Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 55869

Special Issue Editor


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INSA-Lyon, MATEIS Laboratory UMR CNRS 5510, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: ceramic processing; thermomechanical behavior; shaping; sintering; SPS; cermets; ceramic matrix composites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Last year, we proposed a Special Issue on advanced ceramics, which saw great success. It is for this reason that we are asking you for a second Special Issue that will provide an update on advanced ceramics.

Ceramic materials are widely used in industries and key technologies of the 21st century. Important developments have been made during the last few decades concerning the fabrication of new functional or structural ceramics; therefore, it is necessary to take stock of the progress and developments made in recent years.

Advanced ceramics can fulfill many functions that can be briefly recalled: electrical, optical, magnetic, chemical, thermal, thermomechanical, nuclear, military, and biomedical functions. These functions determine their applications and, therefore, their development.

The aim of this second Special Issue on “Advances in Ceramics” is to present the latest developments concerning advanced ceramics, from fabrication to properties and applications.

I am asking scientists to propose short communications, full papers, or reviews corresponding to this Special Issue. The following topics can be addressed:

  • Powder synthesis, ceramic processing, and shaping;
  • Sintering: conventional sintering, cold sintering, flash sintering, ultrafast sintering, field-assisted sintering, and pressure-assisted sintering;
  • Additive fabrication;
  • Advanced structural ceramics and composites;
  • Refractories in addition to high- and ultra-high-temperature ceramics;
  • Functional ceramics;
  • Bioceramics;
  • High-entropy ceramics;
  • Ceramic coatings and thin films;
  • Ceramics and energy;
  • Ceramics and the environment.

For each topic, modeling can be taken into account.

Prof. Dr. Gilbert Fantozzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced ceramics
  • ceramic processing
  • sintering
  • additive manufacturing
  • functional ceramics
  • structural ceramics
  • ceramics properties

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Published Papers (36 papers)

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18 pages, 22999 KiB  
Article
0.98(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3–0.02(Bi0.5Na0.5)(Zr0.85Sn0.15)O3 Single Crystals Grown by the Seed-Free Solid-State Crystal Growth Method and Their Characterization
by Eugenie Uwiragiye, Thuy Linh Pham, Jong-Sook Lee, Byoung-Wan Lee, Jae-Hyeon Ko and John G. Fisher
Ceramics 2024, 7(3), 840-857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7030055 - 21 Jun 2024
Viewed by 88
Abstract
(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-based single crystals are of interest as high-performance lead-free piezoelectric materials, but conventional crystal growth methods have some disadvantages such as the requirement for expensive Pt crucibles and difficulty in controlling the composition of the crystals. Recently, [...] Read more.
(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-based single crystals are of interest as high-performance lead-free piezoelectric materials, but conventional crystal growth methods have some disadvantages such as the requirement for expensive Pt crucibles and difficulty in controlling the composition of the crystals. Recently, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-based single crystals have been grown by the seed-free solid-state crystal growth method, which can avoid these problems. In the present work, 0.98(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3–0.02(Bi0.5Na0.5)(Zr0.85Sn0.15)O3 single crystals were grown by the seed-free solid-state crystal growth method. Sintering aids of 0.15 mol% Li2CO3 and 0.15 mol% Bi2O3 were added to promote single crystal growth. Pellets were sintered at 1150 °C for 15–50 h. Single crystals started to appear from 20 h. The single crystals grown for 50 h were studied in detail. Single crystal microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy of the as-grown surface and cross-section of the sample and revealed porosity in the crystals. Electron probe microanalysis indicated a slight reduction in K and Na content of a single crystal as compared to the nominal composition. X-ray diffraction shows that the single crystals contain mixed orthorhombic and tetragonal phases at room temperature. Raman scattering and impedance spectroscopy at different temperatures observed rhombohedral–orthorhombic, orthorhombic–tetragonal and tetragonal–cubic phase transitions. Polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loops show that the single crystal is a normal ferroelectric material with a remanent polarization (Pr) of 18.5 μC/cm2 and a coercive electrical field (Ec) of 10.7 kV/cm. A single crystal presents d33 = 362 pC/N as measured by a d33 meter. Such a single crystal with a large d33 and high Curie temperature (~370 °C) can be a promising candidate for piezoelectric devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 10793 KiB  
Article
CaCO3-Infused Carbon Fiber Aerogels: Synthesis and Characterization
by Cristina Mosoarca, Iosif Hulka, Pavel Șchiopu, Florina S. Rus and Radu Bănică
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 777-795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020051 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Carbon aerogels represent a distinctive category of high surface area materials derived from sol-gel chemistry. Functionalizing these aerogels has led to the development of composite aerogels with the potential for a wider range of applications. In this study, the technique of lyophilization was [...] Read more.
Carbon aerogels represent a distinctive category of high surface area materials derived from sol-gel chemistry. Functionalizing these aerogels has led to the development of composite aerogels with the potential for a wider range of applications. In this study, the technique of lyophilization was employed to fabricate aerogel composites consisting of inorganic salts and cellulosic fibers. Cellulose carbonization can occur through chemical dehydration by heat treatment in an inert atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis spectra and scanning electron microscopy images indicate that the formed polymeric composites contain partially carbonized cellulose fibers, amorphous carbon, and calcium carbonates. CaCO3 primarily forms through the reaction of CaCl2, which moistens cellulose or amorphous carbon fibers with CO2 in ammonia fumes. The water loss in 3D structures was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy. Depending on the synthesis method, 3D structures can be created from partially or completely dehydrated cellulose fibers. The aerogels were examined for their ability to support the growth of bacterial biofilm and then adorned with metal silver and AgCl to produce bactericidal products. Due to their open pores and CaCO3 content, these aerogels can serve as durable and environmentally friendly thermal insulators with bactericidal properties, as well as a medium for absorbing acidic gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 6817 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Variability of Flaw Strength Distributions on Brittle SiC Ceramic
by Jacques Lamon
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 759-776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020050 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
The present paper investigates flaw strength distributions established using various flexural tests on batches of SiC bar test specimens, namely four-point bending as well as three-point bending tests with different span lengths. Flaw strength is provided by the elemental stress operating on the [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates flaw strength distributions established using various flexural tests on batches of SiC bar test specimens, namely four-point bending as well as three-point bending tests with different span lengths. Flaw strength is provided by the elemental stress operating on the critical flaw at the fracture of a test specimen. Fracture-inducing flaws and their locations are identified using fractography. A single population of pores was found to dominate the fracture. The construction of diagrams of p-quantile vs. elemental strengths was aimed at assessing the Gaussian nature of flaw strengths. Then, empirical cumulative distributions of strengths were constructed using the normal distribution function. The Weibull distributions of strengths are then compared to the normal reference distributions. The parameters of the Weibull cumulative probability distributions are estimated using maximum likelihood and moment methods. The cumulative distributions of flexural strengths for the different bending tests are predicted from the flaw strength density function using the elemental strength model, and from the cumulative distribution of flexural strength using the Weibull function. Flaw strength distributions that include the weaker flaws that are potentially present in larger test pieces are extrapolated using the p-quantile diagrams. Implications are discussed regarding the pertinence of an intrinsically representative flaw strength distribution, considering failure predictions. Finally, the influence of the characteristics of fracture-inducing flaw populations expressed in terms of flaw strength interval, size, dispersion, heterogeneity, and reproducibility with volume change is examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 6859 KiB  
Article
Effect of B2O3 and Basic Oxides on Network Structure and Chemical Stability of Borosilicate Glass
by Ming Lian, Tian Wang and Chong Wei
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 516-529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020034 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Glass properties play crucial roles in ensuring the safety and reliability of electronic packaging. However, challenges, such as thermal expansion and resistance to acid corrosion, pose long-term service difficulties. This study investigated the impact of the microstructure on acid resistance by adjusting the [...] Read more.
Glass properties play crucial roles in ensuring the safety and reliability of electronic packaging. However, challenges, such as thermal expansion and resistance to acid corrosion, pose long-term service difficulties. This study investigated the impact of the microstructure on acid resistance by adjusting the glass composition. A glass material with excellent acid resistance was obtained by achieving a similar coefficient of thermal expansion to tantalum; it exhibited a weight loss rate of less than 0.03% when submerged in 38% sulfuric acid at 85 °C for 200 h. Theoretically, this glass can be used to seal wet Ta electrolytic capacitors. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of borosilicate glasses. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the microstructure of the amorphous phase of the borosilicate glass, which revealed a close relationship between the degree of network phase separation in the borosilicate glass and the degree of polymerization (isomorphic polyhedron value, IP) of the glass matrix. The IP value decreased from 3.82 to 1.98 with an increasing degree of phase separation. Boron transitions from [BO4] to [BO3] within the glass network structure with increasing boron oxide content, which diminishes the availability of free oxygen provided by alkaline oxide, resulting in a lower acid resistance. Notably, the glass exhibited optimal acid resistance at boron trioxide and mixed alkaline oxide contents of 15% and 6%, respectively. Raman experiments revealed how the distributions of various bridging oxygen atoms (Qn) affect the structural phase separation of the glass network. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy revealed the depolymerization of Q4 into Q3, thereby promoting high-temperature phase separation and highlighting the unique advantages of Raman spectroscopy for phase recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 4204 KiB  
Article
Sonochemical Synthesis of Indium Nitride Nanoparticles and Photocatalytic Composites with Titania
by Aikaterina Paraskevopoulou, Pavlos Pandis, Christos Argirusis and Georgia Sourkouni
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 478-490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020031 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Indium nitride is an excellent semiconductor that belongs to the group of III nitride materials. Due to its unique properties, it is applied to various optoelectronic applications. However, its low thermal stability makes it difficult to synthesize. The present study introduces the synthesis [...] Read more.
Indium nitride is an excellent semiconductor that belongs to the group of III nitride materials. Due to its unique properties, it is applied to various optoelectronic applications. However, its low thermal stability makes it difficult to synthesize. The present study introduces the synthesis of indium nitride nanoparticles, using ultrasound power (sonochemistry). The sonochemical method provides a low-cost and rapid technique for nanomaterial synthesis. InN nanoparticles were produced in only 3 h through the sonochemical reaction of InCl3 and LiN3. Xylene was used as a reaction solvent. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were adopted for the characterization of the obtained powder. According to our results, ultrasound contributed to the synthesis of InN nanocrystals in a cubic and a hexagonal phase. The obtained InN nanoparticles were further used to decorate titanium dioxide (TiO2) by means of ultrasound. The contribution of InN nanoparticles on the processes of photocatalysis was investigated through the degradation of methylene blue (MB), a typical organic substance acting in place of an environment pollutant. According to the obtained results, InN nanoparticles improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by 41.8% compared with commercial micrometric titania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 4272 KiB  
Article
Negative Temperature Coefficient Properties of Natural Clinoptilolite
by Loredana Schiavo, Lucrezia Aversa, Roberto Verucchi, Rachele Castaldo, Gennaro Gentile and Gianfranco Carotenuto
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 452-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020029 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) materials are usually based on ceramic semiconductors, and electrons are involved in their transport mechanism. A new type of NTC material, adequate for alternating current (AC) applications, is represented by zeolites. Indeed, zeolites are single charge carrier ionic conductors [...] Read more.
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) materials are usually based on ceramic semiconductors, and electrons are involved in their transport mechanism. A new type of NTC material, adequate for alternating current (AC) applications, is represented by zeolites. Indeed, zeolites are single charge carrier ionic conductors with a temperature-dependent electrical conductivity. In particular, electrical transport in zeolites is due to the monovalent charge-balancing cations, like K+, capable of hopping between negatively charged sites in the aluminosilicate framework. Owing to the highly non-linear electrical behavior of the traditional electronic NTC materials, the possibility to have alternative types of materials, showing linearity in their electrical behavior, is very desirable. Among different zeolites, natural clinoptilolite has been selected for investigating NTC behavior since it is characterized by high zeolite content, a convenient Si/Al atomic ratio, good mechanical strength due to its compact microstructure, and low toxicity. Clinoptilolite has shown a rapid and quite reversible impedance change under heating, characterized by a linear dependence on temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to identify the natural zeolite, to establish all types of crystalline phases present in the mineral, and to investigate the thermal stability of these phases up to 150 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used for the chemical characterization of this natural clinoptilolite sample, providing important information on the cationic content and framework composition. In addition, since electrical transport takes place in the zeolite free-volume, a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis of the mineral has also been performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 9753 KiB  
Article
Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network Produced by Direct Ink Writing: The Effects of Manufacturing Design on Mechanical Properties
by Junhui Zhang, Paula Pou, Ludmila Hodásová, Mona Yarahmadi, Sergio Elizalde, Jose-Maria Cabrera, Luis Llanes, Elaine Armelin and Gemma Fargas
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 436-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020028 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials have gained considerable attention as tooth-restorative materials due to their mechanical compatibility with human teeth, especially with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. However, the designed geometry affects the mechanical properties of PICN materials. This study aims [...] Read more.
Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials have gained considerable attention as tooth-restorative materials due to their mechanical compatibility with human teeth, especially with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. However, the designed geometry affects the mechanical properties of PICN materials. This study aims to study the relationship between manufacturing geometry and mechanical properties. In doing so, zirconia-based PICN materials with different geometries were fabricated using a direct ink-writing process, followed by copolymer infiltration. Comprehensive analyses of the microstructure and structural properties of zirconia scaffolds, as well as PICN materials, were performed. The mechanical properties were assessed through compression testing and digital image correlation analysis. The results revealed that the compression strength of PICN pieces was significantly higher than the respective zirconia scaffolds without polymer infiltration. In addition, two geometries (C-grid 0 and C-grid 45) have the highest mechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 6059 KiB  
Article
Structural and Dielectric Properties of Titania Co-Doped with Yttrium and Niobium: Experimental Evidence and DFT Study
by Deborah Y. B. Silva, Reginaldo Muccillo and Eliana N. S. Muccillo
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 411-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010026 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
This work explores the impact of the sintering temperature and co-dopant contents on the microstructure and dielectric properties of (Y0.5Nb0.5)xTi1−xO2 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The [...] Read more.
This work explores the impact of the sintering temperature and co-dopant contents on the microstructure and dielectric properties of (Y0.5Nb0.5)xTi1−xO2 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The physical mechanism underlying the colossal electric permittivity was systematically investigated with experimental methods and first principles calculations. All specimens exhibited the characteristic tetragonal structure of rutile, besides secondary phases. A niobium- and yttrium-rich secondary phase emerged at the grain boundaries after heating at 1500 °C, changing the main sintering mechanism. The highest value of the electric permittivity (13499 @ 60 °C and 10 kHz) was obtained for (Y0.5Nb0.5)0.05Ti0.95O2 sintered at 1480 °C, and the lowest dissipation factor (0.21@ 60 °C and 10 kHz) for (Y0.5Nb0.5)0.1Ti0.90O2 sintered at 1500 °C. The dielectric properties of Y3+ and Nb5+ co-doped TiO2 are attributed to the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) and electron-pinned dipole defect (EPDD) mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 16249 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Permeation Properties of Ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 Cermet Membranes
by Yoshiteru Itagaki, Hiroyuki Mori, Takumi Matsubayashi and Hiromichi Aono
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 385-400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010024 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
A ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 (BCY)–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (GDC) cermet involving 40 vol% Ni was fabricated, and its hydrogen permeation characteristics were evaluated when the GDC volume fraction was varied from 0 to 30 vol%. The X-ray [...] Read more.
A ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 (BCY)–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (GDC) cermet involving 40 vol% Ni was fabricated, and its hydrogen permeation characteristics were evaluated when the GDC volume fraction was varied from 0 to 30 vol%. The X-ray diffraction results of the cermet after sintering at 1400 °C revealed that GDC was dissolved in BCY when the GDC volume composition was 20 vol%. Regardless of the BCY and GDC volume fractions, the metal conductivity of the cermet was dominated by Ni. After the addition of only 1 vol% GDC, the particle sizes of Ni and BCY in the cermet significantly decreased, and the particle size decreased as the volume fraction of GDC increased. The hydrogen permeability increased with increasing temperature and for up to 10 vol% GDC, and a maximum permeation rate of 0.142 mL min−1 cm−2 was obtained at 700 °C. This value is comparable to or better than previously reported values for Ni-cermets under the same conditions. The amount of hydrogen permeation decreased above 10 vol% GDC. This study demonstrated that Ni-BCY-GDC cermet is a material that has both high hydrogen permeability and CO2 resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 5098 KiB  
Article
Holistic Characterization of MgO-Al2O3, MgO-CaZrO3, and Y2O3-ZrO2 Ceramic Composites for Aerospace Propulsion Systems
by Kateryna O. Shvydyuk, João Nunes-Pereira, Frederico F. Rodrigues, José C. Páscoa, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez and Abílio P. Silva
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 364-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010023 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Aerospace propulsion systems are among the driving forces for the development of advanced ceramics with increased performance efficiency in severe operation conditions. The conducted research focused on the mechanical (Young’s and shear moduli, flexural strength, hardness, and fracture toughness), thermal (thermal conductivity and [...] Read more.
Aerospace propulsion systems are among the driving forces for the development of advanced ceramics with increased performance efficiency in severe operation conditions. The conducted research focused on the mechanical (Young’s and shear moduli, flexural strength, hardness, and fracture toughness), thermal (thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion), and electric (dielectric properties) characterization of MgO-Al2O3, MgO-CaZrO3, and stable YSZ ceramic composites. The experimental results, considering structural and functional traits, underscore the importance of a holistic understanding of the multifunctionality of advanced ceramics to fulfill propulsion system requirements, the limits of which have not yet been fully explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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22 pages, 16123 KiB  
Article
Franklinite-Zincochromite-Gahnite Solid Solutions for Cool Red Ceramic Pigments with Visible Light Photocatalysis
by Guillermo Monrós, José A. Badenes, Mario Llusar and Carolina Delgado
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 342-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010022 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Franklinite-zincochromite-gahnite solid solutions were prepared using ceramic or coprecipitation methods, and their pigmenting capacity as cool ceramic pigments in different glazes (double and single firing frits and porcelain frit) was studied. XRD, UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance, CIEL*a*b* colour analysis, band gap measurements, and the [...] Read more.
Franklinite-zincochromite-gahnite solid solutions were prepared using ceramic or coprecipitation methods, and their pigmenting capacity as cool ceramic pigments in different glazes (double and single firing frits and porcelain frit) was studied. XRD, UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance, CIEL*a*b* colour analysis, band gap measurements, and the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II were carried out to characterise the samples. The following criteria for high red colouring capacity and high NIR reflectance at the minimum Cr amount were found to be the optimal compositions for an intense reddish cool pigment: Zn(Fe1.8Cr0.2), Zn(Al1.5Cr0.5) and Zn(Al1.3Cr0.5Fe0.2)O4. All the powders showed a direct semiconductor behaviour, with a band gap of approximately 2 eV, which fell in the visible range (620 nm); the visible light photocatalysis of Orange II was moderate, but franklinite-zincochromite Zn(Fe1.8Cr0.2) stood out compared with silver orthophosphate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Luminescent Emission during Flash Sintering of 8YSZ and 20SDC Ceramics
by Reginaldo Muccillo, Julio Cesar C. A. Diaz and Eliana N. S. Muccillo
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 329-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010021 - 25 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Light-emission data were collected before, during, and after the occurrence of the flash event in pressureless electric-field-assisted (flash) sintering experiments on ZrO2: 8 mol% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and CeO2: 20 mol% Sm2O3 (20SDC) ceramic [...] Read more.
Light-emission data were collected before, during, and after the occurrence of the flash event in pressureless electric-field-assisted (flash) sintering experiments on ZrO2: 8 mol% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and CeO2: 20 mol% Sm2O3 (20SDC) ceramic green pellets to analyze the luminescent emission from the samples. The experiments were performed at 800 °C with an applied electric field of 100 V·cm−1 at 1 kHz, limiting the electric current to 1 A. Luminescence data were obtained in the 200–1200 nm (ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared) range. The deconvolution of the optical spectra allowed for the identification of emission bands in the visible range due exclusively to the samples. The wavelength maxima of the emission bands in 8YSZ were found to be different from those in 20SDC. It is suggested that these bands might originate from the interaction of the electric current, resulting from the application of the electric field, with the depleted species located at the space-charge region at the grain boundaries of these ceramics. The main results represent a contribution to help to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the fast densification with inhibition of grain growth in electroceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 5729 KiB  
Article
Mussel-Inspired Construction of Silica-Decorated Ceramic Membranes for Oil–Water Separation
by Qibo Zhou, Qibing Chang, Yao Lu and Jing Sun
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 250-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010016 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
In recent years, ceramic membranes have received widespread focus in the area of liquid separation because of their high permeability, strong hydrophilicity, and good chemical stability. However, in practical applications, the surface of ceramic membranes is prone to be contaminated, which degrades the [...] Read more.
In recent years, ceramic membranes have received widespread focus in the area of liquid separation because of their high permeability, strong hydrophilicity, and good chemical stability. However, in practical applications, the surface of ceramic membranes is prone to be contaminated, which degrades the permeation flux of ceramic membranes during the separation process. Inspired by mussels, we imitate the biomimetic mineralization process to prepare a ceramic membrane of nano–silica on the pre-modified zirconia surface by co-deposited polydopamine/polyethyleneimine. The modified ceramic membranes were utilized for the purpose of oil–water separation. Separation performance has been tested using a disc ceramic membrane dynamic filtration device. The outcomes revealed an enhanced permeability in the modified membrane, measuring as 159 L m−2 h−1 bar−1, surpassing the separation flux of the unmodified membrane, which was 104 L m−2 h−1 bar−1. The permeation performance of the modified membrane was increased to 1.5 times. Modified ceramic membranes are highly resistant to fouling. From the beginning to the end of separation process, the oil rejection rate of the modified ceramic membrane is always higher than 99%. After a 2 h oil–water separation test run, modified ceramic membrane permeate flux can be restored to 91% after cleaning. It has an enormous capacity for application in the area of oil–water separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Elastic Properties of B4C from First-Principles Calculations and Phonon Modeling
by Sara Sheikhi, Wylie Stroberg and James D. Hogan
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 235-249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010015 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Boron carbide plays a crucial role in various extreme environment applications, including thermal barrier coatings, aerospace applications, and neutron absorbers, because of its high thermal and chemical stability. In this study, the temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants, thermal expansion coefficient, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, [...] Read more.
Boron carbide plays a crucial role in various extreme environment applications, including thermal barrier coatings, aerospace applications, and neutron absorbers, because of its high thermal and chemical stability. In this study, the temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants, thermal expansion coefficient, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, and heat capacity at a constant volume (Cv) of rhombohedral B4C have been predicted using a quasi-harmonic approach. A combination of volume-dependent first-principles calculations (density functional theory) and first-principles phonon calculations in the supercell framework has been performed. Good agreement between the elastic constants and structural parameters from static calculations is observed. The calculated thermodynamic properties from phonon calculations show trends that align with the literature. As the temperature rises, the predicted free energy follows a decreasing trend, while entropy and Cv follow increasing trends with temperature. Comparisons between the predicted room temperature thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (7.54×106 K−1) and bulk modulus (228 GPa) from the quasi-harmonic approach and literature results from experiments and models are performed, revealing that the calculated TEC and bulk modulus fall within the established range from the limited set of data from the literature (TEC = 5.73–9.50 ×106 K−1, B = 221–246 GPa). Temperature-dependent Cijs are predicted, enabling stress analysis at elevated temperatures. Overall, the outcomes of this study can be used when performing mechanical and thermal stress analysis (e.g., space shielding applications) and optimizing the design of boron carbide materials for elevated temperature applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 9523 KiB  
Article
Plasma Actuators Based on Alumina Ceramics for Active Flow Control Applications
by Frederico F. Rodrigues, Kateryna O. Shvydyuk, João Nunes-Pereira, José C. Páscoa and Abílio P. Silva
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 192-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010012 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Plasma actuators have demonstrated great potential for active flow control applications, including boundary layer control, flow separation delay, turbulence control, and aircraft noise reduction. In particular, the material used as a dielectric barrier is crucial for the proper operation of the device. Currently, [...] Read more.
Plasma actuators have demonstrated great potential for active flow control applications, including boundary layer control, flow separation delay, turbulence control, and aircraft noise reduction. In particular, the material used as a dielectric barrier is crucial for the proper operation of the device. Currently, the variety of dielectrics reported in the literature is still quite restricted to polymers including Kapton, Teflon, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Cirlex, polyisobutylene (PIB) rubber, or polystyrene. Nevertheless, several studies have highlighted the fragilities of polymeric dielectric layers when actuators operate at significantly high-voltage and -frequency levels or for long periods. In the current study, we propose the use of alumina-based ceramic composites as alternative materials for plasma actuator dielectric layers. The alumina composite samples were fabricated and characterized in terms of microstructure, electrical parameters, and plasma-induced flow velocity and compared with a conventional Kapton-based actuator. It was concluded that alumina-based dielectrics are suitable materials for plasma actuator applications, being able to generate plasma-induced flow velocities of approximately 4.5 m/s. In addition, it was verified that alumina-based ceramic actuators can provide similar fluid mechanical efficiencies to Kapton actuators. Furthermore, the ceramic dielectrics present additional characteristics, such as high-temperature resistance, which are not encompassed by conventional Kapton actuators, which makes them suitable for high-temperature applications such as turbine blade film cooling enhancement and plasma-assisted combustion. The high porosity of the ceramic results in lower plasma-induced flow velocity and lower fluid mechanical efficiency, but by minimizing the porosity, the fluid mechanical efficiency is increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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29 pages, 20894 KiB  
Article
Archaeometric Investigations on Archaeological Findings from Palazzo Corsini Alla Lungara (Rome)
by Tilde de Caro, Fiammetta Susanna, Paola Fraiegari, Renato Sebastiani, Veronica Romoli, Simone Bruno and Andrea Macchia
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 137-165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010010 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
This study reports the analytical investigations on clayey and ceramic finds, characterised by high variability in terms of prime materials, with the aim to determine the role of this important ceramic production situated close to the city walls, fortuitously found during service excavations [...] Read more.
This study reports the analytical investigations on clayey and ceramic finds, characterised by high variability in terms of prime materials, with the aim to determine the role of this important ceramic production situated close to the city walls, fortuitously found during service excavations developed in the garden of Palazzo Corsini in Rome. The complexity of the finds led to the choices of appropriate methodologies and techniques suitable for defining the diagnostic elements of each find. Optical microscopy (OM) combined with micro-Raman (µ-Raman) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to analyse the nature and microstructure of the ceramic and burned clay that were found. In such a complicated setting, the objective of conducting chemical analyses is to provide clues to describe the various kinds of ceramics produced, the production and processing methods, and, as a result, the typology of the workshop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 5120 KiB  
Article
Impact of Europium and Niobium Doping on Hafnium Oxide (HfO2): Comparative Analysis of Sol–Gel and Combustion Synthesis Methods
by Katrina Laganovska, Virginija Vitola, Ernests Einbergs, Ivita Bite, Aleksejs Zolotarjovs, Madara Leimane, Gatis Tunens and Krisjanis Smits
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 15-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010002 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1641
Abstract
This study compares HfO2 ceramics synthesized using sol–gel and combustion methods, emphasizing the impact of the method of synthesis on the resulting properties of the material. The research findings illustrate morphological differences between sol–gel and combustion-derived HfO2. While sol–gel samples [...] Read more.
This study compares HfO2 ceramics synthesized using sol–gel and combustion methods, emphasizing the impact of the method of synthesis on the resulting properties of the material. The research findings illustrate morphological differences between sol–gel and combustion-derived HfO2. While sol–gel samples displayed irregular nanoparticles with pronounced boundaries, combustion samples revealed more homogeneous structures with particles tending towards coalescence. It was discerned that Eu3+ doping induced oxygen vacancies, stabilizing the tetragonal phase, while subsequent doping with Nb5+ significantly reduced these vacancies, which was also observed in photoluminescence analysis. Furthermore, combustion synthesis left fewer organic residues, with urea presence during synthesis contributing to residual organic components in the material. XPS analysis was used to evaluate the presence of oxygen-deficient hafnia sub-oxide in the samples. The study underscores the important role of tailored synthesis methods in optimizing the properties and applications of HfO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 4618 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Incorporation on the Extrusion and Drying Behavior of Brick Mixtures
by Ioannis Makrygiannis, Athena Tsetsekou, Orestis Papastratis and Konstantinos Karalis
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2367-2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040145 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
This study explores the potential benefits of incorporating Recycled Demolition Waste (RDF) as an additive in ceramic mass for the brick industry, with a focus on applications such as thermoblocks. The research underscores the significance of sustainable waste management practices and environmental conservation [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential benefits of incorporating Recycled Demolition Waste (RDF) as an additive in ceramic mass for the brick industry, with a focus on applications such as thermoblocks. The research underscores the significance of sustainable waste management practices and environmental conservation by diverting waste from landfills. RDF, exhibiting combustion properties above 550 °C, emerges as a valuable candidate for enhancing clay-based materials, particularly in the brick production process where firing temperatures exceed 850 °C. Conducted in two phases, the research initially concentrated on RDF preparation, RDF integration with clay materials, and its influence on extrusion and drying phases. Employing innovative techniques involving brick and tile industry machinery coupled with sand incorporation yielded promising results. The grounding of RDF particles to less than 1 mm not only facilitated the mixing process but also ensured stable grinding temperatures within the hammer mill, reducing operational costs. During extrusion, challenges associated with unprocessed RDF material were addressed by utilizing ground RDF, leading to a more efficient and cost-effective process with enhanced plasticity and reduced water requirements. Practical implications for brick plant operations were identified, promoting resource and energy savings. Drying behavior analysis revealed the positive impact of RDF integration, showcasing reduced sensitivity, decreased drying linear shrinkage, and improved density properties. RDF’s role as an inert additive resulted in a 5% reduction in density, enhancing porosity and thermal insulation properties, particularly in thermoblock applications. In the brick industry, where durability, thermal performance, and cost-efficiency are paramount, this study emphasizes the potential benefits of incorporating RDF into clay-based materials. While further research is needed to address the firing procedure of RDF as a brick mass additive, the initial findings underscore the promise of this approach for sustainable and environmentally responsible brick production. This study contributes to the literature by shedding light on the advantages and challenges of integrating RDF into clay-based products, supporting sustainability and waste reduction in construction and manufacturing. The findings provide valuable insights into the performance and feasibility of these mixtures, offering crucial information for industries striving to adopt eco-conscious production methods. This article not only outlines the applied methodology and experimental setup but also presents results related to the behavior of RDF-inclusive clay block mixtures in the production environment. Anticipated to exert considerable influence on future practices and policies, this research contributes to the growing body of knowledge concerning eco-friendly and sustainable manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 52581 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Porous Ceramic Structures Based on Hydroxyapatite and Wollastonite with Potential Applications in the Field of Tissue Engineering
by Andreia Cucuruz, Cristina-Daniela Ghițulică, Georgeta Voicu, Cătălina-Alexandra Bogdan, Vasilica Dochiu and Roxana Cristina Popescu
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2333-2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040143 - 8 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Bioceramics are the most promising materials used for hard tissue reconstruction. In this study, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite (HAp/WS)-type composite ceramic structures were synthesized with the aim of reaching a material with improved properties for use in bone tissue regeneration. The scaffolds were synthesized using a [...] Read more.
Bioceramics are the most promising materials used for hard tissue reconstruction. In this study, wollastonite/hydroxyapatite (HAp/WS)-type composite ceramic structures were synthesized with the aim of reaching a material with improved properties for use in bone tissue regeneration. The scaffolds were synthesized using a foam replica method, starting from ceramic powders with different mass ratios. These were subsequently studied and compared to identify the ideal mass ratio in terms bioactive character, appropriate mechanical properties, but also microstructural influence. The results indicate that all of the samples showed a highly porous microstructure with interconnected pores and high mineralization after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The porous structures with 90% and 70% mass contents of hydroxyapatite presented a well-defined structure and the highest values of mechanical compressive strength. Biocompatibility evaluation showed that osteoblast-like cells are able to penetrate the inner volume of the structures, exhibiting a biocompatible behavior in terms of morphological features and viability following 7 days of incubation. All results show that the porous composite ceramics with 90% and 70% mass contents of hydroxyapatite are promising materials for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 2368 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Narrow-Wavelength Phosphors of Tb-Doped Yttrium-Silicon-Aluminum Oxynitride Using Spray Pyrolysis
by Bramantyo Bayu Aji, Yu-Hsiuan Huang, Masatsugu Oishi, Toshihiro Moriga and Shao-Ju Shih
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2307-2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040141 - 3 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Selective emission of green light phosphor powder Y4SiAlO8N as the host material and Tb3+ as the activator was successfully achieved using spray pyrolysis (SP). Samples synthesized with various calcination temperatures and precursor concentrations indicated that the most suitable [...] Read more.
Selective emission of green light phosphor powder Y4SiAlO8N as the host material and Tb3+ as the activator was successfully achieved using spray pyrolysis (SP). Samples synthesized with various calcination temperatures and precursor concentrations indicated that the most suitable parameter for the synthesized powder is the calcination of 0.05 M Y3.92SiAlO8N:0.08Tb3+ at a temperature of 1600 °C. The effect of the selected parameters was substantiated by the high purity of the Y3.92SiAlO8N:0.08Tb3+ phase, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Scherrer equation was used to calculate grain size. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) confirmed the presence of micron-sized particles, which matched well with the theoretical chemical composition. The specific surface area of the phosphor powder was determined using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. Finally, fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the luminescence properties. The correlation between the crystallinity of the phosphor powder and narrowing emission is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Inorganic Green Pigments Based on LaSr2AlO5
by Kazuki Yamaguchi, Akari Takemura, Saki Furumoto, Ryohei Oka and Toshiyuki Masui
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2269-2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040138 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
La1.03Sr1.97Al0.97M0.03O5 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) samples were synthesized using a citrate sol–gel method to develop a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Among them, the Co-doped sample exhibited a vivid [...] Read more.
La1.03Sr1.97Al0.97M0.03O5 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) samples were synthesized using a citrate sol–gel method to develop a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Among them, the Co-doped sample exhibited a vivid yellow, but not green. Then, (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 was synthesized and characterized with respect to the crystal structure, optical properties, and color. The sample was obtained in a single-phase form and the lattice volume was smaller than that of the (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2AlO5 sample, indicating that Mn ions in the lattice of the sample were pentavalent. The sample exhibited optical absorption at a wavelength below 400 nm and around 650 nm. These absorptions were attributed to the ligand, the metal charge transfer (LMCT), and d-d transitions of Mn5+. Because the green light corresponding to 500 to 560 nm was reflected strongly, the synthesized sample exhibited a bright green color. (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 showed high brightness (L* = 50.1) and greenness (a* = −20.8), and these values were as high as those of the conventional green pigments such as chromium oxide and cobalt green. Therefore, the (La0.94Ca0.06)Sr2(Al0.97Mn0.03)O5 pigment is a potential candidate for a novel environmentally friendly inorganic green pigment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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30 pages, 8746 KiB  
Article
High-Lead Glazed Ceramic Production in Western Iberia (Gharb al-Andalus) between the 10th and Mid-13th Centuries: An Approach from the City of Évora (Portugal)
by Carlos Andrés Camara, María José Gonçalves, José Antonio Paulo Mirão, Susana Gómez Martínez and Massimo Beltrame
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2213-2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040135 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2059
Abstract
In the present study an archaeometry programme has been developed on a limited number of coarse wares, monochrome, and bichrome glazed ceramics retrieved in the cities of Évora, Mértola, and Silves, located in Western Iberia, Portugal (Gharb al-Andalus during the Islamic period). [...] Read more.
In the present study an archaeometry programme has been developed on a limited number of coarse wares, monochrome, and bichrome glazed ceramics retrieved in the cities of Évora, Mértola, and Silves, located in Western Iberia, Portugal (Gharb al-Andalus during the Islamic period). The goals were to shed light on glazed ceramics provenance, technology, trading, and on the glaze technology applied. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was employed to characterize ceramic pastes and glazes using optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Results evidenced that over the Islamic rule, coarse wares were locally produced at Évora. On the contrary, monochrome and bichrome glazed ceramics were imported from the city of Silves, Mértola, and from unidentified workshops, probably located in southern Iberia. The analysis of decorations evidenced that despite the provenance of the samples, the glaze technology applied was rather uniform over time, depicting a widespread technological transfer in the al-Andalus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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35 pages, 107018 KiB  
Article
Non-Invasive On-Site XRF and Raman Classification and Dating of Ancient Ceramics: Application to 18th and 19th Century Meissen Porcelain (Saxony) and Comparison with Chinese Porcelain
by Philippe Colomban, Gulsu Simsek Franci, Mareike Gerken, Michele Gironda and Viviane Mesqui
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2178-2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040134 - 12 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
The authentication and dating of rare ceramics is generally carried out using subjective criteria, mainly based on visual interpretation. However, the scientific study and evaluation of the materials used could contribute objectively. The analytical data relating to the major and minor elements of [...] Read more.
The authentication and dating of rare ceramics is generally carried out using subjective criteria, mainly based on visual interpretation. However, the scientific study and evaluation of the materials used could contribute objectively. The analytical data relating to the major and minor elements of the coloring agents of the decoration or the base marks, and the characteristics of the raw materials (related to geology and ore processing), can be obtained on the conservation site non-invasively using a pXRF instrument and the phases formed may be identified using Raman microspectroscopy. This approach is applied to 28 objects assigned to the production of the Meissen Factory, from the collection of the Musée National de Céramique, Cité de la Céramique, Sèvres. They have polychromic or blue-and-white decorations and are supposed to have been produced in the 18th and 19th centuries. Some have a production date that has been perfectly established, others may have been produced using an earlier mold, or even have been decorated on an unknown date different from that of the firing of the biscuit. The combination of several classification criteria concerning the type of glaze, previously identified in the study of French and Chinese 17th and 18th centuries productions, i.e., the elements associated with cobalt present in the mark or the blue decoration and the relative levels of impurities of the glaze matrix, both characteristic of the raw materials and giving a strong XRF signal, leads to the identification of groups of homogeneous objects (respectively, counting seven, three, two and two objects for which at least four out of five criteria are identical); the other objects present too many differences to be considered as having been produced with the same raw materials. The first group brings together almost all the objects with a reliable pedigree made before ~1750, but includes two objects with decoration types closer to those of the 1800s. The comparison of the pXRF signals confirms the possibility of identifying the use of European ingredients for the production of painted enamels in the Qing dynasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 9585 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Freeze-Dried β-Tricalcium Phosphate/Barium Titanate/Collagen Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering in Orthopedic Applications
by Dwi Fortuna Anjusa Putra, Bramantyo Bayu Aji, Henni Setia Ningsih, Ting-Wei Wu, Akihiro Nakanishi, Toshihiro Moriga and Shao-Ju Shih
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2148-2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040132 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1644
Abstract
The freeze-drying method creates a scaffold with a composite mesoporous structure with many advantages. However, everyday materials such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used as an orthopedic implant for canine tribal bone defects for decades, for instance, for grafting material of even [...] Read more.
The freeze-drying method creates a scaffold with a composite mesoporous structure with many advantages. However, everyday materials such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been used as an orthopedic implant for canine tribal bone defects for decades, for instance, for grafting material of even shapes to form an implant for our teeth. However, this material is still not entirely expected to be the best implant due to its high biodegradability. Besides that, using the piezoelectric effect on the bone can lead to more efficiency in cell growth and a faster healing time for patients. Based on this phenomenon, a scaffold composite with a piezoelectric material such as barium titanate (BaTiO3/BT) has been tested. Based on the BT/β-TCP ratio, the scaffold composite of BT and β-TCP produces a porous structure with porosity ranging from 30.25 ± 11.28 to 15.25 ± 11.28 μm. The BT/β-TCP ratio influences the samples’ pore type, which affects each sample’s mechanical properties. In our result, the scaffold of 45.0 wt% BT/45.0 wt% β-TCP/10.0 wt% collagen has achieved a significant value of 0.5 MPa for maximum stress with a sufficient pore size of 25.32 ± 8.05 μm. Finally, we performed a viability test to see the sample’s piezoelectric effect, which showed that the piezoelectric effect does increase bone healing time when tested by growing MC3T3-E1 cells on the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 3195 KiB  
Article
Ceramic Filters for the Efficient Removal of Azo Dyes and Pathogens in Water
by Marvellous Oaikhena, Abimbola E. Oluwalana-Sanusi, Puseletso P. Mokoena, Nonhlangabezo Mabuba, Themba Tshabalala and Nhamo Chaukura
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2134-2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040131 - 9 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Overcoming the scarcity of safe and sustainable drinking water, particularly in low-income countries, is one of the key challenges of the 21st century. In these countries, the cost of centralized water treatment facilities is prohibitive. This work examines the application of low-cost ceramic [...] Read more.
Overcoming the scarcity of safe and sustainable drinking water, particularly in low-income countries, is one of the key challenges of the 21st century. In these countries, the cost of centralized water treatment facilities is prohibitive. This work examines the application of low-cost ceramic filters as point-of-use (POU) devices for the removal of methylene blue, o-toluidine blue, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus typhi from contaminated water. The ceramic filters had typical kaolinite functional groups, making them suitable for the removal of dyes and pathogens. Surface charge measurements indicated strongly anionic filters, while thermal properties confirmed the carbonization of the biowaste additive leaving behind a porous kaolinite structure which subsequently dehydroxylated into meta kaolinite. In addition, morphological data showed heterogeneous filter surfaces. Increased biomass content improved the permeability, water adsorption, flow rate, and apparent porosity of the filter. The ceramic filter removed methylene blue (42.99–59.74%), o-toluidine (79.95–92.71%), Staphylococcus aureus (98–100%), and Staphylococcus typhi (75–100%). Overall, the study demonstrated the effectiveness of POU ceramic filters in removing organic pollutants in contaminated water while serving as disinfectants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 9392 KiB  
Article
Electron-Beam Processing of Aluminum-Containing Ceramics in the Forevacuum Pressure Range
by Aleksandr Klimov, Ilya Bakeev and Aleksey Zenin
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2098-2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040129 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Aluminum–ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN are widely used in the electronics industry and, according to a number of electrophysical and technical and economic parameters, are among the most suitable for the production of electrical and radio engineering products. [...] Read more.
Aluminum–ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN are widely used in the electronics industry and, according to a number of electrophysical and technical and economic parameters, are among the most suitable for the production of electrical and radio engineering products. In this study, it is shown that the treatment of ceramics based on Al2O3 with an electron beam with a power of 200–1100 W and a current of 10–50 mA leads to heating of the ceramic surface to a temperature of 1700 °C. When heated to a temperature of 1500 °C and kept at this temperature for no more than 10 s, an increase in the roughness of the ceramic surface is observed by more than an order of magnitude. At the same time, for ceramic substrates based on aluminum nitride, an increase in the temperature of electron beam treatment from 1300 to 1700 °C leads to an increase in thermal conductivity from 1.5 to 2 times. The edge angle of water wetting of the AlN surface can vary from 20 to 100 degrees depending on the processing temperature, which allows one to control the transition of the material from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state. At the same time, electron beam exposure to Al2O3 does not change the wettability of this material so much. Electron beam processing in the forevacuum pressure region allows controlled changes in the electrophysical properties of ceramic materials based on Al2O3 and AlN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 6325 KiB  
Article
The Feature Resolution and Dimensional Control in Freeform Solidification of Alumina Systems by Stereolithography
by Mustafa K. Alazzawi, Chawon Hwang, Victoria R. Tsarkova and Richard A. Haber
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2036-2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040125 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Controlling the feature resolution and dimension of printed products using stereolithography requires a comprehensive understanding of compositional and printing variables. Balancing these variables adds more complexity to manufacturing near net shape products. In this study, the compositional variables examined include particle size and [...] Read more.
Controlling the feature resolution and dimension of printed products using stereolithography requires a comprehensive understanding of compositional and printing variables. Balancing these variables adds more complexity to manufacturing near net shape products. In this study, the compositional variables examined include particle size and solid content using two resins, and printing variables include layer thickness and energy dose. Choosing the energy dose for curing depends on compositional variables and consequently affects the degree of scattering. The results shows that light scattering determines the changes in the feature resolution and lateral dimensions. The layer thickness only affects the feature resolution and not the lateral dimensions. The vertical dimension does not significantly change with the chosen variables. In this study, fine-tuning the variables is shown to produce parts with high precision and resolution. Both compositional and printing variables play a key role in achieving near net shape products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 11760 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Extrusion Control in Spot Deposition Modeling for Porous 3D Clay Structures
by Vesela Tabakova, Christina Klug and Thomas H. Schmitz
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 2018-2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040124 - 6 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
The dynamic state of the viscous clay in Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM) often leads to discrepancies between the digital model and the resulting physical object. This emergent behavior can be harnessed to produce complex physical structures that would not be possible with other [...] Read more.
The dynamic state of the viscous clay in Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM) often leads to discrepancies between the digital model and the resulting physical object. This emergent behavior can be harnessed to produce complex physical structures that would not be possible with other methods. This study takes advantage of the viscous state and tensile strength of the extruded clay strand to explore the impact of dynamic extrusion and deformations through travel paths in LDM to manufacture complex porous physical structures. The effects of these parameters are discussed in two case studies: (1) regular and semi-random Spot Deposition surfaces with either open or thickened regions, and (2) porous 3D lattice structures created through the controlled bending of vertical extrusions. The achieved higher geometrical complexity of objects through the algorithmically programmed alternations in the sequence and rate of material deposition allows for a wide range of buildup approaches that expand the production spectrum of sustainable small- and large-scale elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 5190 KiB  
Article
Frequency Characteristics of High Strain Rate Compressions of Cf-MWCNTs/SiC Composites
by Kun Luan, Chen Ming, Xiaomeng Fang and Jianjun Liu
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1991-2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040122 - 5 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The incorporation of ductile reinforcements into ceramics helps restrain crack deflection, which can enhance ceramics’ toughness and overcome the matrix’s brittleness. In this paper, we produced a ceramic composite reinforced by carbon fibers coated by multi-wall carbon nanotubes (shortened by Cf-MWCNT/SiC [...] Read more.
The incorporation of ductile reinforcements into ceramics helps restrain crack deflection, which can enhance ceramics’ toughness and overcome the matrix’s brittleness. In this paper, we produced a ceramic composite reinforced by carbon fibers coated by multi-wall carbon nanotubes (shortened by Cf-MWCNT/SiC composites) for enhanced impact resistance at a high strain rate that commonly occurs in composite materials used in astronautics, marine, and other engineering fields. The fabrication process involves growing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a carbon fiber woven fabric (Cf) to create the fibril/fabric hybrid reinforcement. It is then impregnated by polymer solution (precursor of the ceramics), forming composites after the pyrolysis process, known as the liquid polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) technique. To assess the impact resistance of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC under high-strain rate compressions, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique is employed. Since the failure behavior of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC composites in the absence of the ductile phase is not well understood, the study employs the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) to analyze the stress–time curves obtained from the SHPB experiments. By applying the HHT, we obtained the frequency–time spectrum and the marginal Hilbert spectrum of the stress signals. These analyses reveal the frequency characteristics of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC composite and provide insights into the relationship between transformed signal frequency and fracture behavior. By understanding the dynamic fracture behavior and frequency response of the Cf-MWCNT/SiC, it becomes possible to enhance its impact resistance and tailor its performance for specific protective requirements. Therefore, the findings of this study can guide the future design and optimization of Cf-MWCNT/SiC structures for various protective applications, such as body armor, civil structures, and protections for vehicles and aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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40 pages, 15195 KiB  
Article
Rare-Earth Doped Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy) Garnet: Structural, Magnetic, Magnetocaloric, and DFT Study
by Dipesh Neupane, Noah Kramer, Romakanta Bhattarai, Christopher Hanley, Arjun K. Pathak, Xiao Shen, Sunil Karna and Sanjay R. Mishra
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1937-1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040120 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2185
Abstract
The study reports the influence of rare-earth ion doping on the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of ferrimagnetic Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy, x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) garnet compound [...] Read more.
The study reports the influence of rare-earth ion doping on the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of ferrimagnetic Gd3−xRExFe5O12 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, and Dy, x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) garnet compound prepared via facile autocombustion method followed by annealing in air. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) data analysis confirmed the presence of a single-phase garnet. The compound’s lattice parameters and cell volume varied according to differences in ionic radii of the doped rare-earth ions. The RE3+ substitution changed the site-to-site bond lengths and bond angles, affecting the magnetic interaction between site ions. Magnetization measurements for all RE3+-doped samples demonstrated paramagnetic behavior at room temperature and soft-ferrimagnetic behavior at 5 K. The isothermal magnetic entropy changes (−ΔSM) were derived from the magnetic isotherm curves, M vs. T, in a field up to 3 T in the Gd3−xRExFe5O12 sample. The maximum magnetic entropy change (SMmax) increased with Dy3+ and Sm3+substitution and decreased for Nd3+ and Y3+ substitution with x content. The Dy3+-doped Gd2.25Dy0.75Fe5O12 sample showed SMmax~2.03 Jkg−1K−1, which is ~7% higher than that of Gd3Fe5O12 (1.91 Jkg−1K−1). A first-principal density function theory (DFT) technique was used to shed light on observed properties. The study shows that the magnetic moments of the doped rare-earths ions play a vital role in tuning the magnetocaloric properties of the garnet compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 17693 KiB  
Article
Dielectric Properties of Compacts Sintered after High-Pressure Forming of Lithium Fluoride
by Pavel Ctibor, Libor Straka, Josef Sedláček and František Lukáč
Ceramics 2023, 6(4), 1913-1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6040118 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
High-pressure forming at 300 MPa and room temperature was applied before the sintering of a lithium fluoride (LiF) powder. The as-fired samples were tested as dielectrics and showed very interesting characteristics. The best sample, sintered at 750 °C for 8 h, had a [...] Read more.
High-pressure forming at 300 MPa and room temperature was applied before the sintering of a lithium fluoride (LiF) powder. The as-fired samples were tested as dielectrics and showed very interesting characteristics. The best sample, sintered at 750 °C for 8 h, had a relative permittivity of 12.1 and a loss tangent of 0.0006, both of them frequency-independent and temperature-independent up to at least 150 °C, and moreover, the volume DC resistivity was 27.4 × 1012 Ωm at room temperature. These parameters are comparable with oxide ceramics, processed at temperatures over 1300 °C, as for example, aluminum dioxide (Al2O3) or Y3Al5O12 (YAG). LiF material is advantageous because of its very low sintering temperature, which is only about one-half of typical oxide ceramic dielectrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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6 pages, 2163 KiB  
Communication
Metal Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Transistor with Tunable Emission Based on Electrically Doped Semiconductor Nanocrystal-Based Microcavities
by Francesco Scotognella
Ceramics 2023, 6(3), 1894-1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6030116 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Electroluminescence of metal halide perovskites has been widely reported via the fabrication and optimization of light-emitting diodes and light-emitting transistors. Light-emitting transistors are particularly interesting owing to the additional control of the gate voltage on the electroluminescence. In this work, the design of [...] Read more.
Electroluminescence of metal halide perovskites has been widely reported via the fabrication and optimization of light-emitting diodes and light-emitting transistors. Light-emitting transistors are particularly interesting owing to the additional control of the gate voltage on the electroluminescence. In this work, the design of a microcavity, with a defect mode that can be tuned with an applied voltage, integrated with a metal halide light-emitting transistor is shown. The optical properties of the device have been simulated with the transfer matrix method, considering the wavelength-dependent refractive indexes of all the employed materials. The tunability of the microcavity has been obtained via the employment of doped semiconductor nanocrystalline films, which show a tunable plasma frequency and, thus, a tunable refractive index as a function of the applied voltage. Consequently, the tunability of the electroluminescence of the metal halide perovskite light-emitting transistor has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 13306 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Iodovanadinite Wasteforms for the Immobilisation of Radio-Iodine and Technetium
by Daniel J. Bailey, Erik V. Johnstone, Martin C. Stennett, Claire L. Corkhill and Neil C. Hyatt
Ceramics 2023, 6(3), 1826-1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics6030111 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
99Tc and 129I are two long-lived, highly soluble and mobile fission products that pose a long-term hazard. A proposed wasteform for the disposal of radio-iodine is iodovanadinite (Pb5(VO4)3I), an apatite-structured vanadate. In this investigation, a [...] Read more.
99Tc and 129I are two long-lived, highly soluble and mobile fission products that pose a long-term hazard. A proposed wasteform for the disposal of radio-iodine is iodovanadinite (Pb5(VO4)3I), an apatite-structured vanadate. In this investigation, a suite of potential iodovanadinite wasteforms designed for the co-disposal of Tc and I or the sole disposal of I were synthesised via hot isostatic pressing (with Mo as a surrogate for Tc). It was found that direct synthesis from oxide and iodide precursors was possible using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Increasing overpressure during HIPing was found to improve the density of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicated that the use of AgI as the source of iodine affected the formation of the target iodovanadinite phase and produced unfavourable phase assemblages. Here, we report the direct synthesis of Pb5(VO4)3I in a single step by hot isostatic pressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 7118 KiB  
Review
Ceramic Matrix Composites: Classifications, Manufacturing, Properties, and Applications
by Shriya Shrivastava, Dipen Kumar Rajak, Tilak Joshi, Dwesh K. Singh and D. P. Mondal
Ceramics 2024, 7(2), 652-679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7020043 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a significant advancement in materials science and engineering because they combine the remarkable characteristics of ceramics with the strength and toughness of fibers. With their unique properties, which offer better performance and endurance in severe settings, these advanced [...] Read more.
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a significant advancement in materials science and engineering because they combine the remarkable characteristics of ceramics with the strength and toughness of fibers. With their unique properties, which offer better performance and endurance in severe settings, these advanced composites have attracted significant attention in various industries. At the same time, lightweight ceramic matrix composites (LCMCs) provide an appealing alternative for a wide range of industries that require materials with excellent qualities such as high-temperature stability, low density, corrosion resistance, and excellent mechanical performance. CMC uses will expand as production techniques and material research improve, revolutionizing aerospace, automotive, and other industries. The effectiveness of CMCs primarily relies on the composition of their constituent elements and the methods employed in their manufacturing. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the functional properties of various global ceramic matrix reinforcements, their classifications, and the manufacturing techniques used in CMC fabrication. This study aims to overview a diverse range of CMCs reinforced with primary fibers, including their classifications, manufacturing techniques, functional properties, significant applications, and global market size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 4467 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Approaches for the Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Materials
by Alice Villa, Pardeep Kumar Gianchandani and Francesco Baino
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 291-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010019 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies collectively refer to a set of layer-wise deposition methods that typically rely on CAD-CAM approaches for obtaining products with a complex shape/geometry and high precision and reliability. If the additive manufacturing of polymers is relatively easy and scalable due to [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies collectively refer to a set of layer-wise deposition methods that typically rely on CAD-CAM approaches for obtaining products with a complex shape/geometry and high precision and reliability. If the additive manufacturing of polymers is relatively easy and scalable due to the low temperatures needed to obtain processable inks, using similar technologies to fabricate ceramic products is indeed more challenging and expensive but, on the other hand, allows for obtaining high-quality results that would not be achievable through conventional methods. Furthermore, the implementation of additive manufacturing allows for the addressing of some important concerns related to the environment and sustainability, including the minimization of resource depletion and waste production/disposal. Specifically, additive manufacturing technologies can provide improvements in energy consumption and production costs, besides obtaining less waste material and less CO2 emissions, which are all key points in the context of the circular economy. After providing an overview of the additive manufacturing methods which are specifically applied to ceramics, this review presents the sustainability elements of these processing strategies, with a focus on both current and future benefits. The paucity of specific available studies in the literature—which are included and discussed in this review—suggests that the research on additive manufacturing sustainability in the field of ceramic materials is in the preliminary stage and that more relevant work still deserves to be carried out in the future to explore this fascinating field at the boundary among ceramics science/technology, production engineering and waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 5270 KiB  
Review
Ceramics 3D Printing: A Comprehensive Overview and Applications, with Brief Insights into Industry and Market
by Mohamed Abdelkader, Stanislav Petrik, Daisy Nestler and Mateusz Fijalkowski
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 68-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics7010006 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3395
Abstract
3D printing enables the creation of complex and sophisticated designs, offering enhanced efficiency, customizability, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Ceramics, known for their heat resistance, hardness, wear resistance, and electrical insulation properties, are particularly suited for aerospace, automotive, electronics, healthcare, and [...] Read more.
3D printing enables the creation of complex and sophisticated designs, offering enhanced efficiency, customizability, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Ceramics, known for their heat resistance, hardness, wear resistance, and electrical insulation properties, are particularly suited for aerospace, automotive, electronics, healthcare, and energy applications. The rise of 3D printing in ceramics has opened new possibilities, allowing the fabrication of complex structures and the use of diverse raw materials, overcoming the limitations of conventional fabrication methods. This review explores the transformative impact of 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, across various sectors, explicitly focusing on ceramics and the different 3D ceramics printing technologies. Furthermore, it presents several active companies in ceramics 3D printing, proving the close relation between academic research and industrial innovation. Moreover, the 3D printed ceramics market forecast shows an annual growth rate (CAGR) of more than 4% in the ceramics 3D printing market, reaching USD 3.6 billion by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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