Special Issue "Selected Papers from International Conference on Applied System Innovation 2016"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Teen­Hang Meen

Chair of IEEE Tainan Section Sensors Council Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632
Website | E-Mail
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: optical and electronic devices, semi-conductive materials, nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Dr. Stephen D. Prior

Aeronautics, Astronautics and Computational Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7QF, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microsystem design; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Artde Donald Kin­Tak Lam

Xiamen Academy of Arts and Design, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanostructures; nanomaterials; applied science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The IEEE 2016 International Conference on Applied System Innovation (ICASI 2016) will be held in Okinawa, Japan from 26 to 30 May 2016, and will provide a unified communication platform for researchers on a wide range of topics. The special issue on “Selected Papers from ICASI 2016” invites papers investigating the topic: “Applied System Innovation”. Mechanical engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Technological innovation by mechanical engineering includes IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations. IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, which implant intelligence to machine systems, is an interdisciplinary area combining conventional mechanical technology and new information technology.

The main goal of this special issue is to publish research results in “Applied System Innovation”. The ultimate aim is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to IT-based intelligent mechanical systems, mechanics and design innovations. We invite investigators to contribute their original research articles to this special issue on one of the following or related topics:

  • Intelligent mechanical manufacturing system
  • Mathematical problems on mechanical system design
  • Smart electromechanical system analysis and design
  • Computer and human–machine interaction
  • Internet technology on mechanical system innovation
  • Machine diagnostics and reliability
  • Electrical and electronic engineering
  • Mechanical and automation engineering

Prof. Teen-Hang Meen
Prof.Shoou-Jinn Chang
Dr. Stephen D. Prior
Prof. Dr. Artde Donald Kin­Tak Lam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mechanical engineering
  • Design innovation
  • Intelligent mechanical systems

Published Papers (23 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-23
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7020167
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED) driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC) converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a [...] Read more.
This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED) driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC) converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS) on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD) of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99), low utility-line current THD (<7%), low-output voltage ripples (<1%), low-output current ripples (<10%), and high circuit efficiency (>90%) are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Optical Morse Code-Based Electronic Lock Using the Ambient Light Sensor and Fuzzy Controller
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7020140
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a novel electronic lock that can encode and decode optical signals, modulated using Morse code conventions, was developed to build a smart home security system based on the Internet of Things (IoT). There are five topics of interest in this [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel electronic lock that can encode and decode optical signals, modulated using Morse code conventions, was developed to build a smart home security system based on the Internet of Things (IoT). There are five topics of interest in this research: (1) optical Morse code encoder; (2) optical Morse code decoder; (3) ambient light sensor circuit; (4) fuzzy controller; (5) cloud monitoring system. We take advantage of the light-emitting components as the encoder, which are readily available in hand-held mobile devices (e.g., Smart phones) and photoresistors and a microcontroller as the decoder. By Wi-Fi transferring, even without a personal computer, real-time information about this lock can be uploaded to the cloud service platform, and helps users to ensure home safety on the remote monitoring system. By using the ambient light sensor and fuzzy controller in this novel optical Morse code-based electronic lock, experimental results show that the reliability of this system is much improved from 65% to 100%. That means that it is highly resistant to different illumination conditions in the work environment, and therefore all functions, including coding, emitting, receiving, decoding, uploading and cloud monitoring, can work well. Furthermore, besides the convenience and cost reduction, by incorporating traditional keys into smart phones, as a consumer electronics, our proposed system is suitable for users of all ages because of a user-friendly operation interface. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Control Performance of Electronic Differential System for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010074
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electronic differential system (EDS) is an important issue for four-wheel drive electric vehicles. This paper delineates an advanced EDS steering strategy and carries out a careful study of its control performance by numerical simulations that comply with the requirements of ISO4238:2012. The [...] Read more.
The electronic differential system (EDS) is an important issue for four-wheel drive electric vehicles. This paper delineates an advanced EDS steering strategy and carries out a careful study of its control performance by numerical simulations that comply with the requirements of ISO4238:2012. The results demonstrate that the EDS feedback gain plays an important role to its control performance, particularly to its steering characteristics. Moreover, the analysis and discussion disclose the mechanism of the relationship between the feedback gain and the steering characteristics, which will contribute to further research and EDS development. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Impact on the Gas Barrier Property of Silicon Oxide Films Prepared by Tetramethylsilane-Based PECVD Incorporating with Ammonia
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010056
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gas barrier property of a silicon oxide (SiOx) film synthesized from plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using the tetramethysilane (TMS)-oxygen gas mixture was modified by introducing ammonia gas in the glow discharge. The change in the glow discharge with the ammonia [...] Read more.
The gas barrier property of a silicon oxide (SiOx) film synthesized from plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using the tetramethysilane (TMS)-oxygen gas mixture was modified by introducing ammonia gas in the glow discharge. The change in the glow discharge with the ammonia gas incorporation was monitored by an optical emission spectrometer (OES). Structures, chemical bond configurations, and material properties of the resulting films were investigated. The introduced ammonia gas in the TMS-oxygen plasma resulted in emission lines dominated by the N2 and CN species with the suppression of the OH and oxygen-related radicals, thereby introducing nitrogen and carbon atoms in the deposited film. A silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) film had the best surface morphology and the lowest residual internal stress was achievable by controlling the reactant gas flow ratio of the ammonia and oxygen. The barrier property to the water vapor permeation of the silicon oxide film (~1.65 g/m2/day) deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was thus greatly improved to 0.06 g/m2/day for the film synthesized from an adequate TMS-oxygen-ammonia gas mixture. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Implementation of a Motor Diagnosis System for Rotor Failure Using Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Classification
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010031
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the diagnosis of induction motor rotor failure with fuzzy theory and genetic algorithm is presented. The proposed method can evaluate the status of an operating motor. According to the measurement of electrical data, this research establishes the relationship of rotor [...] Read more.
In this paper, the diagnosis of induction motor rotor failure with fuzzy theory and genetic algorithm is presented. The proposed method can evaluate the status of an operating motor. According to the measurement of electrical data, this research establishes the relationship of rotor failures with spectrum features. Through the learning of genetic algorithm, membership parameters can be adjusted to optimal positions. The simulation that combines fuzzy theory and a genetic algorithm has preferable diagnostic results for the rotor failures. The designed processes will be applied as a reference for building the diagnostic methods of other motor failures. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Concentration of Eu3+ Ions and Synthesizing Temperature on the Luminescence Properties of Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 Phosphors
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010030
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of Eu2O3 concentration on the luminescence properties of double perovskite (cubic) Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors was thoroughly investigated using different synthesizing temperatures. Phosphors with the composition Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6, [...] Read more.
The effect of Eu2O3 concentration on the luminescence properties of double perovskite (cubic) Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors was thoroughly investigated using different synthesizing temperatures. Phosphors with the composition Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6, where Eu2O3 was substituted for SrO and x was changed from 0 to 0.12, were synthesized by the solid-state method at temperatures of 900–1200 °C, respectively. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that even when the synthesizing temperature was 1100 °C, secondary or unknown phases were observed in Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 ceramic powders. The effect of the concentration of Eu3+ ions on the luminescence properties of the Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors was readily observable because no characteristic emission peak was observed in the Sr2ZnMoO6 phosphor. Two characteristic emission peaks at 597 and 616 nm were observed, which correspond to the 5D07F1 and 5D07F2 transitions of Eu3+ ions, respectively. The two characteristic emission peaks of the Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors were apparently influenced by the synthesizing temperature and the concentration of Eu3+ ions. When x was larger than 0.08, a concentration quenching effect of Eu3+ ions in the Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors could be observed. The lifetime of the Sr2−xEuxZnMoO6 phosphors decreased as the synthesizing temperature increased. A linear relation between temperature and lifetime was obtained by using a fitting curve of t = −0.0016 × T + 3.543, where t was lifetime and T was synthesizing temperature. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Noise Magnitude for Speech Denoising Using Minima-Controlled-Recursive-Averaging Algorithm Adapted by Harmonic Properties
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010009
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accuracy of noise estimation is important for the performance of a speech denoising system. Most noise estimators suffer from either overestimation or underestimation on the noise level. An overestimate on noise magnitude will cause serious speech distortion for speech denoising. Conversely, a [...] Read more.
The accuracy of noise estimation is important for the performance of a speech denoising system. Most noise estimators suffer from either overestimation or underestimation on the noise level. An overestimate on noise magnitude will cause serious speech distortion for speech denoising. Conversely, a great quantity of residual noise will occur when the noise magnitude is underestimated. Accurately estimating noise magnitude is important for speech denoising. This study proposes employing variable segment length for noise tracking and variable thresholds for the determination of speech presence probability, resulting in the performance improvement for a minima-controlled-recursive-averaging (MCRA) algorithm in noise estimation. Initially, the fundamental frequency was estimated to determine whether a frame is a vowel. In the case of a vowel frame, the increment of segment lengths and the decrement of threshold for speech presence were performed which resulted in underestimating the level of noise magnitude. Accordingly, the speech distortion is reduced in denoised speech. On the contrary, the segment length decreases rapidly in noise-dominant regions. This enables the noise estimate to update quickly and the noise variation to track well, yielding interference noise being removed effectively through the process of speech denoising. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has been effective in improving the performance of the MCRA algorithm by preserving the weak vowels and consonants. The denoising performance is therefore improved. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Enhancement and Reduction of Nonradiative Decay Process in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Gold Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120441
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influences of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and the buffer layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes are investigated in this study. The GNPs are doped into poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and the buffer layer is introduced between the hole-transport layer and emitting layer. [...] Read more.
The influences of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and the buffer layer on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes are investigated in this study. The GNPs are doped into poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and the buffer layer is introduced between the hole-transport layer and emitting layer. The GNPs are found to have the surface plasmon resonance at a wavelength of 530 nm when the mean particle size of the GNPs is 10 nm. The current efficiency of the device, at a current density of 145 mA/cm2, with GNPs and a buffer layer of 6 nm is about 1.93 times higher than that of the device with prime PEDOT:PSS because the GNPs will generate the surface plasmon resonance effect in the device and the buffer layer can considerably decrease the quenching of the fluorescence. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Transition-Metal Oxide Deposition on Carbon Electrodes of a Supercapacitor
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120413
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to fabricate the composite electrodes of a supercapacitor, transition-metal oxide materials NiO and WO3 were deposited on carbon electrodes by electron beam evaporation. The influences of various transition-metal oxides, scan rates of cyclic voltammograms (CVs), and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests on [...] Read more.
In order to fabricate the composite electrodes of a supercapacitor, transition-metal oxide materials NiO and WO3 were deposited on carbon electrodes by electron beam evaporation. The influences of various transition-metal oxides, scan rates of cyclic voltammograms (CVs), and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests on the characteristics of supercapacitor were studied. The charge/discharge efficiency and the lifetime of the composite electrodes were also investigated. It was found that the composite electrodes exhibited more favorable capacitance properties than those of the carbon electrodes at high scan rates. The results revealed the promotion of the capacitance property of the supercapacitor with composite electrode and the improving of the decay property in capacitance at high scan rate. In addition, the charge/discharge efficiency is close to 100% after 5000 cycles, and the composite electrode retains strong adhesion between the electrode material and the substrate. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of the Methods of Logicalizing the Code-Checking System for Architectural Design Review in New Taipei City
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(12), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6120407
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The New Taipei City Government developed a Code-checking System (CCS) using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology to facilitate an architectural design review in 2014. This system was intended to solve problems caused by cognitive gaps between designer and reviewer in the design review [...] Read more.
The New Taipei City Government developed a Code-checking System (CCS) using Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology to facilitate an architectural design review in 2014. This system was intended to solve problems caused by cognitive gaps between designer and reviewer in the design review process. Along with considering information technology, the most important issue for the system’s development has been the logicalization of literal building codes. Therefore, to enhance the reliability and performance of the CCS, this study uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) on the basis of design thinking and communication theory to investigate the semantic difference and cognitive gaps among participants in the design review process and to propose the direction of system development. Our empirical results lead us to recommend grouping multi-stage screening and weighted assisted logicalization of non-quantitative building codes to improve the operability of CCS. Furthermore, CCS should integrate the Expert Evaluation System (EES) to evaluate the design value under qualitative building codes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Moving Object Tracking and Its Application to an Indoor Dual-Robot Patrol
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(11), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6110349
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (15222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an application of image tracking using an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The objective of this study is to integrate image processing of hue, saturation, and lightness (HSL) for fuzzy color space, and use mean shift tracking for object detection [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of image tracking using an omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The objective of this study is to integrate image processing of hue, saturation, and lightness (HSL) for fuzzy color space, and use mean shift tracking for object detection and a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) reader for confirming destination. Fuzzy control is applied to omnidirectional WMR for indoor patrol and intruder detection. Experimental results show that the proposed control scheme can make the WMRs perform indoor security service. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Strategy and Evaluation of Vehicle Collision Avoidance Control via Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(11), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6110327
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel control approach for vehicle collision avoidance of urban vehicles. For safe driving in urban environments, this paper presents both one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions, which can be applied to the collision avoidance via steering assistance, automatic braking, and warning [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel control approach for vehicle collision avoidance of urban vehicles. For safe driving in urban environments, this paper presents both one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions, which can be applied to the collision avoidance via steering assistance, automatic braking, and warning of collision. Strategies are verified under the software CarSim, and the experimental evaluations are carried out under the combination of CarSim with a hardware-in-the-loop platform. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on vehicle collision avoidance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Co-Firing of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil and Heavy Fuel Oil in a 300-kWth Furnace
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(11), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6110326
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions of burning fast pyrolysis bio-oil/heavy fuel oil (HFO) blends in a 300-kWth furnace are investigated. Lauan (shorea) wood is used as biomass feedstock for making bio-oil via a fast pyrolysis process. The bio-oil has high viscosity, high [...] Read more.
Combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions of burning fast pyrolysis bio-oil/heavy fuel oil (HFO) blends in a 300-kWth furnace are investigated. Lauan (shorea) wood is used as biomass feedstock for making bio-oil via a fast pyrolysis process. The bio-oil has high viscosity, high water and oxygen content, as well as a low heating value. A furnace test is conducted for pure HFO and bio-oil/HFO blends with various mixing ratios. The results show that instability occurs during the test for cases with more than 5% bio-oil in the emulsion. Notably, it is verified that burning a bio-oil/HFO blend with a 2.5% bio-oil and a 97.5% HFO exhibits similar furnace performance and has lower NO and SO2 emission levels as compared to burning pure HFO. The reductions of NO and SO2 emissions are 2.6% and 7.9% for this blend, respectively. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Sheet Metal Tapping Screw Fabrication Using a Finite Element Method
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100300
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The malformation of sheet metal tapping screw threads in the screw threading process increases the cost of screw threading dies and their maintenance. Die factories do not reveal their screw threading die design techniques, so production and maintenance processes are established by trial-and-error [...] Read more.
The malformation of sheet metal tapping screw threads in the screw threading process increases the cost of screw threading dies and their maintenance. Die factories do not reveal their screw threading die design techniques, so production and maintenance processes are established by trial-and-error or worker experience and passing down such techniques and documenting quality control is difficult. In this study, screw thread forming design and process analysis were carried out by combining computer-aided design software with computer-aided metal forming analysis software. Simulation results were verified in an actual forming process. The sheet metal tapping screw forging size error was less than 0.90%, except at a sharp angle, which was associated with an error of 3.075%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of the simulated forming process. The numerical analysis process can be utilized to shorten forming development time; to reduce the number of die tests, and to improve product quality and die service life, reducing the cost of development and promoting the overall competitiveness of the company. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Tracking and Control Algorithm for an SSVEP-Based BCI System
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100270
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3070 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consistently experience decreasing quality of life because of this distinctive disease. Thus, a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) application can effectively help subjects with ALS to participate in communication or entertainment. In this study, a fuzzy tracking and [...] Read more.
Subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consistently experience decreasing quality of life because of this distinctive disease. Thus, a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) application can effectively help subjects with ALS to participate in communication or entertainment. In this study, a fuzzy tracking and control algorithm is proposed for developing a BCI remote control system. To represent the characteristics of the measured electroencephalography (EEG) signals after visual stimulation, a fast Fourier transform is applied to extract the EEG features. A self-developed fuzzy tracking algorithm quickly traces the changes of EEG signals. The accuracy and stability of a BCI system can be greatly improved by using a fuzzy control algorithm. Fifteen subjects were asked to attend a performance test of this BCI system. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to compare the proposed approach, and the average recognition rates are 96.97% and 94.49% for proposed approach and CCA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach is preferable to CCA. Overall, the proposed fuzzy tracking and control algorithm applied in the BCI system can profoundly help subjects with ALS to control air swimmer drone vehicles for entertainment purposes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Output Filter Design for a Novel Dual-Input PV-Wind Power Converter by Energy Balance Principle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6090263
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV)-wind converter (DIPWC) is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of charged [...] Read more.
In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV)-wind converter (DIPWC) is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of charged energy of the output filter will be equal to that of the energy pumped away within one switching cycle. From this zero net change in energy, the minimum value of the output filter can be found. With the determined value, the DIPWC is able to operate in continuous conduction for high power applications. The developed procedure of the inductance determination can be applied to other types of dual-input converters. Therefore, it makes significant contributions to the design toward a green-energy, multi-input converter. To verify the correctness of the mathematical analysis, the DIPWC—with the derived output inductance—is built and tested. Practical measurements and results have verified the inductance determination. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Generating Radially and Azimuthally Polarized Beams by Using a Pair of Lateral Displacement Beamsplitters
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6090241
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 21 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
PDF Full-text (2847 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a modified polarization converter for generating radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Based on a Mach–Zehnder-like interferometric structure, the device consists of a pair of lateral displacement beamsplitters (LDBs) and two half-wave plates that manipulate the states of polarization of incident [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a modified polarization converter for generating radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Based on a Mach–Zehnder-like interferometric structure, the device consists of a pair of lateral displacement beamsplitters (LDBs) and two half-wave plates that manipulate the states of polarization of incident linearly polarized light. Through the coherent superposition of two orthogonal Hermite–Gaussian modes in the far field, radially and azimuthally polarized beams can be obtained simultaneously. A prototype was assembled to demonstrate the feasibility of the design. The proposed design has the advantage of having a simple, symmetric, compact, and robust structure. In addition, the introduction of LDBs substantially reduces the cost of this device. Moreover, the design can be applied to a broadband pulsed laser with considerable potential in high-power applications. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Chip-Based Cytometry Illuminated by a Blade-Shape Continuous Light for Multispectral Detection
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(8), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6080229
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 13 August 2016
PDF Full-text (4322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high performance diascopic illumination configuration is presented for the simultaneous detection of cells and particles with different sizes and different fluorescence labels in a microchannel. In the proposed approach, the cells/particles are illuminated by an objective-type dark-field condenser equipped with a low-cost [...] Read more.
A high performance diascopic illumination configuration is presented for the simultaneous detection of cells and particles with different sizes and different fluorescence labels in a microchannel. In the proposed approach, the cells/particles are illuminated by an objective-type dark-field condenser equipped with a low-cost tungsten light source and are then characterized by extracting the side-scatter, absorbance, and fluorescence signals from the spectra obtained by a ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrometer. A modified computation model is adopted to improve the capability for discriminating more fluorescence dyes simultaneously. The feasibility of the proposed detection configuration is demonstrated by counting and classifying a mixed sample of green, red, and crimson fluorescent-labeled particles and non-labeled particles with various dimensions. The suitability of the proposed system for real-world cytometry applications is then evaluated by classifying a mixed bio-sample comprising of gastric epithelial (AGS) cells stained with Trypan-blue and Erythrosin-bluish dye, respectively. The results show that the cytometer enables the efficient detection, identification, and classification of mixed bio-samples without the need for spatial filters or delicate optical components. Consequently, the proposed system has significant potential for high-performance micro-flow cytometry applications. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Self-Testing Platform with a Foreground Digital Calibration Technique for SAR ADCs
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(8), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6080217
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
PDF Full-text (5597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents a self-testing platform with a foreground digital calibration technique for successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A high-accuracy digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with digital control is used for the proposed self-testing platform to generate the sinusoidal test signal. This signal [...] Read more.
This study presents a self-testing platform with a foreground digital calibration technique for successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). A high-accuracy digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with digital control is used for the proposed self-testing platform to generate the sinusoidal test signal. This signal is then implemented using an Arduino board, and the clock signal is generated to test the ADCs. In addition, fast Fourier transform and recursive discrete Fourier transform (RDFT) processors are adopted for dynamic performance evaluation and calibration of the ADCs. The third harmonic distortion caused by the non-linearity of the track-and-hold circuit, the mismatch of the DAC capacitor array, and the direct current (DC) offset of the comparator can be calculated using the processors to improve the ADC performance. The advantages of the proposed platform include its low cost, high integration, and no need for an extra analogy compensation circuit to deal with calibration. In this work a 12 bit SAR ADC and an RDFT processor are used in the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (TSMC) 0.18 μm standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process with a sampling rate of 18.75 kS/s to validate the proposed method. The measurement results show that the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio is 55.07 dB before calibration and 61.35 dB after calibration. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Mutual Authentication Protocol for Role-Based Access Control Using Mobile RFID
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(8), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6080215
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 17 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet has become the main transmission media in modern information systems due to the popularization of information technology and the rapid development of network technology. To use the Internet, we need complete security mechanisms which include requirements such as integrity, security and [...] Read more.
The Internet has become the main transmission media in modern information systems due to the popularization of information technology and the rapid development of network technology. To use the Internet, we need complete security mechanisms which include requirements such as integrity, security and privacy to ensure the legal user can login to a remote server to get the service and resources they need. The radio frequency identification (RFID) is a very convenient technology with the property of non-contact reading. It uses the tag embedded in the object to identify the information quickly. Now, more and more devices are equipped with the RFID reader. Hence, the user can use the RFID reader embedded in the mobile device through a wireless network to read the information on the tag and then use the service which is called Mobile RFID. Compared to traditional RFID, the characteristic of mobility makes the reading more flexible. It can deal with the events in real-time and undertake the process faster and more efficiently. The major security problem of Mobile RFID is privacy, which is also a consideration when constructing a Mobile RFID Mechanism. In this paper, we propose a secure authentication mechanism which uses the authenticated delegating mechanism in Mobile RFID to enable the reader to get the specific role authority through a back-end database server. The reader has to undertake mutual authentication with the back-end database server and the tag. Then, it can protect the information and limit the access times of the reader to achieve privacy. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6070205
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
PDF Full-text (4432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method [...] Read more.
We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. In bubble measurement, we can count the number of bubbles passing through the cross section of the laser beam and measure the bubble size from the phase pulse signal. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Information-Aided Smart Schemes for Vehicle Flow Detection Enhancements of Traffic Microwave Radar Detectors
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6070196
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For satisfactory traffic management of an intelligent transport system, it is vital that traffic microwave radar detectors (TMRDs) can provide real-time traffic information with high accuracy. In this study, we develop several information-aided smart schemes for traffic detection improvements of TMRDs in multiple-lane [...] Read more.
For satisfactory traffic management of an intelligent transport system, it is vital that traffic microwave radar detectors (TMRDs) can provide real-time traffic information with high accuracy. In this study, we develop several information-aided smart schemes for traffic detection improvements of TMRDs in multiple-lane environments. Specifically, we select appropriate thresholds not only for removing noise from fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of regional lane contexts but also for reducing FFT side lobes within each lane. The resulting FFTs of reflected vehicle signals and those of clutter are distinguishable. We exploit FFT and lane-/or time stamp-related information for developing smart schemes, which mitigate adverse effects of lane-crossing FFT side lobes of a vehicle signal. As such, the proposed schemes can enhance the detection accuracy of both lane vehicle flow and directional traffic volume. On-site experimental results demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of the proposed methods, and suggest the best smart scheme. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Output Properties of Transparent Submount Packaged FlipChip Light-Emitting Diode Modules
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(6), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6060179
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flip chip technology has been widely adopted in modern power light-emitting diode (LED) fabrications and its output efficiency is closely related to the submount material properties. Here, we present the electrical, optical and thermal properties of flip chip light-emitting diodes mounted on transparent [...] Read more.
Flip chip technology has been widely adopted in modern power light-emitting diode (LED) fabrications and its output efficiency is closely related to the submount material properties. Here, we present the electrical, optical and thermal properties of flip chip light-emitting diodes mounted on transparent sapphire and borosilicate glass which have shown a higher output luminous flux when compared to the traditional non-transparent mounted LEDs. Exhibiting both better thermal conductivity and good optical transparency, flip chip LEDs with a sapphire submount showed superior performance when compared to the non-transparent silicon submount ones, and also showed better optical performance than the flip chip LEDs mounted on transparent but poor-thermal-conducting glass substrates. The correspondent analysis was carried out using ANSYS 14 to compare the experimental thermal imaging with the simulation results. TracePro software was also used to check the output luminous flux dependency on different LED mounting designs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top