Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120734

Authors: Yan Ma Kang Liu Zhibin Guan Xinkai Xu Xu Qian Hong Bao

Augmented Reality (AR) is crucial for immersive Human&ndash;Computer Interaction (HCI) and the vision of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Labeled data drives object recognition in AR. However, manually annotating data is expensive, labor-intensive, and data distribution asymmetry . Scantily labeled data limits the application of AR. Aiming at solving the problem of insufficient and asymmetry training data in AR object recognition, an automated vision data synthesis method, i.e., background augmentation generative adversarial networks (BAGANs), is proposed in this paper based on 3D modeling and the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) algorithm. Our approach has been validated to have better performance than other methods through image recognition tasks with respect to the natural image database ObjectNet3D. This study can shorten the algorithm development time of AR and expand its application scope, which is of great significance for immersive interactive systems.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120733

Authors: Tassaddiq

Taking inspiration principally from some of the latest research, we develop a new series representation for the &lambda;-generalized Hurwitz-Lerch zeta functions. This representation led to important new results. The Fourier transform played a foundational role in this work. The duality property of the Fourier transform became significant for checking the consistency of the results. Some known data has been verified as special cases of the results obtained in this investigation.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120732

Authors: Panda Kumari Badriah Alamri Nawab Hussain Sumit Chandok

In metric fixed point theory, the conditions like “symmetry” and “triangle inequality” play a predominant role. In this paper, we introduce a new kind of metric space by using symmetry, triangle inequality, and other conditions like self-distances are zero. In this paper, we introduce the weaker forms of integral type metric spaces, thereby we establish the existence of unique fixed point theorems. As usual, illustrations and counter examples are provided wherever necessary.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120731

Authors: Khursheed Ansari Ishfaq Ahmad M. Mursaleen Iqtadar Hussain

In this article, we propose a different generalization of ( p , q ) -BBH operators and carry statistical approximation properties of the introduced operators towards a function which has to be approximated where ( p , q ) -integers contains symmetric property. We establish a Korovkin approximation theorem in the statistical sense and obtain the statistical rates of convergence. Furthermore, we also introduce a bivariate extension of proposed operators and carry many statistical approximation results. The extra parameter p plays an important role to symmetrize the q-BBH operators.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120730

Authors: Mingtao Ge Jie Wang Yicun Xu Fangfang Zhang Ke Bai Xiangyang Ren

Because of the cyclic symmetric structure of rolling bearings, its vibration signals are regular when the rolling bearing is working in a normal state. But when the rolling bearing fails, whether the outer race fault or the inner race fault, the symmetry of the rolling bearing is broken and the fault destroys the rolling bearing’s stable working state. Whenever the bearing passes through the fault point, it will send out vibration signals representing the fault characteristics. These signals are often non-linear, non-stationary, and full of Gaussian noise which are quite different from normal signals. According to this, the sub-modal obtained by empirical wavelet transform (EWT), secondary decomposition is tested by the Gaussian distribution hypothesis test. It is regarded that sub-modal following Gaussian distribution is Gaussian noise which is filtered during signal reconstruction. Then by taking advantage of the ambiguity function superiority in non-stationary signal processing and combining correlation coefficient, an ambiguity correlation classifier is constructed. After training, the classifier can recognize vibration signals of rolling bearings under different working conditions, so that the purpose of identifying rolling bearing faults can be achieved. Finally, the method effect was verified by experiments.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120729

Authors: Lifeng Li Qinjun Luo

The convexity in triangular norm (for short, &otimes;&minus;convexity) is a generalization of Zadeh&rsquo;s quasiconvexity. The aggregation of two &otimes;&minus;convex sets is under the aggregation operator &otimes; is also &otimes;&minus;convex, but the aggregation operator &otimes; is not unique. To solve it in complexity, in the present paper, we give some sufficient conditions for aggregation operators preserve &otimes;&minus;convexity. In particular, when aggregation operators are triangular norms, we have that several results such as arbitrary triangular norm preserve &otimes; D &minus; convexity and &otimes; a &minus; convexity on bounded lattices, &otimes; M preserves &otimes; H &minus; convexity in the real unite interval [ 0 , 1 ] .

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120728

Authors: Elena Shadrina Yakov Vol’pert

An ethnically homogeneous group of Yakuts (Mongoloid race, Northeast Asia), aged 18&ndash;31, was studied to characterize the diversity of particular features between left- and right-handed individuals. A total of 52 left-handed (32 women and 20 men) and 100 right-handed (50 women and 50 men) individuals were studied. Testing included two sets of questions and tasks, dynamometry of the right and left hand, and fingerprint analysis. Left-handed and right-handed people were found to differ in functional asymmetry of psychophysiological and motor reactions. Right-handers were characterized by higher intragroup similarity, while, among left-handers, greater dispersion of these traits was observed. Asymmetry in hand grip strength was less pronounced in the left-handed people than in the right-handed; this difference was statistically significant, and the difference was greater in men than in women. This suggests that the non-dominant hand in the left-handed people was subjected to a greater load and indicates the forced adaptation of the left-handed people to &ldquo;dextrastress&rdquo;. No significant difference between sexes was found when analyzing fingerprint patterns. Left-handers had arches significantly more often than right-handers. Radial loops were most often found on the index finger, and, in the left-handers, their occurrence was significantly higher on three to five fingers of the left hand compared with the right-handers. The levels of fluctuating asymmetry in left-handers and right-handers were similar.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120727

Authors: Hassan Raza Sakander Hayat Xiang-Feng Pan

A convex polytope or simply polytope is the convex hull of a finite set of points in Euclidean space R d . Graphs of convex polytopes emerge from geometric structures of convex polytopes by preserving the adjacency-incidence relation between vertices. In this paper, we study the problem of binary locating-dominating number for the graphs of convex polytopes which are symmetric rotationally. We provide an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation for the binary locating-dominating problem of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the binary locating-dominating number for two infinite families of convex polytopes. The exact values of the binary locating-dominating number are obtained for two rotationally-symmetric convex polytopes families. Moreover, certain upper bounds are determined for other three infinite families of convex polytopes. By using the ILP formulation, we show tightness in the obtained upper bounds.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120726

Authors: Qianlei Cao Chongzhen Cao Fengqin Wang Dan Liu Hui Sun

Existing full-order terminal sliding mode (FOTSM) control methods often require a priori knowledge of the system model. To tackle this problem, two novel neural-network-based FOTSM control methods were proposed. The first one was model based but did not require knowledge of the uncertainties&rsquo; bounds. The second one was model free and did not require knowledge of the system model. Finite-time convergence of the two schemes was verified by theoretical analysis and simulation cases. Meanwhile, the designed methods avoided singularity as well as chattering.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120725

Authors: Wei Zhang Guoying Zhang

Image feature description and matching is widely used in computer vision, such as camera pose estimation. Traditional feature descriptions lack the semantic and spatial information, and give rise to a large number of feature mismatches. In order to improve the accuracy of image feature matching, a feature description and matching method, based on local semantic information fusion and feature spatial consistency, is proposed in this paper. Once object detection is used on images, feature points are then extracted, and image patches with various sizes surrounding these points are clipped. These patches are sent into the Siamese convolution network to get their semantic vectors. Then, semantic fusion description of feature points is obtained by weighted sum of the semantic vectors, and their weights optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. When matching these feature points using their descriptions, feature spatial consistency is calculated based on the spatial consistency of matched objects, and the orientation and distance constraint of adjacent points within matched objects. With the description and matching method, the feature points are matched accurately and effectively. Our experiment results showed the efficiency of our methods.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120724

Authors: Jimmy Reyes Inmaculada Barranco-Chamorro Diego I. Gallardo Héctor W. Gómez

In this paper, a generalization of the modified slash Birnbaum&ndash;Saunders (BS) distribution is introduced. The model is defined by using the stochastic representation of the BS distribution, where the standard normal distribution is replaced by a symmetric distribution proposed by Reyes et al. It is proved that this new distribution is able to model more kurtosis than other extensions of BS previously proposed in the literature. Closed expressions are given for the pdf (probability density functio), along with their moments, skewness and kurtosis coefficients. Inference carried out is based on modified moments method and maximum likelihood (ML). To obtain ML estimates, two approaches are considered: Newton&ndash;Raphson and EM-algorithm. Applications reveal that it has potential for doing well in real problems.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120723

Authors: Burt Ovrut

The compactification from the 11-dimensional Horava-Witten orbifold to 5-dimensional heterotic M-theory on a Schoen Calabi-Yau threefold is reviewed, as is the specific S U ( 4 ) vector bundle leading to the “heterotic standard model” in the observable sector. A generic formalism for a consistent hidden sector gauge bundle, within the context of strongly coupled heterotic M-theory, is presented. Anomaly cancellation and the associated bulk space 5-branes are discussed in this context. The further compactification to a 4-dimensional effective field theory on a linearized BPS double domain wall is then presented to order κ 11 4 / 3 . Specifically, the generic constraints required for anomaly cancellation and by the linearized domain wall solution, restrictions imposed by the vanishing of the D-terms and, finally, the constraints imposed by the necessity for positive, perturbative squared gauge couplings to this order are presented in detail.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120722

Authors: T. D. Le

A new stringent limit relating to the variation of the fine-structure constant (α= e2/4πε0ℏc) has been extracted from Ritz wavelengths of 27 quasi_stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra lines of Fe II. The calculation was combined with laboratory wavelengths and QSO spectra to obtain the result ∆α/α=(0.027±0.832)×10-6. This result suggests how dedicated astrophysical estimations can improve these limits in the future and can also constrain space_time variations.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120721

Authors: Rizwan Raheem Ahmed Zahid Ali Channar Riaz Hussain Soomro Jolita Vveinhardt Dalia Streimikiene Vishnu Parmar

The aim of this paper is to examine the direct impact of marketing and medical tools on the symmetry of physicians’ prescription behavior in the context of the Pakistani healthcare sector. This research also investigates the moderating influence of corporate image and customer relationship in an association of marketing &amp; medical tools, and the symmetry of physicians’ prescription behavior. The survey involved a research sample of 740 physicians, comprising 410 general practitioners and 330 specialists. A series of multivariate approaches such as exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analyses, and conditional process analysis are employed. The findings of the study showed that marketing &amp; medical tools have a direct, positive, and significant influence on physicians’ symmetrical prescription behavior. Corporate image and customer relationship have also a significant impact as moderating variables between marketing &amp; medical tools, and the symmetry of prescription behavior of physicians. The outcomes of this research are beneficial to marketers and medical managers in the pharmaceutical industry.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120720

Authors: Young Chel Kwun Abdul Rauf Nizami Mobeen Munir Zaffar Iqbal Dishya Arshad Shin Min Kang

Khovanov homology is a categorication of the Jones polynomial. It consists of graded chain complexes which, up to chain homotopy, are link invariants, and whose graded Euler characteristic is equal to the Jones polynomial of the link. In this article we give some Khovanov homology groups of 3-strand braid links &Delta; 2 k + 1 = x 1 2 k + 2 x 2 x 1 2 x 2 2 x 1 2 ⋯ x 2 2 x 1 2 x 1 2 , &Delta; 2 k + 1 x 2 , and &Delta; 2 k + 1 x 1 , where &Delta; is the Garside element x 1 x 2 x 1 , and which are three out of all six classes of the general braid x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 ⋯ with n factors.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120719

Authors: Ugur Camci

The F ( R , G ) theory of gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and G is the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, is studied in the context of existence the Noether symmetries. The Noether symmetries of the point-like Lagrangian of F ( R , G ) gravity for the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological model is investigated. With the help of several explicit forms of the F ( R , G ) function it is shown how the construction of a cosmological solution is carried out via the classical Noether symmetry approach that includes a functional boundary term. After choosing the form of the F ( R , G ) function such as the case ( i ) : F ( R , G ) = f 0 R n + g 0 G m and the case ( i i ) : F ( R , G ) = f 0 R n G m , where n and m are real numbers, we explicitly compute the Noether symmetries in the vacuum and the non-vacuum cases if symmetries exist. The first integrals for the obtained Noether symmetries allow to find out exact solutions for the cosmological scale factor in the cases (i) and (ii). We find several new specific cosmological scale factors in the presence of the first integrals. It is shown that the existence of the Noether symmetries with a functional boundary term is a criterion to select some suitable forms of F ( R , G ) . In the non-vacuum case, we also obtain some extra Noether symmetries admitting the equation of state parameters w &equiv; p / &rho; such as w = &minus; 1 , &minus; 2 / 3 , 0 , 1 etc.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120718

Authors: Ziaur Rahman Muhammad Aamir Yi-Fei Pu Farhan Ullah Qiang Dai

Images are an important medium to represent meaningful information. It may be difficult for computer vision techniques and humans to extract valuable information from images with low illumination. Currently, the enhancement of low-quality images is a challenging task in the domain of image processing and computer graphics. Although there are many algorithms for image enhancement, the existing techniques often produce defective results with respect to the portions of the image with intense or normal illumination, and such techniques also inevitably degrade certain visual artifacts of the image. The model use for image enhancement must perform the following tasks: preserving details, improving contrast, color correction, and noise suppression. In this paper, we have proposed a framework based on a camera response and weighted least squares strategies. First, the image exposure is adjusted using brightness transformation to obtain the correct model for the camera response, and an illumination estimation approach is used to extract a ratio map. Then, the proposed model adjusts every pixel according to the calculated exposure map and Retinex theory. Additionally, a dehazing algorithm is used to remove haze and improve the contrast of the image. The color constancy parameters set the true color for images of low to average quality. Finally, a details enhancement approach preserves the naturalness and extracts more details to enhance the visual quality of the image. The experimental evidence and a comparison with several, recent state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrated that our designed framework is effective and can efficiently enhance low-light images.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120717

Authors: Jinbao Zhuo Weifeng Shi Ying Lan

In the real world, there commonly exists types of multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems with partial attribute values and weights totally unknown. Symmetry among some attribute information that is already known and unknown, and symmetry between the pure attribute set and fuzzy attribute membership set can be a considerable way to solve this type of MADM problem. In this paper, a fuzzy attribute expansion method is proposed to solve this type of problem based on two key techniques: the spline interpolation technique and the attribute weight reconfiguration technique, which are respectively used for the determination of attribute values and the reconfiguration of attribute weights. The spline interpolation technique to expand attribute values can enhance the performance of some regression methods and clustering methods by the comparisons between the results of these methods dealing with practical cases with and without the application of the technique, which further illustrates the effectiveness of this technique. For MADM problems with partial attribute values and weights totally unknown, compared with traditional fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE), FCE with the application of fuzzy attribute expansion method can obtain results more similar with the ones when all attribute values and weights are known, which is proved by the practical power quality evaluation example.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120716

Authors: Xuxin Chen Ping He Zhe Qin

This paper presents an analytical method for surrounding rocks in symmetrically shaped tunnels or roadways, with the symmetrical rise and fall of groundwater over a certain period. The influence of reservoir water level on wet–dry cycles were studied. The changes in the microstructure and strength of altered granite and its evolution were explored using mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that: (1) the wet–dry cycles weakened the strength of altered granite. Furthermore, the uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle decreased with the increase of the number of cycles, while the maximum reduction in these parameters reached 50.22%, 63.84%, 93.76%, and 53.90%, respectively. (2) The wet–dry cycles damaged the microstructure of altered granite. The SEM analysis showed that, under wet–dry cycles, the structure of altered granite changed from a smooth and integrated internal structure to the initiation, development, and expansion of pores and cracks. The porosity and fractal dimension of rock were determined using the SEM results. The degree of damage to altered granite under wet–dry cycles was quantitatively analyzed. (3) According to the rock mechanics strength tests and SEM and X-ray diffraction analyses, the damage mechanism of altered granite subjected to wet–dry cycles was discussed. The results provide the basis for a stability analysis of symmetrically shaped tunnels, especially symmetrical tunnels constructed in water-rich areas such as symmetric circular tunnels and symmetric horseshoe tunnels.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120715

Authors: Dong-seok Lee Soon-kak Kwon

In this paper, an intra prediction method is proposed for coding of depth pictures using plane modelling. Each pixel in the depth picture is related to the distance from a camera to an object surface, and pixels corresponding to a flat surface of an object form a relationship with the 2D plane surface. The plane surface can be represented by a simple equation in the 3D camera coordinate system in such a way that the coordinate system of depth pixels can be transformed to the camera coordinate system. This paper finds the parameters which define the plane surface closest to given depth pixels. The plane model is then used to predict the depth pixels on the plane surface. A depth prediction method is also devised for efficient intra prediction of depth pictures, using variable-size blocks. For prediction with variable-size blocks, the plane surface that occupies a large part of the picture can be predicted using a large block size. The simulation results of the proposed method show that the mean squared error is reduced by up to 96.6% for a block size of 4 × 4 pixels and reduced by up to 98% for a block size of 16 × 16, compared with the intra prediction modes of H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120714

Authors: Mengmeng Wu Dongmei Wei Liren Zhang Yuefeng Zhao

Hyperspectral imaging technology with sufficiently discriminative spectral and spatial information brings new opportunities for robust facial image recognition. However, hyperspectral imaging poses several challenges including a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), intra-person misalignment of wavelength bands, and a high data dimensionality. Many studies have proven that both global and local facial features play an important role in face recognition. This research proposed a novel local features extraction algorithm for hyperspectral facial images using local patch based low-rank tensor decomposition that also preserves the neighborhood relationship and spectral dimension information. Additionally, global contour features were extracted using the polar discrete fast Fourier transform (PFFT) algorithm, which addresses many challenges relevant to human face recognition such as illumination, expression, asymmetrical (orientation), and aging changes. Furthermore, an ensemble classifier was developed by combining the obtained local and global features. The proposed method was evaluated by using the Poly-U Database and was compared with other existing hyperspectral face recognition algorithms. The illustrative numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the best CRC_RLS and PLS methods.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120713

Authors: Binfeng Wang Jinshu Su

Efficient network monitoring is an important basis work for network management. Generally, many management applications require accurate and timely statistics about network states at different aggregation levels at low cost, such as malicious traffic detection, traffic engineering, etc. Moreover, the network environment to be monitored is constantly changing and expanding, including not only the data center for cloud computing but also the Internet of Things (IoT) for smart urban sensing, which requires the intensive study of more fine-grained network monitoring. As is well known, the development of efficient network monitoring approaches greatly relies on a flexible monitoring framework. Software defined network (SDN) can provide dramatic advantages for network management by separating the control plane and data plane. Therefore, it is a good choice to design a flexible monitoring framework based on the advantages of SDN. However, most research works only take advantage of the centralized control feature in SDN, which leads to limited improvement in the flexibility of the monitoring framework. This paper proposes a flexible monitoring framework named FlexMonitor, which can realize greater flexibility based on not only the centralized control feature, but also the high programmability in the controller and the limited programmability in the openflow switches in SDN. There are two key parts in FlexMonitor, namely the monitoring strategy deployment part and the monitoring data collection part, which can enrich the deployment methods of monitoring strategies and increase the kinds of monitoring data sources, respectively. Based on the NetMagic platform, this monitoring framework was implemented and evaluated through realizing a distributed denial of service (DDoS) detection approach. The experimental results show that the proposed DDoS detection approach has a better detection performance compared with other related approaches as well as indirectly show that FlexMonitor can flexibly support a variety of efficient monitoring approaches.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120712

Authors: Sumaira Saleem Akhtar Tahir Hussain Ashfaque H. Bokhari

In this paper, we have investigated Noether symmetries of the Lagrangian of Kantowski&ndash;Sachs spacetime. The associated Lagrangian of the Kantowski&ndash;Sachs metric is used to derive the set of determining equations. Solving the determining equations for several values of the metric functions, it is observed that the Kantowski&ndash;Sachs spacetime admits the Noether algebra of dimensions 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11. A comparison of the obtained Noether symmetries with Killing and homothetic vectors is also presented. With the help of Noether&rsquo;s theorem, we have presented the expressions for conservation laws corresponding to all Noether symmetries. It is observed that the positive energy condition is satisfied for most of the obtained metrics.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120711

Authors: Kholood Alsager Noura Alshehri Muhammad Akram

In this paper, we propose a new hybrid model, multi Q-hesitant fuzzy soft multi-granulation rough set model, by combining a multi Q-hesitant fuzzy soft set and multi-granulation rough set. We demonstrate some useful properties of these multi Q-hesitant fuzzy soft multi-granulation rough sets. Furthermore, we define multi Q-hesitant fuzzy soft ( M k Q H F S ) rough approximation operators in terms of M k Q H F S relations and M k Q H F S multi-granulation rough approximation operators in terms of M k Q H F S relations. We study the main properties of lower and upper M k Q H F S rough approximation operators and lower and upper M k Q H F S multi-granulation rough approximation operators. Moreover, we develop a general framework for dealing with uncertainty in decision-making by using the multi Q-hesitant fuzzy soft multi-granulation rough sets. We analyze the photovoltaic systems fault detection to show the proposed decision methodology.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120710

Authors: Jingqian Wang Xiaohong Zhang

In this paper, to combine single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) with covering-based rough sets, we propose two types of single valued neutrosophic (SVN) covering rough set models. Furthermore, a corresponding application to the problem of decision making is presented. Firstly, the notion of SVN &beta; -covering approximation space is proposed, and some concepts and properties in it are investigated. Secondly, based on SVN &beta; -covering approximation spaces, two types of SVN covering rough set models are proposed. Then, some properties and the matrix representations of the newly defined SVN covering approximation operators are investigated. Finally, we propose a novel method to decision making (DM) problems based on one of the SVN covering rough set models. Moreover, the proposed DM method is compared with other methods in an example.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120709

Authors: Wen-Jian Zhao Jia-Cai Liu

This paper is mainly committed to constructing a new model for solving interval-valued fuzzy cooperative games based on the least square excess. We propose the interval-valued least square excess solution according to the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus and the least square nucleolus for solving crisp cooperative games. In order to obtain the corresponding optimal analytical solution, one mathematic programming model is constructed. The least square excess solution can be used to determine plays&rsquo; payoffs directly. Considering the fuzziness and uncertainty existing in the process of the road freight coalition, we establish the interval-valued fuzzy utility function of the road freight coalition that can properly reflect the real situation in view of the green logistics. The illustratively calculated results show that the least square excess solution proposed in this paper is effectual and ascendant, and satisfied many important and useful properties of cooperative games, such as symmetry and uniqueness. As for the problems of interval-valued cooperative games, the model proposed in this paper can be applied appropriately to obtain the players&rsquo; interval-valued payoffs.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120708

Authors: Mostafa Bachar Osvaldo Mendez Messaoud Bounkhel

We analyze the modular geometry of the Lebesgue space with variable exponent, L p ( &middot; ) . Our central result is that L p ( &middot; ) possesses a modular uniform convexity property. Part of the novelty is that the property holds even in the case sup x &isin; &Omega; p ( x ) = &infin; . We present specific applications to fixed point theory.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120707

Authors: Yongchao Song Yongfeng Ju Kai Du Weiyu Liu Jiacheng Song

Shadows and normal light illumination and road and non-road areas are two pairs of contradictory symmetrical individuals. To achieve accurate road detection, it is necessary to remove interference caused by uneven illumination, such as shadows. This paper proposes a road detection algorithm based on a learning and illumination-independent image to solve the following problems: First, most road detection methods are sensitive to variation of illumination. Second, with traditional road detection methods based on illumination invariability, it is difficult to determine the calibration angle of the camera axis, and the sampling of road samples can be distorted. The proposed method contains three stages: The establishment of a classifier, the online capturing of an illumination-independent image, and the road detection. During the establishment of a classifier, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the road block is generated through training with the multi-feature fusion method. During the online capturing of an illumination-independent image, the road interest region is obtained by using a cascaded Hough transform parameterized by a parallel coordinate system. Five road blocks are obtained through the SVM classifier, and the RGB (Red, Green, Blue) space of the combined road blocks is converted to a geometric mean log chromatic space. Next, the camera axis calibration angle for each frame is determined according to the Shannon entropy so that the illumination-independent image of the respective frame is obtained. During the road detection, road sample points are extracted with the random sampling method. A confidence interval classifier of the road is established, which could separate a road from its background. This paper is based on public datasets and video sequences, which records roads of Chinese cities, suburbs, and schools in different traffic scenes. The author compares the method proposed in this paper with other sound video-based road detection methods and the results show that the method proposed in this paper can achieve a desired detection result with high quality and robustness. Meanwhile, the whole detection system can meet the real-time processing requirement.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120706

Authors: Chengyou Wang Zhi Zhang Xiao Zhou

The popularity of image editing software has made it increasingly easy to alter the content of images. These alterations threaten the authenticity and integrity of images, causing misjudgments and possibly even affecting social stability. The copy-move technique is one of the most commonly used approaches for manipulating images. As a defense, the image forensics technique has become popular for judging whether a picture has been tampered with via copy-move, splicing, or other forgery techniques. In this paper, a scheme based on accelerated-KAZE (A-KAZE) and speeded-up robust features (SURF) is proposed for image copy-move forgery detection (CMFD). It is difficult for most keypoint-based CMFD methods to obtain sufficient points in smooth regions. To remedy this defect, the response thresholds for the A-KAZE and SURF feature detection stages are set to small values in the proposed method. In addition, a new correlation coefficient map is presented, in which the duplicated regions are demarcated, combining filtering and mathematical morphology operations. Numerous experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in searching for duplicated regions and its robustness against distortions and post-processing techniques, such as noise addition, rotation, scaling, image blurring, joint photographic expert group (JPEG) compression, and hybrid image manipulation. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior to that of other tested CMFD methods.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120704

Authors: Yongxi Wang Dandan Liu Yili Zhang Yanmei Tang Jingfeng Zhao Baochun Shen

(R)-6-Acrylic-BINOL CSP, a novel chiral stationary phase was prepared by (R)-Binaphthol (R-BINOL) by introducing the acrylic group into the 6-position of (R)-BINOL before bonding it to the surface of silica gel. The structure of the CSP was characterized by IR, SEM, and element analysis. This new material was tested for its potential as a CSP for HPLC under normal phase conditions, especially for conjugated compounds. Six solutes were chosen to evaluate the chiral separation ability of the novel CSP. The effects of the mobile phase and temperature on enantioseparation were studied, and the chiral recognition mechanism was also discussed. The results showed that the space adaptability and &pi;-&pi; stacking between the solutes and the CSP affected the retention and enantioseparation. The Van&rsquo;t Hoff curve indicated that under the experimental conditions, the separation mechanism of six solutes did not change, which were all enthalpy driven.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120705

Authors: Rafael Álvarez Alicia Andrade Antonio Zamora

Password-based key derivation functions (PBKDFs) are commonly used to transform user passwords into keys for symmetric encryption, as well as for user authentication, password hashing, and preventing attacks based on custom hardware. We propose two optimized alternatives that enhance the performance of a previously published PBKDF. This design is based on (1) employing a symmetric cipher, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), as a pseudo-random generator and (2) taking advantage of the support for the hardware acceleration for AES that is available on many common platforms in order to mitigate common attacks to password-based user authentication systems. We also analyze their security characteristics, establishing that they are equivalent to the security of the core primitive (AES), and we compare their performance with well-known PBKDF algorithms, such as Scrypt and Argon2, with favorable results.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120698

Authors: Shabana Ramzan Imran Sarwar Bajwa Rafaqut Kazmi

Handling complexity in the data of information systems has emerged into a serious challenge in recent times. The typical relational databases have limited ability to manage the discrete and heterogenous nature of modern data. Additionally, the complexity of data in relational databases is so high that the efficient retrieval of information has become a bottleneck in traditional information systems. On the side, Big Data has emerged into a decent solution for heterogenous and complex data (structured, semi-structured and unstructured data) by providing architectural support to handle complex data and by providing a tool-kit for efficient analysis of complex data. For the organizations that are sticking to relational databases and are facing the challenge of handling complex data, they need to migrate their data to a Big Data solution to get benefits such as horizontal scalability, real-time interaction, handling high volume data, etc. However, such migration from relational databases to Big Data is in itself a challenge due to the complexity of data. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach that handles complexity of automatic transformation of existing relational database (MySQL) into a Big data solution (Oracle NoSQL). The used approach supports a bi-fold transformation (schema-to-schema and data-to-data) to minimize the complexity of data and to allow improved analysis of data. A software prototype for this transformation is also developed as a proof of concept. The results of the experiments show the correctness of our transformations that outperform the other similar approaches.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120703

Authors: Bo Min Xu Zhang Chengping Zhang Yanping Gong Tengfei Yuan

Voids behind linings may affect the safety and performance of structures. In this paper, the applicability of the extended finite element method for simulating crack propagation was verified firstly through comparisons between numerical simulations and model tests. Moreover, the mechanical behavior of double-arch tunnels under effects of voids on the top of the middle wall was investigated numerically. Two factors, including void size and tunnel shape, were mainly investigated. The main results obtained were explored including internal forces, deformation and fracturing of the liner. The results showed that voids produced adverse effects on the liner. Internal forces on the liner experienced significant changes and the deformation of the liner increased. Besides, larger crack depth was observed at the crown and the connection between the spandrel and middle wall, indicating a significant decrease in bearing capacity of the structure compared with tunnels without voids.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120702

Authors: Aixian Zhang Keqin Feng

Normal bases are widely used in applications of Galois fields and Galois rings in areas such as coding, encryption symmetric algorithms (block cipher), signal processing, and so on. In this paper, we study the normal bases for Galois ring extension R / Z p r , where R = GR ( p r , n ) . We present a criterion on the normal basis for R / Z p r and reduce this problem to one of finite field extension R &macr; / Z &macr; p r = F q / F p ( q = p n ) by Theorem 1. We determine all optimal normal bases for Galois ring extension.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120701

Authors: Suphawat Asawasamrit Sotiris K. Ntouyas Jessada Tariboon Woraphak Nithiarayaphaks

This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a new coupled system of nonlinear sequential Caputo and Hadamard fractional differential equations with coupled separated boundary conditions, which include as special cases the well-known symmetric boundary conditions. Banach&rsquo;s contraction principle, Leray&ndash;Schauder&rsquo;s alternative, and Krasnoselskii&rsquo;s fixed-point theorem were used to derive the desired results, which are well-illustrated with examples.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120700

Authors: Chan-Uk Yeom Keun-Chang Kwak

In this paper, we compare the predictive performance of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models according to the input space segmentation method. The ANFIS model can be divided into four types according to the method of dividing the input space. In general, the ANFIS1 model using grid partitioning method, ANFIS2 model using subtractive clustering (SC) method, and the ANFIS3 model using fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering method exist. In this paper, we propose the ANFIS4 model using a context-based fuzzy C-means (CFCM) clustering method. Context-based fuzzy C-means clustering is a clustering method that considers the characteristics of the output space as well as the input space. Here, the symmetric Gaussian membership functions are obtained by the clusters produced from each context in the design of the ANFIS4. In order to evaluate the performance of the ANFIS models according to the input space segmentation method, a prediction experiment was conducted using the combined cycle power plant (CCPP) data and the auto-MPG (miles per gallon) data. As a result of the prediction experiment, we confirmed that the ANFIS4 model using the proposed input space segmentation method shows better prediction performance than the ANFIS model (ANFIS1, ANFIS2, ANFIS3) using the existing input space segmentation method.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120694

Authors: Dora M. Ballesteros Diego Renza

This paper presents a method for speech steganography using two levels of security: The first one related to the scrambling process, the second one related to the hiding process. The scrambling block uses a technique based on the ability of adaptation of speech signals to super-Gaussian signals. The security of this block relies on the value of the seed for generating the super-Gaussian signal. Once the speech signal has been scrambled, this is hidden in a non-sensitive speech signal. The hiding process is adaptive and controlled by the value of bits to hold ( B H ). Several tests were performed in order to quantify the influence of B H in the quality of the stego signal and the recovered message. When B H is equal to six, symmetry was found between the modified bits and unchanged bits, and therefore hiding capacity is 50%. In that case, the quality of the stego signal is 99.2% and of the recovered signal is 97.4%. On the other hand, it is concluded that without knowledge of the seed an intruder cannot reverse the scrambling process because all values of the seed are likely. With the above results, it can be affirmed that the proposed algorithm symmetrically considers both the quality of the signal (stego and recovered) as well as the hiding capacity, with a very large value of the key space.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120699

Authors: Wen-Jian Zhao Jia-Cai Liu

The primary aim of this paper is to develop one kind of easy and effective method to solve fuzzy cooperative games with coalition values expressed by triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs). This method ensures that each player should receive a TFN-typed fuzzy pay-off from the grand coalition because each coalition value is expressed by a TFN. Using the concept of Alpha-cut sets, an arbitrary TFN&rsquo;s Alpha-cut set can be shown as an interval. If the 1-cut sets and 0-cut sets of the TFN-typed coalition values are known, we can easily gain some important values, such as the means, the lower limits, and the upper limits of the TFN-typed payoffs via the proposed quadratic programming models and method. Furthermore, it is also easy for us to compute the lower and upper limits of Alpha-cut sets at any confidence levels of the TFN-typed payoffs for any TFN-typed cooperative game through solving the constructed quadratic programming models. Hereby the players&rsquo; TFN-typed payoffs for the TFN-typed cooperative game can be explicitly solved via the representation theorem for fuzzy sets. It is easy to prove that the proposed solutions of the fuzzy cooperative games with coalition values expressed by TFNs satisfy some useful and important properties, such as symmetry, additivity, and anonymity. Finally, the validity, applicability and advantages of the proposed method is proved and discussed through a numerical example.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120697

Authors: Huilin Xu Yuhui Xiao

In this paper, an edge detection method based on the regularized Laplacian operation is given. The Laplacian operation has been used extensively as a second-order edge detector due to its variable separability and rotation symmetry. Since the image data might contain some noises inevitably, regularization methods should be introduced to overcome the instability of Laplacian operation. By rewriting the Laplacian operation as an integral equation of the first kind, a regularization based on partial differential equation (PDE) can be used to compute the Laplacian operation approximately. We first propose a novel edge detection algorithm based on the regularized Laplacian operation. Considering the importance of the regularization parameter, an unsupervised choice strategy of the regularization parameter is introduced subsequently. Finally, the validity of the proposed edge detection algorithm is shown by some comparison experiments.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120696

Authors: Jia Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Weihua Xu

Attribute reduction is an important topic in the research of rough set theory, and it has been widely used in many aspects. Reduction based on an identifiable matrix is a common method, but a lot of space is occupied by repetitive and redundant identifiable attribute sets. Therefore, a new method for attribute reduction is proposed, which compresses and stores the identifiable attribute set by a discernibility information tree. In this paper, the discernibility information tree based on a lower approximation identifiable matrix is constructed in an inconsistent decision information system under dominance relations. Then, combining the lower approximation function with the discernibility information tree, a complete algorithm of lower approximation reduction based on the discernibility information tree is established. Finally, the rationality and correctness of this method are verified by an example.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120695

Authors: Xing Wang Li Zhang

This paper is concerned with the radial symmetry weak positive solutions for a class of singular fractional Laplacian. The main results in the paper demonstrate the existence and multiplicity of radial symmetry weak positive solutions by Schwarz spherical rearrangement, constrained minimization, and Ekeland&rsquo;s variational principle. It is worth pointing out that our results extend the previous works of T. Mukherjee and K. Sreenadh to a setting in which the testing functions need not have a compact support. Moreover, we weakened one of the conditions used in their papers. Our results improve on existing studies on radial symmetry solutions of nonlocal boundary value problems.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120693

Authors: Lianming Zhao Xueyu Zhou

A stable electricity supply is the basis for ensuring the healthy and sustained development of a regional economy. Reasonable electricity prediction is the key to guaranteeing the stability and efficiency of electricity supply. To this end, we used a reformative grey prediction model to forecast electricity demand. In order to effectively improve the smoothness of a raw modelling sequence, we employed an existing smoothing algorithm that significantly compressed the amplitude of the random oscillation sequence. Then, an improved grey forecasting model with three parameters (IGFM_TP) was deduced. In the end, a new model was used to forecast the demand for electricity of one city in the western region of China, and comparisons of simulation values and errors with those of GFM_TP, GM(1,1), DGM(1,1) and SAIGM were conducted. The findings show that the mean absolute simulation percentage error of IGFM_TP was 7.8%, and those of the other four models were 12.1%, 12.3%, 11.1%, and 10.1%, respectively. Therefore, the simulation precision of the new model achieved an optimal effect. The proposed new grey model provides is an effective method for electricity demand prediction.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120692

Authors: Mohammad A. AlQudah Maalee N. AlMheidat

Approximating continuous functions by polynomials is vital to scientific computing and numerous numerical techniques. On the other hand, polynomials can be characterized in several ways using different bases, where every form of basis has its advantages and power. By a proper choice of basis, several problems will be removed; for instance, stability and efficiency can be improved, and numerous complications can be resolved. In this paper, we provide an explicit formula of the generalized shifted Chebyshev Koornwinder&rsquo;s type polynomial of the first kind, T r * ( K 0 , K 1 ) ( x ) , using the Bernstein basis of fixed degree. Moreover, a B&eacute;zier&rsquo;s degree elevation was used to rewrite T r * ( K 0 , K 1 ) ( x ) in terms of a higher degree Bernstein basis without altering the shapes. In addition, explicit formulas of conversion matrices between generalized shifted Chebyshev Koornwinder&rsquo;s type polynomials and Bernstein polynomial bases were given.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120691

Authors: Panda Sumati Kumari Obaid Alqahtani Erdal Karapınar

In this article, we prove some fixed-point theorems in b-dislocated metric space. Thereafter, we propose a simple and efficient solution for a non-linear integral equation and non-linear fractional differential equations of Caputo type by using the technique of fixed point.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120690

Authors: Muhammad Aslam Nasrullah Khan Mohammed Albassam

Existing control charts based on failure-censored (Type-II) reliability tests were designed using classical statistics. Classical statistics was applied for the monitoring of the process when observations in the sample or the population were determined. Neutrosophic statistics (NS) are applied when there is uncertainty in the sample or population. In this paper, a control chart for failure-censored (Type-II) reliability tests was designed using NS. The design of a control chart for the Weibull distribution, which is applied when there is a lack of symmetry using neutrosophic statistics, is given. The proposed control chart was used to monitor the neutrosophic mean and neutrosophic variance, which are related to the neutrosophic scale parameter. The advantages of the proposed control chart over the existing control chart are discussed.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120689

Authors: Jia-Bao Liu Salama Nagy Daoud

The methods of measuring the complexity (spanning trees) in a finite graph, a problem related to various areas of mathematics and physics, have been inspected by many mathematicians and physicists. In this work, we defined some classes of pyramid graphs created by a gear graph then we developed the Kirchhoff&rsquo;s matrix tree theorem method to produce explicit formulas for the complexity of these graphs, using linear algebra, matrix analysis techniques, and employing knowledge of Chebyshev polynomials. Finally, we gave some numerical results for the number of spanning trees of the studied graphs.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120688

Authors: Huidong Wang Shifan He Xiaohong Pan Chengdong Li

For many multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) problems, linguistic variables are more convenient for people to express the attribute values. In this paper, a novel shadowed set-based method is proposed to deal with linguistic terms, where the linguistic term sets are symmetrical both in meaning and form. Firstly, to effectively express the linguistic variables, we develop a data-driven method to construct the shadowed set model for the linguistic terms. Secondly, the Pythagorean shadowed set is defined, and some theorems are subsequently explored. Thirdly, we propose the score function of the Pythagorean shadowed number and develop a new MADM method on the basis of the Pythagorean shadowed set. Finally, a case study of the supplier selection problem is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the superiority of our method is demonstrated by comparison analysis.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120687

Authors: Wang Li

With environmental issues becoming increasingly important worldwide, plenty of enterprises have applied the green supply chain management (GSCM) mode to achieve economic benefits while ensuring environmental sustainable development. As an important part of GSCM, green supplier selection has been researched in many literatures, which is regarded as a multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM) problem. However, these existing approaches present several shortcomings, including determining the weights of decision makers subjectively, ignoring the consensus level of decision makers, and that the complexity and uncertainty of evaluation information cannot be adequately expressed. To overcome these drawbacks, a new method for green supplier selection based on the q-rung orthopair fuzzy set is proposed, in which the evaluation information of decision makers is represented by the q-rung orthopair fuzzy numbers. Combined with an iteration-based consensus model and the q-rung orthopair fuzzy power weighted average (q-ROFPWA) operator, an evaluation matrix that is accepted by decision makers or an enterprise is obtained. Then, a comprehensive weighting method can be developed to compute the weights of criteria, which is composed of the subjective weighting method and a deviation maximization model. Finally, the TODIM (TOmada de Decisao Interativa e Multicritevio) method, based on the prospect theory, can be extended into the q-rung orthopair fuzzy environment to obtain the ranking result. A numerical example of green supplier selection in an electric automobile company was implemented to illustrate the practicability and advantages of the proposed approach.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120686

Authors: Meng Duan Hong Lu Xinbao Zhang Yongquan Zhang Zhangjie Li Qi Liu

It is of great significance to study the dynamic characteristics of twin ball screw (TBS) feed system to improve the precision of gantry-type dual-driven computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. In this paper, an equivalent dynamic model of the TBS feed system is established utilizing lumped mass method considering the stiffness of joints. Equivalent axial stiffness of screw-nut joints and bearing joints are both calculated by Hertz contact theory. Furthermore, a friction model is proposed because the friction force of the screw nut affects the stiffness of the joints. Then, the friction parameters are obtained by using the nonlinear system identification method. Meanwhile, a finite element model (FEM) is developed to assess the dynamic characteristics of TBS feed system under the stiffness of joints. Finally, validation experiments are conducted, and the results show that the positions of the nut and the velocities of worktable greatly affect the dynamic characteristics of the TBS feed system. Compared with the theoretical calculation, FEM and experiments indicate that the dynamic modeling proposed in this article can reach a higher accuracy.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120685

Authors: Raylin Tso

With the developments of mobile communications, M-commerce has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, most M-commerce schemes ignore user anonymity during online transactions. As a result, user transactions may easily be traced by shops, banks or by Internet Service Providers (ISPs). To deal with this problem, we introduce a new anonymous mobile payment scheme in this paper. Our new scheme has the following features: (1) Password-based authentication: authentication of users is done by low-entropy password; (2) Convenience: the new scheme is designed based on near field communication (NFC)-enabled devices and is compatible with EuroPay, MasterCard and Visa (EMV-compatible); (3) Efficiency: users do not need to have their own public/private key pairs and confidentiality is achieved via symmetric-key cryptography; (4) Anonymity: users use virtual accounts in the online shopping processes, thereby preventing attackers from obtaining user information even if the transaction is eavesdropped; (5) Untraceablity: no one (even the bank, Trusted Service Manager (TSM), or the shop) can trace a transaction and link the real identity with the buyer of a transaction; (6) Confidentiality and authenticity: all the transaction is either encrypted or signed by the sender so our new scheme can provide confidentiality and authenticity. We also present the performance and the security comparison of our scheme with other schemes. The results show that our scheme is applicable and has the most remarkable features among the existing schemes.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120684

Authors: Wu Deng Hailong Liu Shengjie Zhang Haodong Liu Huimin Zhao Jinzhao Wu

A motor bearing system is a nonlinear dynamics system with nonlinear support stiffness. It is an asymmetry system, which plays an extremely important role in rotating machinery. In this paper, a center frequency method of double thresholds is proposed to improve the variational mode decomposition (VMD) method, then an adaptive VMD (called DTCFVMD) method is obtained to extract the fault feature. In the DTCFVMD method, a center frequency method of double thresholds is a symmetry method, which is used to determine the decomposed mode number of VMD according to the power spectrum of the signal. The proposed DTCFVMD method is used to decompose the nonlinear and non-stationary vibration signals of motor bearing in order to obtain a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) under different scales. Then, the Hilbert transform is used to analyze the envelope of each mode component and calculate the power spectrum of each mode component. Finally, the power spectrum is used to extract the fault feature frequency for determining the fault type of the motor bearing. To test and verify the effectiveness of the DTCFVMD method, the actual fault vibration signal of the motor bearing is selected in here. The experimental results show that the center frequency method of double thresholds can effectively determine the mode number of the VMD method, and the proposed DTCFVMD method can accurately extract the clear time frequency characteristics of each mode component, and obtain the fault characteristics of characteristics; frequency, rotating frequency, and frequency doubling and so on.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120683

Authors: Yingsong Li Yanyan Wang Laijun Sun

A proportionate-type normalized maximum correntropy criterion (PNMCC) with a correntropy induced metric (CIM) zero attraction terms is presented, whose performance is also discussed for identifying sparse systems. The proposed sparse algorithms utilize the advantage of proportionate schemed adaptive filter, maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) algorithm, and zero attraction theory. The CIM scheme is incorporated into the basic MCC to further utilize the sparsity of inherent sparse systems, resulting in the name of the CIM-PNMCC algorithm. The derivation of the CIM-PNMCC is given. The proposed algorithms are used for evaluating the sparse systems in a non-Gaussian environment and the simulation results show that the expanded normalized maximum correntropy criterion (NMCC) adaptive filter algorithms achieve better performance than those of the squared proportionate algorithms such as proportionate normalized least mean square (PNLMS) algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be used for estimating finite impulse response (FIR) systems with symmetric impulse response to prevent the phase distortion in communication system.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120682

Authors: Guoxi Liang Byung-Won On Dongwon Jeong Hyun-Chul Kim Gyu Sang Choi

Essay scoring is a critical task in education. Implementing automated essay scoring (AES) helps reduce manual workload and speed up learning feedback. Recently, neural network models have been applied to the task of AES and demonstrates tremendous potential. However, the existing work only considered the essay itself without considering the rating criteria behind the essay. One of the reasons is that the various kinds of rating criteria are very hard to represent. In this paper, we represent rating criteria by some sample essays that were provided by domain experts and defined a new input pair consisting of an essay and a sample essay. Corresponding to this new input pair, we proposed a symmetrical neural network AES model that can accept the input pair. The model termed Siamese Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Architecture (SBLSTMA) can capture not only the semantic features in the essay but also the rating criteria information behind the essays. We use the SBLSTMA model for the task of AES and take the Automated Student Assessment Prize (ASAP) dataset as evaluation. Experimental results show that our approach is better than the previous neural network methods.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120681

Authors: Yun-Jeong Cho Kichang Im Dongkoo Shon Daehoon Park Jong-Myon Kim

This paper proposes a numerical analysis method for improving risk assessment of radio frequency (RF) hazards. To compare the results of conventional code analysis, the values required for dipole antenna risk assessment, which is widely used in offshore plants based on the British standards (BS) guide, are calculated using the proposed numerical analysis. Based on the BS (published document CENELEC technical report (PD CLC/TR) 50427:2004 and international electrotechnical commission (IEC) 60079 for an offshore plant dipole antenna, an initial assessment, a full assessment, and on-site test procedures are performed to determine if there is a potential risk of high-frequency ignition. Alternatively, numerical analysis is performed using the Ansys high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) tool to compare results based on the BS guide. The proposed method computes the effective field strength and power for the antenna without any special consideration of the structure to simplify the calculation. Experimental results show that the proposed numerical analysis outperforms the risk assessment based on the BS guide in accuracy of the evaluation.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120680

Authors: Ethan R. Jones Winyu Chinthammit Weidong Huang Ulrich Engelke Christopher Lueg

Control of robot arms is often required in engineering and can be performed by using different methods. This study examined and symmetrically compared the use of a controller, eye gaze tracker and a combination thereof in a multimodal setup for control of a robot arm. Tasks of different complexities were defined and twenty participants completed an experiment using these interaction modalities to solve the tasks. More specifically, there were three tasks: the first was to navigate a chess piece from a square to another pre-specified square; the second was the same as the first task, but required more moves to complete; and the third task was to move multiple pieces to reach a solution to a pre-defined arrangement of the pieces. Further, while gaze control has the potential to be more intuitive than a hand controller, it suffers from limitations with regard to spatial accuracy and target selection. The multimodal setup aimed to mitigate the weaknesses of the eye gaze tracker, creating a superior system without simply relying on the controller. The experiment shows that the multimodal setup improves performance over the eye gaze tracker alone ( p &lt; 0.05 ) and was competitive with the controller only setup, although did not outperform it ( p &gt; 0.05 ).

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120679

Authors: Lesley J. Rogers Adam Koboroff Gisela Kaplan

Lateralisation of eye use indicates differential specialisation of the brain hemispheres. We tested eye use by zebra finches to view a model predator, a monitor lizard, and compared this to eye use to view a non-threatening visual stimulus, a jar. We used a modified method of scoring eye preference of zebra finches, since they often alternate fixation of a stimulus with the lateral, monocular visual field of one eye and then the other, known as biocular alternating fixation. We found a significant and consistent preference to view the lizard using the left lateral visual field, and no significant eye preference to view the jar. This finding is consistent with specialisation of the left eye system, and right hemisphere, to attend and respond to predators, as found in two other avian species and also in non-avian vertebrates. Our results were considered together with hemispheric differences in the zebra finch for processing, producing, and learning song, and with evidence of right-eye preference in visual searching and courtship behaviour. We conclude that the zebra finch brain has the same general pattern of asymmetry for visual processing as found in other vertebrates and suggest that, contrary to earlier indications from research on lateralisation of song, this may also be the case for auditory processing.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120678

Authors: Xiaole Guo Rui Song Shiwei He Mingkai Bi Guowei Jin

The community shuttle system plays an important role in serving communities with a heavy travel demand for the metro service. Stop location and route design are the two main decisions of planning a community shuttle service. Those two decisions are interrelated and interact, and are strongly related to the user cost and operating cost. The optimal stop location and route can help to reduce the walking distance of passengers and the route length. To make a trade-off between the walking distance of passengers and route length, we propose a discrete optimization problem. A single integrated formulation is established to optimize stop location and route design. Planners can decide the stop location and route design of the community shuttle system simultaneously based on this formulation. Then, we present a non-dominated sorting genetic (NSGA-II) based algorithm to obtain the non-dominated solutions of the discrete optimization formulation. The numerical experiments and a case study based on real-world data are used to demonstrate that the proposed solution method can yield a set of plans of stop location and route in a reasonable time. We also find that when the maximum tolerable walking distance is set to 418 m, the trade-off between the total walking distance of passengers and route length can be obtained.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120677

Authors: Yanrong Wang Hang Ye Xianghua Jiang Aimei Tian

In turbomachinery applications, thin-walled gears are cyclic symmetric structures and often subject to dynamic meshing loading which may result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the thin-walled gear. To avoid HCF failure, ring dampers are designed for gears to increase damping and reduce resonance amplitude. Ring dampers are installed in the groove. They are held in contact with the groove by normal pressure generated by interference or centrifugal force. Vibration energy is attenuated (converted to heat) by frictional force on the contact interface when the relative motion between ring dampers and gears takes place. In this article, a numerical method for the prediction of friction damping in thin-walled gears with ring dampers is proposed. The nonlinear damping due to the friction is expressed as equivalent mechanical damping in the form of vibration stress dependence. This method avoids the forced response analysis of nonlinear structures, thereby significantly reducing the time required for calculation. The validity of this numerical method is examined by a comparison with literature data. The method is applied to a thin-walled gear with a ring damper and the effect of design parameters on friction damping is studied. It is shown that the rotating speed, geometric size of ring dampers and friction coefficient significantly influence the damping performance.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120676

Authors: Juan C. Bravo Manuel V. Castilla

Sustainable smart buildings play an essential role in terms of more efficient energy. However, these buildings as electric loads are affected by an important distortion in the current and voltage waveforms caused by the increasing proliferation of nonlinear electronic devices. Overall, buildings all around the world consume a significant amount of energy, which is about one-third of the total primary energy resources. Optimization of the power transfer process of such amount of energy is a crucial issue that needs specific tools to integrate energy-efficient behaviour throughout the grid. When nonlinear loads are present, new capable ways of thinking are needed to consider the effects of harmonics and related power components. In this manner, technology innovations are necessary to update the power factor concept to a generalized total or a true one, where different power components involved in it calculation, properly reflect each harmonic interaction. This work addresses an innovative theory that applies the Poynting Vector philosophy via Geometric Algebra to the electromagnetic energy transfer process providing a physical foundation. In this framework, it is possible to analyse and detect the nature of disturbing loads in the exponential growth of new globalized buildings and architectures in our era. This new insight is based on the concept of geometric objects with different dimension: vector, bivector, trivector, multivector. Within this paper, these objects are correlated with the electromagnetic quantities responsible for the energy flow supplied to the most common loads in sustainable smart buildings. Besides, it must be considered that these phenomena are characterized by a quality index multivector appropriate even for detecting harmonic sources. A numerical example is used to illustrate the clear capabilities of the suggested index when it applies to industrial loads for optimization of energy control systems and enhance comfort management in smart sustainable buildings.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120675

Authors: Serkan Araci Waseem Ahmad Khan Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar

We aim to introduce arbitrary complex order Hermite-Bernoulli polynomials and Hermite-Bernoulli numbers attached to a Dirichlet character &chi; and investigate certain symmetric identities involving the polynomials, by mainly using the theory of p-adic integral on Z p . The results presented here, being very general, are shown to reduce to yield symmetric identities for many relatively simple polynomials and numbers and some corresponding known symmetric identities.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120674

Authors: Pavan Kumar B. N. Adithya B. Chethana B. Ashok Kumar Patil Young Ho Chai

This study proposed a gaze-controlled method for visualization, navigation, and retrofitting of large point cloud data (PCD), produced by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) mounted with laser range-scanners. For this purpose, the estimated human gaze point was used to interact with a head-mounted display (HMD) to visualize the PCD and the computer-aided design (CAD) models. Virtual water treat plant pipeline models were considered for retrofitting against the PCD of the actual pipelines. In such an application, the objective was to use the gaze data to interact with the HMD so the virtual retrofitting process was performed by navigating with the eye gaze. It was inferred that the integration of eye gaze tracking for visualization and interaction with the HMD could improve both speed and functionality for human&ndash;computer interaction. A usability study was conducted to investigate the speed of the proposed method against the mouse interaction-based retrofitting. In addition, immersion, interface quality and accuracy was analyzed by adopting the appropriate questionnaire and user learning was tested by conducting experiments in iterations from participants. Finally, it was verified whether any negative psychological factors, such as cybersickness, general discomfort, fatigue, headache, eye strain and difficulty concentrating through the survey experiment.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120673

Authors: Zhicheng Hu

This paper is concerned about the efficiently numerical simulation of heat conduction problems with multiple heat sources that are allowed to move with different speeds. Based on the dynamical domain decomposition upon the trajectories of moving sources, which are solved by a predictor&ndash;corrector algorithm, a non-overlapping domain-decomposed moving mesh method is developed. Such a method can not only generate the adaptive mesh efficiently by parallel computing, but also greatly simplify the discretization of the underlying equations without loss of accuracy. Numerical examples for various motions of sources are presented to illustrate the accuracy, the convergence rate and the efficiency of the proposed method. The dependence of the solution on the moving sources such as the types of motion and the distance between sources is numerically investigated. A blow-up phenomenon that occurs at multiple locations simultaneously can also be well observed for the case of symmetrically moving sources.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120672

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Samman Tharek Abd Rahman MHD Nour Hindia Abdusalama Daho Effariza Hanafi

It has been widely speculated that the performance of the next generation Internet of Things (IoT) based wireless network should meet a transmission speed on the order of 1000 times more than current wireless networks; energy consumption on the order of 10 times less and access delay of less than 1 ns that will be provided by future 5G systems. To increase the current mobile broadband capacity in future 5G systems, the millimeter wave (mmWave) band will be used with huge amounts of bandwidth available in this band. Hence, to support this wider bandwith at the mmWave band, new radio access technology (RAT) should be provided for 5G systems. The new RAT with symmetry design for downlink and uplink should support different scenarios such as device to device (D2D) and multi-hop communications. This paper presents the path loss models in parking lot environment which represents the multi-end users for future 5G applications. To completely assess the typical performance of 5G wireless network systems across these different frequency bands, it is necessary to develop path loss (PL) models across these wide frequency ranges. The short wavelength of the highest frequency bands provides many scatterings from different objects. Cars and other objects are some examples of scatterings, which represent a critical issue at millimeter-wave bands. This paper presents the large-scale propagation characteristics for millimeter-wave in a parking lot environment. A new physical-based path loss model for parking lots is proposed. The path loss was investigated based on different models. The measurement was conducted at 28 GHz and 38 GHz frequencies for different scenarios. Results showed that the path loss exponent values were approximately identical at 28 GHz and 38 GHz for different scenarios of parking lots. It was found that the proposed compensation factor varied between 10.6 dB and 23.1 dB and between 13.1 and 19.1 in 28 GHz and 38 GHz, respectively. The proposed path loss models showed that more compensation factors are required for more scattering objects, especially at 28 GHz.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120671

Authors: Paolo Emilio Ricci

The complex Bernoulli spiral is connected to Grandi curves and Chebyshev polynomials. In this framework, pseudo-Chebyshev polynomials are introduced, and some of their properties are borrowed to form classical trigonometric identities; in particular, a set of orthogonal pseudo-Chebyshev polynomials of half-integer degree is derived.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120670

Authors: Harish Garg Muhammad Munir Kifayat Ullah Tahir Mahmood Naeem Jan

The objective of this manuscript is to present some new, improved aggregation operators for the T-spherical fuzzy sets, which is an extension of the several existing sets, such as intuitionistic fuzzy sets, picture fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets, and Pythagorean fuzzy sets. In it, some new, improved operational laws and their corresponding properties are studied. Further, based on these laws, we propose some geometric aggregation operators and study their various relationships. Desirable properties, as well as some special cases of the proposed operators, are studied. Then, based on these proposed operators, we present a decision-making approach to solve the multi-attribute decision-making problems. The reliability of the presented decision-making method is explored with the help of a numerical example and the proposed results are compared with several prevailing studies’ results. Finally, the superiority of the proposed approach is explained with a counter example to show the advantages of the proposed work.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120669

Authors: Daniel Díaz López María Blanco Uribe Claudia Santiago Cely Daniel Tarquino Murgueitio Edwin Garcia Garcia Pantaleone Nespoli Félix Gómez Mármol

Undoubtedly, the adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has impacted on our every-day life, surrounding us with smart objects. Thus, the potentialities of this new market attracted the industry, so that many enterprises developed their own IoT platforms aiming at helping IoT services&rsquo; developers. In the multitude of possible platforms, selecting the most suitable to implement a specific service is not straightforward, especially from a security perspective. This paper analyzes some of the most prominent proposals in the IoT platforms market-place, performing an in-depth security comparison using five common criteria. These criteria are detailed in sub-criteria, so that they can be used as a baseline for the development of a secure IoT service. Leveraging the knowledge gathered from our in-depth study, both researchers and developers may select the IoT platform which best fits their needs. Additionally, an IoT service for monitoring commercial flights is implemented in two previously analyzed IoT platforms, giving an adequate detail level to represent a solid guideline for future IoT developers.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120668

Authors: Xiang-Hua Zhai Yi Zhang

The theory of time scales which unifies differential and difference analysis provides a new perspective for scientific research. In this paper, we derive the canonical equations of a delayed Hamiltonian system in a time scales version and prove the Noether theorem by using the method of reparameterization with time. The results extend not only the continuous version of the Noether theorem with delayed arguments but also the discrete one. As an application of the results, we find a Noether-type conserved quantity of a delayed Emden-Fowler equation on time scales.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120667

Authors: Ahmed Alsaedi Madeaha Alghanmi Bashir Ahmad Sotiris K. Ntouyas

We develop the existence criteria for solutions of Liouville&ndash;Caputo-type generalized fractional differential equations and inclusions equipped with nonlocal generalized fractional integral and multipoint boundary conditions. Modern techniques of functional analysis are employed to derive the main results. Examples illustrating the main results are also presented. It is imperative to mention that our results correspond to the ones for a symmetric second-order nonlocal multipoint integral boundary value problem under suitable conditions (see the last section).

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120666

Authors: Salma Samiei Pejman Rasti Hervé Daniel Etienne Belin Paul Richard David Rousseau

Rapid urbanization is a worldwide critical environmental challenge. With this urban migration soaring, we need to live far more efficiently than we currently do by incorporating the natural world in new and innovative ways. There are a lot of researches on ecological, architectural or aesthetic points of view to address this issue. We present a novel approach to assess the visual impact of vegetation in urban street pedestrian view with the assistance of computer vision metrics. We statistically evaluate the correlations of the amount of vegetation with objective computer vision traits such as Fourier domain, color histogram, and estimated depth from monocular view. We show that increasing vegetation in urban street views breaks the orthogonal symmetries of urban blocks, enriches the color space with fractal-like symmetries and decreases the cues of projective geometry in depth. These uncovered statistical facts are applied to predict the requested amount of vegetation to make urban street views appear like natural images. Interestingly, these amounts are found in accordance with the ecosystemic approach for urban planning. Also, the study opens new questions for the understanding of the link between geometry and depth perception.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120665

Authors: Hassan Azad Khaleel Anaya Ahmad Y. Al-Dweik M. T. Mustafa

Algorithms to construct the optimal systems of dimension of at most three of Lie algebras are given. These algorithms are applied to determine the Lie algebra structure and optimal systems of the symmetries of the wave equation on static spherically symmetric spacetimes admitting G7 as an isometry algebra. Joint invariants and invariant solutions corresponding to three-dimensional optimal systems are also determined.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120664

Authors: Yanrong Wang Hang Ye Long Yang Aimei Tian

The gear is a cyclic symmetric structure, and each tooth is subjected to a periodic mesh force. These mesh forces have the same phase difference tooth by tooth, which can excite gear vibrations. The mechanism of additional axial force caused by gear bending is shown and examined, which can significantly affect the stability of a self-excited thin spur gears vibration. A mechanical model based on energy balance is then developed to predict the contribution of additional axial force, leading to the proposed numerical integration method for vibration stability analysis. By analyzing the change in the system energy, the occurrence of the self-excited vibration is validated. A numerical simulation is carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. The impacts of modal damping, contact ratio, and the number of nodal diameters on the stability boundaries of the self-excited vibration are revealed. The results prove that the backward traveling wave of the driven gear as well as the forward traveling wave of the driving gear encounter self-excited vibration in the absence of sufficient damping. The model can be used to predict the stability of the gear self-excited vibration.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10120663

Authors: László Kovács László Barna Iantovics Dimitris K. Iakovidis

The Symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (sTSP) is an intensively studied NP-hard problem. It has many important real-life applications such as logistics, planning, manufacturing of microchips and DNA sequencing. In this paper we propose a cluster level incremental tour construction method called Intra-cluster Refinement Heuristic (IntraClusTSP). The proposed method can be used both to extend the tour with a new node and to improve the existing tour. The refinement step generates a local optimal tour for a cluster of neighbouring nodes and this local optimal tour is then merged into the global optimal tour. Based on the performed evaluation tests the proposed IntraClusTSP method provides an efficient incremental tour generation and it can improve the tour efficiency for every tested state-of-the-art methods including the most efficient Chained Lin-Kernighan refinement algorithm. As an application example, we apply IntraClusTSP to automatically determine the optimal number of clusters in a cluster analysis problem. The standard methods like Silhouette index, Elbow method or Gap statistic method, to estimate the number of clusters support only partitional (single level) clustering, while in many application areas, the hierarchical (multi-level) clustering provides a better clustering model. Our proposed method can discover hierarchical clustering structure and provides an outstanding performance both in accuracy and execution time.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110662

Authors: Zhan-Ao Xue Dan-Jie Han Min-Jie Lv Min Zhang

The existing construction methods of granularity importance degree only consider the direct influence of single granularity on decision-making; however, they ignore the joint impact from other granularities when carrying out granularity selection. In this regard, we have the following improvements. First of all, we define a more reasonable granularity importance degree calculating method among multiple granularities to deal with the above problem and give a granularity reduction algorithm based on this method. Besides, this paper combines the reduction sets of optimistic and pessimistic multi-granulation rough sets with intuitionistic fuzzy sets, respectively, and their related properties are shown synchronously. Based on this, to further reduce the redundant objects in each granularity of reduction sets, four novel kinds of three-way decisions models with multi-granulation rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets are developed. Moreover, a series of concrete examples can demonstrate that these joint models not only can remove the redundant objects inside each granularity of the reduction sets, but also can generate much suitable granularity selection results using the designed comprehensive score function and comprehensive accuracy function of granularities.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110661

Authors: Mikhail Katkov Hila Harris Dov Sagi

It is generally assumed that the initial integration of visual information is limited in its spatial extent. Of particular interest is the extent to which image symmetries are detected and integrated. Here we studied the spatial extent of visual integration in textures constructed from wallpaper symmetry groups. Using tools from statistical physics, we obtained images ranging from symmetric ones to completely random ones, whereas the textural elements were of the same quality. Results show that the psychometric curves for 3 &times; 3 motif repetitions are similar to those of images having more repetitions, whereas an equivalent physical scaling of the images does not alter the performance.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110660

Authors: Xiaoqiang Zhang Xuesong Wang

Large numbers of images are produced in many fields every day. The content security of digital images becomes an important issue for scientists and engineers. Inspired by the magic cube game, a three-dimensional (3D) permutation model is established to permute images, which includes three permutation modes, i.e., internal-row mode, internal-column mode, and external mode. To protect the image content on the Internet, a novel multiple-image encryption symmetric algorithm (block cipher) with the 3D permutation model and the chaotic system is proposed. First, the chaotic sequences and chaotic images are generated by chaotic systems. Second, the sender permutes the plain images by the 3D permutation model. Lastly, the sender performs the exclusive OR operation on permuted images. The simulation and algorithm comparisons display that the proposed algorithm possesses desirable encryption images, high security, and efficiency.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110659

Authors: Jian Wan Guoqing Ruan Qiang Guo Xue Gong

Radar electronic reconnaissance is an important part of modern and future electronic warfare systems and is the primary method to obtain non-cooperative intelligence information. As the task requirement of radar electronic reconnaissance, it is necessary to identify the non-cooperative signals from the mixed signals. However, with the complexity of battlefield electromagnetic environment, the performance of traditional recognition system is seriously affected. In this paper, a new recognition method based on optimal classification atom and improved double chains quantum genetic algorithm (IDCQGA) is researched, optimal classification atom is a new feature for radar signal recognition, IDCQGA with symmetric coding performance can be applied to the global optimization algorithm. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: Firstly, in order to measure the difference of multi-class signals, signal separation degree based on distance criterion is proposed and established according to the inter-class separability and intra-class aggregation of the signals. Then, an IDCQGA is proposed to select the best atom for classification under the constraint of distance criterion, and the inner product of the signal and the best atom for classification is taken as the eigenvector. Finally, the extreme learning machine (ELM) is introduced as classifier to complete the recognition of signals. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the recognition rate of multi-class signals and has better processing ability for overlapping eigenvector parameters.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110658

Authors: Aliya Fahmi Fazli Amin Florentin Smarandache Madad Khan Nasruddin Hassan

In this paper, triangular cubic hesitant fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging (TCHFEWA) operator, triangular cubic hesitant fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging (TCHFEOWA) operator and triangular cubic hesitant fuzzy Einstein hybrid weighted averaging (TCHFEHWA) operator are proposed. An approach to multiple attribute group decision making with linguistic information is developed based on the TCHFEWA and the TCHFEHWA operators. Furthermore, we establish various properties of these operators and derive the relationship between the proposed operators and the existing aggregation operators. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the application of the established approach.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110657

Authors: Mehtap Dursun Özlem Arslan

The new product development process (NPD) is considered to be the key factor of competition among different markets. The identification of a suitable material is an important issue in the conception and improvement of new products. Material selection is seen as an important multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem in engineering because of the requirement of considering multiple criteria from different dimensions. Improper material selection may negatively affect the success of a firm. The purpose of this study is to specify the importance of selection attributes, which are considered to evaluate washing liquid that meets the needs of both customers and firms. Then, it objects to choose the most appropriate alternative among various formulations. A fuzzy MCDM methodology based on quality function deployment (QFD), 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic representation, and linguistic hierarchies is presented. QFD is used to incorporate customer requirements into the evaluation process. The 2-tuple fuzzy modeling and linguistic hierarchies are employed to combine multi-granular data given by experts. Finally, the fuzzy COPRAS (Complex Proportional Assessment) method is used to choose the most suitable alternative. The implementation of the developed method is presented by a case study conducted on a detergent manufacturer located in Turkey.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110656

Authors: Ahmet Çevik Selçuk Topal Florentin Smarandache

We introduce refined concepts for neutrosophic quantum computing such as neutrosophic quantum states and transformation gates, neutrosophic Hadamard matrix, coherent and decoherent superposition states, entanglement and measurement notions based on neutrosophic quantum states. We also give some observations using these principles. We present a number of quantum computational matrix transformations based on neutrosophic logic and clarify quantum mechanical notions relying on neutrosophic states. The paper is intended to extend the work of Smarandache by introducing a mathematical framework for neutrosophic quantum computing and presenting some results.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110655

Authors: Duc Manh Nguyen Sunghwan Kim

In this paper, new conditions on parameters in difference sets are derived to satisfy symplectic inner product, and new constructions of quantum stabilizer codes are proposed from the conditions. The conversion of the difference sets into parity-check matrices is first explained. Then, the proposed code construction is composed of three steps, which are to choose the generators of quantum stabilizer code, to determine the quantum stabilizer groups, and to determine subspace codewords with large minimum distance. The quantum stabilizer codes with various length are also presented to explain the practicality of the code construction. The proposed design can be applied to quantum stabilizer code construction based on combinatorial design.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110654

Authors: Jebran Khan Sungchang Lee

In this paper, we propose a new scale-free social networks (SNs) evolution model that is based on homophily combined with preferential attachments. Our model enables the SN researchers to generate SN synthetic data for the evaluation of multi-facet SN models that are dependent on users&rsquo; attributes and similarities. Homophily is one of the key factors for interactive relationship formation in SN. The synthetic graph generated by our model is scale-invariant and has symmetric relationships. The model is dynamic and sustainable to changes in input parameters, such as number of nodes and nodes&rsquo; attributes, by conserving its structural properties. Simulation and evaluation of models for large-scale SN applications need large datasets. One way to get SN data is to generate synthetic data by using SN evolution models. Various SN evolution models are proposed to approximate the real-life SN graphs in previous research. These models are based on SN structural properties such as preferential attachment. The data generated by these models is suitable to evaluate SN models that are structure dependent but not suitable to evaluate models which depend on the SN users&rsquo; attributes and similarities. In our proposed model, users&rsquo; attributes and similarities are utilized to synthesize SN graphs. We evaluated the resultant synthetic graph by analyzing its structural properties. In addition, we validated our model by comparing its measures with the publicly available real-life SN datasets and previous SN evolution models. Simulation results show our resultant graph to be a close representation of real-life SN graphs with users&rsquo; attributes.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110653

Authors: Saeed A. Dobbah Muhammad Aslam Khushnoor Khan

In this paper, we propose a new synthetic sampling plan assuming that the quality characteristic follows the normal distribution with known and unknown standard deviation. The proposed plan is given and the operating characteristic (OC) function is derived to measure the performance of the proposed sampling plan for some fixed parameters. The parameters of the proposed sampling plan are determined using non-linear optimization solution. A real example is added to explain the use of the proposed plan by industry.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110652

Authors: Serkan Araci Mumtaz Riyasat Shahid Ahmad Wani Subuhi Khan

The article is written with the objectives to introduce a multi-variable hybrid class, namely the Hermite&ndash;Apostol-type Frobenius&ndash;Euler polynomials, and to characterize their properties via different generating function techniques. Several explicit relations involving Hurwitz&ndash;Lerch Zeta functions and some summation formulae related to these polynomials are derived. Further, we establish certain symmetry identities involving generalized power sums and Hurwitz&ndash;Lerch Zeta functions. An operational view for these polynomials is presented, and corresponding applications are given. The illustrative special cases are also mentioned along with their generating equations.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110651

Authors: Mehmet Akif Yaman Abdulhamit Subasi Frank Rattay

Biometry based authentication and recognition have attracted greater attention due to numerous applications for security-conscious societies, since biometrics brings accurate and consistent identification. Face biometry possesses the merits of low intrusiveness and high precision. Despite the presence of several biometric methods, like iris scan, fingerprints, and hand geometry, the most effective and broadly utilized method is face recognition, because it is reasonable, natural, and non-intrusive. Face recognition is a part of the pattern recognition that is applied for identifying or authenticating a person that is extracted from a digital image or a video automatically. Moreover, current innovations in big data analysis, cloud computing, social networks, and machine learning have allowed for a straightforward understanding of how different challenging issues in face recognition might be solved. Effective face recognition in the enormous data concept is a crucial and challenging task. This study develops an intelligent face recognition framework that recognizes faces through efficient ensemble learning techniques, which are Random Subspace and Voting, in order to improve the performance of biometric systems. Furthermore, several methods including skin color detection, histogram feature extraction, and ensemble learner-based face recognition are presented. The proposed framework, which has a symmetric structure, is found to have high potential for biometrics. Hence, the proposed framework utilizing histogram feature extraction with Random Subspace and Voting ensemble learners have presented their superiority over two different databases as compared with state-of-art face recognition. This proposed method has reached an accuracy of 99.25% with random forest, combined with both ensemble learners on the FERET face database.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110650

Authors: He-Yau Kang Amy H. I. Lee

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a challenging combinatorial optimization problem. This research focuses on the problem under which a manufacturer needs to outsource materials from other suppliers and to ship the materials back to the company. Heterogeneous vehicles are available to ship the materials, and each vehicle has a limited loading capacity and a limited travelling distance. The purpose of this research is to study a multiple vehicle routing problem (MVRP) with soft time window and heterogeneous vehicles. Two models, using mixed integer programming (MIP) and genetic algorithm (GA), are developed to solve the problem. The MIP model is first constructed to minimize the total transportation cost, which includes the assignment cost, travelling cost, and the tardiness cost, for the manufacturer. The optimal solution can present multiple vehicle routing and the loading size of each vehicle in each period. The GA is next applied to solve the problem so that a near-optimal solution can be obtained when the problem is too difficult to be solved using the MIP. A case of a food manufacturing company is used to examine the practicality of the proposed MIP model and the GA model. The results show that the MIP model can obtain the optimal solution under a short computational time when the scale of the problem is small. When the problem becomes non-deterministic polynomial hard (NP-hard), the MIP model cannot find the optimal solution. On the other hand, the GA model can obtain a near-optimal solution within a reasonable amount of computational time. This paper is related to several important topics of the Symmetry journal in the areas of mathematics and computer science theory and methods. In the area of mathematics, the theories of linear and non-linear algebraic structures and information technology are adopted. In the area of computer science, theory and methods, and metaheuristics are applied.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110649

Authors: Sana Bellili Chedia Aouadhi Wissal Dhifi Hanene Ghazghazi Chaima Jlassi Carmen Sadaka Marc El Beyrouthy Abderrazak Maaroufi Ameur Cherif Wissem Mnif

In this study, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil (EO) extracts (from leaves and cones) of the Tunisian Thuja occidentalis were evaluated. The composition of the leaf EO extract was more complex than that of the cones. The major components of the leaf EO extract were &alpha;-Pinene (34.4%), cedrol (13.17%), and &beta;-Phellandrene (8.04%), while the composition of the cone EO extract was characterized by the predominance of &alpha;-Pinene (58.55%) and 3-Carene (24.08%). All EO extracts showed much better antioxidant activity than Trolox against 2, 2&prime;-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, but EOs extracted from leaves exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity. All EOs showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against nine tested foodborne microorganisms (Bacillus cereus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 1247, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Aeromonas hydrophila EI, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 6017, Aspergillus flavus (foodborne isolate), and Aspergillus niger CTM 10099. The highest antimicrobial activities by disk diffusion assay were recorded for the EOs extracted from leaves, while no difference in potency was marked between leaf and cone EO extracts by the agar dilution method. The most potent antimicrobial activity was recorded among fungi. This study confirms the strong antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of EO extracts from the Tunisian T. occidentalis (from the Sidi Bou Said site), highlighting its potential as a natural preservative against foodborne pathogens, particularly against E. coli and S. typhimurium.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110648

Authors: Ismoilov Nusrat Sung-Bong Jang

Artificial neural networks (ANN) have attracted significant attention from researchers because many complex problems can be solved by training them. If enough data are provided during the training process, ANNs are capable of achieving good performance results. However, if training data are not enough, the predefined neural network model suffers from overfitting and underfitting problems. To solve these problems, several regularization techniques have been devised and widely applied to applications and data analysis. However, it is difficult for developers to choose the most suitable scheme for a developing application because there is no information regarding the performance of each scheme. This paper describes comparative research on regularization techniques by evaluating the training and validation errors in a deep neural network model, using a weather dataset. For comparisons, each algorithm was implemented using a recent neural network library of TensorFlow. The experiment results showed that an autoencoder had the worst performance among schemes. When the prediction accuracy was compared, data augmentation and the batch normalization scheme showed better performance than the others.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110647

Authors: Fahui Wu Lin Xiao Dingcheng Yang Laurie Cuthbert Xiaoping Liu

In this paper, we consider a symmetric wireless communication network, i.e., each user is equipped with the same number of antennas. Specifically, this paper studies simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in a K-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive radio network where the secondary users (SUs) access the same frequency band as the pre-existing primary user (PU) without generating any interference. The transceivers and power splitting ratio are designed and power allocation is considered in our system model. To guarantee the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and harvested energy requirement of the PU, its optimal transceiver and minimal transmitted power are obtained by the technique of semi-definite relaxation (SDR). We design the beamformers of the SUs using the distance between the interference subspaces at the PU and the null space of PU&rsquo;s desired signal to preserve the PU from the interference caused by the SUs. We aim to maximize the sum rate of all the SUs by jointly designing power splitting ratios and allocating transmission power. Furthermore, to consider the performance fairness of SUs, we propose another approach to maximize the minimum SINR of the SUs. Finally, numerical results are given to evaluate the performance of proposed approaches.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110646

Authors: Jian Sun Guanhua Huang Gang Sun Hongfang Yu Arun Kumar Sangaiah Victor Chang

As the size and service requirements of today&rsquo;s networks gradually increase, large numbers of proprietary devices are deployed, which leads to network complexity, information security crises and makes network service and service provider management increasingly difficult. Network function virtualization (NFV) technology is one solution to this problem. NFV separates network functions from hardware and deploys them as software on a common server. NFV can be used to improve service flexibility and isolate the services provided for each user, thus guaranteeing the security of user data. Therefore, the use of NFV technology includes many problems worth studying. For example, when there is a free choice of network path, one problem is how to choose a service function chain (SFC) that both meets the requirements and offers the service provider maximum profit. Most existing solutions are heuristic algorithms with high time efficiency, or integer linear programming (ILP) algorithms with high accuracy. It&rsquo;s necessary to design an algorithm that symmetrically considers both time efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we propose the Q-learning Framework Hybrid Module algorithm (QLFHM), which includes reinforcement learning to solve this SFC deployment problem in dynamic networks. The reinforcement learning module in QLFHM is responsible for the output of alternative paths, while the load balancing module in QLFHM is responsible for picking the optimal solution from them. The results of a comparison simulation experiment on a dynamic network topology show that the proposed algorithm can output the approximate optimal solution in a relatively short time while also considering the network load balance. Thus, it achieves the goal of maximizing the benefit to the service provider.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110645

Authors: Charles Roberto Telles

The article analyzes Bernoulli&rsquo;s binary sequences in the representation of empirical events about water usage and continuous expenditure systems. The main purpose is to identify among variables that constitute water resources consumption at public schools, the link between consumption and expenditures oscillations. It was obtained a theoretical model of how oscillations patterns are originated and how time lengths have an important role over expenditures oscillations ergodicity and non-ergodicity.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110644

Authors: Guillaume Ollitrault Sandrine Fartek Diane Descamps Anne-Claude Camproux Benoît Visseaux Leslie Regad

HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer, which is an important target in the treatment of the HIV-2 infection. In this study, we developed an in silico protocol to analyze and characterize the asymmetry of the unbound PR2 structure using three levels of protein description by comparing the conformation, accessibility, and flexibility of each residue in the two PR2 chains. Our results showed that 65% of PR2 residues have at least one of the three studied asymmetries (structural, accessibility, or flexibility) with 10 positions presenting the three asymmetries in the same time. In addition, we noted that structural and flexibility asymmetries are linked indicating that the structural asymmetry of some positions result from their large flexibility. By comparing the structural asymmetry of the crystallographic and energetically minimized structures of the unbound PR2, we confirmed that the structural asymmetry of unbound PR2 is an intrinsic property of this protein with an important role for the PR2 deformation upon ligand binding. This analysis also allowed locating asymmetries corresponding to crystallization artefacts. This study provides insight that will help to better understand the structural deformations of PR2 and to identify key positions for ligand binding.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110643

Authors: Ahmet Çevik Selçuk Topal Florentin Smarandache

We introduce oracle Turing machines with neutrosophic values allowed in the oracle information and then give some results when one is permitted to use neutrosophic sets and logic in relative computation. We also introduce a method to enumerate the elements of a neutrosophic subset of natural numbers.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110642

Authors: Agnieszka Leśniak Daniel Kubek Edyta Plebankiewicz Krzysztof Zima Stanisław Belniak

This paper proposes the author&rsquo;s model based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to improve the efficiency of contractor bidding decisions. The essence of the AHP method is to make pairwise comparisons of available options against all evaluation criteria. The results of these comparisons are recorded in a square matrix in which symmetrical elements are reciprocal. In the expert opinion, a 9-step, bipolar verbal scale was used so that the symmetry of the response was maintained. For contractors from countries where the tendering system is commonly used, the choice of the right tender in which to participate influences their image, financial condition, and their aspiration to succeed. The bid/no bid decision depends on numerous factors associated with the company itself, the environment, and the project concerning the tender. When facing tough competition, contractors search for a solution which increases their chances of winning the tender. The proposed model was based on factors selected by Polish contractors. The original element of the model involves 4 original criteria and 15 sub-criteria for the assessment of investment decision projects to the selection of the most advantageous contract, i.e., the contractor&rsquo;s participation in the bid. For verbal evaluations describing the criteria, symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers were assigned. The authors performed an extended analysis method combined with FAHP in the model. Fuzzy evaluations underwent elaborate analysis, the aim of which was to specify the synthetic priority weights for each criterion. As a result of the application of the method, to prove that the model works, an example from the Polish construction market was presented in which a bid/no bid decision about four possible tenders was to be taken. Despite the considered example applying to Polish conditions, the proposed model can be used also in other countries. The authors&rsquo; rationale is to produce new and more flexible methodologies in order to realistically model a variety of concrete decision problems.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110641

Authors: Mansour Sattam Aldosari Muhammad Aslam Nasrullah Khan Chi-Hyuck Jun

In this paper, a new variable control chart is proposed using multiple dependent-state repetitive sampling by assuming that the data follows a normal distribution having a symmetry property. Its efficiency will be evaluated in terms of in-control and out-of-control average run lengths. The results showed that the proposed chart is better than the existing variable control chart to detect an early shift in the process. An industrial example is given to illustrate the proposed chart in the industry.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110640

Authors: Libo Xu Xingsen Li Chaoyi Pang Yan Guo

In this paper, a new approach and framework based on the interval dependent degree for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems with simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) is proposed. Firstly, the simplified dependent function and distribution function are defined. Then, they are integrated into the interval dependent function which contains interval computing and distribution information of the intervals. Subsequently, the interval transformation operator is defined to convert simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) into intervals, and then the interval dependent function for SNNs is deduced. Finally, an example is provided to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, together with its comparative analysis. In addition, uncertainty analysis, which can reflect the dynamic change of the final result caused by changes in the decision makers&rsquo; preferences, is performed in different distribution function situations. That increases the reliability and accuracy of the result.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110639

Authors: Ahmad Ali Yu Ming Sagnik Chakraborty Saima Iram Tapas Si

Present research in the domain of wireless sensor network (WSN) has unearthed that energy restraint of sensor nodes (SNs) encumbers their perpetual performance. Of late, the encroachment in the vicinity of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has achieved pervasive consideration from both industry and academia to cater the sensor nodes (SNs) letdown in the wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSNs). The fundamental notion of wireless power transfer is to replenish the energy of sensor nodes using a single or multiple wireless charging devices (WCDs). Herein, we present a jointly optimization model to maximize the charging efficiency and routing restraint of the wireless charging device (WCD). At the outset, we intend an unswerving charging path algorithm to compute the charging path of the wireless charging device. Moreover, Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has designed with the aid of a virtual clustering technique during the routing process to equilibrate the network lifetime. Herein clustering algorithm, the enduring energy of the sensor nodes is an indispensable parameter meant for the assortment of cluster head (CH). Furthermore, compare the proposed approach to corroborate its pre-eminence over the benchmark algorithm in diverse scenarios. The simulation results divulge that the proposed work is enhanced concerning the network lifetime, charging performance and the enduring energy of the sensor nodes.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110638

Authors: Susmit Bagchi

The probabilistic algorithms are widely applied in designing computational applications such as distributed systems and probabilistic databases, to determine distributed consensus in the presence of random failures of nodes or networks. In distributed computing, symmetry breaking is performed by employing probabilistic algorithms. In general, probabilistic symmetry breaking without any bias is preferred. Thus, the designing of randomized and probabilistic algorithms requires modeling of associated probability spaces to generate control-inputs. It is required that discrete measures in such spaces are computable and tractable in nature. This paper proposes the construction of composite discrete measures in real as well as complex metric spaces. The measures are constructed on different varieties of continuous smooth curves having distinctive non-linear profiles. The compositions of discrete measures consider arbitrary functions within metric spaces. The measures are constructed on 1-D interval and 2-D surfaces and, the corresponding probability metric product is defined. The associated sigma algebraic properties are formulated. The condensation measure of the uniform contraction map is constructed as axioms. The computational evaluations of the proposed composite set of measures are presented.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110637

Authors: Tie Hong SongZhu Mei ZhiYing Wang JiangChun Ren

Many scholars have attempted to use an encryption method to resolve the problem of data leakage in data outsourcing storage. However, encryption methods reduce data availability and are inefficient. Vertical fragmentation perfectly solves this problem. It was first used to improve the access performance of the relational database, and nowadays some researchers employ it for privacy protection. However, there are some problems that remain to be solved with the vertical fragmentation method for privacy protection in the relational database. First, current vertical fragmentation methods for privacy protection require the user to manually define privacy constraints, which is difficult to achieve in practice. Second, there are many vertical fragmentation solutions that can meet privacy constraints; however, there are currently no quantitative evaluation criteria evaluating how effectively solutions can protect privacy more effectively. In this article, we introduce the concept of information entropy to quantify privacy in vertical fragmentation, so we can automatically discover privacy constraints. Based on this, we propose a privacy protection model with a minimum entropy fragmentation algorithm to achieve minimal privacy disclosure of vertical fragmentation. Experimental results show that our method is suitable for privacy protection with a lower overhead.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110636

Authors: Azadeh Zahedi Khameneh Adem Kiliçman

Aggregation operators are important tools for solving multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. The main challenging issue for aggregating data in a MAGDM problem is how to develop a symmetric aggregation operator expressing the decision makers&rsquo; behavior. In the literature, there are some methods dealing with this difficulty; however, they lack an effective approach for multi-polar inputs. In this study, a new aggregation operator for m-polar fuzzy soft sets (M-pFSMWM) reflecting different agreement scenarios within a group is presented to proceed MAGDM problems in which both attributes and experts have different weights. Moreover, some desirable properties of M-pFSMWM operator, such as idempotency, monotonicity, and commutativity (symmetric), that means being invariant under any permutation of the input arguments, are studied. Further, m-polar fuzzy soft induced ordered weighted average (M-pFSIOWA) operator and m-polar fuzzy soft induced ordered weighted geometric (M-pFSIOWG) operator, which are extensions of IOWA and IOWG operators, respectively, are developed. Two algorithms are also designed based on the proposed operators to find the final solution in MAGDM problems with weighted multi-polar fuzzy soft information. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed methods is illustrated by some numerical examples. The characteristic comparison of the proposed aggregation operators shows the M-pFSMWM operator is more adaptable for solving MAGDM problems in which different cases of agreement affect the final outcome.

]]>Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10110635

Authors: Abdul Jawad Kazuharu Bamba Muhammad Younas Saba Qummer Shamaila Rani

The cosmic expansion phenomenon is being studied through the interaction of newly proposed dark energy models (Tsallis, R&eacute;nyi and Sharma-Mittal holographic dark energy (HDE) models) with cold dark matter in the framework of loop quantum cosmology. We investigate different cosmic implications such as equation of state parameter, squared sound speed and cosmological plane (&omega; d - &omega; d &prime; , &omega; d and &omega; d &prime; represent the equation of state (EoS) parameter and its evolution, respectively). It is found that EoS parameter exhibits quintom like behavior of the universe for all three models of HDE. The squared speed of sound represents the stable behavior of R&eacute;nyi HDE and Sharma-Mittal HDE at the latter epoch while unstable behavior for Tsallis HDE. Moreover, &omega; d - &omega; d &prime; plane lies in the thawing region for all three HDE models.

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