Special Issue "Intelligent System Innovation"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen-­Hang Meen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: STEM education; ICT in education; E-Learning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44011, USA.
Interests: distributed systems; blockchains; smart healthcare; sensor networks; Internet of Things
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Interests: electronic ceramics; high-frequency communication materials; applied science
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mechanical engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering design. Technological innovation by mechanical engineering includes IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, and applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology. These new technologies, which implant intelligence in machine systems, are an interdisciplinary area combining conventional mechanical technology and new information technology.

The main goal of this Special Issue “Intelligent System Innovation” is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, and applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology. We invite investigators to contribute their original research or review articles to this Special Issue.

In addition, our organized conference “The 2nd IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019” (IEEE ICKII 2019) will be held in Seoul, South Korea on 12–15 July 2019. The authors of the papers which will be presented at IEEE ICKII 2019 are invited to submit their extended versions to this Special Issue after the conference. Submitted papers should be extended to the size of regular research or review articles, with at least a 50% extension of new results.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Intelligent mechanical manufacturing systems;
  • Mathematical problems in mechanical system design;
  • Smart electromechanical system analysis and design;
  • Applied materials in nanosciences and nanotechnology;
  • Computer-aided methods for mechanical design procedure and manufacture;
  • Computer and human–machine interaction;
  • Internet technology in mechanical system innovation;
  • Machine diagnostics and reliability;
  • Human–machine interaction/virtual reality and entertainment

Prof. Teen­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Smart electromechanical system analysis and design
  • Intelligent mechanical System
  • Applied Materials on Nanosciences and Nanotechnology

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Internal Carotid Artery Revascularization on Flow in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: A Preliminary Multiscale Numerical Investigation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4143; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194143 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
The optimal management strategy of patients with concomitant anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of unilateral ICA revascularization on hemodynamics factors associated with rupture in an ACoAA. In the [...] Read more.
The optimal management strategy of patients with concomitant anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the impacts of unilateral ICA revascularization on hemodynamics factors associated with rupture in an ACoAA. In the present study, a multiscale computational model of ACoAA was developed by coupling zero-dimensional (0D) models of the cerebral vascular system with a three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific ACoAA model. Distributions of flow patterns, wall shear stress (WSS), relative residence time (RRT) and oscillating shear index (OSI) in the ACoAA under left ICA revascularization procedure were quantitatively assessed by using transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our results showed that the revascularization procedures significantly changed the hemodynamic environments in the ACoAA. The flow disturbance in the ACoAA was enhanced by the resumed flow from the affected side. In addition, higher OSI (0.057 vs. 0.02), prolonged RRT (1.14 vs. 0.39) and larger low WSS area (66 vs. 50 mm2) in ACoAA were found in the non-stenotic case. These acute changes in hemodynamics after revascularization may elevate the rupture risk of ACoAA. The preliminary results validated the feasibility of predicting aneurismal hemodynamics characteristics in revascularization procedures by using multiscale CFD simulations, which would benefit the management of this group of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligent Neural Network Schemes for Multi-Class Classification
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194036 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
Multi-class classification is a very important technique in engineering applications, e.g., mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, applied materials in nanotechnologies, etc. A large amount of research is done for single-label classification where objects are associated with a single category. However, in many [...] Read more.
Multi-class classification is a very important technique in engineering applications, e.g., mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations, applied materials in nanotechnologies, etc. A large amount of research is done for single-label classification where objects are associated with a single category. However, in many application domains, an object can belong to two or more categories, and multi-label classification is needed. Traditionally, statistical methods were used; recently, machine learning techniques, in particular neural networks, have been proposed to solve the multi-class classification problem. In this paper, we develop radial basis function (RBF)-based neural network schemes for single-label and multi-label classification, respectively. The number of hidden nodes and the parameters involved with the basis functions are determined automatically by applying an iterative self-constructing clustering algorithm to the given training dataset, and biases and weights are derived optimally by least squares. Dimensionality reduction techniques are adopted and integrated to help reduce the overfitting problem associated with the RBF networks. Experimental results from benchmark datasets are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Micro-Phasor Measurement System to Identify Phasor of Distribution Transformers
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3831; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183831 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
In this paper, the micro-phasor measurement system is developed to support phasor identification of distribution transformers for the distribution mapping management system (DMMS) of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). The one pulse per second signal (1PPS) from the global positioning system (GPS) is used [...] Read more.
In this paper, the micro-phasor measurement system is developed to support phasor identification of distribution transformers for the distribution mapping management system (DMMS) of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). The one pulse per second signal (1PPS) from the global positioning system (GPS) is used to synchronize the voltage sampling between reference and measurement sides. By receiving 1PPS from GPS, the phasor measurement of three-phase voltage at the reference site of the substation is stored in the master station with a time-stamp. This paper proposes a timing synchronous module with an embedded temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) to generate highly accurate timing for field measurement of underground distribution facilities. Mobile communication network is used to compare measurement results between reference and field sides of voltage angle that define distribution transformer phasor. This paper also designs and develops an application for mobile devices by importing DMMS database, which is used to search the attributes of the distribution transformers for measurement at the field. After the transformer phasor is identified, the results are stored in the mobile device to update the attributes of distribution transformers in DMMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Touch Sign Word Recognition Based on Dynamic Hand Gesture Using Hybrid Segmentation and CNN Feature Fusion
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3790; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183790 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Hand gesture-based sign language recognition is a prosperous application of human– computer interaction (HCI), where the deaf community, hard of hearing, and deaf family members communicate with the help of a computer device. To help the deaf community, this paper presents a non-touch [...] Read more.
Hand gesture-based sign language recognition is a prosperous application of human– computer interaction (HCI), where the deaf community, hard of hearing, and deaf family members communicate with the help of a computer device. To help the deaf community, this paper presents a non-touch sign word recognition system that translates the gesture of a sign word into text. However, the uncontrolled environment, perspective light diversity, and partial occlusion may greatly affect the reliability of hand gesture recognition. From this point of view, a hybrid segmentation technique including YCbCr and SkinMask segmentation is developed to identify the hand and extract the feature using the feature fusion of the convolutional neural network (CNN). YCbCr performs image conversion, binarization, erosion, and eventually filling the hole to obtain the segmented images. SkinMask images are obtained by matching the color of the hand. Finally, a multiclass SVM classifier is used to classify the hand gestures of a sign word. As a result, the sign of twenty common words is evaluated in real time, and the test results confirm that this system can not only obtain better-segmented images but also has a higher recognition rate than the conventional ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Bidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System for Mobile Power Application
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3769; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183769 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper presents a bidirectional wireless power transfer system for mobile power applications. A novel 2-switch bidirectional wireless power transfer system with dual-side control is proposed for mobile power applications. Although only two switches are adopted, the energy can be transferred from the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a bidirectional wireless power transfer system for mobile power applications. A novel 2-switch bidirectional wireless power transfer system with dual-side control is proposed for mobile power applications. Although only two switches are adopted, the energy can be transferred from the transmitter side to the receiver side and vice versa. The term bidirectional means that the power-flow is bidirectional and also that the transmitter is also a receiver and the receiver is also a transmitter. The output energy can be easily controlled by the duty ratios of the two switches. Thus, the proposed bidirectional power transfer system uses only one circuit to achieve bidirectional power transfer. Hence, the system cost and volume can be reduced so that the system is small and convenient for mobile power systems, portable and/or wearable electronic devices. A prototype system is constructed and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed bidirectional wireless power transfer system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Failure-Robot Path Complementation for Robot Swarm Mission Planning
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3756; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183756 - 08 Sep 2019
Abstract
Currently, unmanned vehicles are widely used in different fields of exploration. Due to limited capacities, such as limited power supply, it is almost impossible for one unmanned vehicle to visit multiple wide areas. Multiple unmanned vehicles with well-planned routes are required to minimize [...] Read more.
Currently, unmanned vehicles are widely used in different fields of exploration. Due to limited capacities, such as limited power supply, it is almost impossible for one unmanned vehicle to visit multiple wide areas. Multiple unmanned vehicles with well-planned routes are required to minimize an unnecessary consumption of time, distance, and energy waste. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiple-vehicle system that can automatically compile a set of optimum vehicle paths, complement failed assignments, and avoid passing through no-travel zones. A heuristic algorithm was used to obtain an approximate solution within a reasonable timeline. The A* Search algorithm was adopted to determine an alternative path that does not cross the no-travel zone when the distance array was set, and an improved two-phased Tabu search was applied to converge any initial solutions into a feasible solution. A diversification strategy helped identify a global optimal solution rather than a regional one. The final experiments successfully demonstrated a group of three robot cars that were simultaneously dispatched to each of their planned routes; when any car failed during the test, its path was immediately reprogrammed by the monitoring station and passed to the other cars to continue the task until each target point had been visited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cloud-Based Real-Time Mechanism to Protect End Hosts against Malware
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3748; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183748 - 08 Sep 2019
Abstract
Nowadays, antivirus is one of the most popular tools used to protect computer systems. Diverse antivirus vendors are established to protect their customers against malware. However, antivirus is facing some critical problems, such as significant detection windows, vulnerability inside antivirus, and long scanning [...] Read more.
Nowadays, antivirus is one of the most popular tools used to protect computer systems. Diverse antivirus vendors are established to protect their customers against malware. However, antivirus is facing some critical problems, such as significant detection windows, vulnerability inside antivirus, and long scanning time. In this paper, we recommend a cloud-based real-time defense mechanism named Skywalker to allow users to safely utilize antivirus without the above problems. After Skywalker is installed in a host, the host does not need to install any antivirus. However, Skywalker guarantees that the host only executes programs that have been verified by a cloud-based scanner, such as VirusTotal. VirusTotal uses 56 antivirus engines to check whether a program is malware. Research shows that the more antivirus engines are used, the more accurate the result is. Because the above scan is performed right before the execution of every program, Skywalker provides 24/7 real-time protection to a system. Besides, Skywalker eliminates the need to spend a lot of time scanning all files in a host. Experimental results show that after a program has been executed once, it takes Skywalker, at most, 0.47091 s to start the program again. Meanwhile, VirusTotal provides a secure protection to client hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Brunnstrom Stage Evaluation System with Fuzzy-Accelerometer
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3718; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183718 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
Advances in medical care has reduced the rate of mortality from strokes, but the incidence of stroke has remained stable while the incidence of ministrokes has increased. Most stroke victims require long-term care, imposing a heavy financial and emotional burden on families while [...] Read more.
Advances in medical care has reduced the rate of mortality from strokes, but the incidence of stroke has remained stable while the incidence of ministrokes has increased. Most stroke victims require long-term care, imposing a heavy financial and emotional burden on families while incurring a heavy cost to society. Thus, strokes are a key issue in the context of health care in Taiwan. This paper proposes using VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) to build a system for assessing Brunnstrom stages based on the observation of several obvious rehabilitation features The system calculates features for accelerometer readings, which are then used as input parameters for a fuzzy algorithm to obtain the Brunnstrom action level. Experimental results show the proposed approach effectively assesses Brunnstrom level, and that the approach can be used to assist physical therapists in performing longitudinal assessments of stroke victim progress, thus improving evaluation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of a Promoted You Only Look Once Algorithm and Its Application in Traffic Flow Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173619 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
We propose a high-performance algorithm while using a promoted and modified form of the You Only Look Once (YOLO) model, which is based on the TensorFlow framework, to enhance the real-time monitoring of traffic-flow problems by an intelligent transportation system. Real-time detection and [...] Read more.
We propose a high-performance algorithm while using a promoted and modified form of the You Only Look Once (YOLO) model, which is based on the TensorFlow framework, to enhance the real-time monitoring of traffic-flow problems by an intelligent transportation system. Real-time detection and traffic-flow statistics were realized by adjusting the network structure, optimizing the loss function, and introducing weight regularization. This model, which we call YOLO-UA, was initialized based on the weight of a YOLO model pre-trained while using the VOC2007 data set. The UA-CAR data set with complex weather conditions was used for training, and better model parameters were selected through tests and subsequent adjustments. The experimental results showed that, for different weather scenarios, the accuracy of the YOLO-UA was ~22% greater than that of the YOLO model before optimization, and the recall rate increased by about 21%. On both cloudy and sunny days, the accuracy, precision, and recall rate of the YOLO-UA model were more than 94% above the floating rate, which suggested that the precision and recall rate achieved a good balance. When used for video testing, the YOLO-UA model yielded traffic statistics with an accuracy of up to 100%; the time to count the vehicles in each frame was less than 30 ms and it was highly robust in response to changes in scenario and weather. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Internet of Things in a Kitchen Fire Prevention System
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3520; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173520 - 27 Aug 2019
Abstract
When using a gas stove to cook, the food or oil in the pot or pan may catch fire because of an excessively high temperature. In addition, people may be uncertain as to whether they have turned off the gas stove before leaving [...] Read more.
When using a gas stove to cook, the food or oil in the pot or pan may catch fire because of an excessively high temperature. In addition, people may be uncertain as to whether they have turned off the gas stove before leaving home and therefore feel compelled to return home to check. To solve these problems, this study has developed a smart kitchen fire prevention system that possesses the following devices and functions. (1) Sensors are installed above the stove top. When they detect flames, high temperature, or a gas leak, they immediately activate the gas shutoff device to turn off the gas supply. (2) The alarm produces a loud sound and flashes to warn the residents. (3) The Line reporting system sends Line messages to notify the residents and the community management center, and the main entrance door is automatically unlocked to allow relevant personnel to enter the house to deal with the accident. (4) An Internet protocol camera is installed in the kitchen to enable the residents to monitor the gas stove on their mobile phones. If they find the gas stove is still turned on, they can activate the gas shutoff device to shut off the gas supply from their phones. The system developed in this study can effectively reduce the loss that results from a kitchen fire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Usability Testing of VR Interface for Tourism Apps
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163215 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) is considered to be an emerging technology. This study compared the usability differences of VR travel software, such as Google Street View, VeeR VR, and Sites in VR, for mobile phones. In the pilot study, three post-graduate students and one [...] Read more.
Virtual reality (VR) is considered to be an emerging technology. This study compared the usability differences of VR travel software, such as Google Street View, VeeR VR, and Sites in VR, for mobile phones. In the pilot study, three post-graduate students and one interface expert were invited to participate in the designed experimental tasks to provide opinions on the first draft of the questionnaire. Next, thirty college students were recruited to join the formal experiment. After operating the VR interface, they were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and a semi-structured interview was conducted. The results are described as follows: (1) Intuitive operation is required to allow people to select objects smoothly; (2) the chosen object requires a feedback mode to inform the user that the object has been selected; (3) the speed of the feedback mode should be adjustable to fulfil the needs of most people; (4) the contrast of icon color needs to be improved to ensure the most efficient verification of the operations; and (5) a search button or reminder function can be added to aid first-time users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Intrinsic Mode Function Based Detection of Motor Bearing Damages
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132587 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper proposes a model which uses the greedy algorithm to select the optimal intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), namely the greedy empirical mode decomposition (GEMD) model. The optimal IMFs can more sufficiently represent the characteristics of damage [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a model which uses the greedy algorithm to select the optimal intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), namely the greedy empirical mode decomposition (GEMD) model. The optimal IMFs can more sufficiently represent the characteristics of damage bearings since the proposed GEMD model effectively selects some IMFs not affected by noise. To validate the superiority of the proposed GEMD model, various damage types of motor bearings were shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) in this experiment. The measured motor current signals of various types were decomposed to IMFs by using EMD. Then the optimal IMFs can be obtained by using the proposed GEMD model. The results show that the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) spectrums when using the optimal IMFs become easier in the detection system than when using all IMFs. Simultaneously, the detection accuracy of motor bearing damages is increased by using the features extracted from the lower complexity HHT spectrum. The average detection accuracy can be also improved from 69.5% to 74.6% by using the features extracted from the GEMD-HHT spectrum even in a noise interference 10dB Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of UAV Tracing and Coordinate Detection Method Using a Dual-Axis Rotary Platform for an Anti-UAV System
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132583 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has led to many security problems. In order to prevent UAVs from invading restricted areas or famous buildings, an anti-UAV defense system (AUDS) has been developed and become a research topic of interest. Topics under [...] Read more.
The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has led to many security problems. In order to prevent UAVs from invading restricted areas or famous buildings, an anti-UAV defense system (AUDS) has been developed and become a research topic of interest. Topics under research in relation to this include electromagnetic interference guns for UAVs, high-energy laser guns, US military net warheads, and AUDSs with net guns. However, these AUDSs use either manual aiming or expensive radar to trace drones. This research proposes a dual-axis mechanism with UAVs automatic tracing. The tracing platform uses visual image processing technology to trace and lock the dynamic displacement of a drone. When a target UAV is locked, the system uses a nine-axis attitude meter and laser rangers to measure its flight altitude and calculates its longitude and latitude coordinates through sphere coordinates to provide drone monitoring for further defense or attack missions. Tracing tests of UAV flights in the air were carried out using a DJI MAVIC UAV at a height of 30 m to 100 m. It was set up for drone image capture and visual identification for tracing under various weather conditions by a thermal imaging camera and a full-color camera, respectively. When there was no cloud during the daytime, the images acquired by the thermal imaging camera and full-color camera provide a high-quality image identification result. However, under dark weather, black clouds will emit radiant energy and seriously affect the capture of images by a thermal imaging camera. When there is no cloud at night, the thermal imaging camera performs well in drone image capture. When the drone is traced and locked, the system can effectively obtain the flight altitude and longitude and latitude coordinate values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Competition Among the World’s Main Technological Powers to Develop IPs: Cross-National Longitudinal Patentography Over a 9-Year Time Span
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122432 - 14 Jun 2019
Abstract
Relatively few studies have focused on systematically mining the patent databases of different countries. This study mines the databases of the main ‘technological powers’ using several methods. By using descriptive statistical methods, the study yields key insights regarding patenting activities affecting the succession [...] Read more.
Relatively few studies have focused on systematically mining the patent databases of different countries. This study mines the databases of the main ‘technological powers’ using several methods. By using descriptive statistical methods, the study yields key insights regarding patenting activities affecting the succession and ‘crowding out’ of technologies, the ‘hottest technologies’ and the patent application strategies in these countries. The spectrums of technological strength in these countries are further analysed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), as two principal components are sufficient to resolve over 92% of the total variance. The US, EU and China are the economies that all technological powers may regard as important; similarities in the application strategies used in these countries are thus further investigated. Another extensive analysis utilising K-means clustering is also performed. Except for the optimal number for patent clustering, surprisingly, the top 10 ‘most important technologies’ are identical to the top 10 hottest ones that were previously identified. The knowledge and insights gained from this study are valuable not only for technological development policy makers, but also for business decision makers seeking suitable markets and areas to enter and invest in. Some data visualization and analysis methods are applied for the first time to this knowledge discovery problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Assistant System of Clean Intermittent Catheterization for Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction Patients
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071433 - 05 Apr 2019
Abstract
Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is one of the methods currently used to prevent overdistention of the bladder in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD). It is also helpful in preventing urinary tract infection and retaining the function of the bladder. Voiding diary and [...] Read more.
Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is one of the methods currently used to prevent overdistention of the bladder in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD). It is also helpful in preventing urinary tract infection and retaining the function of the bladder. Voiding diary and social behavior are necessary for the patients to maintain their physical and mental health, nevertheless there are currently no good assistant systems to help them achieve these goals. In this study, we propose a CIC assistant system with the functions of recording and tracking the voided volume and accessible lavatory. The aim of this study is to assess the effects from the 12 patients who joined the proposed system. Information collected from participants included their demographics, past medicals, injury characteristics, current and past bladder managements, and any NBD related complications. The results indicate that most patients felt relieved that they could know the voided volume and track their history easily. Moreover, the accessible lavatory function of the proposed system could reduce time consumption by 43.1% in finding the suitable lavatory, thus the desire and willingness of patients to travel increased from 25% to 75% after using the system. The proposed system could help doctors with clinical diagnoses, and help patients to understand more about the history of their catheterization volume and time period. This study provided essential information and design for future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent System Innovation)
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