Topic Editors

School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Prof. Dr. Yulin Huang
School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Prof. Dr. Yachao Li
School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
Dr. Deqing Mao
School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China

Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications

Abstract submission deadline
30 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
40188

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radars play a significant role in observing targets’ information on shipborne, airborne, and ground-based platforms because of their all-day and all-weather ability. However, with the development of radar systems, the requirements for waveform, resolution, robustness, and intelligence are increasingly strict. This Topic aims to seek new ideas for enhancing radar performance from the perspective of radar signal processing in different applications—for example, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in radar signal processing. This provides a way to enhance the performance of existing radar systems and promotes the development of radar applications. This Topic welcomes manuscripts on target detection, super-resolution processing, intelligent processing, radar data utilization, novel radar applications, and so on, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Shipborne/airborne/ground-based radar;
  • Radar signal processing;
  • Radar data utilization and analysis;
  • Super-resolution processing;
  • Radar intelligence processing;
  • Novel radar applications.

Prof. Dr. Yin Zhang
Prof. Dr. Yulin Huang
Prof. Dr. Yachao Li
Dr. Deqing Mao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • radar data
  • radar imaging
  • radar system
  • radar applications
  • radar signal processing
  • radar intelligence processing
  • radar super-resolution

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Eng
eng
- - 2020 18.7 Days CHF 1200 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Signals
signals
- - 2020 35.1 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Telecom
telecom
- 3.1 2020 26.1 Days CHF 1200 Submit

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Published Papers (35 papers)

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19 pages, 4350 KiB  
Article
Two-Dimensional Target Localization Approach via a Closed-Form Solution Using Range Difference Measurements Based on Pentagram Array
by Mohammed Khalafalla, Kaili Jiang, Kailun Tian, Hancong Feng, Ying Xiong and Bin Tang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(8), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16081370 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 247
Abstract
This paper presents a simple and fast closed-form solution approach for two-dimensional (2D) target localization using range difference (RD) measurements. The formulation of the localization problem is derived using a pentagram array. The target position is determined using passive radar measurements (RDs) between [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simple and fast closed-form solution approach for two-dimensional (2D) target localization using range difference (RD) measurements. The formulation of the localization problem is derived using a pentagram array. The target position is determined using passive radar measurements (RDs) between the target and the (N + 1 = 10) receivers’ locations. The method facilitates the problem of target position and can be used as a counter-parallel method for spherical interpolation (SI) and spherical intersection (SX) methods in time difference of arrival (TDOA) and radar systems. The performance of the method is examined in 2D target localization using numerical analysis under the distribution of receivers in the pentagram array. The simulations are conducted using four different far-distance targets and comparatively large-area distributed receivers. The RD measurements were distorted by two different values of Gaussian errors based on ionosphedriec time delays of 20 and 50 nsec owing to the different receivers’ positions. The findings highly verified the validity of the method for addressing the problem of target localization. Additionally, a theoretical accuracy study of the method is given, which solely relies on the RD measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
22 pages, 5971 KiB  
Article
Efficiently Refining Beampattern in FDA-MIMO Radar via Alternating Manifold Optimization for Maximizing Signal-to-Interference-Noise Ratio
by Langhuan Geng, Yong Li, Limeng Dong, Yumei Tan and Wei Cheng
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(8), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16081364 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Joint transceiver beamforming is a fundamental and crucial research task in the field of signal processing. Despite extensive efforts made in recent years, the joint transceiver beamforming of frequency diverse array (FDA)-based multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) radar has received relatively less attention and [...] Read more.
Joint transceiver beamforming is a fundamental and crucial research task in the field of signal processing. Despite extensive efforts made in recent years, the joint transceiver beamforming of frequency diverse array (FDA)-based multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) radar has received relatively less attention and is confronted with some tricky challenges, such as range–angle decoupling and the interaction between multiple performance metrics. In this paper, we initially derive the generalized ambiguity function of the FDA-MIMO radar to explore the intrinsic correlation between its waveform design and resolution. Following that, the joint beamforming optimization is formulated as a nonconvex bivariate quadratic programming problem (NBQP) with the aim of maximizing the Signal-to-Interference-Noise Ratio (SINR) of the FDA-MIMO radar system. Building upon this, we introduce an innovative alternating manifold optimization with nested iteration (AMO-NI) algorithm to address the NBQP. By incorporating manifold optimization into iterative updates of transmit waveform and receiving filter, the AMO-NI algorithm considers the interdependencies among the optimization variables. The algorithm efficiently and expeditiously finds global optimum solutions within a finite number of iterations. Compared with other methods, our approach yields a superior beampattern and higher SINR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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20 pages, 11171 KiB  
Technical Note
Monitoring Dynamically Changing Migratory Flocks Using an Algebraic Graph Theory-Based Clustering Algorithm
by Qi Jiang, Rui Wang, Wenyuan Zhang, Longxiang Jiao, Weidong Li, Chunfeng Wu and Cheng Hu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(7), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16071215 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Migration flocks have different forms, including single individuals, formations, and irregular clusters. The shape of a flock can change swiftly over time. The real-time clustering of multiple groups with different characteristics is crucial for the monitoring of dynamically changing migratory flocks. Traditional clustering [...] Read more.
Migration flocks have different forms, including single individuals, formations, and irregular clusters. The shape of a flock can change swiftly over time. The real-time clustering of multiple groups with different characteristics is crucial for the monitoring of dynamically changing migratory flocks. Traditional clustering algorithms need to set various prior parameters, including the number of groups, the number of nearest neighbors, or the minimum number of individuals. However, flocks may display complex group behaviors (splitting, combination, etc.), which complicate the choice and adjustment of the parameters. This paper uses a real-time clustering-based method that utilizes concepts from the algebraic graph theory. The connected graph is used to describe the spatial relationship between the targets. The similarity matrix is calculated, and the problem of group clustering is equivalent to the extraction of the partitioned matrices within. This method needs only one prior parameter (the similarity distance) and is adaptive to the group’s splitting and combination. Two modifications are proposed to reduce the computation burden. First, the similarity distance can be broadened to reduce the exponent of the similarity matrix. Second, the omni-directional measurements are divided into multiple sectors to reduce the dimension of the similarity matrix. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using the experimental results using real radar data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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16 pages, 6530 KiB  
Article
Specific Emitter Identification through Multi-Domain Mixed Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis
by Jian Chen, Shengyong Li, Jianchi Qi and Hongke Li
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071173 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Radar specific emitter identification (SEI) involves extracting distinct fingerprints from radar signals to precisely attribute them to corresponding radar transmitters. In view of the limited characterization of fingerprint information by single-domain features, this paper proposes the utilization of multi-domain mixed kernel canonical correlation [...] Read more.
Radar specific emitter identification (SEI) involves extracting distinct fingerprints from radar signals to precisely attribute them to corresponding radar transmitters. In view of the limited characterization of fingerprint information by single-domain features, this paper proposes the utilization of multi-domain mixed kernel canonical correlation analysis for radar SEI. Initially, leveraging the complementarity across diverse feature domains, fingerprint features are extracted from four distinct domains including: envelope feature, spectrum feature, short-time Fourier transform and ambiguity function. Subsequently, kernel canonical correlation analysis is employed to amalgamate the correlation characteristics inherent in multi-domain data. Considering the insufficient of a single kernel function with only interpolation or extrapolation ability, we adopt mixed kernel to improve the projection ability of the kernel function. Experimental results substantiate that the proposed feature fusion approach maximizes the complementarity of multiple features while reducing feature dimensionality. The method achieves an accuracy of up to 95% in experiments, thereby enhancing the efficacy of radar SEI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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12 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
The Data Compression Method and FPGA Implementation in the Mars Rover Subsurface-Penetrating Radar on the Tianwen-1 Mission
by Shaoxiang Shen, Xiaolei Hua and Bin Zhou
Electronics 2024, 13(6), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13061008 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Since Mars is far away from Earth, the propagation delay between Mars and Earth is very large. To ensure the effective use of the link transmission bandwidth, China’s first Mars exploration mission has put forward a demand for data compression for all scientific [...] Read more.
Since Mars is far away from Earth, the propagation delay between Mars and Earth is very large. To ensure the effective use of the link transmission bandwidth, China’s first Mars exploration mission has put forward a demand for data compression for all scientific payloads. The on-board mature algorithms for data compression are mainly focused on optical images and microwave imaging radar applications. No articles have been published on data compression methods that are applied to subsurface-penetrating radar. Based on the background of this application, this paper proposes a logarithmic lossy compression algorithm which can meet the mission requirements for high compression ratios of 4:1 and 2.5:1. Its compression error is less than that of the block adaptive quantization (BAQ) algorithm. The algorithm is not only easy to implement on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms, but also offers simple ground decompression and fast imaging. The experimental results show that high compression ratios of 4:1 and 2.5:1 can be realized, even if the data in and between traces do not have a strong correlation. And its relative error is less than 2%, which is a new type of high-efficiency data compression method that can be implemented on-board to meet with the demand of subsurface penetrating radar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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29 pages, 733 KiB  
Article
Radar Reconnaissance Pulse-Splitting Modeling and Detection Method
by Ronghua Guo, Yang-Yang Dong, Lidong Zhang, Chunxi Dong, Dan Bao, Wenbo Li and Zhiyuan Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(3), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16030521 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 509
Abstract
When radar receivers adopt digital channelization, it is prone to generating a cross-channel split signal, the rabbit ear effect, and a transition band repeated signal, leading to errors in radar signal sorting or identification. The pulse-splitting model and detection method proposed in this [...] Read more.
When radar receivers adopt digital channelization, it is prone to generating a cross-channel split signal, the rabbit ear effect, and a transition band repeated signal, leading to errors in radar signal sorting or identification. The pulse-splitting model and detection method proposed in this paper can model split pulses and identify them in radar pulse streams, facilitating the merging of split pulses to enhance sorting and identification performance. Firstly, the mechanism of splitting pulse generation is deeply analyzed, and the splitting site theory is proposed. Then, the split pulse signal model and the split pulse number statistical model based on geometric distribution are constructed, which are used to guide the construction of simulation data of split pulse flow with different characteristics. Furthermore, a time-domain convergence degree (TCD) index is proposed to characterize the pulse split phenomenon. At the same time, in order to avoid a large number of threshold searching problems in pulse-splitting detection, an empirical formula for the pulse-splitting detection threshold based on the TCD is given to quickly determine whether there is a pulse train split problem. The selected measured radar pulse stream is verified to follow a geometric distribution at a significance level of 0.05. The proposed method achieved a detection accuracy of at least 99.55% on the simulation dataset and at least 95.68% on the experimental dataset, validating the rationality of pulse-splitting modeling and the effectiveness of the detection method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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18 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
A Novel Real-Time Processing Wideband Waveform Generator of Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar
by Dongxu Chen, Tingcun Wei, Gaoang Li, Jie Feng, Jialong Zeng, Xudong Yang and Zhongjun Yu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16030496 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
This paper investigates a real-time process generator of wideband signals, which calculates waveforms in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) using the high-level synthesis (HLS) method. To obtain high-resolution and wide-swath images, the generator must produce multiple modes of large time-bandwidth product (TBP) linear [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a real-time process generator of wideband signals, which calculates waveforms in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) using the high-level synthesis (HLS) method. To obtain high-resolution and wide-swath images, the generator must produce multiple modes of large time-bandwidth product (TBP) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. However, the conventional storage method is unrealistic as it requires huge storage resources to save pre-computed waveforms. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel processing approach that calculates waveforms in real-time based simply on parameters such as the sampling frequency, bandwidth, and time width. Additionally, this paper implements predistortion through the polynomial curve to approximate phase errors of the system. The parallelizing process in the FPGA is necessary to satisfy the high-speed requirement of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC); however, repeatedly multiplexing real-time calculation consumes extensive logic and DSP resources, potentially exceeding FPGA limitations. To address this, this paper proposes a piecewise linear algorithm to conserve resources, which processes the polynomial only once, acquires the difference in two adjacent values through the register and pipeline, and then adds this increment to facilitate parallel computations. The performance of this proposed generator is validated through simulation and implemented in experiments with an X-band airborne SAR system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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20 pages, 5606 KiB  
Article
A Focusing Method of Buildings for Airborne Circular SAR
by Dong Feng, Daoxiang An, Jian Wang, Leping Chen and Xiaotao Huang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16020253 - 09 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
Airborne circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) can realize high-resolution imaging of the scene over 360 degrees azimuth angle variation. Aiming at the problem of focusing of buildings for the airborne CSAR, this paper first analyzes the phase errors of CSAR buildings focusing in [...] Read more.
Airborne circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) can realize high-resolution imaging of the scene over 360 degrees azimuth angle variation. Aiming at the problem of focusing of buildings for the airborne CSAR, this paper first analyzes the phase errors of CSAR buildings focusing in detail, and the analytic relationship between the scatterer height and azimuth focusing quality is deduced. Then, a focusing method of CSAR buildings based on the back projection algorithm is proposed. This method adopts the processing strategy of multi-layers imaging, and it is able to improve azimuth focusing quality of the buildings which have large height dimension. The proposed method is especially suitable for the high-resolution imaging and monitoring of the urban site with high-rise buildings in the airborne CSAR scenario. The correctness of the theoretical analysis and the validity of the proposed method are verified by using both simulation results and Ku-band airborne CSAR real data processing results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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21 pages, 33199 KiB  
Article
Mining Deformation Monitoring Based on Lutan-1 Monostatic and Bistatic Data
by Yanan Ji, Xiang Zhang, Tao Li, Hongdong Fan, Yaozong Xu, Peizhen Li and Zeming Tian
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5668; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15245668 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Coal mining leads to surface subsidence, landslides, soil erosion and other problems that seriously threaten the life and property safety of residents in mining areas, and it is urgent to obtain mining subsidence information using high-frequency, high-precision and large-scale monitoring methods. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Coal mining leads to surface subsidence, landslides, soil erosion and other problems that seriously threaten the life and property safety of residents in mining areas, and it is urgent to obtain mining subsidence information using high-frequency, high-precision and large-scale monitoring methods. Therefore, this paper mainly studies the deformation monitoring of the Datong mining area using Lutan-1 monostatic and bistatic SAR data. Firstly, the latest Lutan-1 bistatic data are used to reconstruct the DSM, and the interferometric calibration method is used to improve the accuracy of the DSM. Then, the surface deformation monitoring of the mining area is implemented by using DInSAR, SBAS-InSAR and Stacking-InSAR with the reconstructed DSM data and Lutan-1 monostatic SAR data. Finally, the deformation monitoring results are compared with the surface deformation results based on the TanDEM data, and both the results are evaluated using the filed leveling data. Taking 20 images covering the Datong mining area as the data sources, the surface deformation results obtained using different InSAR methods in the mining area were quantitatively evaluated and analyzed. The results indicated that: (1) the DSM obtained using the Lutan-1 bistatic SAR data was assessed and demonstrated with the ICESat laser altimetry data an error of 2.8 m, which meets the Chinese 1:50,000 scale DEM cartographic accuracy standard, and the difference analysis with the TanDEM data shows that the terrain changes are mainly distributed in mountainous areas; (2) Due to the improvement in resolution, the registration accuracy of the SAR images and LT-DSM is higher than that of the TanDEM data in the range direction and azimuth direction; (3) Via evaluation with the filed leveling data, it is found that the surface deformation measurement results based on LT-DSM are less affected by terrain, and the accuracy of LT-DSM-SBAS and LT-DSM-DInSAR is improved by 11.5% and 16.3%, respectively, compared with TanDEM-SBAS and TanDEM-DInSAR, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the Lutan-1 bistatic and monostatic data for mine deformation monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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21 pages, 4287 KiB  
Article
A Radar Reflectivity Image Prediction Method: The Spatial MIM + Pix2Pix
by Jianlin Guo, Zhiying Lu, Qin Yan and Jianfeng Zhang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(23), 5554; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15235554 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Radar reflectivity images have the potential to provide vital information on the development of convective cloud interiors, which can play a critical role in precipitation prediction. However, traditional prediction methods face challenges in preserving the high-frequency component, leading to blurred prediction results. To [...] Read more.
Radar reflectivity images have the potential to provide vital information on the development of convective cloud interiors, which can play a critical role in precipitation prediction. However, traditional prediction methods face challenges in preserving the high-frequency component, leading to blurred prediction results. To address this issue and accurately estimate radar reflectivity intensity, this paper proposes a novel reflectivity image prediction approach based on the Spatial Memory in Memory (Spatial MIM) networks and the Pix2Pix networks. Firstly, a rough radar reflectivity image prediction is made using the Spatial MIM network. Secondly, the prediction results from the Spatial MIM network are fed into the Pix2pix network, which improves the high-frequency component of the predicted image and solves the image blurring issue. Finally, the proposed approach is evaluated using data from Oklahoma in the United States during the second and third quarters of 2021. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach yields more accurate radar reflectivity prediction images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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23 pages, 8143 KiB  
Article
Satellite Velocity Correction Method of Ocean Current Retrieval for a Spaceborne Doppler Scatterometer
by Jingyu Zhang, Xiaolong Dong and Di Zhu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(23), 5541; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15235541 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 587
Abstract
For a spaceborne pencil-beam rotating Doppler scatterometer, its precision in measuring the ocean surface motion depends on the Doppler centroid of the received signals. The Doppler centroid is determined by the relative motion between the scatterometer and the ocean surface. This relative motion [...] Read more.
For a spaceborne pencil-beam rotating Doppler scatterometer, its precision in measuring the ocean surface motion depends on the Doppler centroid of the received signals. The Doppler centroid is determined by the relative motion between the scatterometer and the ocean surface. This relative motion includes contributions from satellite velocity, the phase velocity of resonant Bragg waves, the orbital motions of ocean waves, and the ocean surface current. Subtracting the contribution of the satellite platform velocity from the complex Doppler information is important for the application of a spaceborne Doppler scatterometer in ocean surface current retrieval. In this research, we propose a method for the platform velocity correction influenced by the Doppler centroid offset and analyze the accuracy of this correction method. The method is based on the echoed signal model of a Doppler scatterometer. Our results show that the offset could lead to a measurement offset of up to 0.02 m/s when the beam width was 0.3°. For a 0.6° beam width, the maximum offset was 0.07 m/s. Thus, with the high accuracy of the current spaceborne sensors’ measurement, the offset can be accurately eliminated. In future applications and data processing algorithms, this effect should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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15 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
A Novel Spatial–Temporal Network for Gait Recognition Using Millimeter-Wave Radar Point Cloud Videos
by Chongrun Ma and Zhenyu Liu
Electronics 2023, 12(23), 4785; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12234785 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Gait recognition is a behavioral biometric technology that aims to identify individuals through their manner of walking. Compared with vision and wearable solutions, millimeter-wave (mmWave)-radar-based gait recognition has drawn attention because radar sensing is privacy-preserving and non-contact. However, it is challenging to capture [...] Read more.
Gait recognition is a behavioral biometric technology that aims to identify individuals through their manner of walking. Compared with vision and wearable solutions, millimeter-wave (mmWave)-radar-based gait recognition has drawn attention because radar sensing is privacy-preserving and non-contact. However, it is challenging to capture the motion dynamics of walking people from mmWave radar signals, which is crucial for robust gait recognition. In this study, a novel spatial–temporal gait recognition network based on mmWave radar is proposed to address this problem. First, a four-dimensional (4D) radar point cloud video (RPCV) was introduced to characterize human walking patterns. Then, a PointNet block was utilized to extract spatial features from the radar point clouds in each frame. Finally, a Transformer layer was applied for the spatial–temporal modeling of the 4D RPCVs, capturing walking motion information, followed by fully connected layers to output the identification results. The experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the proposed network over mainstream networks, which achieved the best human identification performance on a dataset of 15 volunteers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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20 pages, 2363 KiB  
Article
RPREC: A Radar Plot Recognition Algorithm Based on Adaptive Evidence Classification
by Rui Yang, Yingbo Zhao and Yuan Shi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12511; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212511 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
When radar receives target echoes to form plots, it is inevitably affected by clutter, which brings a lot of imprecise and uncertain information to target recognition. Traditional radar plot recognition algorithms often have poor performance in dealing with imprecise and uncertain information. To [...] Read more.
When radar receives target echoes to form plots, it is inevitably affected by clutter, which brings a lot of imprecise and uncertain information to target recognition. Traditional radar plot recognition algorithms often have poor performance in dealing with imprecise and uncertain information. To solve this problem, a radar plot recognition algorithm based on adaptive evidence classification (RPREC) is proposed in this paper. The RPREC can be considered as the evidence classification version under the belief functions. First, the recognition framework based on the belief functions for target, clutter, and uncertainty is created, and a deep neural network model classifier that can give the class of radar plots is also designed. Secondly, according to the classification results of each iteration round, the decision pieces of evidence are constructed and fused. Before being fused, evidence will be corrected based on the distribution of radar plots. Finally, based on the global fusion results, the class labels of all radar plots are updated, and the classifier is retrained and updated so as to iterate until all the class labels of radar plots are no longer changed. The performance of the RPREC is verified and analyzed based on the real radar plot datasets by comparison with other related methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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15 pages, 1852 KiB  
Technical Note
Clutter Covariance Matrix Estimation for Radar Adaptive Detection Based on a Complex-Valued Convolutional Neural Network
by Naixin Kang, Zheran Shang, Weijian Liu and Xiaotao Huang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5367; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225367 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of covariance matrix estimation for radar adaptive detection under non-Gaussian clutter. Traditional model-based estimators may suffer from performance loss due to the mismatch between real data and assumed models. Therefore, we resort to a data-driven deep-learning [...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the problem of covariance matrix estimation for radar adaptive detection under non-Gaussian clutter. Traditional model-based estimators may suffer from performance loss due to the mismatch between real data and assumed models. Therefore, we resort to a data-driven deep-learning method and propose a covariance matrix estimation method based on a complex-valued convolutional neural network (CV-CNN). Moreover, a real-valued (RV) network with the same framework as the proposed CV network is also constructed to serve as a natural competitor. The obtained clutter covariance matrix estimation based on the network is applied to the adaptive normalized matched filter (ANMF) detector for performance assessment. The detection results via both simulated and real sea clutter illustrate that the estimator based on CV-CNN outperforms other traditional model-based estimators as well as its RV competitor in terms of probability of detection (PD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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21 pages, 8611 KiB  
Article
3-D Millimeter Wave Fast Imaging Technique Based on 2-D SISO/MIMO Array
by Bo Lin, Yubing Yuan, Yicai Ji, Chao Li, Xiaojun Liu and Guangyou Fang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(19), 4834; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194834 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
In this article, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) imaging method based on the range decomposing algorithm (RDA) is proposed for millimeter wave imaging. We combined it with binomial theory and we derive the theoretical formulation of RDA applied to single-input–single-output (SISO)/multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) array; meanwhile, [...] Read more.
In this article, a novel three-dimensional (3-D) imaging method based on the range decomposing algorithm (RDA) is proposed for millimeter wave imaging. We combined it with binomial theory and we derive the theoretical formulation of RDA applied to single-input–single-output (SISO)/multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) array; meanwhile, its computational complexity and computational error are analyzed. Compared to the classical Fourier algorithm, such as the range migration algorithm (RMA) and the phase shift migration (PSM), the proposed algorithm can replace the time-consuming interpolation and accumulation operations with reasonable approximations and transformations offering a more efficient approach, while maintaining the image quality. In addition, a method based on RDA which is applicable to the transformation between MIMO and SISO, is proposed to further enhance the processing efficiency. Proof-of-principle simulation using echo data collected from a large number of antennas, verifies that the proposed algorithm has higher efficiency. In order to better verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, a scanning prototype located in the millimeter wave band is designed. The experimental results of different targets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves significantly higher reconstruction efficiency when compared to the traditional algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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16 pages, 4456 KiB  
Article
Calibration of Wideband LFM Radars Based on Sliding Window Algorithm
by Hyungwoo Kim, Jinwoo Kim, Jinha Kim, Jaeyoung Choi, Sangpyo Hong, Nammoon Kim and Byungkwan Kim
Electronics 2023, 12(17), 3564; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12173564 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 822
Abstract
This paper addresses the challenges of wideband signal beamforming in radar systems and proposes a new calibration method. Due to operating conditions, the frequency-dependent characteristics of the system can be changed, and the amplitude, phase, and time delay error can be generated. The [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the challenges of wideband signal beamforming in radar systems and proposes a new calibration method. Due to operating conditions, the frequency-dependent characteristics of the system can be changed, and the amplitude, phase, and time delay error can be generated. The proposed method is based on the concept of the sliding window algorithm for linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals. To calibrate the frequency-dependent errors from the transceiver and the time delay error from the true time delay elements, the proposed method utilizes the characteristic of the LFM signal. The LFM signal changes its frequency linearly with time, and the frequency domain characteristics of the hardware are presented in time. Therefore, by applying a matched filter to a part of the LFM signal, the frequency-dependent characteristics can be monitored and calibrated. The proposed method is compared with the conventional matched filter-based calibration results and verified by simulation results and beampatterns. Since the proposed method utilizes LFM signal as the calibration tone, the proposed method can be applied to any beamforming systems, not limited to LFM radars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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25 pages, 4202 KiB  
Article
Radar Anti-Jamming Decision-Making Method Based on DDPG-MADDPG Algorithm
by Jingjing Wei, Yinsheng Wei, Lei Yu and Rongqing Xu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164046 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
In the face of smart and varied jamming, intelligent radar anti-jamming technologies are urgently needed. Due to the variety of radar electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCMs), it is necessary to efficiently optimize ECCMs in the high-dimensional knowledge base to ensure that the radar achieves the [...] Read more.
In the face of smart and varied jamming, intelligent radar anti-jamming technologies are urgently needed. Due to the variety of radar electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCMs), it is necessary to efficiently optimize ECCMs in the high-dimensional knowledge base to ensure that the radar achieves the optimal anti-jamming effect. Therefore, an intelligent radar anti-jamming decision-making method based on the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) and the multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient (MADDPG) (DDPG-MADDPG) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, by establishing a typical working scenario of radar and jamming, we designed the intelligent radar anti-jamming decision-making model, and the anti-jamming decision-making process was formulated. Then, aiming at different jamming modes, we designed the anti-jamming improvement factor and the correlation matrix of jamming and ECCM. They were used to evaluate the jamming suppression performance of ECCMs and to provide feedback for the decision-making algorithm. The decision-making constraints and four different decision-making objectives were designed to verify the performance of the decision-making algorithm. Finally, we designed a DDPG-MADDPG algorithm to generate the anti-jamming strategy. The simulation results showed that the proposed method has excellent robustness and generalization performance. At the same time, it has a shorter convergence time and higher anti-jamming decision making accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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16 pages, 2503 KiB  
Technical Note
Target Recognition in SAR Images Using Complex-Valued Network Guided with Sub-Aperture Decomposition
by Ruonan Wang, Zhaocheng Wang, Yu Chen, Hailong Kang, Feng Luo and Yingxi Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 4031; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15164031 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have special physical scattering characteristics owing to their unique imaging mechanism. Traditional deep learning algorithms usually extract features from real-valued SAR images in a purely data-driven manner, which may ignore some important physical scattering characteristics and sacrifice some [...] Read more.
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have special physical scattering characteristics owing to their unique imaging mechanism. Traditional deep learning algorithms usually extract features from real-valued SAR images in a purely data-driven manner, which may ignore some important physical scattering characteristics and sacrifice some useful target information in SAR images. This undoubtedly limits the improvement in performance for SAR target recognition. To take full advantage of the physical information contained in SAR images, a complex-valued network guided with sub-aperture decomposition (CGS-Net) for SAR target recognition is proposed. According to the fact that different targets have different physical scattering characteristics at different angles, the sub-aperture decomposition is used to improve accuracy with a multi-task learning strategy. Specifically, the proposed method includes main and auxiliary tasks, which can improve the performance of the main task by learning and sharing useful information from the auxiliary task. Here, the main task is the target recognition task, and the auxiliary task is the target reconstruction task. In addition, a complex-valued network is used to extract the features from the original complex-valued SAR images, which effectively utilizes the amplitude and phase information in SAR images. The experimental results obtained using the MSTAR dataset illustrate that the proposed CGS-Net achieved an accuracy of 99.59% (without transfer learning or data augmentation) for the ten-classes targets, which is superior to the other popular deep learning methods. Moreover, the proposed method has a lightweight network structure, which is suitable for SAR target recognition tasks because SAR images usually lack a large number of labeled data. Here, the experimental results obtained using the small dataset further demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed CGS-Net. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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19 pages, 8067 KiB  
Article
Determination of Meteor Vector Velocity Using MU Interferometry Measurements of Head Echoes
by Xin Xie, Zhangyou Chen, Li Wang, Heng Zhou and Xiongbin Wu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(15), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15153784 - 29 Jul 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
A new method for measuring the vector velocity of meteoroids using meteor head echoes is proposed in this study. The lateral velocity is determined by utilizing the phase interference measurement between channels, while the radial velocity is obtained using a conventional Doppler frequency [...] Read more.
A new method for measuring the vector velocity of meteoroids using meteor head echoes is proposed in this study. The lateral velocity is determined by utilizing the phase interference measurement between channels, while the radial velocity is obtained using a conventional Doppler frequency shift measurement. Compared to previous studies, this method does not require multi-site observations and can calculate the vector velocity of meteors in real-time. This paper provides the complete process for the inversion of the meteor vector velocity, detailing the analyzing process using MU radar head echo data. First, the MUSIC algorithm was used to estimate the DOA of the meteor target, which is a parameter required for lateral velocity measurement. Channel calibration is required before this estimation. Next, delay-Doppler matched filter processing was performed on each receiving channel’s data to determine the distance and radial velocity of the meteor target. Subsequently, the lateral velocity component was synthesized using the least squares method from the phase difference rate extracted from the matched filter output results of multiple channel pairs. Then, the vector velocity and trajectory of the meteor could be determined. The method was verified using MU radar head echo data. Different groups of channel pairs were selected for calculating the lateral velocity, and the results were found to be close, demonstrating the self-consistency of the method. Additionally, the calculated vector velocity is consistent with the direction and magnitude of the meteor’s motion trajectory, confirming the feasibility of the proposed approach. The method allows for the observation of more prominent characteristics of meteoroid motion, providing a more detailed observation capability of velocity variations in other directions than previous methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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21 pages, 6823 KiB  
Article
Research on an Intra-Pulse Orthogonal Waveform and Methods Resisting Interrupted-Sampling Repeater Jamming within the Same Frequency Band
by Huahua Dai, Yingxiao Zhao, Hanning Su, Zhuang Wang, Qinglong Bao and Jiameng Pan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143673 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a kind of intra-pulse coherent deception jamming that can generate false target peaks in the range profile and interfere with the detection and tracking of real targets. In this paper, an anti-ISRJ method based on the intra-pulse orthogonal [...] Read more.
Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a kind of intra-pulse coherent deception jamming that can generate false target peaks in the range profile and interfere with the detection and tracking of real targets. In this paper, an anti-ISRJ method based on the intra-pulse orthogonal waveform is proposed, which can recognize common interference signals by comparing sub-signal matched filtering results. For some special scenes where real targets cannot be directly differentiated from false targets, a new recognition method based on the energy discontinuity of the interference signal in the time domain is proposed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can recognize real and false targets in all ISRJ modes without any prior information, such as jammer parameters, with a small amount of calculation, which is suitable for actual radar systems. Simulation experiments using different interference parameters show that although this method has a 3 dB loss of pulse compression gain, it can completely suppress different kinds of ISRJ interference when the SNR before pulse compression is higher than −20 dB, with 100% target detection probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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23 pages, 7351 KiB  
Article
An Hybrid Integration Method-Based Track-before-Detect for High-Speed and High-Maneuvering Targets in Ubiquitous Radar
by Xiangyu Peng, Qiang Song, Yue Zhang and Wei Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(14), 3507; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15143507 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Due to the limited transmission gain of ubiquitous radar systems, it has become necessary to use a long-time coherent integration method for range-Doppler (RD) analysis. However, when the target exhibits high-speed and high-maneuver capabilities, it introduces challenges, such as range migration (RM), Doppler [...] Read more.
Due to the limited transmission gain of ubiquitous radar systems, it has become necessary to use a long-time coherent integration method for range-Doppler (RD) analysis. However, when the target exhibits high-speed and high-maneuver capabilities, it introduces challenges, such as range migration (RM), Doppler frequency migration (DFM), and velocity ambiguity (VA) in the RD domain, thus posing significant difficulties in target detection and tracking. Moreover, the presence of VA further complicates the problem. To address these complexities while maintaining integration efficiency, this study proposes a hybrid integration approach. First, methods called Keystone-transform (KT) and matched filtering processing (MFP) are proposed for compensating for range migration (RM) and velocity ambiguity (VA) in Radar Detection (RD) images. The KT approach is employed to compensate for RM, followed by the generation of matched filters with varying ambiguity numbers. Subsequently, MFP enables the production of multiple RD images covering different but contiguous Doppler frequency ranges. These RD images can be compiled into an extended RD (ERD) image that exhibits an expanded Doppler frequency range. Second, an improved particle-filter (IPF) algorithm is raised to perform incoherent integration among ERD images and to achieve track-before-detect (TBD) for a target. In the IPF, the target state vector is augmented with ambiguous numbers, which are estimated via maximum posterior probability estimation. Then, to compensate for the DFM, a line spread model (LSM) is proposed instead of the point spread model (PSM) used in traditional PF. To evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method, a radar simulator is devised, encompassing comprehensive radar signal processing. The findings demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves a harmonious equilibrium between integration efficiency and computational complexity when it comes to detecting and tracking high-speed and high-maneuvering targets with intricate maneuvers. Furthermore, the algorithm’s effectiveness is authenticated by exploiting ubiquitous radar data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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19 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Algorithm for De-Interleaving Staggered PRI Signals
by Wenhai Cheng, Qunying Zhang, Jiaming Dong, Haiying Wang and Xiaojun Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7977; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137977 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Resolution and mapping bandwidth are the two most important image performance indicators that reflect satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging reconnaissance capability. The PRI-staggered signal can simultaneously achieve high resolution in azimuth and wide swath during SAR imaging, and is an important signal [...] Read more.
Resolution and mapping bandwidth are the two most important image performance indicators that reflect satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging reconnaissance capability. The PRI-staggered signal can simultaneously achieve high resolution in azimuth and wide swath during SAR imaging, and is an important signal form of SAR. It is important for anti-SAR reconnaissance to de-interleave the staggered PRI signal from the mixed signals. To address the problem that the existing staggered signal de-interleaving algorithms cannot accommodate PRI jitter and are computationally inefficient, this paper proposes an efficient algorithm for de-interleaving staggered PRI signals. A clustering-based square sine wave interpolation method and a threshold criterion are proposed, improving computational efficiency while suppressing interference between sub-PRIs and the frame period of the staggered PRI signal. In addition, a sequence retrieval algorithm incorporating matched filter theory is proposed to improve the separation accuracy of radar pulse sequences. The simulation shows that the novel algorithm can adapt to PRI jitter and de-interleave staggered PRI signals from mixed signals with high efficiency. Compared with the existing staggered signal de-interleaving algorithm, the computational efficiency is improved by an order of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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14 pages, 5258 KiB  
Article
System Design and Signal Processing in Spaceborne Squint Sliding Spotlight SAR with Sub-Aperture Block-Varying PRF
by Wei Xu, Zhuo Zhang, Pingping Huang, Weixian Tan and Yaolong Qi
Electronics 2023, 12(13), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12132835 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
To tackle the problems of Doppler spectrum, aliasing caused by azimuth beam scanning and azimuthal serious non-uniform sampling in squint sliding spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with varying repetition frequency technology, the azimuth sampling method of sub-aperture block-varying pulse repetition frequency (SBV-PRF) is [...] Read more.
To tackle the problems of Doppler spectrum, aliasing caused by azimuth beam scanning and azimuthal serious non-uniform sampling in squint sliding spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with varying repetition frequency technology, the azimuth sampling method of sub-aperture block-varying pulse repetition frequency (SBV-PRF) is proposed, where the sub-aperture division judgement makes the azimuth acquisition time of each sub-block small enough so that the Doppler bandwidth caused by the Doppler center change can be ignored. Based on the echo signal characteristics of a SBV-PRF transmission scheme, an azimuth pre-processing method combining SBV-PRF transmission scheme with sub-aperture division is proposed. Using this method, de-skewing is first performed on each set of sub-aperture data to eliminate the additional Doppler bandwidth introduced by the squint angle, and then the azimuth signal resampling is performed to ensure different sub-aperture data have the same sampling rate. The SBV-PRF technology reduces the difficulty of azimuth signal pre-processing while ensuring the complete acquisition of the complete echo data of the squint sliding spotlight mode. The effectiveness of the SBV-PRF system design and the signal processing method is verified by the point target echo simulation and imaging simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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19 pages, 3270 KiB  
Article
A Novel Parameter Estimation Method Based on Piecewise Nonlinear Amplitude Transform for the LFM Signal in Impulsive Noise
by Haiying Wang, Qunying Zhang, Wenhai Cheng, Jiaming Dong and Xiaojun Liu
Electronics 2023, 12(11), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12112530 - 03 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
In a complex electromagnetic environment, any noise present generally exhibits strong impulsive characteristics. The performance of existing parameter estimation methods carried out in Gaussian white noise for the linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal degrades or even fails under impulsive noise. This paper proposes [...] Read more.
In a complex electromagnetic environment, any noise present generally exhibits strong impulsive characteristics. The performance of existing parameter estimation methods carried out in Gaussian white noise for the linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal degrades or even fails under impulsive noise. This paper proposes a novel parameter estimation method to address this problem. Firstly, the properties of the piecewise nonlinear amplitude transform (PNAT) are derived. This manuscript verifies that the PNAT can retain phase information of the LFM signal while suppressing the impulsive noise. Subsequently, a new concept known as piecewise nonlinear amplitude transform parametric symmetric instantaneous autocorrelation function (PNAT-PSIAF) is proposed. Based on this concept, a novel method called piecewise nonlinear amplitude transform Lv’s distribution (PNAT-LVD) is proposed to estimate the centroid frequency and chirp rate of the LFM signal. The simulations show that the proposed algorithm can effectively suppress the impulsive noise without prior knowledge of the noise for both the single-component and double-component LFM signal. In addition, two parameters of the LFM signal can be precisely estimated by the proposed method under low generalized signal-to-noise ratios (GSNR). The stronger the impulsive characteristics of the noise, the better the performance of the algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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18 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Geometric Configuration Design and Fast Imaging for Multistatic Forward-Looking SAR Based on Wavenumber Spectrum Formation Approach
by Yumeng Liu, Yijing Zhao and Yi Ding
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112783 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Multistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (Mu-FLSAR) has the potential of high-resolution imaging with short synthetic aperture time, which can improve the transmitter’s survivability, by coherently fusing simultaneously observed measurements of multiple receivers. However, the combined performance of the multiple measurements strictly depends on [...] Read more.
Multistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (Mu-FLSAR) has the potential of high-resolution imaging with short synthetic aperture time, which can improve the transmitter’s survivability, by coherently fusing simultaneously observed measurements of multiple receivers. However, the combined performance of the multiple measurements strictly depends on an appropriate geometric configuration among the transmitter and receivers because the forward-looking application limits the flight directions of receivers. In this paper, to design a geometric configuration for Mu-FLSAR, a wavenumber spectrum formation (WSF) approach is proposed based on the projection relationship between the wavenumber support regions (WSRs) and geometric configuration parameters. On the one hand, the projected pattern of multiple WSRs is deduced, and the relationship between multiple WSRs and the point spread function (PSF) is analyzed. Based on the geometric feature of the kernel WSR, which is formed by the transmitter and the master receiver, and the relationship between the geometric features and the geometric configuration parameters, including synthetic aperture time and azimuthal angle, a WSF method is proposed to visually and quickly deduce the geometric parameter of the salve receivers. On the other hand, based on the designed geometric configuration of Mu-FLSAR, a wavenumber-dependent fast polar format algorithm (WF-PFA) is proposed to efficiently reconstruct the targets relying on the geometric features of WSRs. Simulation results verify the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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23 pages, 7196 KiB  
Article
Raw Data Simulation of Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar with Accurate Range Model
by Haisheng Li, Junshe An, Xiujie Jiang and Meiyan Lin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112705 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Simulated raw data have become an essential tool for testing and assessing system parameters and imaging performance due to the high cost and limited availability of real raw data from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, with increasing resolution and higher orbit altitudes, [...] Read more.
Simulated raw data have become an essential tool for testing and assessing system parameters and imaging performance due to the high cost and limited availability of real raw data from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, with increasing resolution and higher orbit altitudes, existing simulation methods fail to generate SAR simulated raw data that closely resemble real raw data. This is due to approximations such as curved orbits, “stop-and-go” assumption, and Earth’s rotation, among other factors. To overcome these challenges, this paper presents an accurate range model with a “nonstop-and-go” configuration for raw data simulation based on existing time-domain simulation methods. We model the SAR echo signal and establish a precise space geometry for spaceborne SAR. Additionally, we precisely identify the target illumination area based on elliptical beams through space coordinate transformation. Finally, the SAR raw data were accurately simulated using high-precision time-domain simulation methods. The accuracy of the proposed model was validated by comparing it with the traditional hyperbolic model and the curved orbit model with “stop-and-go” assumption through image processing of the generated raw data. Through the analysis of point target quality parameters, the errors of various parameters in our distance model compared with the other two models are within 1%. Furthermore, this simulation method can be adapted to simulate raw data of other modes and satellite orbits by adjusting beam control and satellite orbit parameters, respectively. The proposed simulation method demonstrated high accuracy and versatility, thereby providing a valuable contribution to the development of remote sensing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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14 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Unsupervised Detection of Multiple Sleep Stages Using a Single FMCW Radar
by Young-Keun Yoo, Chae-Won Jung and Hyun-Chool Shin
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4468; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074468 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The paper proposes a unsupervised method for detecting the three stages of sleep—wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep—using biosignals obtained from a 61 GHz single frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar. To detect the subject’s sleep stages [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a unsupervised method for detecting the three stages of sleep—wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep—using biosignals obtained from a 61 GHz single frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar. To detect the subject’s sleep stages based on non-learning techniques, the breathing and movement information characteristic of each sleep stage was extracted from the radar signals of the subject acquired in the sleep state and used as the feature factor tailored to the research objective. The experimental results derived from the clinical data obtained in the actual polysomnography (PSG) environment using FMCW radar show an average of 68% similarity to the actual three sleep stages observed in PSG. These results indicate the feasibility of using the FMCW radar sensor as an alternative to the conventional PSG-based method that poses multiple limitations to sleep-stage detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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12 pages, 949 KiB  
Communication
An Efficient 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm Based on OMP for Rectangular Array
by Chuang Wang, Jianmin Hu, Qunying Zhang and Xinhao Yuan
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071634 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Recently, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) has been widely used in direction of arrival (DOA) studies, which not only greatly improves the resolution of DOA, but can also be applied to single-snapshot and coherent source cases. When applying the OMP algorithm to the rectangular [...] Read more.
Recently, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) has been widely used in direction of arrival (DOA) studies, which not only greatly improves the resolution of DOA, but can also be applied to single-snapshot and coherent source cases. When applying the OMP algorithm to the rectangular array DOA of the millimeter-wave radar, it is necessary to reshape the two-dimensional (2D) signal into a long one-dimensional (1D) signal. However, the long 1D signal will greatly increase the number and length of atoms in the complete dictionary of the OMP algorithm, which will greatly increase the amount of computation. Taking advantage of the sparsity of targets in the DOA space, an efficient 2D DOA estimation algorithm based on OMP for rectangular array is proposed. The main idea is to reduce the number of atoms in the complete dictionary of the OMP algorithm, thereby greatly reducing the amount of computation required. A simulation verifies that the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is much higher than the conventional algorithm with almost the same estimation accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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18 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Digital Channelized Receiver for Low SNR and Wideband Chirp Signals Detection
by Wenhai Cheng, Qunying Zhang, Wei Lu, Haiying Wang and Xiaojun Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053080 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is essential for obtaining intelligence in modern information warfare. Wideband chirp signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are widely used in SAR. Intercepting low-SNR wideband chirp signals is of great significance for anti-SAR reconnaissance. Digital channelization technology is [...] Read more.
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is essential for obtaining intelligence in modern information warfare. Wideband chirp signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are widely used in SAR. Intercepting low-SNR wideband chirp signals is of great significance for anti-SAR reconnaissance. Digital channelization technology is an effective means to intercept wideband signals. The existing digital channelization methods have the following problems: the contradiction of reception blind zone and signal spectrum aliasing, high computational complexity, and low estimating accuracy for chirp signals with a low SNR. This paper proposes a non-critical sampling digital channelized receiver architecture to intercept chirp signals. The receiver architecture has no blind zone in channel division and no aliasing of signal spectrum in the channel, which can provide reliable instantaneous frequency measurements. An adaptive threshold generation algorithm is proposed to detect signals without prior information. In addition, an improved instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) algorithm is proposed, improving low SNR chirp signals’ frequency estimation accuracy. Moreover, a simple channel arbitration logic is proposed to complete the cross-channel combination of wideband signals. Simulations show that the proposed receiver architecture is reliable and robust for low SNR and wideband chirp signal detection. When the input SNR is 0 dB, the absolute frequency root-mean-square error (RMSE) of bandwidth and the center frequency is 0.57 MHz and 1.05 MHz, respectively. This frequency accuracy is great for radio frequency (RF) wideband systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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21 pages, 5940 KiB  
Article
Data-Independent Phase-Only Beamforming of FDA-MIMO Radar for Swarm Interference Suppression
by Geng Chen, Chunyang Wang, Jian Gong, Ming Tan and Yibin Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15041159 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
This paper proposes two data-independent phase-only beamforming algorithms for frequency diverse array multiple-input multiple-output radar against swarm interference. The proposed strategy can form a deep null at the interference area to achieve swarm interference suppression by tuning the phase of the weight vector, [...] Read more.
This paper proposes two data-independent phase-only beamforming algorithms for frequency diverse array multiple-input multiple-output radar against swarm interference. The proposed strategy can form a deep null at the interference area to achieve swarm interference suppression by tuning the phase of the weight vector, which can effectively reduce the hardware cost of the receiver. Specifically, the first algorithm imposes constant modulus constraint and sidelobe level constraint, and the phase-only weight vector is solved. The second algorithm performs a constant modulus decomposition of the weight vector to obtain two phase-only weight vectors, and uses two parallel phase shifters to synthesize one beamforming weight. Both methods can obtain the phase-only weight to realize suppression for swarm interference. Simulation results demonstrate that our strategy shows superiority in beam shape, output signal-to-interference-noise ratio, and phase shifter quantization performance, and has the potential for use in many applications, such as radar countermeasures and electronic defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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28 pages, 12706 KiB  
Article
Backscattering Statistics of Indoor Full-Polarization Scatterometric and Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements of a Rice Field
by Xiangchen Liu, Yun Shao, Kun Li, Zhiqu Liu, Long Liu and Xiulai Xiao
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15040965 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
The backscattering coefficient σ0 of a rice field is closely related to the amplitude, power, and phase of its radar backscattered signals. An investigation of the statistics of indoor full-polarization scatterometric and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements on rice fields in the [...] Read more.
The backscattering coefficient σ0 of a rice field is closely related to the amplitude, power, and phase of its radar backscattered signals. An investigation of the statistics of indoor full-polarization scatterometric and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements on rice fields in the Laboratory of Target Microwave Properties (LAMP) is implemented in terms of the amplitude, power, and phase difference of backscattered signals. The validity and accuracy of LAMP measured data are studied and confirmed for the first time. The Rayleigh fading model and phase difference statistical model are both validated by the experimental data. Continuous microwave spectrum is obtained after spatial and frequency averaging over N independent scatterometric samples and full-polarization images are generated by applying a focusing algorithm to the SAR data. Comparisons between scatterometric results and SAR images with three resolutions of rice field scene are conducted with respect to amplitude and co-pol phase difference (CPD) statistics, as well as backscattering coefficients. The results show that the measured statistics of a rice field scene are in good agreement with those calculated by theoretical formulas. Spatial and frequency averaging of scatterometric data can increase N and thus improve the estimation accuracy of the backscattering coefficients. SAR images show a shift to the near range due to the intrinsic height of the rice plants and the probable existence of the double bounce scattering between vertical rice stems and the water surface considering the measurement geometry. The measured amplitude statistics of the SAR images approach a Rayleigh distribution with reduction of the resolution cell size while the size has little effect on the CPD statistics. The differences between backscattering coefficients extracted from the scatterometric data and SAR images confirm a 1-dB calibration accuracy in power of the LAMP measurement system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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16 pages, 3729 KiB  
Article
DOA Estimation Using Deep Neural Network with Angular Sliding Window
by Yang Li, Zanhu Huang, Can Liang, Liang Zhang, Yanhua Wang, Junfu Wang, Yi Zhang and Hongfen Lv
Electronics 2023, 12(4), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12040824 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Deep neural network (DNN) has shown great potential in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In high dynamic signal-to-noise (SNR) scenarios, the estimation accuracy of the weaker sources may degrade significantly due to insufficient training samples. This paper proposes a deep neural network framework with sliding [...] Read more.
Deep neural network (DNN) has shown great potential in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. In high dynamic signal-to-noise (SNR) scenarios, the estimation accuracy of the weaker sources may degrade significantly due to insufficient training samples. This paper proposes a deep neural network framework with sliding window operation. The whole field-of-view (FOV) is divided into a series of sub-regions via sliding windows. Each sub-region is assumed to contain one source at most. Thus, the single-source data can be used to train all the networks, alleviating the need for the training samples and the prior information on the number of sources. A detector network and an estimator network are followed for each sub-region, enabling high estimation accuracy and the number of sources. Simulation and real data experiment results show that the proposed method can achieve excellent DOA and source number estimation performance. Specifically, in the real data experiment, the results show that the RMSE of the proposed method reaches 0.071, which is at least 0.03 lower than FFT, MUSIC, ESPRIT, and a deep learning method namely deep convolutional network (DCN), cannot estimate the lower SNR source in high dynamic SNR scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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20 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
Robust Velocity Dealiasing for Weather Radar Based on Convolutional Neural Networks
by Hyeri Kim and Boonleng Cheong
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(3), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15030802 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Doppler weather radar is an essential tool for monitoring and warning of hazardous weather phenomena. A large aliasing range (ra) is important for surveillance but a high aliasing velocity (va) is also important to obtain storm dynamics [...] Read more.
Doppler weather radar is an essential tool for monitoring and warning of hazardous weather phenomena. A large aliasing range (ra) is important for surveillance but a high aliasing velocity (va) is also important to obtain storm dynamics unambiguously. However, the ra and va are inversely related to pulse repetition time. This “Doppler dilemma” is more challenging at shorter wavelengths. The proposed algorithm employs a CNN (convolutional neural network), which is widely used in image classification, to tackle the velocity dealiasing issue. Velocity aliasing can be converted to a classification problem. The velocity field and aliased count can be regarded as the input image and the label, respectively. Through a fit-and-adjust process, the best weights and the biases of the model are determined to minimize a cost function. The proposed method is compared against the traditional region-based method. Both methods show similar performance on mostly filled precipitation. For sparsely filled precipitation; however, the CNN demonstrated better performance since the CNN processes the entire scan at once while the region-based method processes only the limited adjacent area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
(This article belongs to the Section AI Remote Sensing)
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21 pages, 787 KiB  
Review
Multi-Object Tracking with mmWave Radar: A Review
by Andre Pearce, J. Andrew Zhang, Richard Xu and Kai Wu
Electronics 2023, 12(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12020308 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6156
Abstract
The boundaries of tracking and sensing solutions are continuously being pushed. A stimulation in this field over recent years is exploiting the properties of millimeter wave (mmWave) radar to achieve simultaneous tracking and sensing of multiple objects. This paper aims to provide a [...] Read more.
The boundaries of tracking and sensing solutions are continuously being pushed. A stimulation in this field over recent years is exploiting the properties of millimeter wave (mmWave) radar to achieve simultaneous tracking and sensing of multiple objects. This paper aims to provide a critical analysis of the current literature surrounding multi-object tracking and sensing with short-range mmWave radar. There is significant literature available regarding single-object tracking using mmWave radar, demonstrating the maturity of single-object tracking systems. However, innovative research and advancements are also needed in the field of mmWave radar multi-object tracking, specifically with respect to uniquely identifying multiple target tracks across an interrupted field of view. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of the latest progress in multi-target tracking. In particular, an attempt to phrase the problem space is made by firstly defining a typical multi-object tracking architecture. We then highlight the areas for potential advancements. These areas include sensor fusion, micro-Doppler feature analysis, specialized and generalized activity recognition, gait, tagging and shape profile. Potential multi-object tracking advancements are reviewed and compared with respect to adaptability, performance, accuracy and specificity. Although the majority of the literature reviewed has a focus on human targets, most of the methodologies can be applied to targets consisting of different profiles and characteristics to that of humans. Lastly, future research directions are also discussed to shed light on research opportunities and potential approaches in the open research areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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13 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Zhongshan HF Radar Elevation Calibration Based on Ground Backscatter Echoes
by Weijie Jiang, Erxiao Liu, Xing Kong, Shengsheng Shi and Jianjun Liu
Electronics 2022, 11(24), 4236; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11244236 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The super dual auroral radar network (SuperDARN) is an important tool in the remote sensing of ionospheric potential convection in middle and high latitudes, and also a major source of elevation data detection. A reliable elevation angle helps estimate the propagation paths of [...] Read more.
The super dual auroral radar network (SuperDARN) is an important tool in the remote sensing of ionospheric potential convection in middle and high latitudes, and also a major source of elevation data detection. A reliable elevation angle helps estimate the propagation paths of high-frequency radio signals between scattering spots and radars, which is crucial for determining high-frequency radar target geolocation. The SuperDARN radar uses interferometry to estimate the elevation of the returned signal. However, elevation data are still underutilized owing to the difficulties of phase difference calibration induced by the propagation time delay between two arrays. This paper statistically analyzes the distribution features of the group range-elevation angle and group range-virtual height before and after calibration using elevation data from the ground backscatter echoes of the Zhongshan SuperDARN radar, calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) of the virtual height; the results show that the RMSE after calibration is mostly reduced to within 54% of that before calibration. Furthermore, we validate the calibration factor based on the primary phase data. The data from 2013 to 2015 indicate that this technique can be efficiently used to estimate the daily calibration factor. Finally, we present the statistical distribution of the calibration factor, which provides technical support for the calibration of elevation data in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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