Special Issue "Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II"

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer Science and Symmetry/Asymmetry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 10187

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: IOT devices; photovoltaic devices; STEM education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of the Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle Laboratory, Professeur de Psychologie Cognitive – Université, Paris 8, France
Interests: internet of objects; data mining; brain–computer interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jih-Fu Tu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, St. John’s University, New Taipei City, 25135 Taiwan
Interests: human–computer interaction; internet technologies; distributed processing systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetry in language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition—that an object is invariant to any of various transformations, including reflectionrotation, or scaling. Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time; as a spatial relationship; through geometric transformations; through other kinds of functional transformations; and as an aspect of abstract objectstheoretical models, and even knowledge itself. Recently, symmetry theorem and simulation have been widely applied in engineering to improve the development of new technologies.

In addition, the International Institute of Knowledge Innovation and Invention (IIKII, http://www.iikii.org) is an institute that promotes the exchange of innovations and inventions and establishes a communication platform for international innovations and research. This year, IIKII is cooperating with the IEEE Tainan Section Sensors Council to hold IEEE conferences, such as IEEE ECBIOS 2020 (http://www.ecbios.asia), IEEE ICKII 2020 (http://www.ickii.org), and IEEE ECICE 2020 (http://www.ecice.asia). This Special Issue titled "Selected Papers from the 2020 IIKII Conferences" aims to select excellent papers from the 2020 IIKII conferences, including papers on symmetry in physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science, etc. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, to this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Physics: conservation laws, Noether's theorem, spatial parity, charge parity, time parity, G-parity, standard model, internal symmetry, Lorentz symmetry, transformations, invariance, conservation, local and global symmetries, laws and symmetry, symmetry breaking, color symmetry, periodic and quasiperiodic crystals, time-reversal symmetry breaking, symmetry and complexity, Curie–Rosen symmetry principles, constants, biophysics, entropy, and indistinguishability.
  • Chemistry: crystal and crystallography, chiral molecules, chiral resolution and asymmetric synthesis, asymmetric induction, chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts, stereochemistry, diastereomers, stereogenic, stereoisomers (enantiomers, atropisomers, diastereomers), stability, mixing, and phase separation.
  • Biology:symmetry in biology, radial symmetry (tetramerism, pentamerism, etc.), diversity, preservation, sustainability, morphology, origin of life, and molecular evolution (homochirality).
  • Mathematics: invariance, transformation, group theory, Lie groups, chirality, achiral or amphichiral, helix and Möbius strip, knot theory, graph theory, isometry, plane of symmetry, skewness, vertex algebra, asymmetry, dissymmetry, nonsymmetry and antisymmetry, supergroups and nonlinear algebraic structures, supersymmetry and supergravity, strings and branes, integrability and geometry, information theory, Felix Klein's Erlangen Program, and continuous symmetry.
  • Computer Science, Theory and Methods:computer-aided design, computational geometry, computer graphics, visualization, image compression, data compression, pattern recognition, diversity, similarity, and conservation and sustainability.
  • Symmetry and other scientific disciplines and engineering.

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the Special Issue website. Research articles, review articles, and communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for the submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994; CODEN: SYMMAM) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal covering research on symmetry phenomena wherever they occur in mathematical and scientific studies. Symmetry is published monthly online by MDPI. Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Schedule

Manuscript Due: December 31, 2020

First Round of Reviews: January 31, 2021

Second Round of Reviews: March 1, 2021

Acceptance of Final papers and Publication: March 31, 2021

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Prof. Dr. Jih-Fu Tu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Physics symmetry
  • Chemistry symmetry
  • Biology symmetry
  • Mathematics symmetry
  • Computer science, theory and methods
  • Symmetry and other scientific disciplines and engineering

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Study of Cascading Failure in Multisubnet Composite Complex Networks
Symmetry 2021, 13(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030523 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Current research on the cascading failure of coupling networks is mostly based on hierarchical network models and is limited to a single relationship. In reality, many relationships exist in a network system, and these relationships collectively affect the process and scale of the [...] Read more.
Current research on the cascading failure of coupling networks is mostly based on hierarchical network models and is limited to a single relationship. In reality, many relationships exist in a network system, and these relationships collectively affect the process and scale of the network cascading failure. In this paper, a composite network is constructed based on the multisubnet composite complex network model, and its cascading failure is proposed combined with multiple relationships. The effect of intranetwork relationships and coupling relationships on network robustness under different influencing factors is studied. It is shown that cascading failure in composite networks is different from coupling networks, and increasing the strength of the coupling relationship can significantly improve the robustness of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Research on Image Steganography Based on Sudoku Matrix
Symmetry 2021, 13(3), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030387 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
At present, the Sudoku matrix, turtle shell matrix, and octagonal matrix have been put forward according to the magic matrix-based data hiding methods. Moreover, the magic matrices to be designed depend on the size of the embedding capacity. In addition, by determining the [...] Read more.
At present, the Sudoku matrix, turtle shell matrix, and octagonal matrix have been put forward according to the magic matrix-based data hiding methods. Moreover, the magic matrices to be designed depend on the size of the embedding capacity. In addition, by determining the classification of points of pixel pairs after applying a magic matrix and by determining the traversal area, the average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) can be improved. Therefore, this topic intends to propose a data hiding method based on a 16 × 16 Sudoku matrix by using the 16 × 16 Sudoku matrix and extending it to a double-layer magic matrix. Low-cost data embedding methods are also studied, in order to improve the PSNR and maintain good image quality with the same embedding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
A Bidirectional LSTM Language Model for Code Evaluation and Repair
Symmetry 2021, 13(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13020247 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Programming is a vital skill in computer science and engineering-related disciplines. However, developing source code is an error-prone task. Logical errors in code are particularly hard to identify for both students and professionals, and a single error is unexpected to end-users. At present, [...] Read more.
Programming is a vital skill in computer science and engineering-related disciplines. However, developing source code is an error-prone task. Logical errors in code are particularly hard to identify for both students and professionals, and a single error is unexpected to end-users. At present, conventional compilers have difficulty identifying many of the errors (especially logical errors) that can occur in code. To mitigate this problem, we propose a language model for evaluating source codes using a bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) neural network. We trained the BiLSTM model with a large number of source codes with tuning various hyperparameters. We then used the model to evaluate incorrect code and assessed the model’s performance in three principal areas: source code error detection, suggestions for incorrect code repair, and erroneous code classification. Experimental results showed that the proposed BiLSTM model achieved 50.88% correctness in identifying errors and providing suggestions. Moreover, the model achieved an F-score of approximately 97%, outperforming other state-of-the-art models (recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTM)). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Design of Desktop Audiovisual Entertainment System with Deep Learning and Haptic Sensations
Symmetry 2020, 12(10), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12101718 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
In this study, we designed a four-dimensional (4D) audiovisual entertainment system called Sense. This system comprises a scene recognition system and hardware modules that provide haptic sensations for users when they watch movies and animations at home. In the scene recognition system, we [...] Read more.
In this study, we designed a four-dimensional (4D) audiovisual entertainment system called Sense. This system comprises a scene recognition system and hardware modules that provide haptic sensations for users when they watch movies and animations at home. In the scene recognition system, we used Google Cloud Vision to detect common scene elements in a video, such as fire, explosions, wind, and rain, and further determine whether the scene depicts hot weather, rain, or snow. Additionally, for animated videos, we applied deep learning with a single shot multibox detector to detect whether the animated video contained scenes of fire-related objects. The hardware module was designed to provide six types of haptic sensations set as line-symmetry to provide a better user experience. After the system considers the results of object detection via the scene recognition system, the system generates corresponding haptic sensations. The system integrates deep learning, auditory signals, and haptic sensations to provide an enhanced viewing experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Burrows–Wheeler Transform Based Lossless Text Compression Using Keys and Huffman Coding
Symmetry 2020, 12(10), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12101654 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Text compression is one of the most significant research fields, and various algorithms for text compression have already been developed. This is a significant issue, as the use of internet bandwidth is considerably increasing. This article proposes a Burrows–Wheeler transform and pattern matching-based [...] Read more.
Text compression is one of the most significant research fields, and various algorithms for text compression have already been developed. This is a significant issue, as the use of internet bandwidth is considerably increasing. This article proposes a Burrows–Wheeler transform and pattern matching-based lossless text compression algorithm that uses Huffman coding in order to achieve an excellent compression ratio. In this article, we introduce an algorithm with two keys that are used in order to reduce more frequently repeated characters after the Burrows–Wheeler transform. We then find patterns of a certain length from the reduced text and apply Huffman encoding. We compare our proposed technique with state-of-the-art text compression algorithms. Finally, we conclude that the proposed technique demonstrates a gain in compression ratio when compared to other compression techniques. A small problem with our proposed method is that it does not work very well for symmetric communications like Brotli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Bifurcation and Nonlinear Behavior Analysis of Dual-Directional Coupled Aerodynamic Bearing Systems
Symmetry 2020, 12(9), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091521 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Dual-directional coupled aerodynamic bearing (DCAB) systems have received considerable attention over the past few years. These systems are primarily used to solve air lubrication problems in high-precision mechanisms and equipment that run at a high rotational speed and require high rigidity and precision. [...] Read more.
Dual-directional coupled aerodynamic bearing (DCAB) systems have received considerable attention over the past few years. These systems are primarily used to solve air lubrication problems in high-precision mechanisms and equipment that run at a high rotational speed and require high rigidity and precision. DCABs have the advantages of axial and radial thrust and provide high rigidity, dual-directional support, and high load-carrying capacity. In DCAB systems, the nonlinearity of the air film pressure and dynamic problems, such as critical speed, unbalanced air supply, or poor design, can cause the instability of the rotor-bearing system and phenomena such as nonperiodic or chaotic motion under certain parameters or conditions. Therefore, to investigate what conditions lead to nonperiodic phenomena and to avoid irregular vibration, the properties and performance of the DCAB system were explored in detail by using three numerical methods for verifying the accuracy of the numerical results. The rotor behavior was also studied by analyzing the spectral response, the bifurcation phenomenon, Poincaré maps, and the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The numerical results indicate that chaos occurs in the DCAB system for specific ranges of the rotor mass and bearing number. For example, when the rotor mass (mr) is 5.7 kg, chaotic regions where the maximum Lyapunov exponents are greater than 0 occur at bearing number ranges of 3.96–3.98 and 4.63–5.02. The coupling effect of the rotor mass and bearing number was also determined. This effect can provide an important guideline for avoiding an unstable state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Effect and Scientific Verification of Innovative English Teaching and Learning through an International Networking Instructional System
Symmetry 2020, 12(9), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091510 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 800
Abstract
International networking offers a teacher/learner an additional platform for promoting self-learning, as well as another way of generating social benefits by attracting more people for discussion and sharing. In this study, Taiwan is used as the instructional center to study international networking for [...] Read more.
International networking offers a teacher/learner an additional platform for promoting self-learning, as well as another way of generating social benefits by attracting more people for discussion and sharing. In this study, Taiwan is used as the instructional center to study international networking for innovative teaching efficiency, and Mongolia is the research object. A strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) questionnaire was used to estimate how often Mongolian students employ specific strategies for language learning. This assessment allows teachers to determine their students’ profiles and strategies, thereby enabling them to design suitable approaches for teaching English. The SILL answers were analyzed in SPSS, and a descriptive statistics procedure was applied. In the SILL results, standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS statistical package. The SPSS general linear model was used to conduct an analysis of variance with gender and strategic ability as the independent variables. The results provided the Cronbach’s alpha, which indicates the correlation of a set of items that measure the same constructs, providing an average correlation of all items. The result of the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.741, which was acceptable. The analysis also provided the Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, with a value of 0.667, which meant that the degree of common variance was minimal. Innovative teaching and learning via international networking in English were verified through a reliability analysis. This produced values of 5% for α and a 95% confidence index, with the learner’s effectiveness greater than 81%. Among the six indicators—Memory, Cognitive, Compensation, Metacognitive, Affective, and Social. Memory and Cognitive levels were the highest, but remained behind the confidence level. The results showed that essential features can provide enhanced opportunities for teachers and students to teach and learn English. Therefore, this research suggests using IT in English classes motivates students to learn in class and to make the learning process more interesting and productive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Developing a Strategy to Improve Handling Behaviors of a Medium-Size Electric Bus Using Active Anti-Roll Bar
Symmetry 2020, 12(8), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081334 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Electric vehicles are a major trend in research and development in the automobile industry. A vehicle’s handling ability is changed when the structure of the power system is altered, which is more obvious in medium-sized buses with higher load and a longer body [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are a major trend in research and development in the automobile industry. A vehicle’s handling ability is changed when the structure of the power system is altered, which is more obvious in medium-sized buses with higher load and a longer body whose body stiffness is relatively less stiff. In this context, flexible multi-body dynamic modeling, instead of rigid body modeling, is used to reflect the stiffness effects of the vehicle body and chassis systems. A control strategy is developed with an active variable stiffness anti-roll bar to improve vehicle handling characteristics by using the flexible body dynamic simulation with consideration of the step and single sinusoidal steering input tests. Through simulation, it was learned that the proposed control strategy could reduce the time of stabilization by 54.08% and suppress undesired handling behaviors in the step steering input test. Moreover, at high speed, the original unsteady condition became stabilized with little sacrifice in yaw velocity. In the single sinusoidal steering input test, the time of stabilization could be reduced by 8.43% and with 14.6% less yaw angle changes in the improved design. The overall handling was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
Theoretical Derivation and Optimization Verification of BER for Indoor SWIPT Environments
Symmetry 2020, 12(7), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071185 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Symmetrical antenna array is useful for omni bearing beamforming adjustment with multiple receivers. Beam-forming techniques using evolution algorithms have been studied for multi-user resource allocation in simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems. In a high-capacity broadband communication system there are many [...] Read more.
Symmetrical antenna array is useful for omni bearing beamforming adjustment with multiple receivers. Beam-forming techniques using evolution algorithms have been studied for multi-user resource allocation in simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems. In a high-capacity broadband communication system there are many users with wearable devices. A transmitter provides simultaneous wireless information and power to a particular receiver, and the other receivers harvest energy from the radio frequency while being idle. In addition, the ray bounce tracking method is used to estimate the multi-path channel, and the Fourier method is used to perform the time domain conversion. A simple method for reducing the frequency selective effort of the multiple channels using the feed line length instead of the digital phase shifts is proposed. The feed line length and excitation current of the transmitting antennas are adjusted to maximize the energy harvest efficiency under the bit error rate (BER) constraint. We use the time-domain multipath signal to calculate the BER, which includes the inter symbol interference for the wideband system. In addition, we use multi-objective function for optimization. To the best of our knowledge, resource allocation algorithms for this problem have not been reported in the literature. The optimal radiation patterns are synthesized by the asynchronous particle swarm optimization (APSO) and self-adaptive dynamic differential evolution (SADDE) algorithms. Both APSO and SADDE can form good patterns for the receiver for energy harvesting. However, APSO has a faster convergence speed than SADDE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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Article
A Vector Field Texture Generation Method without Convolution Calculation
Symmetry 2020, 12(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12050724 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
In the LIC algorithm process, symmetrical streamline tracing is used to symmetrically convolve the original values of all the primitive values that pass by to obtain the resulting texture. In this process, streamline tracking and convolution consume a lot of computing resources. To [...] Read more.
In the LIC algorithm process, symmetrical streamline tracing is used to symmetrically convolve the original values of all the primitive values that pass by to obtain the resulting texture. In this process, streamline tracking and convolution consume a lot of computing resources. To generate more expressive textures for vector fields with less time consumption, a novel method named random increment streamline (RIS) is put forward, which can generate streamline textures without convolution calculations. First, the mesh unit filling preprocessing (MUFP) method is presented to transform an undressed irregular grid into a special kind of regular grid named a “texture pixel”, and the point location and interpolation processes of all sampling points in the texture pixels are calculated before streamline tracking. Second, the random increment streamline method is used to generate line integral convolution style textures without any convolution calculations, thus greatly reducing the algorithm’s time consumption. Third, the vector directions at each point in the static vector field are clearly expressed using the periodic cyclic animation method. Finally, several simplifications of the RIS algorithm are discussed, which help to achieve a better visual effect with faster speed. The programming results show that the method is faster and more applicable than the traditional LIC method and provides clearer expression of the vector field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2020 Conferences II)
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