Special Issue "Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites"

A special issue of Ceramics (ISSN 2571-6131).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Gilbert Fantozzi Website E-Mail
INSA-Lyon, MATEIS laboratory UMR CNRS 5510, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
Phone: 33 6 26 79 66 23
Interests: ceramic processing; thermomechanical behavior; shaping; sintering; SPS; cermets; ceramic matrix composites
Guest Editor
Dr. Nathalie Godin Website E-Mail
INSA-Lyon, MATEIS laboratory UMR CNRS 5510, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: acoustic emission; mechanical behavior of composites; durability and lifetime of composites
Guest Editor
Dr. Pascal Reynaud Website E-Mail
INSA-Lyon, MATEIS laboratory UMR CNRS 5510, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: thermomechanical behavior of composite materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to the latest research and developments in ceramic matrix composites, mainly in the field of damage and lifetime: Oxidation behavior and mechanical behavior.

Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are interesting materials for aeronautic applications owing to their good mechanical properties at high temperatures, even under air and their lightness. These composites have a non-brittle mechanical behavior, are tolerant to damage and exhibit better mechanical properties at high temperatures compared to metallic alloys.

CMCs are composite materials with long ceramic fibers clothes embedded in a ceramic matrix. Damage to these CMCs is a key point for the control of their durability. It is important to characterize this damage and to identify the responsible mechanisms, such as matrix multicracking, fibre/matrix debonding, fiber pull-out, fiber breakages using several techniques, such as acoustic emission, tomography, resistivity, ultrasonics, etc. In order to specify the lifetime of structures in service, suitable indicators must be defined. The role of the interactions between fibers and matrix acting at the interface level is very important. The oxidation behavior of CMCs must be taken into account, particularly its effect on the mechanical behavior. The behavior of CMCs and the lifetime under cyclic loading will be examined.  

Topics of interest (among others) include:

  • Mechanical behavior at room and elevated temperatures,
  • Detection and identification of several damage mechanisms,
  • Environmental effects on durability,
  • Oxidation mechanisms,
  • Foreign object damage,
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Fatigue
  • Lifetime evaluation

Prof. Gilbert Fantozzi
Dr. Nathalie Godin
Dr. Pascal Reynaud
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Ceramics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ceramic matrix composite
  • cyclic fatigue
  • static fatigue
  • creep
  • lifetime
  • durability
  • mechanical behavior
  • oxidation
  • interface
  • acoustic emission

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Static Fatigue of SiC Multifilament Tows at Temperatures up to 1200 °C in Air
Ceramics 2019, 2(3), 426-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2030033 - 01 Jul 2019
Abstract
SiC-based fibers are sensitive to delayed failure under constant load at high temperatures in air. Static fatigue at intermediate temperatures < 800 °C was attributed to slow crack growth from flaws located at the surface of fibers, driven by the oxidation of free [...] Read more.
SiC-based fibers are sensitive to delayed failure under constant load at high temperatures in air. Static fatigue at intermediate temperatures < 800 °C was attributed to slow crack growth from flaws located at the surface of fibers, driven by the oxidation of free carbon at grain boundaries. The present paper examines the static fatigue behavior of SiC-based Hi-Nicalon fibers at high temperatures up to 1200 °C and Hi Nicalon S fibers at intermediate temperatures (500–800 °C). The degradation of stress- rupture time relation of multifilament tows with increasing temperature was investigated. Predictions of tow lifetime based on critical filament-based model of tow failure were compared to experimental stress-rupture time diagrams. Critical filaments are characterized by strength–probability relation. The critical filament-based model was found to describe satisfactorily the static fatigue behavior of fiber tows at these temperatures. The influence of various factors on lifetime as well as the origins of variability is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermomechanical Characterization of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in a Combustion Facility
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 407-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020032 - 17 Jun 2019
Abstract
A combustion facility which includes uniaxial mechanical loading was implemented that enables environmental conditions more akin to jet engine environments compared to conventional static environment tests. Two types of woven SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), melt-infiltrated (MI) and chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI), were [...] Read more.
A combustion facility which includes uniaxial mechanical loading was implemented that enables environmental conditions more akin to jet engine environments compared to conventional static environment tests. Two types of woven SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), melt-infiltrated (MI) and chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI), were subjected to fatigue loading in the combustion facility and under isothermal furnace conditions. Some CVI test coupons were coated with a multilayer environmental barrier coating (EBC) of mullite + ytterbium monosilicate using slurry infiltration process to demonstrate the performance with a coating. Combustion conditions were applied using a high velocity oxy fuel gun on the front side of the specimen and mechanical loading was applied using a horizontal hydraulic MTS machine. All the specimens considered were subjected to tension-tension fatigue loading at 100 MPa, stress ratio of 0.1 and specimen front-side surface temperature of 1200 ± 20 °C. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, such as electrical resistance (ER), was used as an in-situ health monitoring technique. Similar fatigue tests were performed in an isothermal furnace for comparison. A much lower fatigue life was observed for the uncoated specimens tested under combustion conditions in comparison to isothermal furnace condition. This difference in fatigue life was attributed to damage associated with added thermal stress due to the thermal gradient and higher rate of oxidative embrittlement due to the presence of high velocity combustion gases in the combustion environment. EBC coating increased the fatigue life in combustion environment. However, EBC coated specimens experienced spallation in the high-velocity flame due to the presence of micro cracks in the coating surface. Fracture surfaces of the failed specimens were investigated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the extent of oxidation and damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Fatigue Damage and Crack Propagation in Ceramic Matrix Composites by Infrared Thermography
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 393-406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020031 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
The initiation and propagation of damage in SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites under static and fatigue loads were assessed by infrared thermography (IRT). The proposed thermographic technique, operating in lock-in mode, enabled early prediction of the residual life of composites, and proved vital [...] Read more.
The initiation and propagation of damage in SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites under static and fatigue loads were assessed by infrared thermography (IRT). The proposed thermographic technique, operating in lock-in mode, enabled early prediction of the residual life of composites, and proved vital in the rapid determination of the materials’ fatigue limit requiring testing of a single specimen only. IRT was also utilized for quantification of crack growth in the materials under cyclic loads. The paper highlights the accuracy and versatility of IRT as a state-of-the art damage assessment tool for ceramic composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Advances in Damage Monitoring Techniques for the Detection of Failure in SiCf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 347-371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020028 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
From a disruptive perspective, silicon carbide (SiC)-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) provide a considerable temperature and weight advantage over existing material systems and are increasingly finding application in aerospace, power generation and high-end automotive industries. The complex structural architecture and inherent processing artefacts [...] Read more.
From a disruptive perspective, silicon carbide (SiC)-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) provide a considerable temperature and weight advantage over existing material systems and are increasingly finding application in aerospace, power generation and high-end automotive industries. The complex structural architecture and inherent processing artefacts within CMCs combine to induce inhomogeneous deformation and damage prior to ultimate failure. Sophisticated mechanical characterisation is vital in support of a fundamental understanding of deformation in CMCs. On the component scale, “damage tolerant” design and lifing philosophies depend upon laboratory assessments of macro-scale specimens, incorporating typical fibre architectures and matrix under representative stress-strain states. This is important if CMCs are to be utilised to their full potential within industrial applications. Bulk measurements of strain via extensometry or even localised strain gauging would fail to characterise the ensuing inhomogeneity when performing conventional mechanical testing on laboratory scaled coupons. The current research has, therefore, applied digital image correlation (DIC), electrical resistance monitoring and acoustic emission techniques to the room and high-temperature assessment of ceramic matrix composites under axial tensile and fatigue loading, with particular attention afforded to a silicon carbide fibre-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) variant. Data from these separate monitoring techniques plus ancillary use of X-ray computed tomography, in-situ scanning electron microscopy and optical inspection were correlated to monitor the onset and progression of damage during mechanical loading. The benefits of employing a concurrent, multi-technique approach to monitoring damage in CMCs are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cyclic Fatigue Loading on Matrix Multiple Fracture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 327-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020027 - 13 May 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of cyclic fatigue loading on matrix multiple fracture of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) is investigated using the critical matrix strain energy (CMSE) criterion. The relationships between multiple matrix cracking, cyclic fatigue peak stress, fiber/matrix interface wear, and debonding [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of cyclic fatigue loading on matrix multiple fracture of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) is investigated using the critical matrix strain energy (CMSE) criterion. The relationships between multiple matrix cracking, cyclic fatigue peak stress, fiber/matrix interface wear, and debonding are established. The effects of fiber volume fraction, fiber/matrix interface shear stress, and applied cycle number on matrix multiple fracture and fiber/matrix interface debonding and interface wear are discussed. Comparisons of multiple matrix cracking with/without cyclic fatigue loading are analyzed. The experimental matrix cracking of unidirectional SiC/CAS, SiC/SiC, SiC/Borosilicate, and mini-SiC/SiC composites with/without cyclic fatigue loading are predicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Image-Based Numerical Modeling of Self-Healing in a Ceramic-Matrix Minicomposite
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 308-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020026 - 02 May 2019
Abstract
Self-healing, obtained by the oxidation of a glass-forming phase, is a crucial phenomenon to ensure the lifetime of new-generation refractory ceramic-matrix composites. The dynamics of oxygen diffusion, glass formation and flow are the basic ingredients of a self-healing model that has been developed [...] Read more.
Self-healing, obtained by the oxidation of a glass-forming phase, is a crucial phenomenon to ensure the lifetime of new-generation refractory ceramic-matrix composites. The dynamics of oxygen diffusion, glass formation and flow are the basic ingredients of a self-healing model that has been developed here in 2D in a transverse crack of a mini-composite. The presented model can work on a realistic image of the material section and is able to simulate the healing process and to quantify the exposure of the material to oxygen: a prerequisite for its lifetime prediction. Crack reopening events are handled satisfactorily, and healing under cyclic loading can be simulated. This paper describes and discusses a typical case in order to show the model capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Process Technology, Applications and Thermal Resistivity of Basalt Fiber Reinforced SiOC Composites
Ceramics 2019, 2(2), 298-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2020025 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
Promising lightweight composite materials, bridging the gap between Polymer and Ceramic Matrix Composites, are manufactured as polymer derived ceramics by the use of polysiloxanes and basalt fibers. Such competitive free formable Hybrid Composites are supposed to be capable for lightweight applications in a [...] Read more.
Promising lightweight composite materials, bridging the gap between Polymer and Ceramic Matrix Composites, are manufactured as polymer derived ceramics by the use of polysiloxanes and basalt fibers. Such competitive free formable Hybrid Composites are supposed to be capable for lightweight applications in a temperature range between 300 °C and 850 °C and short time exposure up to over 1000 °C, even in oxidative atmosphere. Cheap raw materials like basalt fibers and siloxane resins in combination with performing manufacturing technologies can establish completely new markets for intermediate temperature composites. These attributes enable the Hybrid Composites as ideal material for fire retardant applications in automotive engineering and public transportation, as well as in fire protection systems in electrical and civil engineering applications. In this study, the most prominent fields of application and engineering solutions for Hybrid-CMC are reviewed and the results of the thermal resistivity analysis effectuated on basalt fiber reinforced SiOC samples are presented. This study consisted of several air exposures between 1 h and 50 h and temperatures in the range of 650 °C to 1100 °C. Remaining mechanical resistance was characterized by Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) tests. Basalt fiber reinforced samples exhibited a decent level of mechanical performance even after the most demanding exposures. Due to the poor oxidation resistance of carbon fibers, Cf/SiOC composites were completely degraded after long-term exposure at 500 °C in air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Damage and Lifetime of Ceramic Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop