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Proceedings, 2018, ESDEIC 2018

The Economy, Sustainable Development, and Energy International Conference

Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom | 25–27 June 2018

Issue Editors: Ramón Sanguino Galván, Claire Seaman and Mónica Gandum Martins


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Open AccessProceedings
Designing the Future: An Intelligent System for Zero-Mile Food Production by Upcycling Wastewater
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221367 - 21 Nov 2018
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The project deals with the environmental problem of water consumption. The aim of this work is to experiment the recycling of dishwasher wastewater through its reuse in growing edible vegetables or ornamental plants; this can also accomplish the valorization of nutrients present in [...] Read more.
The project deals with the environmental problem of water consumption. The aim of this work is to experiment the recycling of dishwasher wastewater through its reuse in growing edible vegetables or ornamental plants; this can also accomplish the valorization of nutrients present in the wastewater. This new process allows to ensure washing functions coupled with vegetables production and to affect users’ environmental awareness and habits, following a user-centered system design approach to understand the users and involve them actively in the system development. The presented work is also aimed to experiment a multidisciplinary approach in order to face environmental problems. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Importance of Fault Prediction in a Tidal Turbine. Misalignment and Cracks in the Shaft
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221368 - 05 Dec 2018
Viewed by 225
Abstract
This study is focused on the early failure prediction of underwater Tidal Turbines. These types of turbines undergo strong torques due to ocean currents which also causes rapid changes in direction and speed which subjected to important loads and misalignments. The main objective [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the early failure prediction of underwater Tidal Turbines. These types of turbines undergo strong torques due to ocean currents which also causes rapid changes in direction and speed which subjected to important loads and misalignments. The main objective of this study is therefore to analyse the response to the constant vibration produced by those misalignments and early appearance of cracks in this shaft. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Factor Affecting on Public Awareness Concerning University Environment
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221369 - 30 Oct 2018
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Human activities are recognized as an increasingly significant effect on the Earth’s environment. Environmental protection is any activity to maintain the quality of environmental media on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Environmental protection [...] Read more.
Human activities are recognized as an increasingly significant effect on the Earth’s environment. Environmental protection is any activity to maintain the quality of environmental media on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the natural environment and humans. Environmental protection is the primary concern of the future of humanity. Public awareness of the environment is the ability to understand the surrounding world, including understandings to all the changes occurring in the environment, understanding of cause-and-effect relationships between the quality of the environment and human behavior, and a sense of responsibility of preserving them to next generations. The future will be powered by concerning public awareness discipline, giving students and graduates insights into most aspects of the human world to environment and the social sciences. The knowledge of Environmental public awareness acquired during school education and then systematically improved in adulthood, is an essential factor in quickening the environmental awareness of an individual. This study is to determine the factors that affecting the public awareness on university environment of 100 undergraduate students. The overall opinions showed that the students’ public awareness was high level. Furthermore, the key factors that influences on public awareness concerning university environment are knowledge and daily behavior.This investigation will shed light on the public awareness on university environment. Moreover, the students’ feedback showed the highly positive attitude in concerning environment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assessing the Operational Carbon at University
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221370 - 01 Nov 2018
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The establishment of low carbon assessment initiatives is a crucial task especially at the city level. The determination of which source of carbon contributed more require robust data set and strategic approach. Hence, by using the campus as a small city approach, the [...] Read more.
The establishment of low carbon assessment initiatives is a crucial task especially at the city level. The determination of which source of carbon contributed more require robust data set and strategic approach. Hence, by using the campus as a small city approach, the establishment of carbon assessment and its’ reduction initiatives was required to keep track of the hotspot of the carbon source. The substantial amount of carbon source from campus operations such as energy consumption in the building, waste generation, and water consumption were identified. Moreover, as institutions of higher education, the execution of low carbon campus was initiated structurally involves the triangulation of research activities, teaching & learning and as well as campus operations or known as campus living lab approach. The application of low carbon cities framework, LCCF and assessment system enables to strategize the low carbon campus initiatives through the use of carbon footprint concept and the LCCF carbon track. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sustainable Development: Evaluating Optimal Technique for Spatial Data Forecast
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221371 - 30 Oct 2018
Viewed by 319
Abstract
This paper is an approach to forecast the spatial data in time series domain. Normally in GIS (Geographical Information System), we need raster forecasting. Moving average, exponential smoothing, and linear regression methods of forecasting are used over one-dimensional data. Present work concentrates on [...] Read more.
This paper is an approach to forecast the spatial data in time series domain. Normally in GIS (Geographical Information System), we need raster forecasting. Moving average, exponential smoothing, and linear regression methods of forecasting are used over one-dimensional data. Present work concentrates on using these methods on satellite images applying them from pixel to pixel of historical temporal satellite data. An example set of satellite images from years 2011 to 2015 has been used to forecast the image in the year 2016. GIS tools have been developed in ArcGIS 10.1 using python to implement the methods of forecasting. Forecasted and actual images of the year 2016 have been compared by calculating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) and change detection to identify the best method. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Study of Renewable Energy Management in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221372 - 30 Oct 2018
Viewed by 251
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the renewable energy management in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University; to analyze physical factors, management factors that affected the renewable energy management; and to recommend some appropriate measures for managing renewable energy in faculty in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the renewable energy management in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University; to analyze physical factors, management factors that affected the renewable energy management; and to recommend some appropriate measures for managing renewable energy in faculty in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. A questionnaire was used to collect the data from sixty faculty energy officers—one from each faculty. However, only fifty copies of the questionnaire or 83.33% were returned. The descriptive statistics, i.e., frequency, percentage and mean, was used to describe the data. The results showed that different types of renewable energy were used in all faculty in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Biomass was the most used renewable energy for all faculty, following by solar energy in small quantities, while hydro energy, wind energy, garbage energy, biogas, as well as geothermal energy were not used. With regard to physical factors, geographical characteristics were an important factor that influenced renewable energy use. Importance was given to raw materials available in sufficient quantity and quality. Transport also affected renewable energy use. Although there were enough energy officers with a good knowledge and understanding of renewable energy, the budget, materials and equipment were insufficient, so more support was needed from the government and the private sectors and other financial sources. Monitoring, evaluation and follow-up, faculty officer’s knowledge and understanding of renewable energy, and training on renewable energy use also had an effect on renewable energy management. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Study on the Transient Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier under Changing Boundary Conditions
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221373 - 29 Oct 2018
Viewed by 300
Abstract
It was found that there were still very limited studies for the dynamic operation and transient performance of the dehumidifier. Besides, the coupling study of heat, mass and flow was not comprehensive and lots of assumption was made to start the simulation. Lack [...] Read more.
It was found that there were still very limited studies for the dynamic operation and transient performance of the dehumidifier. Besides, the coupling study of heat, mass and flow was not comprehensive and lots of assumption was made to start the simulation. Lack of accurate prediction, the guidelines of control system design and operation cannot be put forward appropriately. Therefore, the paper established a reliable dynamic model for the dehumidifier. With the model, it obtained the transient response performance of the dehumidifier under changing boundary conditions, such as response time and response curves of outlet parameters. The magnitudes of the influences of various inlet parameters was analyzed, providing reliable and effective predication of the transient response performance of the dehumidifier. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Investigation on the Regeneration Performance of a New Mixed Liquid Desiccant Solution in Falling Film Regenerator
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221374 - 21 Nov 2018
Viewed by 261
Abstract
The present study firstly developed a new kind of mixed liquid desiccant for the purpose of causticity reduction on metal based regenerator. The formula of the mixed liquid desiccant is 25% LiCl + 39% hydroxyethyl urea + 36% water. Experimental results show that [...] Read more.
The present study firstly developed a new kind of mixed liquid desiccant for the purpose of causticity reduction on metal based regenerator. The formula of the mixed liquid desiccant is 25% LiCl + 39% hydroxyethyl urea + 36% water. Experimental results show that the causticity of the mixed solution is much less severe than that of conventional LiCl solution. The regeneration rate increases with the increase of air flow rate and solution temperature and decreases with the increase of air inlet humidity. The air temperature and solution flow rate has negligible influence on the regeneration performance. The present study provides a practical alternative for the selection of liquid desiccant and also give useful guidance for the design of regenerator. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental and Numerical Study on the Dehumidification Performance of KCOOH Solution
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221375 - 29 Oct 2018
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The present study intended to study the dehumidification performance of KCOOH solution both experimentally and numerically. The heat and mass transfer model for internal cooling dehumidifier was built. The influences of different parameters on dehumidification performance were identified by experiments. Results indicated that [...] Read more.
The present study intended to study the dehumidification performance of KCOOH solution both experimentally and numerically. The heat and mass transfer model for internal cooling dehumidifier was built. The influences of different parameters on dehumidification performance were identified by experiments. Results indicated that the air temperature and solution has negligible influence on dehumidification performance. However, the air humidity and solution temperature have significant influence on dehumidification due to its close relationship with mass transfer driving force. The proposed model can simulate the dehumidification performance in terms of absolute moisture change well with the MARD of 6.05%. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Study on the Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Mini-Channel with Offset Fins
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221376 - 28 Oct 2018
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The present study studied the flow boiling heat transfer performance of a mini channel with offset fins experimentally. The hydraulic diameter for it is 1.59 mm with 9 offset rectangular channels. The influences of saturation pressure, mass flux and heat flux on heat [...] Read more.
The present study studied the flow boiling heat transfer performance of a mini channel with offset fins experimentally. The hydraulic diameter for it is 1.59 mm with 9 offset rectangular channels. The influences of saturation pressure, mass flux and heat flux on heat transfer coefficient were investigated. The experimental results reveal that when the vapor quality of refrigerant is less than 0.6, the mass flux has negligible influence on heat transfer coefficient. While it increases with both the saturation pressure and heat flux. Differently, in the high quality region, the heat transfer coefficient has an ascending trend with the increase of mass flux and is not affected by heat flux and saturation pressure. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Performance of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System Based on High-Low Control
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221377 - 08 Nov 2018
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Desiccant enhanced evaporative cooling system is a sustainable air-conditioning (A/C) system which deals the latent load and sensible load separately by a dehumidifier and an evaporative cooler. A LDD-RIEC system consists of a liquid desiccant dehumidifier (LDD) and a regenerative indirect evaporative cooler [...] Read more.
Desiccant enhanced evaporative cooling system is a sustainable air-conditioning (A/C) system which deals the latent load and sensible load separately by a dehumidifier and an evaporative cooler. A LDD-RIEC system consists of a liquid desiccant dehumidifier (LDD) and a regenerative indirect evaporative cooler (RIEC) were investigated. The LDD-RIEC system is characterized by low energy consumption compared with conventional mechanical cooling system, but the main shortcoming is the high dependency on ambient air conditions. To maintain stable indoor temperature, a control scheme is essential. However, very limited research work regarding control strategy can be found in open literatures. In this paper, a novel controller named high-low (H-L) control is proposed. Multi-speed technology is utilized for primary air fan and secondary air fan operating either at high speed or at low speed. The annual performance of a LDD-RIEC system is simulated in Hong Kong, a typical hot and humid region. The results indicate that H-L control is effective in maintaining stable indoor thermal comfort with temperature fluctuation from 24 °C to 27 °C for 99% of time. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A New Affordable Masonry System Based on Unfired Clay Sandwich Panel
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221378 - 30 Oct 2018
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Nowadays, construction is one of the main sectors that produces waste and consume more materials and energy, so there is a growing need for alternative construction technologies that allow us to modify this situation. In this context, this paper presents the development of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, construction is one of the main sectors that produces waste and consume more materials and energy, so there is a growing need for alternative construction technologies that allow us to modify this situation. In this context, this paper presents the development of an innovative proposal for an industrialized outdoor enclosure. This solution is based on a constructive system with prefabricated insulated sandwich panels, produced on the basis of a new eco-efficient composite material, based on raw stabilized clay. In this way, it is possible, prioritize environmental issues to significantly reduce the environmental impact generated during the manufacture of the piece. The use in the construction of buildings material such as stabilized raw clay can be an alternative to achieve buildings of nearly zero energy consumption. They are known both from a thermal comfort and ability to regulate temperature and humidity, as well as being materials that contain much less embodied energy. This study is a comparative analysis of building systems, as well, as a serie of selected patent systems and copyrighted materials. On the other hand, it also analyzes their enforcement against the values established by the Spanish building code. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Systematic Literature Review—Social Engagement from Business Perspective
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221379 - 29 Oct 2018
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The present paper offers a literature review of relevant empirical research articles dealing with the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) published during the last five-year period 2013–2018. The results identify that although there is enormous amount of [...] Read more.
The present paper offers a literature review of relevant empirical research articles dealing with the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) published during the last five-year period 2013–2018. The results identify that although there is enormous amount of relevant studies presenting an overall positive relationship, there is still a lack of consensus in published results. Therefore CSP-CFP nexus remains a line of inquiry and more researches are needed. The most obvious explanation are different approaches in measuring corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission from Hydropower Reservoirs in Malaysia
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221380 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 453
Abstract
This paper presents a preliminary assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all major hydropower reservoirs in Malaysia from the period of 1930–2017. The GHG emissions are calculated based on the Tier 1 method as recommended in International Government Panel on Climate Change [...] Read more.
This paper presents a preliminary assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all major hydropower reservoirs in Malaysia from the period of 1930–2017. The GHG emissions are calculated based on the Tier 1 method as recommended in International Government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The results showed that approximately 151.64 Gg of annual methane emission released from hydropower dams in Peninsular Malaysia. While in East Malaysia, hydropower dams release 235.7 Gg of methane emission annually. Bakun dam contributes the most 41.26% of total annual methane emission from hydropower dams in Malaysia. Ulu Jelai hydroelectric dam with design power capacity of 372 MW contributes the least CH4 emission of 0.02 Gg CH4 yr−1. It is seen that high head hydroelectric dam with small reservoir surface area is the most sustainable hydropower dam in reducing the GHG emission. However, long-term measurements must be made in order to clarify the net GHG emissions from reservoir surface, turbines, spillway and downstream river of hydropower dams in Malaysia. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparative Analysis of Thermal Performance between Courtyards in Mediterranean Climate
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221381 - 30 Oct 2018
Viewed by 238
Abstract
This paper analyzes the thermal performance of three courtyards located in Dos Hermanas (Seville, Spain) simultaneously monitored during five days in the hot period of the year, from 4 June to 9 June. The results show a significant tempering effect in all the [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the thermal performance of three courtyards located in Dos Hermanas (Seville, Spain) simultaneously monitored during five days in the hot period of the year, from 4 June to 9 June. The results show a significant tempering effect in all the courtyards, recording a maximum outdoor-indoor temperature difference up to 11 °C in the courtyard with the best performance and 7 °C in the less favorable one. It is confirmed that deep courtyards perform better, and shadows elements such as vegetation also improve the results, creating a good opportunity to use these elements to easily enhance the performance of existing courtyards. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Determinants of Sustainable Energy Consumption in Schools
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221382 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
In this paper the energy saving behavior and its impacting determinants in schools are analyzed. There is a large number of research on energy saving behavior in residential buildings. However large fraction of the total energy is consumed in public buildings and schools. [...] Read more.
In this paper the energy saving behavior and its impacting determinants in schools are analyzed. There is a large number of research on energy saving behavior in residential buildings. However large fraction of the total energy is consumed in public buildings and schools. The issues of sustainable energy consumption behavior are less studied in these types of buildings. Based on the research on energy consumption in residential buildings the determinants of sustainable energy consumption in schools were classified into three groups: psychological and social; socio-demographic and economic determinants; and contextual determinants. A systematic literature review was conducted for the substantially less investigated schools in terms of efficient energy consumption. According the review of research papers, the most important determinants of energy consumption in schools in terms of their influence on consumption were identified: attitudes; incentives/intentions/motivation; knowledge; awareness. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sustainable Built Environment in Kazakhstan: The Way towards Better IAQ
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221384 - 06 Nov 2018
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The fast economic growth, an expanding population and high standards of living required by people has led to increase not only in the urban energy demand but also strengthened the relation between cities, health and the environment. Kazakhstan is currently one of the [...] Read more.
The fast economic growth, an expanding population and high standards of living required by people has led to increase not only in the urban energy demand but also strengthened the relation between cities, health and the environment. Kazakhstan is currently one of the dynamically developing countries in its region and is experiencing the stable growth in all sectors of the economy which is highly dependent on traditional energy sources like coal, oil and gas. To reduce the energy demand and consumption by the different industrial sectors, Kazakhstan targets shifting towards the sustainable use of the resources through implementing the low-carbon strategies construction sector as well. Sustainable development is a broad topic that outlines 17 goals and to achieve the sustainability in buildings it is vital to consider the relationship between occupants and their living habitat. This paper shortly provides an overview of the energy efficiency situation in Kazakhstan examines the factors affecting sustainable built environment such as indoor air quality. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Modelling of Demand Driven Biogas Plants to Cover Residual Load Rises
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221385 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 360
Abstract
In future, systems for energy storage and demand-driven energy production will be essential to cover the residual load rises. A rigorous dynamic process model based on ADM1 was used to analyze the flexible operation of biogas plants for covering the residual load rises. [...] Read more.
In future, systems for energy storage and demand-driven energy production will be essential to cover the residual load rises. A rigorous dynamic process model based on ADM1 was used to analyze the flexible operation of biogas plants for covering the residual load rises. This model was optimized and an operation concept for a demand-driven energy production was worked out. For the input data different substrates were analyzed by batch fermentations and the Weender analysis with van Soest method. The results show that the substrates have got a different biogas production rate and reaction time. Finally, an intelligent feeding algorithm by implementation of a PI controller was developed. It calculates feeding times and quantities of available substrates so that a defined energy demand can be covered by biogas plants. The results demonstrate that a flexible operation of biogas plants with an individual and intelligent feeding program is possible. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Wastewater Management and Community Participation in Amphawa District, Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221387 - 31 Oct 2018
Viewed by 249
Abstract
This research focused on wastewater management and community participation in Amphawa district, Samut Songkhram province, Thailand. Objectives of the research were (1) To investigate and assess quality of surface water and sewage at the sources before being discharged into main river and canals [...] Read more.
This research focused on wastewater management and community participation in Amphawa district, Samut Songkhram province, Thailand. Objectives of the research were (1) To investigate and assess quality of surface water and sewage at the sources before being discharged into main river and canals in Amphawa district, Samut Songkhram province. The study was conducted during October 2016–September 2017. A number of 40 surface water samples and 40 sewage samples were collected. Water quality of the samples were assessed following the Pollution Control Department procedure. The results showed that quality of surface water was likely good with pH, DO and amount of coliform bacteria under the PCD standard. BOD and amount of fecal coliform bacteria were slightly over the threshold and very high amount of NH3 was found. Sewage contained very low DO, extremely high BOD and slightly high TKN. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
How Practical Green Meeting Can Reduced Carbon Footprint and Contributed Green University?
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221388 - 28 Oct 2018
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The major activity produced waste in university was generated by meetings in various types of food packaging for break and lunch box, especially in the context of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. Therefore, this research aimed to (1) identify waste characteristics from packaging [...] Read more.
The major activity produced waste in university was generated by meetings in various types of food packaging for break and lunch box, especially in the context of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. Therefore, this research aimed to (1) identify waste characteristics from packaging of coffee brake and lunch box in the general meeting, (2) studied carbon footprint emission from general meeting and green meeting and (3) estimated Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) reduction from green meeting in the university at the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. The data was conducted for 3 months and arranged 3 times for green meetings and general meetings. The results of waste characteristics from packaging showed that in one set box of coffee brake contained kraft paper (paper box), plastics bag, stencil paper, aluminium sheet, tissue paper, and plastic bottle (PET). In general meeting, GHGs emission equal 1.6 KgeCO2/person/meeting whereas for green meeting GHGs emission was only 0.94 KgeCO2. Overall of GHGs reduction from green meeting calculated from arrangement of meeting once a week, and in 1 year GHGs can be reduced 34.32 KgeCO2 per person. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Species Diversity and Abundance of Birds along Boat Touring Routes for Ecotourism in Tha-kha Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221389 - 05 Nov 2018
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Tha-kha Floating Market is a famous tourist attraction in Tha Kha sub-district, Amphawa district, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. There are Thai paddle-boats for tourists to get close to nature and local people lifestyle along the canals. The objectives of this research were (1) [...] Read more.
Tha-kha Floating Market is a famous tourist attraction in Tha Kha sub-district, Amphawa district, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. There are Thai paddle-boats for tourists to get close to nature and local people lifestyle along the canals. The objectives of this research were (1) to study species diversity, feeding behavior and status of birds in the research area. (2) to analyze abundance and similarity of birds in the research area. The data was carried out by field survey of species of birds and their behaviors sighted directly and from their calls by using line transect method then classify species, feeding behavior and status of birds, analyze their abundance and similarity in three routes. Three boat touring routes were surveyed; route 1 (Tha Kha floating market—homestay), route 2 (Tha Kha floating market—Thai traditional sugar making kiln), and route 3 (Thai traditional sugar making kiln—resort). The survey was conducted in the morning from 7 a.m. to 10 a.m. and in the afternoon from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. One survey was made each month from April 2017–March 2018. The result of this research found that there were 15 orders, 37 families and 74 species of birds. The highest number of bird species in 3 routes was 49 species in December and 47 species in November accordingly because it was migratory season of migratory birds in the research area. According to bird feeding behavior, the maximum insectivorous bird species of 35 were found in 3 routes. According to status of birds, 52 resident birds, 9 migratory birds, 13 resident and migratory birds were found in 3 routes. According to bird abundance, 21 bird species were in level 5, 7 bird species in level 4, 20 bird species in level 3, 9 bird species in level 2 and 17 bird species in level 1. According to bird similarity index, the similarity index between route 1 and route 3 was 0.814. The community also organized eco-touring activities by using Thai paddle-boats. So the birds are as indicators of natural balance of local ecosystem. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
On the Influence of Shade in Improving Thermal Comfort in Courtyards
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221390 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 302
Abstract
This study analyzes the thermal performance of courtyards in traditional buildings in the city center of Córdoba (South of Spain), one of them displaying a shading component, to determine the influence of this precise element. The courtyards have been monitored simultaneously during a [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the thermal performance of courtyards in traditional buildings in the city center of Córdoba (South of Spain), one of them displaying a shading component, to determine the influence of this precise element. The courtyards have been monitored simultaneously during a summer period when temperatures during the day reached over 45 °C. The obtained data was contrasted, and we confirmed that the shading element provided an improvement of the thermal performance of the courtyard which doubled the thermal leap between outdoor and inside the courtyard temperatures when the shading element was installed, in comparison to the courtyard without shade. Therefore, the tempering effect of courtyards can be significantly improved by means of using these simple elements. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Investigation of Thermodynamic Properties of the Slurry of the Molding Process Beryllium Ceramics
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221391 - 10 Dec 2018
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Obtaining of ceramic fabrications by hot molding from dispersion materials with anomalous physical properties, such as BeO is particularly complicated. In this case, the difficulties of obtaining of quality products were caused firstly by thermal properties of beryllium oxide, in particular, its unique [...] Read more.
Obtaining of ceramic fabrications by hot molding from dispersion materials with anomalous physical properties, such as BeO is particularly complicated. In this case, the difficulties of obtaining of quality products were caused firstly by thermal properties of beryllium oxide, in particular, its unique thermal conductivity. Results of experiments and calculations of the mathematical model of the motion and heat exchange of the slurry mass in the annular cavity are presented. The results of experiments and calculations show the process of molding of the slurry in the annular cavity. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Nudge to Promote Sustainable Shopping Lifestyle
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221394 - 28 Oct 2018
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The complexity of consumer’s changes towards green behavior, such as sustainable shopping lifestyle is a challenge for the government and its public policy. Most of the traditional regulatory approach, such as plastic bag ban or tax was hoping for immediate result of the [...] Read more.
The complexity of consumer’s changes towards green behavior, such as sustainable shopping lifestyle is a challenge for the government and its public policy. Most of the traditional regulatory approach, such as plastic bag ban or tax was hoping for immediate result of the consumer behavioral changes. Thus, changes the consumer behavior towards green practices becomes the central issues where its implication is in a significant reduction of plastic bag consumption as well as its detrimental effect on the environment. Aims to analyze the No Plastic Bag Campaign in Malaysia, the concern is to what extent it has the potential to change the consumer behavior in a subtle way or nudge. The paper evaluates the in-situ approaches of the current campaign in a designed context of choices architect, libertarian paternalism and the supermarket corporate social responsibility, CSR. More influential informational campaign material for reusable bags was suggested at the check-out counter. The Zero Waste initiative is needed to reduce dependency to plastic bag as a disposal method. Finally, the comprehensive approach in the establishment of a new social norm to nudge sustainable shopping lifestyle was suggested than a single approach of banning the plastic bag. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Monitoring Development Sustainability through Sustainable Community Indicators
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221396 - 26 Oct 2018
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is both a continuation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and an improvement on the addition of ‘means of implementation’ to achieve the goals. The SDGs recognize that countries should have their own ways to achieve development goals. [...] Read more.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is both a continuation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and an improvement on the addition of ‘means of implementation’ to achieve the goals. The SDGs recognize that countries should have their own ways to achieve development goals. In this regard, Thailand, through its ‘sufficiency economy philosophy’ (SEP) invented by the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej, has created a unique path to attain sustainable development. The SEP path involves (a) shaping personal attitudes and behaviors towards sufficiency and (b) setting procedures or protocols for development projects and programmes. In this paper, we developed a system of indicators that capture the first component—personal attitudes and behaviors—of the sufficiency economy philosophy practiced by Thai people, as well as a set of ultimate development outcome indicators, using data from nation-wide household and community surveys. We then analyze how practicing the sufficiency economy philosophy is associated with development outcomes, where we find positive correlation between the two groups of indicators. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Geo-Informatics to Estimate Agricultural Water Use in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221397 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 242
Abstract
Water use of human depends on daily life activities. Agriculture is the main activity of Thailand. In the present, there are the extension of agriculture, industry, residence, and community which increase water demand. It can cause a problem of water use among urban, [...] Read more.
Water use of human depends on daily life activities. Agriculture is the main activity of Thailand. In the present, there are the extension of agriculture, industry, residence, and community which increase water demand. It can cause a problem of water use among urban, industrial and agricultural. Most agricultural in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand were planting crops such as pomelo, coconut and lychee, which are famous and generate a lot of income for farmers. The quality and quantity of water is an indicator for measure of the quality and yield of agricultural products. The aim of research is to estimate water use through geographic information system, and remote sensing from Landsat8 satellite. This research considers the main parameters which were; estimation of spatial rainfall runoff and quantity of evaporation, infiltration rate of the soil. To evaluate the amount of soil moisture in order to create soil moisture map for planning the utilization and management of water for agriculture. The classification land use was to investigate from Landsat8 which shown currently agricultural area. The result showed the soil moisture which distributes in each area especially the agricultural area. This information can be used by agriculturists and related organizations to plan and make the decision of growing appropriate plants according to the soil moisture for the sustainability of the agriculture. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technology to Erosion Risk Mapping
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221398 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
Erosion is one of the major problems in Nigeria and Lagos State in particular. The objectives of this research are to identify land use/land cover changes in Eti-Osa LGA and estimate actual erosion risk using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. In [...] Read more.
Erosion is one of the major problems in Nigeria and Lagos State in particular. The objectives of this research are to identify land use/land cover changes in Eti-Osa LGA and estimate actual erosion risk using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. In addition, this research evaluates the perception of communities within the study area with the view of understanding the risk involved in erosion. The result showed that the sediment yield of the study was estimated to be between 0 to 48 ton/ha/yr. The estimated soil losses were higher at Eti-Osa West, parts of Iru/Victoria Island, and Ikoyi/Obalende areas recorded low losses. Land uses mostly affected by very high and severe erosion are the bare soils and the crop lands having about 3% to 4% respectively compared to the others. It was concluded that combination of rainfall, lack of cover for the surface soil, were the major causes of soil loss in the study area. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperProceedings
Land Cover Mapping Using Sentinel-1 SAR Satellite Imagery of Lagos State for 2017
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221399 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 437
Abstract
For several years, Landsat imageries have been used for land cover mapping analysis. However, cloud cover constitutes a major obstacle to land cover classification in coastal tropical regions including Lagos state. In this work, a land cover map for Lagos state is created [...] Read more.
For several years, Landsat imageries have been used for land cover mapping analysis. However, cloud cover constitutes a major obstacle to land cover classification in coastal tropical regions including Lagos state. In this work, a land cover map for Lagos state is created using Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. To this aim, a sentinel-1 SAR dual-pol (VV+VH) Interferometric Wide swath mode (IW) data orbit for 2017 over Lagos state, Nigeria was acquired and used. Results include an RGB composite of the image, classified image, with overall accuracy calculated as 0.757, while the kappa value for this project was evaluated to be about 0.719. The classification therefore passed the accuracy assessment. It is concluded that the Sentinel 1 SAR results has been effectively exploited for producing acceptably accurate land cover map of Lagos state, with relevant advantages for areas with cloud cover. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Design Optimization Methods for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors and Derived Requirements for a New Improved Method—Part 1
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221400 - 26 Oct 2018
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Energy-efficient electric motors are gathering an increased attention since they are used in electric cars or to reduce operational costs, for instance. Due to their high efficiency, permanent-magnet synchronous motors are used progressively more. However, the need to use rare-earth magnets for such [...] Read more.
Energy-efficient electric motors are gathering an increased attention since they are used in electric cars or to reduce operational costs, for instance. Due to their high efficiency, permanent-magnet synchronous motors are used progressively more. However, the need to use rare-earth magnets for such high-efficiency motors is problematic not only in regard to the cost but also in socio-political and environmental aspects. Therefore, an increasing effort has to be put in finding the best design possible. The goals to achieve are, among others, to reduce the amount of rare-earth magnet material but also to increase the efficiency. In the first part of this multipart paper, characteristics of optimization problems in engineering and general methods to solve them are presented. In part two, different approaches to the design optimization problem of electric motors are highlighted. The last part will evaluate the different categories of optimization methods with respect to the criteria: degrees of freedom, computing time and the required user experience. As will be seen, there is a conflict of objectives regarding the criteria mentioned above. Requirements, which a new optimization method has to fulfil in order to solve the conflict of objectives will be presented in this last paper. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Design Optimization Methods for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors and Derived Requirements for a New Improved Method—Part 2
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221401 - 26 Oct 2018
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Designing energy-efficient electric motor is a task where multiple goals have to be achieved at once. To find the best design possible, different approaches have been developed. In part one of this multipart paper, the characteristics of the design optimization problem and methods [...] Read more.
Designing energy-efficient electric motor is a task where multiple goals have to be achieved at once. To find the best design possible, different approaches have been developed. In part one of this multipart paper, the characteristics of the design optimization problem and methods to solve them have been presented. Part two will deal with the different types of model descriptions and how the fundamental workflows look like. The third and last paper will evaluate the findings concerning the solution methods of the design optimization problem of electric motors. As a consequence, requirements for a new improved optimization method are deduced and presented. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Design Optimization Methods for Energy-Efficient Electric Motors and Derived Requirements for a New Improved Method—Part 3
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221402 - 26 Oct 2018
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The design of energy-efficient electric motor is a complex problem since diverse requirements and competing goals have to be fulfilled simultaneously. Therefore, different approaches to the design optimization of electric motors have been developed, each of them has its own advantages and drawbacks. [...] Read more.
The design of energy-efficient electric motor is a complex problem since diverse requirements and competing goals have to be fulfilled simultaneously. Therefore, different approaches to the design optimization of electric motors have been developed, each of them has its own advantages and drawbacks. The characteristics of these approaches were presented in the previous part of this multipart paper. In this paper, the presented approaches will be assessed with respect to the criteria: degrees of freedom, computing time and the required user experience. A conflict of objectives will become apparent. Based on these findings, requirements for a new design optimization method with the aim to solve the conflict of objectives, will be formulated. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
LCA Analysis of Three Types of Interior Partition Walls Used in Buildings
Proceedings 2018, 2(22), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2221595 - 17 Jan 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Numerous studies have been done with the purpose of identify and try to reduce the impact generated by the construction industry, mainly focused on the use stage in the search to increase the energy efficiency. However, as these stage has been improved and [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have been done with the purpose of identify and try to reduce the impact generated by the construction industry, mainly focused on the use stage in the search to increase the energy efficiency. However, as these stage has been improved and the impact produced has been reduced, it has become evident the need to focus the research on the elements and life cycle stages that follow on the affectation scale. Therefore, the present research analyzes the importance of the embodied energy and the affectation generated by the materials with a LCA perspective, comparing one square meter of three different systems used as interior partition walls: hollow clay brick (HB), hollow concrete block (CB) and gypsum board (GB). The analyzed stages are from production of the materials to the building construction (stages A1–A5), using the Eco-invent database with the LCA manager software. The results of the analysis indicate the values of the environmental affectations and the consumptions made by each element during the analyzed stages. The comparison allowed to find that the constructive solution with mayor environmental affectation in the analyzed categories is the GB wall, and that is mostly done in the production stage (A1–A3). Full article
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