Special Issue "Advances in Ceramics"

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2022 | Viewed by 31528

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gilbert Fantozzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
INSA-Lyon, MATEIS Laboratory UMR CNRS 5510, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: ceramic processing; thermomechanical behavior; shaping; sintering; SPS; cermets; ceramic matrix composites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Ceramic materials are largely used in industry or key technologies of the 21st century. Important developments have been made during the last few decades concerning the fabrication of new functional or structural ceramics. So, it is necessary to take stock of the progresses and developments made in recent years.

Advanced ceramics can fulfill many functions that can be briefly recalled: electrical, optical, magnetic, chemical, thermal, thermomechanical, nuclear, military, biomedical functions. These functions determine their applications and, therefore, their development.

The aim of this Special Issue on “advances in ceramics” is to present the latest developments concerning advanced ceramics from fabrication to properties and applications.

I am asking scientists to propose short communications, full papers or reviews corresponding to this Special Issue. The following topics can be addressed:

  • Powder synthesis, ceramic processing and shaping;
  • Sintering: conventional, cold sintering, flash sintering, field-assisted sintering, pressure-assisted sintering;
  • Additive fabrication;
  • Advanced structural ceramics and composites;
  • Refractories and UHT ceramics;
  • Functional ceramics;
  • Ceramic coatings and thin films;
  • Ceramics and energy;
  • Ceramics and environment;

For each topic, modeling can be considered.

Prof. Dr. Gilbert Fantozzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced ceramics
  • Ceramic processing
  • Sintering
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Functional ceramics
  • Structural ceramics
  • Ceramics properties

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Research

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Article
Highlighting of LaF3 Reactivity with SiO2 and GeO2 at High Temperature
Ceramics 2022, 5(2), 182-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5020016 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 730
Abstract
LaF3 is commonly added to oxide glass, in particular to silica, to form oxyfluoride glass. After appropriate thermal treatment at a temperature lower than 800 °C, usually, glass ceramics are obtained. Recently, LaF3 nanoparticles have been used as precursors to obtain [...] Read more.
LaF3 is commonly added to oxide glass, in particular to silica, to form oxyfluoride glass. After appropriate thermal treatment at a temperature lower than 800 °C, usually, glass ceramics are obtained. Recently, LaF3 nanoparticles have been used as precursors to obtain amorphous nanoparticles of undefined composition in optical fiber. However, fiber fabrication necessitates temperature much higher (typically up to 2000 °C) than the one required for bulk glass. In this article, we report on the reactivity of fluoride ions in LaF3 with SiO2 and GeO2 (a common dopant used to dope optical fiber) powders at high temperature. TGA, EDX-SEM, XRD and Raman analyses were performed. Above 1000 °C, LaF3 starts to react, preferentially with SiO2, to form SiF4 gaseous species. The remaining lanthanum ions form La2Si2O7 and La2Ge2O7 phases. These results could contribute to improve material development for the fiber optics community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Microstructure, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Refractory Linings Modified with Polymer Fibers
Ceramics 2022, 5(2), 173-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5020015 - 08 Apr 2022
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The reduction in the inherent brittleness of coatings applied on parts of ceramic shielding used for continuous steel casting (CSC) processes is highly desired, since it can significantly diminish losses occurring during post-application handling and mounting. One of such coatings, prepared mostly from [...] Read more.
The reduction in the inherent brittleness of coatings applied on parts of ceramic shielding used for continuous steel casting (CSC) processes is highly desired, since it can significantly diminish losses occurring during post-application handling and mounting. One of such coatings, prepared mostly from fused silica, ludox, tabular alumina, chamotte, cenospheres, dextrine and aluminum powder, is known commercially as Thermacoat™. The present experiment is focused on the effect of the modification of its composition by rising the content of the cenospheres (max. 2.5 wt.%) or by introducing up to 1.5 wt.% of polymer Belmix™ fibers (~34 μm diameter/12 mm length) on the microstructure and mechanical properties. The maximum amount of introduced additions was limited by the accompanying loss of mass viscosity, which must allow for deposition through immersion. Next, the differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermogravimetric analysis techniques were employed to evaluate the extent of the weight change and heat response of the mass during the drying and annealing stages. The dried materials’ microstructure was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical composition was studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Finally, a three-point flexural bending method was used to determine changes in the material mechanical properties. The performed experiments proved that the small addition (~1 wt.%) of polymer fibers is sufficient for the significant improvement of the Thermacoat™ green mechanical strength at ambient temperature, presenting a reproducible ultimate flexural strength of ~0.2 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Reinforcement of the Ceramic Matrix of CaO-ZrO2-MgO with Al2O3 Coarse Particles
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 148-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010013 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
A thermal protection system is subject to high forces, in particular compression, bending and wear, to aggressive environments of high temperatures, high velocity gases and particle shock. Typically, ceramic materials appear as a first barrier or outer shield over a metallic substrate responsible [...] Read more.
A thermal protection system is subject to high forces, in particular compression, bending and wear, to aggressive environments of high temperatures, high velocity gases and particle shock. Typically, ceramic materials appear as a first barrier or outer shield over a metallic substrate responsible for the structure. When it comes to a coating due to the small thickness, the particles of the raw material are sub-micron scale, but when a shield with a few centimeters is built its structural and economic viability requires the use of wider particle size distributions. In this work, a ceramic fine-grained matrix of CaO-ZrO2-MgO was reinforced with commercial coarse Al2O3 particles. The results show that for larger size distributions, CZM-4A, replacing 63% of fine-grained matrix by coarse Al2O3 particles, the dimensional stability is obtained (ΔL = 5%) and the good mechanical properties such as flexural strength of 154 MPa, elastic modulus of 286 GPa, and hardness of 8.5 GPa, which allows to propose this ceramic composite for a structural application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Foam-Replicated Diopside/Fluorapatite/Wollastonite-Based Glass–Ceramic Scaffolds
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 120-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010011 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Implantation of three-dimensional (3D) bioactive glass-derived porous scaffolds is an effective strategy for promoting bone repair and regeneration in large osseous defect sites. The present study intends to expand the potential of a SiO2–P2O5–CaO–MgO–Na2O–CaF2 [...] Read more.
Implantation of three-dimensional (3D) bioactive glass-derived porous scaffolds is an effective strategy for promoting bone repair and regeneration in large osseous defect sites. The present study intends to expand the potential of a SiO2–P2O5–CaO–MgO–Na2O–CaF2 glass composition, which has already proven to be successful in regenerating bone in both animals and human patients. Specifically, this research work reports the fabrication of macroporous glass–ceramic scaffolds by the foam replica method, using the abovementioned bioactive glass powders as a parent material. The sinter-crystallization of the glass powder was investigated by hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the pore–strut architecture of the resultant glass–ceramic scaffolds in which diopside, fluorapatite, and wollastonite crystallized during thermal treatment. Immersion studies in simulated body fluids revealed that the scaffolds have bioactive behavior in vitro; the mechanical properties were also potentially suitable to suggest use in load-bearing bone applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Interfacial Reactions between Si and SiO2 with Ceramic Additives
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 44-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010005 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 931
Abstract
In this study, 10 wt.% ceramics—Al2O3, La2O3, Y2O3, MgO, and TiO2—were employed as additives for amorphous SiO2 after pressing and annealing at 1300 °C. The amorphous SiO2 [...] Read more.
In this study, 10 wt.% ceramics—Al2O3, La2O3, Y2O3, MgO, and TiO2—were employed as additives for amorphous SiO2 after pressing and annealing at 1300 °C. The amorphous SiO2 changed to cristobalite SiO2. Through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, the reaction phases of La2Si2O7, Y2Si2O7, and MgSiO3 (Mg2SiO4) were found in the SiO2 with 10 wt.% La2O3, Y2O3, and MgO additives. Cracks formed in the Si and SiO2–ceramic additive sites because of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion among the Si, SiO2, ceramic additives, and reaction phases. After Si came into contact with the SiO2–ceramics, two types of microstructures were found: those with and those without an amorphous SiO2 reaction layer at the interface. Amorphous SiO2 layer formation is due to the replacement of the Si position in SiO2 by Al3+ and Ti4+ impurities, which can break the bonds between Si atoms. The O content in the Si decreased from 6–9 × 1017 atoms/cm3 for SiO2 to less than ~1016 for SiO2–Al2O3 and SiO2–MgO. The average resistivity of the Si was 3 Ω·cm for SiO2 and decreased to 0.12–0.36 Ω·cm for the SiO2 with ceramic additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Different Connector Designs for All-Ceramic Implant-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 34-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010004 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
All-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) tend to fracture at the connector regions due to high stress concentration at these areas influenced by their design. This study was performed as an adjunct to an existing clinical study to evaluate the influence of the different [...] Read more.
All-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) tend to fracture at the connector regions due to high stress concentration at these areas influenced by their design. This study was performed as an adjunct to an existing clinical study to evaluate the influence of the different radii of curvature of gingival embrasure on the stress distribution of a three-unit all-ceramic implanted supported FDP. Three three-dimensional (3D) models were created by scanning two titanium dental implants, their suitable zirconia abutments, and a patient-retrieved dental prosthesis using a micro-CT scanner. The radius of curvature of the gingival embrasure for the distal connector of the FDP was altered to measure 0.25 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.75 mm. A finite element analysis (FEA) software (ABAQUS) was used to evaluate the impact of different connector designs on the distribution of stresses. Maximum Principal Stress data was collected from the individual components (veneer, framework, and abutments). The radius of curvature of gingival embrasure had a significant influence on the stress distribution at the assessed components. The tensile peak stresses at all structures were highest in the 0.25 mm model, while the 0.50 mm and 0.75 mm models presented similar values and more uniform stress distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Study of Radiation Embitterment and Degradation Processes of Li2ZrO3 Ceramic under Irradiation with Swift Heavy Ions
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 13-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010002 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The work is devoted to the study of radiation damage and subsequent swelling processes of the surface layer of Li2ZrO3 ceramics under irradiation with heavy Xe22+ ions, depending on the accumulation of the radiation dose. The samples under study [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the study of radiation damage and subsequent swelling processes of the surface layer of Li2ZrO3 ceramics under irradiation with heavy Xe22+ ions, depending on the accumulation of the radiation dose. The samples under study were obtained using a mechanochemical synthesis method. The samples were irradiated with heavy Xe22+ ions with an energy of 230 MeV at irradiation fluences of 1011–1016 ion/cm2. The choice of ion types is due to the possibility of simulating the radiation damage accumulation processes as a result of the implantation of Xe22+ ions and subsequent atomic displacements. It was found that, at irradiation doses above 5 × 1014 ion/cm2, point defects accumulate, which leads to a disordering of the surface layer and a subsequent decrease in the strength and hardness of ceramics. At the same time, the main process influencing the decrease in resistance to radiation damage is the crystal structure swelling as a result of the accumulation of defects and disordering of the crystal lattice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Porous Functional Graded Bioceramics with Integrated Interface Textures
Ceramics 2021, 4(4), 681-695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4040048 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Porous functional graded ceramics (porous FGCs) offer immense potential to overcome the low mechanical strengths of homogeneously porous bioceramics used as bone grafts. The tailored manipulation of the graded pore structure including the interfaces in these materials is of particular interest to locally [...] Read more.
Porous functional graded ceramics (porous FGCs) offer immense potential to overcome the low mechanical strengths of homogeneously porous bioceramics used as bone grafts. The tailored manipulation of the graded pore structure including the interfaces in these materials is of particular interest to locally control the microstructural and mechanical properties, as well as the biological response of the potential implant. In this work, porous FGCs with integrated interface textures were fabricated by a novel two-step transfer micro-molding technique using alumina and hydroxyapatite feedstocks with varied amounts of spherical pore formers (0–40 Vol%) to generate well-defined porosities. Defect-free interfaces could be realized for various porosity pairings, leading to porous FGCs with continuous and discontinuous transition of porosity. The microstructure of three different periodic interface patterns (planar, 2D-linear waves and 3D-Gaussian hills) was investigated by SEM and µCT and showed a shape accurate replication of the CAD-designed model in the ceramic sample. The Young’s modulus and flexural strength of bi-layered bending bars with 0 and 30 Vol% of pore formers were determined and compared to homogeneous porous alumina and hydroxyapaite containing 0–40 Vol% of pore formers. A significant reduction of the Young’s modulus was observed for the porous FGCs, attributed to damping effects at the interface. Flexural 4-point-testing revealed that the failure did not occur at the interface, but rather in the porous 30 Vol% layer, proving that the interface does not represent a source of weakness in the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Sol–Gel Approach for Design of Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 System—Synthesis and Catalytic Tests
Ceramics 2021, 4(4), 667-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4040047 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Al2O3-TiO2 systems with Ti:Al 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 molar ratio obtained by the sol–gel method have been used as a platinum support. As a precursor of alumina gel, aluminum isopropoxide has been chosen. Titanium tert-butoxylate was applied [...] Read more.
Al2O3-TiO2 systems with Ti:Al 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 molar ratio obtained by the sol–gel method have been used as a platinum support. As a precursor of alumina gel, aluminum isopropoxide has been chosen. Titanium tert-butoxylate was applied to obtain titania gel and hexachloroplatinic acid was applied as a source of platinum. The systems have been characterized by the following methods: thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms (BET, BJH), temperature-programmed reduction with hydrogen (TPR-H2) and hydrogen chemisorption. Reactions of toluene to methylcyclohexane and selective o-chloronitrobenzene (o-CNB) to o-chloroaniline (o-CAN) hydrogenation were used as the tests of systems’ catalytic activity. The application of Al2O3-TiO2 as a support has enabled the obtaining of platinum catalysts showing high activities for hydrogenation of toluene and selective hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene to o-chloroaniline in the liquid phase. The highest activity in both reactions has been found for Pt/Al2O3-0.5TiO2 catalyst and the highest selectivity for Pt/Al2O3-. The activity of Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts was higher than that of alumina-supported ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Design of Magnesia–Spinel Bricks for Improved Coating Adherence in Cement Rotary Kilns
Ceramics 2021, 4(4), 652-666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4040046 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
It is well known that doloma bricks present better coating adherence than magnesia–spinel bricks when applied in cement rotary kilns, which is related to the different coating formation mechanism. The coating has an essential role in prolonged operation by protecting the refractory lining; [...] Read more.
It is well known that doloma bricks present better coating adherence than magnesia–spinel bricks when applied in cement rotary kilns, which is related to the different coating formation mechanism. The coating has an essential role in prolonged operation by protecting the refractory lining; thus, it is important to improve its adherence on magnesia–spinel refractories. The objective of this investigation is to study different compositions of magnesia–spinel bricks, achieved by varying additives used (calcined alumina, limestone, hematite and zirconia) and firing temperature (1500 °C and 1700 °C), to enhance the coating adherence measured by the sandwich test. The results have pointed out that the use of higher firing temperature contributes positively to physical adherence due to well-sintered refractory structure and elevated permeability, attaining coating strength superior to 2 MPa. For the chemical adherence, the addition of 2 wt.% of limestone increased the coating strength to 3 MPa, but resulted in a drop in hot properties. In this context, the most suitable approach to improve adherence of clinker coating and maintain hot properties in suitable levels is to increase the firing temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Effect of Machining Limiting Factors on Drilling Progress during Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE): General Trends
Ceramics 2021, 4(4), 618-627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4040044 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE) is a micro-machining technology for non-conductive materials, mainly glass, based on thermal assisted etching. Generally, during SACE, drilling proceeds at a fast rate reaching 100 µm/s for the first 100 µm and then it slows down for depths [...] Read more.
Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE) is a micro-machining technology for non-conductive materials, mainly glass, based on thermal assisted etching. Generally, during SACE, drilling proceeds at a fast rate reaching 100 µm/s for the first 100 µm and then it slows down for depths higher than 300 µm. While several techniques have been proposed to establish faster drilling, they mainly rely on tuning the machining parameters to enhance the machining performance. However, with this approach machining parameters need to be constantly tuned to achieve certain machining performance depending on the size of the tool and the features needed. Therefore, this necessitates further work to enhance understanding regarding the SACE machining process fundamentals in order to enhance machining speed and quality. Since SACE is a thermal assisted etching process, both local heating and flushing of electrolyte in the machining zone are required. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is not any study that attempts to analyze the effect of each of these machining limiting factors on the machining performance. This work attempts to clarify the effect of each flushing and heating on the drilling progress for hole depths higher than 100 microns. It therefore provides a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of the SACE machining process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Thermally Activated Al(OH)3 Part II—Effect of Different Thermal Treatments
Ceramics 2021, 4(4), 564-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4040040 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
In this paper, the thermal decomposition of crystalline Al(OH)3 was studied over the temperature range of 260–400 °C for particles with a size between 10 and 150 µm. The weight losses and thermal effects occurring in each of the dehydration process were [...] Read more.
In this paper, the thermal decomposition of crystalline Al(OH)3 was studied over the temperature range of 260–400 °C for particles with a size between 10 and 150 µm. The weight losses and thermal effects occurring in each of the dehydration process were assessed using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, refined by the Rietveld method, were used for mineral phase identification, phase composition analysis, and crystallinity degree determination. Moreover, the particle size distributions and their corresponding D10, D50, and D90 numeric values were determined with a laser analyzer. We observed a strong relationship between the calcination temperature, the initial gibbsite grade particle size, and the crystallinity of the resulting powders. Hence, for all endothermic effects identified by DSC, the associated temperature values significantly decreased insofar as the particle dimensions decreased. When the gibbsite was calcined at a low temperature, we identified small amounts of boehmite phase along with amorphous new phases and unconverted gibbsite, while the powders calcined at 400 °C gradually yielded a mixture of boehmite and crystalized γ-Al2O3. The crystallinity % of all phase transition products declined with the increase in particle size or temperature for all the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Phase Formation in Heterovalent Equimolar Quinary Oxide Systems of ZrO2-HfO2-CeO2-Nb2O5-RE2O3 Type (RE = Y, Yb, Nd, Gd)
Ceramics 2021, 4(3), 476-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4030035 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Tailoring electrical and mechanical properties in the fluorite oxides family is of great interest for technological applications. Other than doping and substitution, entropy-driven stabilization is an emerging technique for new solid solutions formation and enhancing or exploring new functionalities. However, there is a [...] Read more.
Tailoring electrical and mechanical properties in the fluorite oxides family is of great interest for technological applications. Other than doping and substitution, entropy-driven stabilization is an emerging technique for new solid solutions formation and enhancing or exploring new functionalities. However, there is a high number of possible combinations for higher-order diagram investigations, and the current state of the art shows limited possibilities in predicting phase formation and related properties. In this paper, we expand the compositional space of fluorite oxides in ZrO2-HfO2-CeO2-Nb2O5-RE2O3 systems. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy measurements showed the formation of cubic fluorite-type structures when processing compositions at 1600 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
The Effect of Different Surface Treatments on the Micromorphology and the Roughness of Four Dental CAD/CAM Lithium Silicate-Based Glass-Ceramics
Ceramics 2021, 4(3), 467-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4030034 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of various surface treatments on the micromorphology and the roughness of four CAD/CAM lithium silicate-based glass-ceramics (LSGC). Method: Eighty specimens of four LDGC materials (IPS e. max® CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein, Schaan), Vita [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of various surface treatments on the micromorphology and the roughness of four CAD/CAM lithium silicate-based glass-ceramics (LSGC). Method: Eighty specimens of four LDGC materials (IPS e. max® CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein, Schaan), Vita Suprinity® (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany), Celtra Duo® (Dentsply, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) and n!ce (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland)) were used for this study. All specimens were highly polished with 400, 600, 1200 grit silicon carbide paper and then polished with 3 µm and 1 µm polycrystalline diamond suspension liquid with grinding devices. Each group of ceramic was assigned to one of the following three surface treatments (1) sand-blasting (SB) with 50 µm Al2O3 at 70 psi for 10s, (2) hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) with 5% hydrofluoric acid, according to the manufacturer instructions, (3) and a combination of sand-blasting and hydrofluoric acid (SB + HF). All specimens were cleaned with ethanol for 2 min and placed in an ultrasonic unit with distilled water for 15 min. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface roughness and topography were evaluated with atomic force microscopy in tapping mode (AFM). Statistical analysis was done using two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 5%). Results: All surface treatments had a significant effect on LDGC surface roughness compared to the untreated surface (p < 0.05). The sand-blasting treatment had a significantly higher mean surface roughness value for Vita Suprinity and Celtra Duo compared to other surface treatments (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference for surface roughness between sand-blasting and sand-blasting + etching for e.max CAD and n!ce. The hydrofluoric acid produced less surface roughness compared to other surface treatments but was able to change the surface structure. (5) Conclusions: The sand-blasting + etching treatment could be a sufficient method to produce surface roughness for all LSGC types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Calculation of the Temperature Distribution in Cylindrical Samples of Alumina and Copper Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering
Ceramics 2021, 4(3), 437-446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4030032 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Numerical calculations were carried out to simulate, under conditions of close spark plasma sintering (SPS), the temperature distribution during the passage of current in dense cylindrical samples of two materials: aluminum oxide and copper located in graphite forms and clamped between cylindrical graphite [...] Read more.
Numerical calculations were carried out to simulate, under conditions of close spark plasma sintering (SPS), the temperature distribution during the passage of current in dense cylindrical samples of two materials: aluminum oxide and copper located in graphite forms and clamped between cylindrical graphite punches. The investigated materials differ greatly in their electrical conductivity and other physicochemical properties. Calculations were carried out for various geometric parameters of the samples, as well as graphite molds and punches at varying heating rates from the passing current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Modeling of Contact Forces for Brushing Tools
Ceramics 2021, 4(3), 397-407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4030029 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Brushing with bonded abrasives is a flexible finishing process used for the deburring and the rounding of workpiece edges as well as for the reduction of the surface roughness. Although industrially widespread, insufficient knowledge about the contact behavior of the abrasive filaments mainly [...] Read more.
Brushing with bonded abrasives is a flexible finishing process used for the deburring and the rounding of workpiece edges as well as for the reduction of the surface roughness. Although industrially widespread, insufficient knowledge about the contact behavior of the abrasive filaments mainly causes applications to be based on experiential values. Therefore, this article aims to increase the applicability of physical process models by introducing a new prediction method, correlating the contact forces of single abrasive filaments, obtained by means of a multi-body simulation, with the experimentally determined process forces of full brushing tools during the surface finishing of ZrO2. It was concluded that aggressive process parameters may not necessarily lead to maximum productivity due to increased tool wear, whereas less aggressive process parameters might yield equally high contact forces and thus higher productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Release Profiles of Dyes and Proteins from Calcium Phosphate Microspheres with Different Crystalline Phases
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 291-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020023 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Calcium phosphate is attracting attention as a bone repair material and a controlled-release carrier of various drugs such as bone disease therapeutic agents and anticancer agents. Compared with some bioabsorbable polymers, calcium phosphates have the advantage of preventing a pH decrease in the [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate is attracting attention as a bone repair material and a controlled-release carrier of various drugs such as bone disease therapeutic agents and anticancer agents. Compared with some bioabsorbable polymers, calcium phosphates have the advantage of preventing a pH decrease in the surrounding body fluid. However, there are few studies comparing the effect of supporting substances with different physicochemical properties on the production of calcium phosphate microspheres with different crystalline phases. In this study, we investigated conditions for obtaining low crystallinity apatite and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) microspheres from calcium carbonate microspheres with different crystalline structures using a simple phosphoric acid treatment. Furthermore, we investigated the adsorption and release behavior of different dyes and proteins from the apatite and OCP microspheres. Overall, the factors governing the adsorption and release behavior are different depending on the molecular size and surface charge of the dye and protein adsorbates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Metallic Calcium as a Precursor for Sol-Gel Synthesis of CaCO3-SiO2 and CaO-SiO2 Systems
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 278-290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020022 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
A series of binary oxide systems with Ca/Si molar ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and metallic calcium powder. Upon calcination, a side effect of wollastonite formation as a result [...] Read more.
A series of binary oxide systems with Ca/Si molar ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and metallic calcium powder. Upon calcination, a side effect of wollastonite formation as a result of the reaction between the components of the material has been observed in the two calcium-richest systems. The increase in calcium content produces an effect of porosity promotion. At high calcium contents, the homogeneity of the systems is limited by the ability of silica to disperse the calcium component. The properties of these systems are determined by the silica surface coverage with a large amount of the scattered CaCO3 fine microcrystallites (calcite), resulting from the phase segregation. The gels were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, low temperature nitrogen adsorption, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM and SEM/EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and FT-IR spectra, to describe the parameters important from the point of view of their application as a support for metal-based catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Thermally Activated Al(OH)3: Part I—Morphology and Porosity Evaluation
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 265-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020021 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Aluminum hydroxide is an essential material for the industrial production of ceramics (especially insulators and refractories), desiccants, absorbents, flame retardants, filers for plastics and rubbers, catalysts, and various construction materials. The calcination process of Al(OH)3 first induces dehydration and, finally, results in [...] Read more.
Aluminum hydroxide is an essential material for the industrial production of ceramics (especially insulators and refractories), desiccants, absorbents, flame retardants, filers for plastics and rubbers, catalysts, and various construction materials. The calcination process of Al(OH)3 first induces dehydration and, finally, results in α-Al2O3 formation. Nevertheless, this process contains various intermediary steps and has been proven to be complicated due to the development of numerous transitional alumina. Each step of the investigation is vital for the entire process because the final properties of materials based on aluminum trihydroxide are determined by their phase composition, morphology, porosity, etc. In this paper, five dried, milled, and size-classified aluminum hydroxide specimens were thermally treated at 260, 300, and 400 °C; then, they were studied in order to identify the effects of temperature on their properties, such as particle morphology, specific surface area, pore size, and pore distribution. The major oxide compounds identified in all samples were characteristic of bauxite—namely, Al2O3 * 3H2O, SiO2, Fe2O3, Na2O, and CaO. Particles with smaller sizes (<10 µm = 76.28%) presented the highest humidity content (~5 wt.%), while all samples registered a mass loss of ~25 wt.% on ignition at 400 °C. The identified particles had the shapes of hexagonal or quasi-hexagonal platelets and resulted in large spherulitic concretions. The obtained results suggest that ceramic powders calcined at 400 °C should be used for applications as adsorbents or catalysts due to their high specific area of about 200–240 m2/g and their small pore width (3–3.5 nm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Communication
Single-Step Synthesis Process for High-Entropy Transition Metal Boride Powders Using Microwave Plasma
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 257-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020020 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
A novel approach is demonstrated for the synthesis of the high entropy transition metal boride (Ta, Mo, Hf, Zr, Ti)B2 using a single heating step enabled by microwave-induced plasma. The argon-rich plasma allows rapid boro-carbothermal reduction of a consolidated powder mixture containing [...] Read more.
A novel approach is demonstrated for the synthesis of the high entropy transition metal boride (Ta, Mo, Hf, Zr, Ti)B2 using a single heating step enabled by microwave-induced plasma. The argon-rich plasma allows rapid boro-carbothermal reduction of a consolidated powder mixture containing the five metal oxides, blended with graphite and boron carbide (B4C) as reducing agents. For plasma exposure as low as 1800 °C for 1 h, a single-phase hexagonal AlB2-type structure forms, with an average particle size of 165 nm and with uniform distribution of the five metal cations in the microstructure. In contrast to primarily convection-based (e.g., vacuum furnace) methods that typically require a thermal reduction step followed by conversion to the single high-entropy phase at elevated temperature, the microwave approach enables rapid heating rates and reduced processing time in a single heating step. The high-entropy phase purity improves significantly with the increasing of the ball milling time of the oxide precursors from two to eight hours. However, further improvement in phase purity was not observed as a result of increasing the microwave processing temperature from 1800 to 2000 °C (for fixed ball milling time). The benefits of microwave plasma heating, in terms of allowing the combination of boro-carbothermal reduction and high entropy single-phase formation in a single heating step, are expected to accelerate progress in the field of high entropy ceramic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Communication
Synthesis of Oxide Ceramics in Detonating Atmosphere
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 249-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020019 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
A detonation process based on 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT), used as an energetic reagent, was successfully implemented in the synthesis of a series of metal oxide ceramics. TNT offers better physicochemical and mechanical properties than the energetic compounds traditionally used in such processes, thus [...] Read more.
A detonation process based on 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT), used as an energetic reagent, was successfully implemented in the synthesis of a series of metal oxide ceramics. TNT offers better physicochemical and mechanical properties than the energetic compounds traditionally used in such processes, thus offering safer handling and transport conditions. The experimental procedure, which consisted to of mixing the energetic molecule with a ceramic salt, was simple to perform. The detonation products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The as-synthesized ceramic powders (CeO2, HfO2, Nb2O5, and In2O3) were crystalline and made of nano-sized quasi-spherical particles. This investigation provides an enhanced detonation synthesis process for elaborating ceramics. The majority of the oxide materials mentioned in this study had never previously been prepared by the detonation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Prediction of Sodium Substitution Sites in Octacalcium Phosphate: The Relationships of Ionic Pair Ratios in Reacting Solutions
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 240-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020018 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is widely used in biomaterial fabrication by virtue of its unique crystal structure and low environmental loading. Although various ion and molecule substitution methods into the OCP unit lattice have been introduced, it remains unclear which factors and mechanisms dominate [...] Read more.
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is widely used in biomaterial fabrication by virtue of its unique crystal structure and low environmental loading. Although various ion and molecule substitution methods into the OCP unit lattice have been introduced, it remains unclear which factors and mechanisms dominate the substitution process. Experimental studies have indicated that Na alkali metal ions are substituted at the P3 PO4 conjugated site in acidic to weakly acidic conditions and the P5 PO4 conjugated site in neutral to weak basic conditions. Ionic species calculation methods have indicated that the pair ratios of Na and HPO42− (NaHPO4) are small in acidic reacting solutions but large under weakly basic conditions. Consequently, the roles played by NaHPO4 and ionic pair formation processes are thought to dominate ion and molecule substitution into the OCP unit lattice. Such ionic pair formation strongly inhibits dicarboxylic acid substitution into the OCP unit lattice due to the replacement of the Ca ion, which conjugates P5 PO4 as an anchor of dicarboxylic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Veneer—Framework Thickness in an All-Ceramic Implant Supported Fixed Partial Denture
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 199-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020015 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
This study was performed as an adjunct to an existing clinical study to validate the effect of veneer: framework thickness ratio on stress distribution in an implant-supported all-ceramic fixed partial denture. Two commercially available titanium dental implants with corresponding customized abutments and a [...] Read more.
This study was performed as an adjunct to an existing clinical study to validate the effect of veneer: framework thickness ratio on stress distribution in an implant-supported all-ceramic fixed partial denture. Two commercially available titanium dental implants with corresponding customized abutments and a patient-retrieved all-ceramic fixed partial denture were scanned using a high-resolution micro-CT scanner. Reconstructed 3D objects, along with a simulated bone surface, were incorporated into a non-manifold assembly and meshed simultaneously using Simpleware software (Synopsys Simpleware ScanIP Version P-2019.09; Mountain View, CA). Three such volume meshes (Model A, Model B, Model C) corresponding to veneer: framework thickness ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 respectively were created, and exported to a finite element analysis software (ABAQUS). An axial load of 110 N was applied uniformly on the occlusal surfaces to calculate the static stresses and contour plots were generated in the post-processing module. From the data obtained, we observed optimum stress distribution in Model B. Also, the tensile stresses were concentrated in the posterior connector region of the prosthesis in all three models tested. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that equal thickness of veneer and framework layers would aid in better stress distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Article
Tailoring the Glass Composition to Increase the Thermal Stability without Impacting the Crystallization Behavior of Oxyfluorophosphate Glass
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 148-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020013 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Even though the (75 NaPO3-25 CaF2) (in mol%) glass can be heat-treated into transparent glass-ceramic with Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals precipitating in the volume of the glass during heat-treatment, this glass was found to be a poor [...] Read more.
Even though the (75 NaPO3-25 CaF2) (in mol%) glass can be heat-treated into transparent glass-ceramic with Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals precipitating in the volume of the glass during heat-treatment, this glass was found to be a poor glass former, limiting its use as upconverter under 975 nm pumping. In this study, the impact of the glass composition on the thermal, optical and structural properties of the glass was investigated in order to understand how the glass composition can be tailored for the development of thermally stable upconverter glass-based material. The addition of MgO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 in the NaPO3-CaF2 glass system increases the thermal stability of glass due to the depolymerization of the glass network. However, the changes in the glass composition also impacted on the nucleation and growth process. Indeed, CaF2 and other crystals were found in the newly developed glasses after heat-treatment leading to glass-ceramics with lower intensity of upconversion than the (75 NaPO3-25 CaF2) glass-ceramic used as a reference. Glasses were also prepared with different concentrations of Er2O3 and ErF3. These glasses were found to be promising as not only are they thermally stable, but they also exhibit green and red emission with high intensity under 975 nm pumping due to Er3+ clustering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Cermet Systems: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications
Ceramics 2022, 5(2), 210-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5020018 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Cermet is an advanced class of material consisting of a hard ceramic phase along with a metallic binding phase with the combined advantages of both the ceramic and the metal phase. The superior properties of this class of materials are particularly useful in [...] Read more.
Cermet is an advanced class of material consisting of a hard ceramic phase along with a metallic binding phase with the combined advantages of both the ceramic and the metal phase. The superior properties of this class of materials are particularly useful in high-temperature, tribological, and machining applications. This review paper seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the various cermet systems. More specifically, the most commonly used cermet systems based on tungsten carbide (WC), titanium carbide (TiC), titanium carbonitride (TiCN), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are discussed based on their development, properties, and applications. The effect of different metallic binders and their composition on the tribological and mechanical properties of these cermet systems is elaborated. The most common processing techniques for cermet systems, such as powder metallurgy (PM), reaction synthesis (RS), thermal spray (TS), cold spray (CS), and laser-based additive manufacturing techniques are discussed. The influence of the processing parameters in each case is evaluated. Finally, the applications and challenges of cermet systems are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Review
Synthesis of Submicron, Nanostructured Spherical Powders of Y3Al5O12-Phases by the Method by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Investigation of Their Structure and Properties
Ceramics 2022, 5(2), 201-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5020017 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The results of laboratory studies of the submicron Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phase powders synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis are presented. A structural-phase analysis of aerosol powders was carried out and an assessment of the tendency of the synthesized powders [...] Read more.
The results of laboratory studies of the submicron Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phase powders synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis are presented. A structural-phase analysis of aerosol powders was carried out and an assessment of the tendency of the synthesized powders to sintering was made. The working solution for the aerosol was prepared on the basis of distilled water with aluminum nitrate hexahydrate Al(NO3)3 x 6H2O and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate Y(NO3)3 x 6H2O dissolved in specified proportions. Spherical submicron nonagglomerated powders of Y3Al5O12–phase with a small YAlO3-phase content were synthesized by this method. Powder granules with a diameter of 0.75 microns had a nano-fragmentary polycrystalline structure with an average crystal size of 16 nm. During the sintering of powders with such a unique structure, diffusion mass transfer processes are activated, which contributes to a more efficient compaction of the material. Aerosol powder sintering experiments have shown that the best results are achieved when the process is carried out at 1700 °C for 6 h. As a result, a dense YAG-ceramic material was obtained, the structure of which does not contain residual pores and is characterized by a uniform distribution of equiaxed grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Review
Porous Zirconia Blocks for Bone Repair: An Integrative Review on Biological and Mechanical Outcomes
Ceramics 2022, 5(1), 161-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics5010014 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review of the biological and mechanical outcomes of porous zirconia structures for extensive bone repair. An electronic search was performed on the PubMed database using a combination of the following scientific terms: porous, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review of the biological and mechanical outcomes of porous zirconia structures for extensive bone repair. An electronic search was performed on the PubMed database using a combination of the following scientific terms: porous, scaffold, foam, zirconia, bone regeneration, bone repair, bone healing. Articles published in the English language up to December 2021 and related to porosity, pore interconnectivity, biocompatibility and strength of the material, and the manufacturing methods of zirconia porous structures were included. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies were also evaluated. The research identified 145 studies, of which 23 were considered relevant. A high percentage of pores and the size and interconnectivity of pores are key factors for cell migration, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, pore interconnectivity allows for the exchange of nutrients between cells and formation of blood vessels. However, a decrease in strength of the porous structures was noted with an increase in the number and size of pores. Therefore, yttria-stabilized zirconia tetragonal polycrystal (Y-TZP) has mechanical properties that make it suitable for the manufacture of highly porous structures or implants for extensive bone repair. Additionally, the porous structures can be coated with bioactive ceramics to enhance the cell response and bone ingrowth without compromising pore networking. Porous structures and mesh implants composed of zirconia have become a strategy for extensive bone repair since the material and the pore network provide the desired biological response and bone volume maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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Review
Ceramic Tile Adhesives from the Producer’s Perspective: A Literature Review
Ceramics 2021, 4(3), 378-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4030027 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Ceramic tiles and ceramic tile adhesives (CTA) are two impressive materials that have changed construction history. Ceramic tiles could not provide their beauty and durability for buildings when used as a covering both for the inside and exterior finishing without CTA. Nowadays, they [...] Read more.
Ceramic tiles and ceramic tile adhesives (CTA) are two impressive materials that have changed construction history. Ceramic tiles could not provide their beauty and durability for buildings when used as a covering both for the inside and exterior finishing without CTA. Nowadays, they are complex multi-component systems. Among the various CTAs, cementitious products are the most commonly used. This article presents an extensive review of the literature, showing how they are perceived in the scientific literature today. In this paper, an attempt is made to review individual adhesives’ ingredients’ effects on their properties, with particular reference to redispersible polymer powders and methylcellulose ethers. The article presents the basics of the CTAs, assessing and verifying the constancy of their performance in force in European Union countries. Furthermore, it gives a critical review of CTA’s normalized measurement methodologies. The study also draws attention to the need to consider measurement uncertainty in decision-making and conformity assessment, supported by an analysis of the results of multi-annual inter-laboratory studies and market surveillance tests. Future research suggestions are also made based on the review, mainly from the adhesive manufacturer’s perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
Review
Silicon Nitride, a Close to Ideal Ceramic Material for Medical Application
Ceramics 2021, 4(2), 208-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics4020016 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
This topical review describes the salient results of recent research on silicon nitride, a ceramic material with unique properties. The outcome of this ongoing research strongly encourages the use of monolithic silicon nitride and coatings as contemporary and future biomaterial for a variety [...] Read more.
This topical review describes the salient results of recent research on silicon nitride, a ceramic material with unique properties. The outcome of this ongoing research strongly encourages the use of monolithic silicon nitride and coatings as contemporary and future biomaterial for a variety of medical applications. Crystallographic structure, the synthesis and processing of monolithic structures and coatings, as well as examples of their medical applications that relate to spinal, orthopedic and dental implants, bone grafts and scaffolds, platforms for intelligent synthetic neural circuits, antibacterial and antiviral particles and coatings, optical biosensors, and nano-photonic waveguides for sophisticated medical diagnostic devices are all covered in the research reviewed herein. The examples provided convincingly show that silicon nitride is destined to become a leader to replace titanium and other entrenched biomaterials in many fields of medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics)
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