Special Issue "Selected Papers from IIKII 2019 conferences in Symmetry"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
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Guest Editor
Director of the Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle Laboratory; Professeur de Psychologie Cognitive - Université Paris 8, France
Interests: Internet of Objects; data mining; brain–computer interaction
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jih-Fu Tu
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, St. John’s University, New Taipei City, 25135 Taiwan
Interests: human–computer interaction; internet technologies; distributed processing systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetry in language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to any of various transformations; including reflectionrotation or scaling. Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time; as a spatial relationship; through geometric transformations; through other kinds of functional transformations; and as an aspect of abstract objectstheoretic models and even knowledge itself. Recently, Symmetry theorem and simulation are widely applied engineering to improve the developments of new technologies.

In addition, International Institute of Knowledge Innovation and Invention (IIKII, http://www.iikii.org) is the institute to promote the exchange of innovations and inventions, and establishes a communication platform for international innovations and researches. In this year, IIKII cooperates with IEEE Tainan Section Sensors Council to hold IEEE conferences such as IEEE ICIASE 2019 (http://2019.iciase.net), IEEE ECBIOS 2019 (http://2019.ecbios.asia), IEEE ICKII 2019 (http://2019.ickii.org), ICUSA-GAME 2019 (http://www.icusa2019.org), and IEEE ECICE 2019 (http://2019.ecice.asia). This Special Issue entitled "Selected Papers from IIKII 2019 conferences" aims to select excellent papers from IIKII 2019 conferences, including symmetry in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and computer science, etc. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, to this special issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Physics: conservation laws, Noether's theorem, spatial parity, charge parity, time parity, G-parity, standard model, internal symmetry, Lorentz symmetry, transformations, invariance, conservation, local and global symmetries, laws and symmetry, symmetry breaking, color symmetry, periodic and quasiperiodic crystals, time-reversal symmetry breaking, symmetry and complexity, Curie-Rosen symmetry principles, constants, biophysics, entropy, and indistinguishability.
  • Chemistry: crystal and crystallography; chiral molecules, chiral resolution and asymmetric synthesis, asymmetric induction, chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts, stereochemistry, diastereomers, stereogenic, stereoisomers (enantiomers, atropisomers, diastereomers), stability, mixing, and phase separation.
  • Biology:symmetry in biology, radial symmetry (tetramerism, pentamerism, etc.), diversity, preservation, sustainability, morphology, origin of life, and molecular evolution (homochirality).
  • Mathematics: invariance, transformation, group theory, Lie groups, chirality, achiral or amphichiral, helix and Möbius strip, knot theory, graph theory, isometry, plane of symmetry, skewness, vertex algebra, asymmetry, dissymmetry, nonsymmetry and antisymmetry, supergroups and nonlinear algebraic structures, supersymmetry and supergravity, strings and branes, integrability and geometry, information theory, Felix Klein's Erlangen Program, and continuous symmetry.
  • Computer Science, Theory and Methods:computer-aided design, computational geometry, computer graphics, visualization, image compression, data compression, pattern recognition, diversity, similarity, and conservation and sustainability.
  • Symmetry and other scientific disciplines and engineering.
  • Schedule

    Manuscript Due: December 31, 2019

    First Round of Reviews: January 31, 2020

    Second Round of Reviews: February 29, 2020

    Acceptance of Final papers and Publication: March 31, 2020

Prof. Dr. Teen­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Prof. Dr. Jih-Fu Tu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physics symmetry
  • Chemistry symmetry
  • Biology symmetry
  • Mathematics symmetry, Computer Science, Theory and Methods
  • Symmetry and other scientific disciplines and engineering

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Selected Papers from IIKII 2019 Conferences in Symmetry
Symmetry 2020, 12(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12050684 - 26 Apr 2020
Abstract
The International Institute of Knowledge Innovation and Invention (IIKII) is an institute that promotes the exchange of innovations and inventions, and establishes a communication platform for international innovations and researches. In 2019, IIKII cooperated with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) [...] Read more.
The International Institute of Knowledge Innovation and Invention (IIKII) is an institute that promotes the exchange of innovations and inventions, and establishes a communication platform for international innovations and researches. In 2019, IIKII cooperated with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Tainan Section Sensors Council to hold IEEE conferences such as IEEE ICIASE 2019, IEEE ECBIOS 2019, IEEE ICKII 2019, ICUSA-GAME 2019, and IEEE ECICE 2019. This Special Issue entitled “Selected Papers from IIKII 2019 conferences” aims to select excellent papers from IIKII 2019 conferences, including symmetry in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and computer science, etc. It selected 21 excellent papers from 750 papers presented in IIKII 2019 conferences on the topic of symmetry. The main goals of this Special Issue are to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible, and to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to the topic of symmetry. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Computer-Assisted Learning Based on Dual Coding Theory
Symmetry 2020, 12(5), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12050701 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
This research explored the integration of dual coding theory and modern computer technology with symmetry into a vocabulary class to improve students’ learning attitude and effectiveness. Three research questions are addressed in this research on the effects of computer-assisted learning based on dual [...] Read more.
This research explored the integration of dual coding theory and modern computer technology with symmetry into a vocabulary class to improve students’ learning attitude and effectiveness. Three research questions are addressed in this research on the effects of computer-assisted learning based on dual coding theory (DCT). This experimental research was carried out in a high school in a remote rural area in China. The study was conducted in two parallel classes (the experimental and the control) in Grade 8 with a total of 88 students. Our research methods included pre- and post-test, questionnaires, and an interview with symmetry as the focus to obtain the results as follows: (1) Using the integration of computer assisted language learning (CALL) and DCT to effectively improve students’ learning attitude, (2) transforming students’ traditional learning methods into the dual coding method, and (3) enhancing students’ vocabulary learning effectiveness. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Proposal of Technological GIS Support as Part of Resident Parking in Large Cities–Case Study, City of Brno
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040542 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in people’s dependence on passenger and freight transport. As a result, traffic infrastructure is congested, especially in big city centers and, at critical times, this is to the point of traffic collapse. [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in people’s dependence on passenger and freight transport. As a result, traffic infrastructure is congested, especially in big city centers and, at critical times, this is to the point of traffic collapse. This has led to the need to address this situation by the progressive deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), which are used to optimize traffic, to increase traffic flow, and to improve transport safety, including reduction of adverse environmental impacts. In 2018, the first results of the C-Roads Platform which is a joint initiative of European Member States and road operators for testing and implementing C-ITS services in light of cross-border harmonization and interoperability (C-ROADS) Czech Republic project were put into operation in Brno, closely related to the international initiative to support the data structure for future communication between vehicles and intelligent transport infrastructure. A system of transport organization and safety was introduced in the city of Brno, which manages key information and ensures central management of partial systems of transport organization and safety. The most important part of this system is the parking organization system discussed in this article. The main objective was to streamline the parking system in the city center of Brno and in the immediate vicinity by preventing unauthorized long-term parking, ensuring an increased number of parking places for residents and visitors by increasing the turnover of parking. The aim of the research was to investigate (i) the possibility and optimal use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for resident parking system solutions, (ii) the integration of Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) satellite data and image data collected by cameras on the move and (iii) the possibility of using network algorithms to optimize mobile data collection planning. The aim of our study is to design and optimize the integrated collection of image data localized by satellite GNSS technologies in the GIS environment to support the resident parking system, including an evaluation of its effectiveness. To achieve this goal, a residential parking monitoring system was designed and implemented, based on dynamic monitoring of the parking state using a vehicle equipped with a digital camera system and Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) technology for measuring the vehicle position, controlled by spatial and attribute data flow from static and dynamic spatial databases in the Geographic Information System (GIS), which integrate the whole monitoring system. The control algorithm of a vehicle passing through the street network works on the basis of graph theory with a defined recurrence interval for the same route, taking into account other parameters such as the throughput of the street network at a given time, its traffic signs and the usual level of traffic density. Statistics after one year of operation show that the proposed system significantly increased the economic yield from parking areas from the original 30% to 90%, and reduced the overall violation of parking rules to only 10%. It further increased turnover and thus the possibility of short-term parking for visitors and also ensured availability of parking for residents in the historical center of Brno and surrounding monitored areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of Virtual Private Storage Framework Using Internet of Things Local Networks
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030489 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a virtual private storage framework (VPSF) using Internet of Things (IoT) local networks. The VPSF uses the extra storage space of sensor devices in an IoT local network to store users’ private data, while guaranteeing expected network lifetime, by partitioning [...] Read more.
This paper presents a virtual private storage framework (VPSF) using Internet of Things (IoT) local networks. The VPSF uses the extra storage space of sensor devices in an IoT local network to store users’ private data, while guaranteeing expected network lifetime, by partitioning the storage space of a sensor device into data and system volumes and, if necessary, logically integrating the extra data volumes of the multiple sensor devices to virtually build a single storage space. When user data need to be stored, the VPSF gateway divides the original data into several blocks and selects the sensor devices in which the blocks will be stored based on their residual energy. The blocks are transmitted to the selected devices using the modified speedy block-wise transfer (BlockS) option of the constrained application protocol (CoAP), which reduces communication overhead by retransmitting lost blocks without a retransmission request message. To verify the feasibility of the VPSF, an experimental implementation was conducted using the open-source software libcoap. The results demonstrate that the VPSF is an energy-efficient solution for virtual private storage because it averages the residual energy amounts for sensor devices within an IoT local network and reduces their communication overhead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Failure Prediction Model Using Iterative Feature Selection for Industrial Internet of Things
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030454 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents a failure prediction model using iterative feature selection, which aims to accurately predict the failure occurrences in industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) environments. In general, vast amounts of data are collected from various sensors in an IIoT environment, and they [...] Read more.
This paper presents a failure prediction model using iterative feature selection, which aims to accurately predict the failure occurrences in industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) environments. In general, vast amounts of data are collected from various sensors in an IIoT environment, and they are analyzed to prevent failures by predicting their occurrence. However, the collected data may include data irrelevant to failures and thereby decrease the prediction accuracy. To address this problem, we propose a failure prediction model using iterative feature selection. To build the model, the relevancy between each feature (i.e., each sensor) and the failure was analyzed using the random forest algorithm, to obtain the importance of the features. Then, feature selection and model building were conducted iteratively. In each iteration, a new feature was selected considering the importance and added to the selected feature set. The failure prediction model was built for each iteration via the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the failure prediction model having the highest prediction accuracy was selected. The experimental implementation was conducted using open-source R. The results showed that the proposed failure prediction model achieved high prediction accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Symmetric Modeling of Communication Effectiveness and Satisfaction for Communication Software on Job Performance
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030418 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Job performance is an issue highly related to the repetition of one enterprise. Because of the popularity of the Internet, consumer electronics have boomed rapidly and remove the space limitation stems. Users in the Taiwanese community send messages or share information through communication [...] Read more.
Job performance is an issue highly related to the repetition of one enterprise. Because of the popularity of the Internet, consumer electronics have boomed rapidly and remove the space limitation stems. Users in the Taiwanese community send messages or share information through communication software that leads to more dependence from business. Various business problems have been solved and job performance has increased through the diversified functions on communication software. Thus, this research supposed that staff are willing to continuously use communication software LINE(a new communication app which allows one to make FREE voice calls and send FREE messages), and they agree that the varied functions of communication software would mean that information delivery more symmetrically affects their job performance. According to the research outcomes, communication effectiveness significantly influenced communication satisfaction and job performance, and communication satisfaction significantly influenced job performance. As organizational communication must be conducted through media that disseminate information, and different media have different communication effects, the relationship between communication effectiveness and job performance was completely mediated by communication satisfaction. The research suggested companies or organizations use LINE as a symmetric communication method to not only help employees improve their job performance, but also help enterprises achieve their goals or raise the profit, or even steady development for enterprises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Homomorphic Encryption-Based Robust Reversible Watermarking for 3D Model
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030347 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Robust reversible watermarking in an encrypted domain is a technique that preserves privacy and protects copyright for multimedia transmission in the cloud. In general, most models of buildings and medical organs are constructed by three-dimensional (3D) models. A 3D model shared through the [...] Read more.
Robust reversible watermarking in an encrypted domain is a technique that preserves privacy and protects copyright for multimedia transmission in the cloud. In general, most models of buildings and medical organs are constructed by three-dimensional (3D) models. A 3D model shared through the internet can be easily modified by an unauthorized user, and in order to protect the security of 3D models, a robust reversible 3D models watermarking method based on homomorphic encryption is necessary. In the proposed method, a 3D model is divided into non-overlapping patches, and the vertex in each patch is encrypted by using the Paillier cryptosystem. On the cloud side, in order to utilize addition and multiplication homomorphism of the Paillier cryptosystem, three direction values of each patch are computed for constructing the corresponding histogram, which is shifted to embed watermark. For obtaining watermarking robustness, the robust interval is designed in the process of histogram shifting. The watermark can be extracted from the symmetrical direction histogram, and the original encrypted model can be restored by histogram shifting. Moreover, the process of watermark embedding and extraction are symmetric. Experimental results show that compared with the existing watermarking methods in encrypted 3D models, the quality of the decrypted model is improved. Moreover, the proposed method is robust to common attacks, such as translation, scaling, and Gaussian noise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Matching Pursuit Algorithm for Backtracking Regularization Based on Energy Sorting
Symmetry 2020, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020231 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The signal reconstruction quality has become a critical factor in compressed sensing at present. This paper proposes a matching pursuit algorithm for backtracking regularization based on energy sorting. This algorithm uses energy sorting for secondary atom screening to delete individual wrong atoms through [...] Read more.
The signal reconstruction quality has become a critical factor in compressed sensing at present. This paper proposes a matching pursuit algorithm for backtracking regularization based on energy sorting. This algorithm uses energy sorting for secondary atom screening to delete individual wrong atoms through the regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) algorithm backtracking. The support set is continuously updated and expanded during each iteration. While the signal energy distribution is not uniform, or the energy distribution is in an extreme state, the reconstructive performance of the ROMP algorithm becomes unstable if the maximum energy is still taken as the selection criterion. The proposed method for the regularized orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm can be adopted to improve those drawbacks in signal reconstruction due to its high reconstruction efficiency. The experimental results show that the algorithm has a proper reconstruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Incorporating Particle Swarm Optimization into Improved Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Applied to Classify Imbalanced Data
Symmetry 2020, 12(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020229 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, particle swarm optimization is incorporated into an improved bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, which is applied to classifying imbalanced data to solve the problem of how original bacterial foraging optimization easily falls into local optimization. In this study, the borderline synthetic [...] Read more.
In this paper, particle swarm optimization is incorporated into an improved bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, which is applied to classifying imbalanced data to solve the problem of how original bacterial foraging optimization easily falls into local optimization. In this study, the borderline synthetic minority oversampling technique (Borderline-SMOTE) and Tomek link are used to pre-process imbalanced data. Then, the proposed algorithm is used to classify the imbalanced data. In the proposed algorithm, firstly, the chemotaxis process is improved. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to search first and then treat the result as bacteria, improving the global searching ability of bacterial foraging optimization (BFO). Secondly, the reproduction operation is improved and the selection standard of survival of the cost is improved. Finally, we improve elimination and dispersal operation, and the population evolution factor is introduced to prevent the population from stagnating and falling into a local optimum. In this paper, three data sets are used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that the classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm is better than the existing approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Gray Relational Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics to the Statistical Techniques of Product Designs
Symmetry 2020, 12(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020227 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
During the development of fan products, designers often encounter gray areas when creating new designs. Without clear design goals, development efficiency is usually reduced, and fans are the best solution for studying symmetry or asymmetry. Therefore, fan designers need to figure out an [...] Read more.
During the development of fan products, designers often encounter gray areas when creating new designs. Without clear design goals, development efficiency is usually reduced, and fans are the best solution for studying symmetry or asymmetry. Therefore, fan designers need to figure out an optimization approach that can simplify the fan development process and reduce associated costs. This study provides a new statistical approach using gray relational analysis (GRA) to analyze and optimize the parameters of a particular fan design. During the research, it was found that the single fan uses an asymmetry concept with a single blade as the design, while the operation of double fans is a symmetry concept. The results indicated that the proposed mechanical operations could enhance the variety of product designs and reduce costs. Moreover, this approach can relieve designers from unnecessary effort during the development process and also effectively reduce the product development time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applying Educational Data Mining to Explore Students’ Learning Patterns in the Flipped Learning Approach for Coding Education
Symmetry 2020, 12(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020213 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
From traditional face-to-face courses, asynchronous distance learning, synchronous live learning, to even blended learning approaches, the learning approach can be more learner-centralized, enabling students to learn anytime and anywhere. In this study, we applied educational data mining to explore the learning behaviors in [...] Read more.
From traditional face-to-face courses, asynchronous distance learning, synchronous live learning, to even blended learning approaches, the learning approach can be more learner-centralized, enabling students to learn anytime and anywhere. In this study, we applied educational data mining to explore the learning behaviors in data generated by students in a blended learning course. The experimental data were collected from two classes of Python programming related courses for first-year students in a university in northern Taiwan. During the semester, high-risk learners could be predicted accurately by data generated from the blended educational environment. The f1-score of the random forest model was 0.83, which was higher than the f1-score of logistic regression and decision tree. The model built in this study could be extrapolated to other courses to predict students’ learning performance, where the F1-score was 0.77. Furthermore, we used machine learning and symmetry-based learning algorithms to explore learning behaviors. By using the hierarchical clustering heat map, this study could define the students’ learning patterns including the positive interactive group, stable learning group, positive teaching material group, and negative learning group. These groups also corresponded with the student conscious questionnaire. With the results of this research, teachers can use the mid-term forecasting system to find high-risk groups during the semester and remedy their learning behaviors in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Problems of Creation and Usage of 3D Model of Structures and Theirs Possible Solution
Symmetry 2020, 12(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010181 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article describes problems that occur when creating three-dimensional (3D) building models. The first problem is geometric accuracy; the next is the quality of visualization of the resulting model. The main cause of this situation is that current Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software does [...] Read more.
This article describes problems that occur when creating three-dimensional (3D) building models. The first problem is geometric accuracy; the next is the quality of visualization of the resulting model. The main cause of this situation is that current Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software does not have sufficient means to precision mapping the measured data of a given object in field. Therefore the process of 3D model creation is mainly a relatively high proportion of manual work when connecting individual points, approximating curves and surfaces, or laying textures on surfaces. In some cases, it is necessary to generalize the model in the CAD system, which degrades the accuracy and quality of field data. The article analyzes these problems and then recommends several variants for their solution. There are described two basic methods: using topological codes in the list of coordinates points and creating new special CAD features while using Python scripts. These problems are demonstrated on examples of 3D models in practice. These are mainly historical buildings in different locations and different designs (brick or wooden structures). These are four sacral buildings in the Czech Republic (CR): the church of saints Johns of Brno-Bystrc, the Church of St. Paraskiva in Blansko, further the Strejc’s Church in Židlochovice, and Church of St. Peter in Alcantara in Karviná city. All of the buildings were geodetically surveyed by terrestrial method while using total station. The 3D model was created in both cases in the program AUTOCAD v. 18 and MicroStation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Balance Interface Design and Instant Image-based Traffic Assistant Agent Based on GPS and Linked Open Data Technology
Symmetry 2020, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Taiwan is a highly informational country, and a robust traffic network is not only critical to the national economy, but is also an important infrastructure for economic development. This paper aims to integrate government open data and global positioning system (GPS) technology to [...] Read more.
Taiwan is a highly informational country, and a robust traffic network is not only critical to the national economy, but is also an important infrastructure for economic development. This paper aims to integrate government open data and global positioning system (GPS) technology to build an instant image-based traffic assistant agent with user-friendly interfaces, thus providing more convenient real-time traffic information for users and relevant government units. The proposed system is expected to overcome the difficulty of accurately distinguishing traffic information and to solve the problem of some road sections not providing instant information. Taking the New Taipei City Government traffic open data as an example, the proposed system can display information pages at an optimal size on smartphones and other computer devices, and integrate database analysis to instantly view traffic information. Users can enter the system without downloading the application and can access the cross-platform services using device browsers. The proposed system also provides a user reporting mechanism, which informs vehicle drivers on congested road sections about road conditions. Comparison and analysis of the system with similar applications shows that although they have similar functions, the proposed system offers more practicability, better information accessibility, excellent user experience, and approximately the optimal balance (a kind of symmetry) of the important items of the interface design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of High-Efficiency Iterative ILU Preconditioner Algorithm for Partial-Differential Equation Systems
Symmetry 2019, 11(12), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11121461 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate an iterative incomplete lower and upper (ILU) factorization preconditioner for partial-differential equation systems. We discretize the partial-differential equations into linear equation systems. An iterative scheme of linear systems is used. The ILU preconditioners of linear systems are performed [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate an iterative incomplete lower and upper (ILU) factorization preconditioner for partial-differential equation systems. We discretize the partial-differential equations into linear equation systems. An iterative scheme of linear systems is used. The ILU preconditioners of linear systems are performed on the different computation nodes of multi-central processing unit (CPU) cores. Firstly, the preconditioner of general tridiagonal matrix equations is tested on supercomputers. Then, the effects of partial-differential equation systems on the speedup of parallel multiprocessors are examined. The numerical results estimate that the parallel efficiency is higher than in other algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parameter Optimization for Computer Numerical Controlled Machining Using Fuzzy and Game Theory
Symmetry 2019, 11(12), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11121450 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Under the strict restrictions of international environmental regulations, how to reduce environmental hazards at the production stage has become an important issue in the practice of automated production. The precision computerized numerical-controlled (CNC) cutting process was chosen as an example of this, while [...] Read more.
Under the strict restrictions of international environmental regulations, how to reduce environmental hazards at the production stage has become an important issue in the practice of automated production. The precision computerized numerical-controlled (CNC) cutting process was chosen as an example of this, while tool wear and cutting noise were chosen as the research objectives of CNC cutting quality. The effects of quality optimizing were verified using the depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate, and tool nose runoff as control parameters and actual cutting on a CNC lathe was performed. Further, the relationships between Fuzzy theory and control parameters as well as quality objectives were used to define semantic rules to perform fuzzy quantification. The quantified output value was introduced into game theory to carry out the multi-quality bargaining game. Through the statistics of strategic probability, the strategy with the highest total probability was selected to obtain the optimum plan of multi-quality and multi-strategy. Under the multi-quality optimum parameter combination, the tool wear and cutting noise, compared to the parameter combination recommended by the cutting manual, was reduced by 23% and 1%, respectively. This research can indeed ameliorate the multi-quality cutting problem. The results of the research provided the technicians with a set of all-purpose economic prospective parameter analysis methods in the manufacturing process to enhance the international competitiveness of the automated CNC industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Data Transmission with GSM-MPAPM Modulation for an Indoor VLC System
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101232 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As an emerging wireless communication technique, visible light communication is experiencing a boom in the global communication field, and the dream of accessing to the Internet with light is fast becoming a reality. The objective of this study was to put forward an [...] Read more.
As an emerging wireless communication technique, visible light communication is experiencing a boom in the global communication field, and the dream of accessing to the Internet with light is fast becoming a reality. The objective of this study was to put forward an efficient and theoretical scheme that is based on generalized spatial modulation to reduce the bit error ratio in indoor short-distance visible light communication. The scheme was implemented while using two steps in parallel: (1) The multi-pulse amplitude and the position modulation signal were generated by combining multi-pulse amplitude modulation with multi-pulse position modulation using transmitted information, and (2) certain light-emitting diodes were activated by employing the idea of generalized spatial modulation to convey the generated multi-pulse amplitude and position modulation optical signals. Furthermore, pulse width modulation was introduced to achieve dimming control in order to improve anti-interference ability to the ambient light of the system. The two steps above involved the information theory of communication. An embedded hardware system, which was based on the C8051F330 microcomputer and included a transmitter and a receiver, was designed to verify the performance of this new scheme. Subsequently, the verifiability experiment was carried out. The results of this experiment demonstrated that the proposed theoretical scheme of transmission was feasible and could lower the bit error ratio (BER) in indoor short-distance visible light communication while guaranteeing indoor light quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Diagnosis System for Induction Motors by CNN Using Empirical Wavelet Transform
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101212 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Detecting the faults related to the operating condition of induction motors is a very important task for avoiding system failure. In this paper, a novel methodology is demonstrated to detect the working condition of a three-phase induction motor and classify it as a [...] Read more.
Detecting the faults related to the operating condition of induction motors is a very important task for avoiding system failure. In this paper, a novel methodology is demonstrated to detect the working condition of a three-phase induction motor and classify it as a faulty or healthy motor. The electrical current signal data is collected for five different types of fault and one normal operating condition of the induction motors. The first part of the methodology illustrates a pattern recognition technique based on the empirical wavelet transform, to transform the raw current signal into two dimensional (2-D) grayscale images comprising the information related to the faults. Second, a deep CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) model is proposed to automatically extract robust features from the grayscale images to diagnose the faults in the induction motors. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology achieves a competitive accuracy in the fault diagnosis of the induction motors and that it outperformed the traditional statistical and other deep learning methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forecasting for Ultra-Short-Term Electric Power Load Based on Integrated Artificial Neural Networks
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081063 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the two main research topics for sustainable energy. In the past ten years, countries around the world have invested a lot of manpower into new energy research. However, in addition to new energy development, energy efficiency technologies [...] Read more.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the two main research topics for sustainable energy. In the past ten years, countries around the world have invested a lot of manpower into new energy research. However, in addition to new energy development, energy efficiency technologies need to be emphasized to promote production efficiency and reduce environmental pollution. In order to improve power production efficiency, an integrated solution regarding the issue of electric power load forecasting was proposed in this study. The solution proposed was to, in combination with persistence and search algorithms, establish a new integrated ultra-short-term electric power load forecasting method based on the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and back-propagation neural network (BPN), which can be applied in forecasting electric power load in Taiwan. The research methodology used in this paper was mainly to acquire and process the all-day electric power load data of Taiwan Power and execute preliminary forecasting values of the electric power load by applying ANFIS, BPN and persistence. The preliminary forecasting values of the electric power load obtained therefrom were called suboptimal solutions and finally the optimal weighted value was determined by applying a search algorithm through integrating the above three methods by weighting. In this paper, the optimal electric power load value was forecasted based on the weighted value obtained therefrom. It was proven through experimental results that the solution proposed in this paper can be used to accurately forecast electric power load, with a minimal error. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Behavior Modality of Internet Technology on Reliability Analysis and Trust Perception for International Purchase Behavior
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11080989 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The proliferation of Internet technology and balance of composition in major feature of many visual products have been advantageous for businesses and changed the distribution channels through which industries reach their consumers. The intensive development of Internet technology and the increasing popularity of [...] Read more.
The proliferation of Internet technology and balance of composition in major feature of many visual products have been advantageous for businesses and changed the distribution channels through which industries reach their consumers. The intensive development of Internet technology and the increasing popularity of online shopping have further changed customers’ purchasing behaviors and the methods by which companies disseminate their video advertisements. The main research question that this study intends to answer is, “What do users do when a YouTube advertisement appears? Do they avoid or confront them?” The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions and related behaviors of international purchasing and consumers’ trust of YouTube advertisements. Statistical analyses focus on the demographics of a sample population in Thailand. The findings are based on data obtained by a questionnaire, the results of which were analyzed by t-test and multiple regression. The results indicate that YouTube advertising has a significant effect on behavioral trends. Moreover, the subjects in the sample reported that they are more likely to avoid YouTube ads than confront them. The study subjects have low satisfaction with YouTube advertising, and males have significantly lower satisfaction than females. This study also analyzes the reliability of trust perception toward purchasing. The results indicate that the reliability is greater than 90% at an α level of 5% and a 95% confidence interval. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the Symmetric Model to the Design Optimization of Fan Outlet Grills
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11080959 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, different designs of the opening pattern of computer fan grills were investigated. The objective of this study was to propose a simulation analysis and compare it to the experimental results for a set of optimized fan designs. The FLUENT computational [...] Read more.
In this study, different designs of the opening pattern of computer fan grills were investigated. The objective of this study was to propose a simulation analysis and compare it to the experimental results for a set of optimized fan designs. The FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software was used to analyze the fan blade flow. The experimental results obtained by the simulation analysis of the optimized fan designs were analyzed and compared. The effect of different opening pattern designs on the resulting airflow rate was investigated. Six types of fans with different grills were analyzed. The airflow velocity distribution in the simulated flow channel indicated that the wind speed efficiency of the fan and its influence were comparable with the experimental model. The air was forced by the fan into the air duct. The flow path was separately measured by analog instruments. The three-dimensional flow field was determined by performing a wind speed comparison on nine planes containing the mainstream velocity vector. Moreover, the three-dimensional curved surface flow field at the outlet position and the highest fan rotation speed were investigated. The air velocity distribution at the inlet and the outlet of the fan indicated that among the air outlet opening designs, the honeycomb shaped air outlet displayed the optimal performance by investigating the fan characteristics and the estimated wind speed efficiency. These optimized designs were the most ideal configurations to compare these results. The air flow rate was evenly distributed at the fan inlet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Consumption Load Forecasting Using a Level-Based Random Forest Classifier
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11080956 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Energy consumers may not know whether their next-hour forecasted load is either high or low based on the actual value predicted from their historical data. A conventional method of level prediction with a pattern recognition approach was performed by first predicting the actual [...] Read more.
Energy consumers may not know whether their next-hour forecasted load is either high or low based on the actual value predicted from their historical data. A conventional method of level prediction with a pattern recognition approach was performed by first predicting the actual numerical values using typical pattern-based regression models, hen classifying them into pattern levels (e.g., low, average, and high). A proposed prediction with pattern recognition scheme was developed to directly predict the desired levels using simpler classifier models without undergoing regression. The proposed pattern recognition classifier was compared to its regression method using a similar algorithm applied to a real-world energy dataset. A random forest (RF) algorithm which outperformed other widely used machine learning (ML) techniques in previous research was used in both methods. Both schemes used similar parameters for training and testing simulations. After 10-time cross training validation and five averaged repeated runs with random permutation per data splitting, the proposed classifier shows better computation speed and higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. However, when the number of its desired levels increases, its prediction accuracy seems to decrease and approaches the accuracy of the conventional method. The developed energy level prediction, which is computationally inexpensive and has a good classification performance, can serve as an alternative forecasting scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Computer Course Correlation between Learning Satisfaction and Learning Effectiveness of Vocational College in Taiwan
Symmetry 2019, 11(6), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11060822 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, we surveyed the influence of learn effectiveness in a computer course under the factors of learning attitude and learning problems for students in senior-high school. We followed the formula for a regression line as R = A + BX +ε [...] Read more.
In this paper, we surveyed the influence of learn effectiveness in a computer course under the factors of learning attitude and learning problems for students in senior-high school. We followed the formula for a regression line as R = A + BX +ε and simulated on SPSS platform with symmetry to obtained the results as follows: (1) In learning attitude, both the cognitive-level and behavior-level, are positively correlated with satisfaction. This means the students have cognitive-level and behavior-level more positively correlated with satisfaction in computer subjects and have a high degree of self-learning effectiveness. (2) In learning problems, the female students had higher learning effectiveness than male students, and the students who practiced on the computer on their own initiative long-term each week had higher learning effectiveness. Full article

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Open AccessReview
Locality Sensitive Discriminative Unsupervised Dimensionality Reduction
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081036 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Graph-based embedding methods receive much attention due to the use of graph and manifold information. However, conventional graph-based embedding methods may not always be effective if the data have high dimensions and have complex distributions. First, the similarity matrix only considers local distance [...] Read more.
Graph-based embedding methods receive much attention due to the use of graph and manifold information. However, conventional graph-based embedding methods may not always be effective if the data have high dimensions and have complex distributions. First, the similarity matrix only considers local distance measurement in the original space, which cannot reflect a wide variety of data structures. Second, separation of graph construction and dimensionality reduction leads to the similarity matrix not being fully relied on because the original data usually contain lots of noise samples and features. In this paper, we address these problems by constructing two adjacency graphs to stand for the original structure featuring similarity and diversity of the data, and then impose a rank constraint on the corresponding Laplacian matrix to build a novel adaptive graph learning method, namely locality sensitive discriminative unsupervised dimensionality reduction (LSDUDR). As a result, the learned graph shows a clear block diagonal structure so that the clustering structure of data can be preserved. Experimental results on synthetic datasets and real-world benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Full article
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