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Special Issue "Selected Papers from 2nd Eurasian Conference on Educational Innovation 2019"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Teen­Hang Meen

Chair of IEEE Tainan Section Sensors Council Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632
Website | E-Mail
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus

Director of the Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle Laboratory; Professeur de Psychologie Cognitive - Université Paris 8, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Internet of Objects; data mining; brain–computer interaction
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jui-Che Tu

Graduate School of Design, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: design in education; design of green technology; industrial design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2nd Eurasian Conference on Educational Innovation 2019 (ECEI 2019: http://2019.ecei.asia) will be held in Singapore, 25–27 January, 2019, and will provide a communication platform for researchers on the topic of educational innovations. This conference aims to enable interdisciplinary collaboration between educators and experts from other areas in the academic and industrial fields, as well as international networking. Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly, open access journal on environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies related to sustainability and sustainable development. It encourages researchers to publish their experimental and theoretical research relating to natural sciences, social sciences and humanities in as much detail as possible in order to promote scientific predictions and impact assessments of global change and development.

This Special Issue, "Selected Papers from the 2nd Eurasian Conference on Educational Innovation 2019", aims to invite excellent papers from ECEI 2019 about the topics of education and awareness of sustainability. The aim is to encourage the attendees of ECEI 2019 to publish their experimental and theoretical research relating to educational innovation. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Sustainability in educational innovation
  • Applications of sustainability
  • Sustainability science in educational innovation
  • Abandonment or loss of tradition, racial and national identity, culture, ethical standards, family solidarity, particularly during immigration or large scale foreign cultural influence, and its impact on cultural or social sustainability
  • Developments in cultural diversity, tradition, social systems, globalization, immigration and settlement, and their impact on cultural or social sustainability

Prof. Dr. Teen­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Prof. Dr. Jui-Che Tu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Educational Innovation
  • Sustainability Science
  • Cultural or Social Sustainability

Published Papers (35 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative-Quantitative Evaluation Model for Systematical Improving the Creativity of Students’ Design Scheme
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102792
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
For teaching architectural design, if creativity in students’ practice assignments can be effectively evaluated, it will help make certain the ranking of the performance of different design schemes and provide a critical decision basis for the continuous improvement of each scheme. Based on [...] Read more.
For teaching architectural design, if creativity in students’ practice assignments can be effectively evaluated, it will help make certain the ranking of the performance of different design schemes and provide a critical decision basis for the continuous improvement of each scheme. Based on the review of related literature, this study integrates the grounded theory (GT) from the social sciences’ domain and the method of multiple attribute decision making (MADM) from operations research by analyzing their advantages and congruence to create a qualitative–quantitative evaluation model such as the GT-DANP-mV (GT, DEMATEL-based analytic network process [ANP] with modified VIKOR) model. Then, the characteristics and advantages of this evaluation model were examined by applying it to empirical research. Overall, this evaluation model fully utilized the advantages of the analytical techniques of GT and the MADM method to solve the corresponding problems at different stages of the evaluation study, which realizes their complementary advantages. More crucial is that, whether in the related evaluation study or practice assignments, the application of the GT-DANP-mV model could facilitate the formulation of continuous improvement strategies for architectural design schemes based on performance evaluation results under conditions of limited resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Service Effectiveness of the Nature Centers for Sustainability of Environmental Education and Forest Policy Implications
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092457
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between service effectiveness of the Nature Centers of Forest Bauru of Executive Yuan in Taiwan (Nature Centers) and sustainability of environmental education and forest policy implications. The (n = 1520) participants were selected [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between service effectiveness of the Nature Centers of Forest Bauru of Executive Yuan in Taiwan (Nature Centers) and sustainability of environmental education and forest policy implications. The (n = 1520) participants were selected through purposive and quota sampling, and the questionnaires were divided into four categories: Potential target customer groups, potential operators, the public, and website users from 1 July to 31 August 2017. Canonical correlation analyses were used to explore the relationship between two variables. The study results revealed the significant relationships between service effectiveness and forest policy implications, and two canonical factors were extracted. The first pair of canonical correlation analyses reveals that higher overall service effectiveness is more likely to catch the attentions of participants with the overall forest policy implications. The second canonical correlation analysis suggests that forest policy implications factors of protected coast forest, exotic species, green economy, forest resource management, and wood self-sufficiency ratio were positively associated with service effectiveness for natural resources and negatively associated with those of teaching quality. The implication for further research and practical applications in terms of cultural and creative research is suggested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Preference of Healing Products for Single Office Workers of Various Lifestyles
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082314
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The world has entered an era of singleness, with even Taiwan moving toward the global trend of singleness. Single people are facing criticism over their social values, as well as the psychological pressure caused by work. As a result, how to relieve this [...] Read more.
The world has entered an era of singleness, with even Taiwan moving toward the global trend of singleness. Single people are facing criticism over their social values, as well as the psychological pressure caused by work. As a result, how to relieve this pressure and adjust the negative emotions of single people has become a very important issue. Therefore, related healing products that can relax the bodies and minds of single people and provide psychological comfort and a release function are being developed accordingly. In view of this, the purpose of this study is to determine the preference of single office workers with different lifestyles regarding healing products. The lifestyle characteristics and preferences of single office workers were investigated via a questionnaire survey. Through SPSS statistical software, the preference factors of single office workers of different groups regarding different healing products were analyzed, and the lifestyle characteristics and preferences of each group were subsequently obtained. The results show that the lifestyle of single office workers could be divided into three groups. On the whole, single office workers considered healing products to be interesting and impressive with attractive and charming appearances, as well as offer the function of transforming negative emotions. This study hopes that the design principles obtained can provide an important reference for product designers to design relevant healing products for single office workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sports Activity on Sustainable Social Environment and Juvenile Aggression
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082279
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
It is believed that sports, as a social institution, are one of the most critical extracurricular activities for adolescent as they teach the rules and disciplines. However, the effects of sports participation on adolescent development are still controversial at the level of theoretical [...] Read more.
It is believed that sports, as a social institution, are one of the most critical extracurricular activities for adolescent as they teach the rules and disciplines. However, the effects of sports participation on adolescent development are still controversial at the level of theoretical and empirical perspectives in sociology and psychology. For this reason, this study focused on the causal relationships among sports activity, social and environmental factors, and juvenile aggression based on empirical research to examine the effects of sports on adolescents. For this purpose, this research used the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) which surveyed 2378 adolescents by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 98 schools across South Korea. The data was analyzed by reliability analysis, correlation analysis, exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression, and path analysis with SPSS ver. 23.0 program for Windows. The results were as follows: Firstly, sports activity had a statistically significant effect on the sustainable social environmental factors, and teacher and friend relationships. Secondly, it was found that sustainable social environment had a statistically significant effect on juvenile aggression toward others and oneself. Lastly, sports activity also showed an indirect effect on juvenile aggression toward others and oneself. This means that sports activity affects juvenile aggression through a sustainable social environment. In detail, more sports activity could positively improve one’s relationships with teachers and friends and then reduce aggression toward both others and oneself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Information Technology in Preschool Aesthetic Teaching from the Perspective of Sustainable Management
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072179
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
The present study investigates the current status of aesthetic education as implemented in information technology by preschool teachers in New Taipei City. To that end, stratified random sampling of preschool teachers in New Taipei City was conducted, and the selected teachers, 235 in [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the current status of aesthetic education as implemented in information technology by preschool teachers in New Taipei City. To that end, stratified random sampling of preschool teachers in New Taipei City was conducted, and the selected teachers, 235 in total, then answered a questionnaire developed specifically for the study. The survey results indicated that “teacher” was the job title/position of most of the respondents, the largest percentage of whom were more than 41 years of age and had an education level consisting of a qualification received from a teacher’s college or university of education. Moreover, the results indicated that the teaching models employed by the majority of respondents focused on “thematic teaching.” In regards to their integration of information technology in their teaching of aesthetic education, the survey results indicated that the teachers obtained the highest average score for the “knowledge of information technology” dimension. Meanwhile, the dimension for which the respondents obtained the highest average score in terms of aesthetic teaching itself was the dimension pertaining to aesthetic cognition. Generally speaking, survey respondents from different backgrounds did not differ significantly in terms of their overall intentions regarding the use of aesthetic teaching, but there was a significant and positive relationship between those overall intentions and the current status of information technology integration into aesthetic education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consumer Needs for Hand-Touch Product Designs Based on the Experience Economy
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072064
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
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Abstract
Hand-touch products are products that emphasize tactile sensations. These products can generate sensory stimulation and create memorable experiences for consumers, thereby driving purchase decisions. The economic value of hand-touch products is undoubtedly associated with the experience economy. Consumers generally focus on how much [...] Read more.
Hand-touch products are products that emphasize tactile sensations. These products can generate sensory stimulation and create memorable experiences for consumers, thereby driving purchase decisions. The economic value of hand-touch products is undoubtedly associated with the experience economy. Consumers generally focus on how much experience value is created by the hand-touch product itself. This study adopted the experience economy perspective to investigate the development of hand-touch products. To gain further insight into consumers’ product needs and place the focus of product development on the most important aspects, this study primarily adopted a questionnaire survey and Kano’s two-dimensional model to classify quality factors. In addition, the relative majority method was used to classify quality factors into five major categories: Attractive quality, One-dimensional quality, Must-be quality, Indifferent quality, Reverse quality. The study results showed that: (1) Consumers valued the sense marketing of hand-touch products. (2) Timely use of other marketing approaches enables a product to effectively meet customers’ needs. (3) Use of Cross Analysis to Identify Top-Priority Factors. This study’s findings on the true needs of consumers for hand-touch products can enhance and improve product life cycle, thereby achieving the sustainable development of products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discussion on Sustainable Development Strategies of the Traditional Handicraft Industry Based on Su-Style Furniture in the Ming Dynasty
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072008
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The fabrication of traditional handicrafts is both an art creation activity and a social economic activity, meaning that the resulting works have dual artistic and economic characteristics. With the development of industrial mass production, the traditional handicraft industry is facing a series of [...] Read more.
The fabrication of traditional handicrafts is both an art creation activity and a social economic activity, meaning that the resulting works have dual artistic and economic characteristics. With the development of industrial mass production, the traditional handicraft industry is facing a series of challenges. For sustainable development of the traditional handicraft industry, first the establishment of its historical context and experience is necessary. Therefore, through an analysis of the competitive advantages of the Su-style furniture industry in the Ming Dynasty, this study first sorts out and summarizes the historical experience of the industry’s successful development. Next, sustainable development strategies for the contemporary traditional handicraft industry are explored, and opinions on the inheritance and development of the traditional handicraft industry at the present stage are put forward. Based on the diamond model, this study of Su-style furniture in the Ming Dynasty shows that its competitive advantages in this period included style, material, and skill, and the contributions of the government and consumer demand played important roles in these competitive advantages. Therefore, the current development of the traditional handicraft industry requires both external heritage protection of the government and the internal transformation and innovation of the industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Post-Training Study on the Budgeting Criteria Set and Priority for MALE UAS Design
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061798
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
A recent study proposed a systematic “(budgeting) knowledge discovery educational framework” (BKDEF). This BKDEF is focused on guiding staff training courses for enhancing the ability to allocate the “large but limited” budget for single, high-cost product design. However, except for its initial application [...] Read more.
A recent study proposed a systematic “(budgeting) knowledge discovery educational framework” (BKDEF). This BKDEF is focused on guiding staff training courses for enhancing the ability to allocate the “large but limited” budget for single, high-cost product design. However, except for its initial application to support the budget planning for the next generation fighter design, the framework’s effectiveness is still awaiting further scrutiny. This study fills the gap by providing the “second application” of BKDEF, which is to support another similar decision for designing the medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial system (MALE UAS). This paper verified the effectiveness of the framework through an empirical application and obtained the knowledge required to allocate a budget for MALE UAS design following the group-opinion basis. In addition, the original analytical style for the last “decision analysis” phase of BKDEF, which included pure quantitative analytical items in order to understand the similarities and diversities in the individual opinions, was replaced by a comparative study to discover the homogeneity and heterogeneity between the two budgeting decisions in a larger scope. As a consequence, the two criteria sets did not overlap despite both decisions being related to military aircraft design. The absolute weights for the MALE UAS design criteria were more balanced than those for the air-superior fighter design, even if the size of the criteria set was larger. The results pave a way for future studies on how other military aircrafts are designed, as more confidence about the use of a BKDEF can be gained from increasing applications, thus more insightful aerospace knowledge can be exploited in comparisons with these works. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discussion on the Reinforcement of Reinforced Concrete Slab Structures
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061756
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Because of global environmental changes and the continued warming of the planet, the increase in carbon dioxide emissions has had a major impact on the environment. The development of zero-carbon buildings, the promotion of energy conservation and carbon reduction, and the concept of [...] Read more.
Because of global environmental changes and the continued warming of the planet, the increase in carbon dioxide emissions has had a major impact on the environment. The development of zero-carbon buildings, the promotion of energy conservation and carbon reduction, and the concept of green environmental protection are regarded as important issues for humanity to achieve sustainable development. In Taiwan, the combination of moisture and high salt content in the environment, corrosion caused by chloride ions, and earthquakes often lead to the formation of crevices in buildings. These crevices can cause rebar oxidation and corrosion and even concrete structure damage or spalling. Conventional structural damages can be repaired with epoxy resin grout. However, such practices are incapable of removing the rusted components of the rebars inside the structures and thus subject the internal rebars to continuous oxidation in the original rust-covered environment. Components located deep within the structures would still swell as a result of continuous rebar oxidation and cause concrete breaking and spalling, making previous repair efforts ineffective. This study proposes an improved repair and retrofit technique that includes the removal of rust from oxidated rebar parts, by applying low viscosity epoxy resin to the slab base and allowing it to fully penetrate the concrete cracks and surface of the rebars inside, thus producing a protective layer and repairing the bond. Additionally, carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) patches were adopted as repair materials and attached to the beams and slab (ceiling) surfaces. Angle steels were used at the edges and installed to connect the beams to the slab with chemical anchors. The gaps between the angle steels and the slab were filled with epoxy resin grouts. On the short side of the slab, small steel H-beams were installed 1 m apart as a means of retrofit. Because the epoxy resin expands by 8% after undergoing chemical reactions, it bonds perfectly with concrete, CFRP patches, and steel materials. Approximately 10 years have elapsed since the case-study was repaired using the proposed technique, and the retrofit effect has yielded excellent results to the present day, with no occurrence of internal swelling or spalling from rebar oxidation. The proposed retrofit technique can reduce construction costs, while ensuring effective repair and maintenance of structural safety, and extend the service life of structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Empirical Study of How the Learning Attitudes of College Students toward English E-Tutoring Websites Affect Site Sustainability
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061748
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study utilized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 3) to explore the learning attitudes of college students with respect to English e-tutoring websites, an approach that has rarely been employed from the perspective of information technology and the global e-digital market. More [...] Read more.
The present study utilized the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 3) to explore the learning attitudes of college students with respect to English e-tutoring websites, an approach that has rarely been employed from the perspective of information technology and the global e-digital market. More specifically, the study used college students’ assessments of self-paced business English e-learning websites to investigate the adoption of those sites. Using simple linear regression analysis, the research explored the question of whether engagement in e-learning was able to enhance the students’ willingness to learn. The results of the analysis indicated that the majority of English e-tutoring users felt that online sources for learning English offer greater convenience and are more effective than noninternet resources. This finding suggests, in turn, that the web designers of business English e-learning websites could maintain and enhance the loyalty of site users by taking care to ensure the quality of the sites’ content. In particular, the knowledge management functions and interface requirements of student users should be adequately addressed by web designers so that the students can operate the websites more easily in the course of the learning process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on 3D Painting in Virtual Reality to Improve Students’ Motivation of 3D Animation Learning
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061605
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of 6-DoF high immersive virtual reality for stereoscopic spatial mapping to assess the impact of perceived spatial capabilities on 3D software learning motivation. This study wasn’t a bound course with mandatory participation, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of 6-DoF high immersive virtual reality for stereoscopic spatial mapping to assess the impact of perceived spatial capabilities on 3D software learning motivation. This study wasn’t a bound course with mandatory participation, and students were free to participate in the trial, and employed HTC VIVE, which provides highly immersive experiences, to elicit strong emotional responses. A total of 111 students from a university digital media department were invited to participate in a 3D VR painting experiment in which students created paintings using Google Tilt Brush. A 5-point scale based on the ARCS learning motivation model was adopted to collect student data. Perform a factor analysis of the data twice to select the appropriate factor (p = 0.000 < 0.05). Specifically, exploratory factor analysis was used to classify factors based on four constructs. The Cronbach alpha values of ARCS were 0.920, 0.929, 0.693 and 0.664, respectively, both >0.6, which still indicate favorable reliability. The results show that immersive VR can promote students’ motivation and interest in learning 3D animation. However, the practical application of this technology requires solving problems related to hardware and space. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Designing an Efficient Cloud Management Architecture for Sustainable Online Lifelong Education
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061523
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
As online learning and e-learning are prevalent and widely used in education, it is important to design an efficient and reliable information system for storing learning data and providing on-demand learning services. In this paper, we design a cloud-based information system architecture for [...] Read more.
As online learning and e-learning are prevalent and widely used in education, it is important to design an efficient and reliable information system for storing learning data and providing on-demand learning services. In this paper, we design a cloud-based information system architecture for online lifelong education. Since a cloud system is based on virtualization technology, we propose a virtual resource management scheme—virtual machine allocation and monitoring nodes assignment. With the proposed cloud-based architecture, we can build and operate an e-learning information system for online lifelong education, which requires efficiency, reliability, and persistence. The evaluation results show that our proposed method can deal with more tasks for e-learning (requests for learning management system (LMS) navigations, text learning contents, text and media learning contents, and video learning contents) while introducing 48× fewer service level agreement (SLA) violations than the existing method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cultural Ecosystem of the Seediq’s Traditional Weaving Techniques—A Comparison of the Learning Differences Between Urban and Indigenous Communities
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061519
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
The Seediq tribe is one of Taiwan’s Indigenous peoples, and they have very traditional weaving techniques. Women of the Seediq weave clothes and quilts for their families as they believe that only women with good weaving skill can pass through the Rainbow Bridge [...] Read more.
The Seediq tribe is one of Taiwan’s Indigenous peoples, and they have very traditional weaving techniques. Women of the Seediq weave clothes and quilts for their families as they believe that only women with good weaving skill can pass through the Rainbow Bridge and be reunited with ancestors after they die. However, due to changing society, there is little demand for weaving today, and the norms observed by their ancestors are gradually disappearing, resulting in the declining number of locals capable of weaving. The weaving techniques of these Indigenous people are on the verge of disappearing. Unfortunately, when the government took measures to preserve the techniques by registering Seta Bakan as the preserver of intangible cultural heritage, and launched training classes to save such techniques, no locals were initially interested in learning weaving. After non-Seediq people were allowed to participate in learning, the course attracted weaving lovers from all over the island. The course included five learning phases within four years, which were given in urban communities. In the fourth year, the weaving teacher was invited to carry out a course to teach in her Indigenous village. Both courses have the same teacher teaching the same techniques. However, the perceptions and feelings of learning vary among members of different cultural backgrounds. UNESCO has extended the protection of intangible cultural heritage from technical objects to the maintenance and inheritance of community, thus, this study focuses on the interaction and feeling of students during the weaving courses given in two communities, analyzes how the differences of feeling and cultural background influence the learning perceptions of the students of the two communities, and examines the significance and functions of rebuilding the cultural ecosystem for the sustainable inheritance of skills. The conclusion of this study is that urban communities learn weaving purposefully because they have no cultural or technical background, while the courses for indigenous communities feature the frequent recurrence of traditional “old value”. The different learning motivations, feelings, and perceptions of the two communities can be complementary and mutually supportive to each other. After exploring the cultural context, this study finds that the cultural ecosystem generated by indigenous weavers includes Gaya belief, Natural knowledge, Indigenous languages, Personal practice, Generational links, and Social interaction, which are strongly bound to each other. However, social changes can weaken or even break the cultural ecosystem; the learning courses of the two communities create opportunities for re-connection. Native tribes are the best field to build an ideal cultural ecosystem; while the urban communities play the role of an acupuncture massage stick that stimulates the ethnic consciousness and learning motivation of Indigenous peoples, which preserves and provides the techniques and external knowledge. Admittedly these two communities contribute to cultural inheritance, respectively. The analysis of this study provides an important reference for the feasible routes of carrying forward indigenous techniques on the brink of disappearing in the current society of cultural initiative, and provides the opportunity for reconnecting cultural ecosystem through technique acquisition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Issue-Situation-Based Board Game: A Systemic Learning Environment for Water Resource Adaptation Education
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051341
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
Climate change has severely affected water resources (WRs) today, highlighting the importance of promoting education on WR adaptation (WRA). The goal of WRA education is to cultivate learners’ cross-oriented system knowledge (COSK), responsibility for WR environment (RWRE), value of public benefits (VPB), and [...] Read more.
Climate change has severely affected water resources (WRs) today, highlighting the importance of promoting education on WR adaptation (WRA). The goal of WRA education is to cultivate learners’ cross-oriented system knowledge (COSK), responsibility for WR environment (RWRE), value of public benefits (VPB), and empathy and negotiating thinking (EaNT). This study developed an issue-situation-based board game, namely Water Ark, to enhance participants’ WR knowledge. In this study, participants were divided into four groups with each playing the role of a WR-related organization: the government, agricultural sector, industrial sector and public guild. Scales and interviews were used to assess participants’ performance. The findings revealed that during the game, participants gradually changed from profit-oriented self-interest strategies to altruistic strategies based on social public benefit. Furthermore, after playing Water Ark, participants’ COSK, RWRE, VPB, and EaNT were found to have improved substantially. Thus, Water Ark is believed to be a useful tool for assisting WRA education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Sustainability Innovation Experiential Learning Model for Virtual Reality Chemistry Laboratory: An Empirical Study with PLS-SEM and IPMA
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041027
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
This study focuses on serious virtual reality games, and how users can increase their understanding of the sustainable innovation learning (SIL) model and their familiarity with sustainable development strategies. “Users” of serious games consists of all possible target groups that are interested in [...] Read more.
This study focuses on serious virtual reality games, and how users can increase their understanding of the sustainable innovation learning (SIL) model and their familiarity with sustainable development strategies. “Users” of serious games consists of all possible target groups that are interested in attaining knowledge of sustainability through the use of games that are designed for a purpose beyond entertainment, in this case, for sustainable education. This research investigates the sustainable innovation experiential learning model by using a virtual chemistry laboratory to affect academic achievement. A questionnaire was completed by students who had used the virtual lab, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied for analysis. Importance-performance matrix analysis (IPMA) was able to help expand the basic partial least square (PLS)-SEM result with the fraction. The results show that experiential learning significantly affects learning motivation and academic achievement. Cognitive load and self-efficacy significantly affect learning motivation. Involvement significantly affects academic achievement. The virtual chemistry laboratory significantly affects academic achievement. Students who used the sustainability innovation experiential learning model obtained a better understanding of the chemical concepts. Moreover, a virtual lab promotes students’ motivation in regard to chemistry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Smart, Caring, Interactive Chair Designed for Improving Emotional Support and Parent-Child Interactions to Promote Sustainable Relationships Between Elderly and Other Family Members
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040961
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we implemented a four-stage service design process to analyze the home-based interaction behavior between elderly and other family members to identify hidden needs for strengthening inter-generational relationships and creating harmony as a turning point for new product innovations in home-based [...] Read more.
In this study, we implemented a four-stage service design process to analyze the home-based interaction behavior between elderly and other family members to identify hidden needs for strengthening inter-generational relationships and creating harmony as a turning point for new product innovations in home-based interactive devices. In the demand exploration stage and demand definition stage, context inquiry and service modeling were applied to understand the intergenerational relationship between the elderly and other family members and the potential needs and expectations of family interactions. The overall demand mainly includes four points: (1) the improvement in inter-generational relationships requires the active care of family members, (2) the improvement in inter-generational emotional interactions requires accurate mastery of parental responsibilities, (3) the chairing design of the living room can be used to understand and document parental life practice, and (4) big data parental lifestyle records can be analyzed. Based on hidden demands, a smart care interactive system (SCIS) with a chair was designed for improving emotional interactions and parent-child interaction between the elderly and other family members. The results of the verification experiment show that the smart care interactive chair (SCIC) can significantly help the elderly with intergenerational relationships in terms of emotional support and parent-child interactions. The family emotional support and parent-child interactions are the foundation of the sustainability of family relationships and the cornerstone of social stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Teacher’s Attitude, Knowledge, and Application (AKA) on STEM: An Effort to Foster the Sustainable Development of STEM Education
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040950
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This study focuses on assessing the growth of the latest developments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as part of an effort to maintain the progress of STEM education. Assessment is necessary for every educational activity, including in the field of STEM [...] Read more.
This study focuses on assessing the growth of the latest developments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as part of an effort to maintain the progress of STEM education. Assessment is necessary for every educational activity, including in the field of STEM education. However, there are limited comprehensive reports on the progress and development of STEM education inside individual Asian countries. An attempt to bring up the sustainable development of STEM education is conducted by using an exhaustive assessment. The assessment, within this study, includes three domains, namely attitudes, knowledge, and applications (AKA) regarding STEM education. The comparison of these three domains based on demographic data, teachers’ difficulties perception, and its contribution to the sustainable development of STEM education is, likewise, discussed. This type of research is a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methodology. The quantitative analysis method was performed to address the level position and the comparative value of the three domains. In comparison, the qualitative analysis method was employed to strengthen the quantitative result analysis, as well as to deal with the teachers’ perception. Results show that science teachers have a very good attitude, a moderate-level category in the application, and a low-level category in knowledge regarding STEM education. Further, there are differences in knowledge and the application of STEM education, based on educational background and teaching experience of the teachers, yet there are no differences regarding teachers’ attitudes. Other components are discussed in detail, such as the teacher’s perception of STEM teaching difficulties. Providing challenges and opportunities for improving the quality of education in the future are discoursed. The results of this study suggest that knowledge and attitudes are fundamental domains for the proper implementation, as well as sustainability, of STEM education (especially in Indonesia). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
System-Based Coaching Technology Mechanism for the Development of Educational Systems
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030927
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In order to further explore the performance of coaching technology in promoting the overall development of the education system, this paper applies the idea of system theory to deconstruct the five key elements and their interaction relations in the education system which affects [...] Read more.
In order to further explore the performance of coaching technology in promoting the overall development of the education system, this paper applies the idea of system theory to deconstruct the five key elements and their interaction relations in the education system which affects the effect of education and training objectives. Meanwhile, the present situation and existing problems of each element are discussed including their influences for the system goal. The key analysis and exposition are made with the input and output of the core elements of the system to promote the overall coordinated development of the education system and improve the effectiveness. Based on the system theory we could conclude that this paper is of practical guiding value to promote the coordinated development of the key elements of the education system by using coaching technology, further to promote the overall evolution of the educational system and to promote the effective promotion of the overall goal of education and educating people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Key Factors of Sustainability for Smartphones Based on Taiwanese Consumers’ Perceived Values
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4446; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124446
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 18 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
The rapid growth of smartphones over recent decades has brought a large amount of e-waste as well as an increased carbon footprint. Facing severe environmental issues, sustainable development of smartphones has become a particularly important public concern. The main aim of this study [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of smartphones over recent decades has brought a large amount of e-waste as well as an increased carbon footprint. Facing severe environmental issues, sustainable development of smartphones has become a particularly important public concern. The main aim of this study was to clarify the key factor of sustainability for smartphones based on Taiwanese consumers’ perceived values. Apple’s iPhone was taken as an example. First, key factors of perception that smartphone consumers valued the most in terms of sustainable practice were extracted through a factor analysis. Second, demographic differences related to these key factors were investigated through t-test and one-way ANOVA analyses; demographic variables were gender, age, education level, occupation, and income level. The results were as follows: (1) the key factors were “recognition”, “brand advantage”, “service quality”, “usage period”, and “perceived price”; (2) there was a significant difference between genders on the key factors of perceived value (“recognition”, “brand advantage”, and “perceived price”). Specifically, females have higher perceived values of “recognition”, “brand advantage”, and “perceived price” than males; (3) there was a significant effect of income level on the key factor (“perceived price”) of perceived value. Specifically, respondents with an income level of NTD15,001–30,000 had a higher perceived value of “perceived price” than respondents earning NTD30,001–45,000. Among the five key factors, “recognition” and “brand advantage” are primary factors influencing purchase motivation; “recognition”, “brand advantage”, and “service quality” are primary factors that could influence brand loyalty; “perceived price” is the primary factor that affects purchase intention. This study contributes to the green market segmentation of smartphones. The limitations of the study relate to the size and distribution of the samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage in China from the Intellectual Property Rights Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124369
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
With the development of globalization, intangible cultural heritage (ICH) has come under increasing threat, making the safeguarding of ICH a crucial task for the governments and peoples of the world. This paper examines China’s current state of intellectual property (IPR) protection for ICH [...] Read more.
With the development of globalization, intangible cultural heritage (ICH) has come under increasing threat, making the safeguarding of ICH a crucial task for the governments and peoples of the world. This paper examines China’s current state of intellectual property (IPR) protection for ICH and proposes that ICH be placed under China’s legislative protection as intellectual property. Due to the immense diversity and complexity of ICH and the difficulty in reconciling various interests involved, the existing IPR protection mode faces many obstacles in practice. We present two case studies and three sets of recommendations on improving the protection of ICH in China. The first set relies on improving copyright protection for ICH, the second set relies on improving trademark and geographical protection for ICH, and the third set relies on improving patent protection for ICH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Personality Traits on Consumer Preferences: The Case of Office Chair Selection by Attractiveness
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4183; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114183
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
With increasing living standards, a modern product is required to provide emotional links between a user’s personality and their work environment, in addition to satisfying functional and physiological needs. Since office workers in Taiwan have average daily working hours of over 8 h, [...] Read more.
With increasing living standards, a modern product is required to provide emotional links between a user’s personality and their work environment, in addition to satisfying functional and physiological needs. Since office workers in Taiwan have average daily working hours of over 8 h, they spend lots of time on office chairs, and nowadays more companies are willing to buy good chairs so that their employees can deliver higher efficiency under a more comfortable office environment. After interviewing a group of experts, office chairs are classified into 7 types, and the participants’ personality traits are classified into 4 categories. The influence of different personality traits on the evaluation of office chairs by attractiveness is analyzed by quantification theory type I. Design elements that can better deliver an office chair’s attractiveness are determined. The results allow future designers to improve their designs by identifying the preferences of target users under difference office scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Factors Affecting Consumers’ Willingness to Accept Clothing Rentals
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114139
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
Fashionable clothes resource suppliers are directly linked with resource consumers through the Internet, thus replacing the traditional model. With fashionable clothes as the products for renting, this study helps relevant enterprises understand the factors influencing consumers’ adoption of renting and their attitude and [...] Read more.
Fashionable clothes resource suppliers are directly linked with resource consumers through the Internet, thus replacing the traditional model. With fashionable clothes as the products for renting, this study helps relevant enterprises understand the factors influencing consumers’ adoption of renting and their attitude and behavioral intention towards clothes renting. Taking the theory of planned behavior as the theoretical foundation, this study thus adopts the technology acceptance model (TAM), the innovation diffusion theory (IDT), the structural equation model (SEM), and the collected information to develop a research methodology that is both theoretical and practical. According to the research results, compatibility matters the most in driving consumers to have a positive assessment and perception of online clothes renting in terms of behavior and attitude. Additionally, personal innovativeness has significant effects and can help relevant enterprises find their target markets. In terms of subjective norm, interpersonal relationship also has a significant influence, showing that consumers today pay much more attention to friends’ information sources. The self-efficacy of the perceived behavioral control also has a noticeable impact. Therefore, relevant enterprises need to consider the operability of online clothes renting to prevent consumers from feeling frustrated in their ability to use it, thus reducing their use intention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Sustainable Development of Environmental Education Provided by Museums
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4054; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114054
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Abstract
Under the international initiative of environmental education and ecological conservation, promoting the public’s environmental awareness is the mission and goal of the museum’s environmental education. The main function of the museum is to integrate the values of local, regional, and national culture toward [...] Read more.
Under the international initiative of environmental education and ecological conservation, promoting the public’s environmental awareness is the mission and goal of the museum’s environmental education. The main function of the museum is to integrate the values of local, regional, and national culture toward multifaceted management, as the museum is an important cultural carrier and a key force for informal education. Past studies have focused on environmental protection in formal educational settings, while museums in nonformal educational settings have undertaken relatively few missions to the environment, which is the motivation of this study. In the past three hundred years, nine countries, including world powers like Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Japan, have left their footprints in Tamsui, Taiwan, creating an important field for cross-cultural environmental education. Therefore, this study takes environmental education in the protection of Taiwan’s Tamsui cultural assets as its case study, and uses gradual regression analysis as a method to explore the potential factors of audience cognition resulting from the channels of museum environmental education, and to grasp the possibility of implementation. The results show that the reliability coefficient of this study is 0.908, and the internal consistency of the representative scale is high. The overall satisfaction with environmental education of audiences is above 4.24 in the five-level subscale. Further gradual regression analysis shows that positive and negative explanatory power can be used to examine the environmental education programs of museums. Therefore, according to data analysis, the findings can serve as a basis for promoting social environmental education goals, as well as a field for cross-cultural learning, to achieve a people-oriented sustainable development strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of the Effects of Infographics and Green Messages on the Environmental Attitudes of Taiwanese Online Shoppers
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3993; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113993
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
The rapid growth of e-commerce in Taiwan has increased the use of postal packaging; this contributes to the destruction of our environment, because it cannot be re-used, and may contain toxic substances. To address this understudied issue, we examined the effects of attaching [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of e-commerce in Taiwan has increased the use of postal packaging; this contributes to the destruction of our environment, because it cannot be re-used, and may contain toxic substances. To address this understudied issue, we examined the effects of attaching green messages about environmental attitudes in the form of infographics on postal packaging. To improve our understanding of consumer preferences with respect to green messages, first, a questionnaire survey of online shoppers was conducted. Based on a statistical analysis of the results, it was found that green messages require excellent infographics in order to deliver environmental knowledge. Graphical information was considered superior to text-only information in the presentation of green messages and the visualization of green information by online shoppers. This result indicates that infographics have emerged as a better visual approach to deliver green messages. We hope that these findings will serve as a reference in the design of environmentally-friendly postal packaging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Using Task-Driven Classroom Teaching on Students’ Learning Attitudes and Learning Effectiveness in an Information Technology Course
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3957; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113957
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
The Internet era of the modern day means that information technology no longer depends on computer theory. Instead, new education methods are used for innovative application. Therefore, the task-driven classroom teaching method is integrated into information technology teaching of junior middle school by [...] Read more.
The Internet era of the modern day means that information technology no longer depends on computer theory. Instead, new education methods are used for innovative application. Therefore, the task-driven classroom teaching method is integrated into information technology teaching of junior middle school by designing specific cases. From the theoretical knowledge teaching and the comprehensive operational practice teaching, we explore the effect of using the task-driven classroom learning method on students’ learning attitudes and learning effectiveness in an information technology course. The experimental results show that using the task-driven classroom teaching method has significant positive correlation on student learning performance, learning interest, and creative thinking. This idea can stimulate interest in learning and improve the comprehensive quality of students; thus, it can promote the reform of information technology education and curriculums. For a more detailed discussion, the results will be discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment Tool Predicts Learning Effectiveness for Project-Based Learning in Enhancing Education of Sustainability
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103595
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Project-based learning (PBL) has been widely applied to stimulate learning motivation, cultivate implementation capability, and improve learning effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to establish an assessment tool for the learning effectiveness of PBL in scientific and technological education. The methods include [...] Read more.
Project-based learning (PBL) has been widely applied to stimulate learning motivation, cultivate implementation capability, and improve learning effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to establish an assessment tool for the learning effectiveness of PBL in scientific and technological education. The methods include literature review, focus groups, and survey research. After the literature review, a draft of the scale was established, and the content validity of the scale was verified by 8 experts before being pre-tested. A total of 232 copies of valid official scales were issued and recovered. The research obtained produced subscales for “Flow experience perception”, “Self-efficacy”, “Product evaluation” and “Learning motivation”, which can be used to evaluate the learning effectiveness of the PBL in curricula of science and technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Constructing an Efficient Model to Inspire Design Education Sustainability in Rural Areas
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103562
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Advancements of information and communication technologies, as well as the reduction of computer prices, have brought computer-assisted design from applications by large manufacturers to education. The number of computer-assisted learning activities and research projects in developing countries and rural areas has been on [...] Read more.
Advancements of information and communication technologies, as well as the reduction of computer prices, have brought computer-assisted design from applications by large manufacturers to education. The number of computer-assisted learning activities and research projects in developing countries and rural areas has been on the rise over recent years. However, there are very few studies focused on the design education of rural areas. Understandably, it is critical to establish a fundamental environment integrating design education and constructing an efficiently model to inspire design education sustainability in rural areas. By considering limited resources and the educational milieu prevalent in rural areas, this paper constructed a central kitchen model anchored in teaching equipment of design education and designed an algorithm for supporting the operation of this model efficiently. We analyzed the core algorithm MMAFS (A Memory Management Algorithm with Fast Speed) of model and comparing the MMAFS algorithm with the current popular Segregated lists algorithm and the Buddy algorithm by adopting the comparative analysis method, also demonstrated the feasibility of this central kitchen model through a case study. Given the large number of urgent and unresolved issues in developing countries and rural areas, it is essential to emphasize design education and encourage local design education specifically for rural communities and promoting a positive loop in the rural ecology through local designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Professional Performance Evaluation System for Pre-Service Automobile Repair Vocational High School Teachers in Taiwan
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103537
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Educational quality is one of the most important factors for having well-trained human resources that support the productivity, competitiveness, and economic growth of a nation. Teachers have always played dominant roles in ensuring education quality. Thus, teacher education is becoming ever more important. [...] Read more.
Educational quality is one of the most important factors for having well-trained human resources that support the productivity, competitiveness, and economic growth of a nation. Teachers have always played dominant roles in ensuring education quality. Thus, teacher education is becoming ever more important. However, scholars have long warned about the ineffectiveness of teacher preparation. Indeed, a significant gap still exists between current pre-service teacher education and ideal training. Thus, a new professional performance evaluation system for pre-service teachers will be very helpful in resolving long-term public dissatisfaction with schools. To resolve this problem, developing a performance evaluation system that contains professional standards, performance evaluation criteria, and a precise performance evaluation mechanism is essential to guarantee the highest teacher quality in Taiwan. The authors designed a two-stage research effort for a professional performance evaluation system for Taiwanese pre-service teachers of automobile repair. In the first stage, the Delphi method is introduced to develop pre-service teachers’ professional standards and key evaluation criteria using two iterations of Delphi processes and 14 iterations of focus group meetings based on experts’ opinions. In the second stage, a professional performance evaluation and review mechanism for pre-service teachers is developed using focus group meetings to collect opinions from six vocational education experts. The final performance evaluation system will enhance the quality of pre-service teachers in vocational high schools and serve as a useful model for other countries and economies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Sustainability Environment Educational Design and Learning Effect Evaluation through Migration Theory: An Example of Environment Educational Serious Games
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103363
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Changes in the way people use information come from the concept of the most primitive human migration rule. Scholars hold that migration can be considered as a switching of people’s place of residence, but the migration of people is not limited to the [...] Read more.
Changes in the way people use information come from the concept of the most primitive human migration rule. Scholars hold that migration can be considered as a switching of people’s place of residence, but the migration of people is not limited to the migration of residence. The marketing field also borrows the population migration theory to further explore the switching behavior of customers; educationalists also discuss migration of learning through migration theory. In this regard, the migration of human beings is a process of historical evolution, though it takes several decades to understand history from the perspective of such evolution. Hence, if there is a decision-making system that simulates evolution and estimation through 3D graphics, then players may better understand the impact of environmental migration and changes on humanity. This study adopts Push-Pull-Mooring (PPM) theory to explain the migration of human beings. Push is generated from people’s dissatisfaction with their place of residence, Pull is from attractions of the new environment, and personal mooring produces the intention of switching. A set of Gamification Environmental Education Applications (GEEA) and a migration scale for such apps are developed herein to explain the state where computer gamers switch to mobile app games. The results show that all four hypotheses are supported, and the path coefficient of each hypothesis is highly significant. The R2 values of five intrinsic constructs are Push (R2 = 0.321), Mooring (R2 = 0.574), Pull (R2 = 0.413), Switching intention (SI) (R2 = 0.552), and SB (R2 = 0.626), where the R2 value of SB is quite high, indicating that the relationship between the switching behavior (SB) and the four precursors exhibits great explanatory power. Hence, the explanatory power of this model is convincing, and the teaching materials designed through gamification education deliver better learning outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Initial Study of Civic Scientific Literacy in China: Cross-National Comparable Results from Scientific Cognition to Sustainable Literacy
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3129; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093129
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Abstract
Civic scientific literacy (CSL) is an important factor for the development of any country, and this is especially true for a country which is under development and at the same time pursues sustainability. In this article, we conduct the firstly systematic study of [...] Read more.
Civic scientific literacy (CSL) is an important factor for the development of any country, and this is especially true for a country which is under development and at the same time pursues sustainability. In this article, we conduct the firstly systematic study of CSL in China based on survey data in 2013. Under the multi-dimension CSL framework and by using item response theory, we assess the CSL level in China, which can be fairly compared with that in U.S. and Europe (US-EU). The comparable survey results provided a number of implicational findings: for example, the status of CSL of China in 2013 would have ranked as middling and poor compared to the CSL results for the various US-EU countries in 1995 and 2005, respectively. Some group-based analyses were also conducted to show how people’s attitudes to the environment and socio-environmental behaviours correlate with the CSL-qualified rate in China. The empirical results provided by this study not only can serve as references for improving CSL in China or other emerging countries that also address the sustainability issues during development, but could also serve as indicators for future studies (e.g., in causational modelling). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Research on the Key Success Factors of Marketing Ugly Fruits and Vegetables
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082783
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
According to the 2011 research report of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, one-third of the world’s edible fruits and vegetables are wasted every year, totaling about 1.3 billion metric ton. A source of such waste is ugly fruits [...] Read more.
According to the 2011 research report of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, one-third of the world’s edible fruits and vegetables are wasted every year, totaling about 1.3 billion metric ton. A source of such waste is ugly fruits and vegetables, which have the same nutritional value as that of normal fruits and vegetables, but are discarded due to poor appearance for selling. If consumers can rediscover their value, it will be one of the ways to change food waste. This study first explored related topics through the literature; then, it drew up an interview outline, obtained and ranked the key success factors for the evaluation indices through education and interviews with industry professionals, and summarized the key success factors of marketing ugly fruits and vegetables through questionnaire and experts interview perspectives that targeted consumer groups as the questionnaire respondents. The conclusion of the study provides suggestions for enterprises to innovate service marketing through the blueprint of service design, which hopes to reduce food waste and maintain a balance with the environment, in order to achieve the goal of environmental sustainability. The results show that if consumers understand the relevant issues and pay attention to the truth of vegetable and fruit production, they can use their consumption power to protect their own and environmental rights. However, the trust between producers and consumers requires strengthening. Reducing the unnecessary waste of food and labor is expected to create more ecological and environmental consumption patterns in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Knowledge Discovery Education Framework Targeting the Effective Budget Use and Opinion Explorations in Designing Specific High Cost Product
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2742; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082742
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
For an R&D institution to design a specific high investment cost product, the budget is usually ‘large but limited’. To allocate such budget on the directions with key potential benefits (e.g., core technologies) requires, at first and at least, a priority over the [...] Read more.
For an R&D institution to design a specific high investment cost product, the budget is usually ‘large but limited’. To allocate such budget on the directions with key potential benefits (e.g., core technologies) requires, at first and at least, a priority over the involved design criteria, as to discover the relevant decision knowledge for a suitable budgeting plan. Such a problem becomes crucial when the designed product is relevant to the security and military sustainability of a nation, e.g., a next generation fighter. This study presents a science education framework that helps to obtain such knowledge and close the opinion gaps. It involves several main tutorial phases to construct and confirm the set of design criteria, to establish a decision hierarchy, to assess the preferential structures of the decision makers (DMs) (individually or on a group basis), and to perform some decision analyses that are designed to identify the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the opinions in the decision group. The entire framework has been applied in a training course hold in a large R&D institution, while after learning the staff successfully applied these knowledge discovery processes (for planning the budget for the fighter design works and for closing the opinion gaps present). With the staffs’ practical exercises, several empirical findings except for the budgeting priority (e.g., the discrimination between ‘more important criteria’ against the less important ones) are also interesting. For some examples (but not limited to these), it is found that the results from using two measures (statistical correlation vs. geometrical cosine similarity) to identify the opinion gaps are almost identical. It is found that DMs’ considerations under various constructs are sometimes consistent, but often hard to be consistent. It is also found that the two methods (degree of divergence (DoD) vs. number of observed subgroups (NSgs)) that are used to understand the opinions’ diversity under the constructs are different. The proposed education framework meets the recent trend of data-driven decision-making, and the teaching materials are also some updates to science education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Learning Effectiveness of Stanford Design Thinking in Integrated Design Education
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082649
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Due to industrial demand and the influence of government policies, the number of design colleges and students specializing in design in Taiwan has been increasing year by year. As a result, the topics on design education have gained great attention. To adapt to [...] Read more.
Due to industrial demand and the influence of government policies, the number of design colleges and students specializing in design in Taiwan has been increasing year by year. As a result, the topics on design education have gained great attention. To adapt to the rapidly-changing society, training that is designed to strengthen the professionalism and integration ability of those design majors should also be adjusted. Unlike traditional teaching methods, Stanford Design Thinking is a people-oriented problem-solving method. Proceeding from human needs, it offers creative solutions to various topics. Placing emphasis on integrated team communication and the cooperation and exchange among interdisciplinary talents, it is a new teaching model in response to the changes to the design environment. In this study, Stanford Design Thinking was introduced to the integrated design curriculum education as a creativity teaching strategy, and the action research method was adopted to explore the learning effectiveness of the design thinking method. According to the findings, the design thinking method can improve teaching; it can promote student participation through interview training in class during the Empathize stage; it offers substantial assistance to students in actual interviews; it reveals information about the demands of target groups, deepens students’ discussions on design-related topics, and creates a favorable atmosphere for teaching; it fosters a positive interaction between students and teachers and makes students more attentive in class. Inspired by this teaching method, students can independently seek product-testing objects to review their design concepts and develop a stronger motivation for self-learning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Needs for Automotive Interiors Based on Lifestyle Characteristics of Taiwanese Female Office Workers
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072168
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
With the transformation of social patterns, the proportion of female office workers has increased and women have seen a huge increase in purchasing power in the consumer market due to economic independence. From the perspective of the automotive industry, whose main customers were [...] Read more.
With the transformation of social patterns, the proportion of female office workers has increased and women have seen a huge increase in purchasing power in the consumer market due to economic independence. From the perspective of the automotive industry, whose main customers were male customers, nowadays, it has changed to designing smaller models, which are more suitable for women to drive. When it comes to a car, men are more focused on horsepower and speed, while women pay more attention to its storage, safety, and easy operation. For female office workers, a car is not only a transportation tool for commutes, but also an assistant that can accompany them shopping and travelling. Therefore, if automotive interiors can meet the usage needs of females, meaning practicality and safety, they can make female drivers feel intimate and comfortable. In order to understand the real needs of female office workers for automotive interiors, in the first phase, this paper adopted case interviews to determine female car-purchasing trends in best-selling automobile manufacturers, as well as their opinions on needs for automotive interiors, which were used as the basis for the questionnaire design. In the second phase, the questionnaire method was used to discuss the life characteristics and needs of female office workers for automotive interiors, and the statistical software SPSS was employed to analyze the differences in needs for automotive interiors among female office workers of different types; and finally, a design principle suitable for this consumer group was concluded. Regarding the results of this paper, automotive interiors are divided into five factors, which are functional storage, spatial aesthetics, digital devices, comfortable feeling, and safety and cleanness. Female office workers are divided into the three groups: (1) The discerning and intellectual pleasure seekers; (2) The regular and easy-going-life seekers; and (3) The modern information seekers. The results show that there are differences in the needs for automotive interiors among female office workers of different types. To be specific, group 1, the discerning and intellectual pleasure seekers, who are engaged in the medical and electronics industries, pay the most attention to safety, cleanliness, and digital device needs. Group 2, the regular and easy-going-life seekers, who are engaged in public education, the financial industry, and traditional industries, pay most attention to the needs of comfortable feeling. Group 3, the modern information seekers, who are engaged in service and design industries, pay most attention to the needs of functional storage, spatial aesthetics, digital devices, safety, and cleanliness. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Relationship between Green Design and Material Flow Cost Accounting in the Context of Effective Resource Utilization
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071974
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of fossil fuels has been gradually exhausting resources and deteriorating the environment on a global scale. There are two ways to resolve these problems: The application of green energy and new materials; and the development of energy efficiency techniques such as [...] Read more.
The consumption of fossil fuels has been gradually exhausting resources and deteriorating the environment on a global scale. There are two ways to resolve these problems: The application of green energy and new materials; and the development of energy efficiency techniques such as green design and material flow cost accounting. Material flow cost accounting does not create new sources of energy, but its implementation can encourage the effective use of resources or reduce the consumption of resources, and hence reduce the impact on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization has enacted material flow cost accounting as an international standard, and this will have a profound impact on multinational firms. This paper examines material flow cost accounting in the context of grounded theory, and conducts a case study on the companies which have implemented material flow cost accounting. The purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between material flow cost accounting and green design, and to provide a reference for the production design of the enterprise. After analysis, material flow cost accounting can generate detailed waste data, and provide a green design reference in actual energy conservation. These two outcomes complement each other, and will support achievement of the goal of mutual financial and environmental protection. Full article
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