supply electricity to a charging station for electric vehicles near the Nalon river (Spain) with a description of it and an analysis of feasibility. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Determination of Particles and Carcinogenic Compounds Emitted by Combustion of Diesel and Diesel:Biodiesel Blends
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231505 - 07 Nov 2018
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Among the main pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by diesel combustion are the particles. Most of the studies suggest that the greatest impact on health by the particles is caused by some of the organic compounds such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which [...] Read more.
Among the main pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by diesel combustion are the particles. Most of the studies suggest that the greatest impact on health by the particles is caused by some of the organic compounds such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are highly toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Some of the strategies that are being implemented to mitigate these harmful particles emissions are the use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel. In this research, the characterization of six fuels (diesel and five biodiesel, obtained from different raw materials) was carried out. Diesel:Biodiesel blends were prepared at 5, 10 and 20% of biodiesel on proportion to the diesel (B5, B10 and B20). Additionally, B100 was analyzed for some biodiesels. The particles emitted by the combustion of the different fuels were sampled and their concentration was determined. The organic compounds were extracted from the particles by ultrasound-assisted extraction and subsequently the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, it was observed that the use of biodiesel decreases the emission of particle concentration, but it is not significant. In the case of the concentrations of carcinogenic compounds (PAHs), the B20 biodiesel blends emissions had a statistically significant reduction compared to diesel emissions. Full article

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Open AccessExtended Abstract
Effect of the Discharge Piping Scheme on the Pressure Fluctuations Induced from A Laboratory Pump
Proceedings 2018, 2(23), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2231488 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Fluid-dynamic noise induced by the unsteady fluid phenomena usually causes a negative influence on the hydraulic circuit system during the pump operation, especially at off-design flow rates. The spectrum of the pressure signals measured directly in the pipeline of the pump is usually [...] Read more.
Fluid-dynamic noise induced by the unsteady fluid phenomena usually causes a negative influence on the hydraulic circuit system during the pump operation, especially at off-design flow rates. The spectrum of the pressure signals measured directly in the pipeline of the pump is usually employed to reflect the acoustic characteristic parameters of the fluid-dynamic noise of the pump itself. However, there exists a large difference between the spectrum characteristics directly measured and the actual characteristics of the acoustic source inside the pump due to the effects of the acoustic properties of the piping. Therefore, in order to verify the effect of the discharge piping on the pressure fluctuations of a laboratory pump, three different discharge piping schemes connected to the pump outlet were studied by opening and closing different valves. The results showed that the amplitude of the pressure pulsations in a constant monitor point changed with the shaft frequency and blade passing frequency. The variation range of the pressure pulsation magnitudes for the points monitored at the pump outlet is evidently larger than that for the points close to the cutwater of the volute. Full article
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