Special Issue "Management and Monitoring of Urban and Rural Ecological Water Resources"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 12289

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jenn Kai Tsai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: photovoltaic device; green technology; nanotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of the Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle Laboratory, Professeur de Psychologie Cognitive - Université Paris 8, Saint Denis, France
Interests: problem solving; decision making; mental models of dynamic natural and man-made systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wei-Ling Hsu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Urban and Environmental Science, Huaiyin Normal University, China
Interests: sustainable development; water; river; lake monitoring in surrounding urban-rural areas
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water and soil resources are the foundation for human survival and sustainable development. With rapid economic development and increasing population, humans are developing and using water and soil resources at an unprecedented speed, which has caused a series of environmental and ecological problems. If these problems are not solved, we will face unprecedented survival challenges. Humans often directly or indirectly dump wastes at rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and oceans, which pollute water bodies and sediments, deteriorating the physical and chemical properties, biological composition, and bottom conditions. This waste also reduces the value of water resources. Water pollution includes natural pollution and man-made pollution; the former is mainly occurs through the physical blending of sediments and mineral decomposition; the latter is composed of household, business, and wastes from urban, rural areas, mines, and construction activities. In addition, future solutions require contributions from experts in the fields of wastewater, urban planning, and regulations. To explain the shift of perspective, our Special Issue believes that case studies and academic research on conceptual design will make an important contribution. It is our pleasure to invite work that explores solutions for water resource management or research cases. They should focus not only on the impact of water resource management and process efficiency on urban and rural development, but also on how they affect urban and rural environments. Our goal is to organize manuscripts of decision support systems in the form of models that can be used for discussion between government management, urban planners, and public participation.

The main goal of this Special Issue “Management and Monitoring of Urban and Rural Ecological Water Resources” is to discover new scientific knowledge on relevant water topics. We invite investigators to contribute their original research articles to this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Sustainable development
  • River basin planning
  • Water, river, and lake monitoring in surrounding urban-rural areas
  • Water resources mapping and GIS
  • Urban and rural planning
  • Water reuse
  • Water quality analysis
  • Rivers and lakes
  • Water supply and distribution systems
  • Multiple water resources to characterize key urban–rural areas eco-economic

Prof. Dr. Jenn Kai Tsai
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Prof. Dr. Wei-Ling Hsu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable development
  • River basin planning
  • Water resources
  • Geographic information system
  • Urban and rural planning
  • Water reuse
  • Water quality analysis
  • Rivers and lakes
  • Water supply
  • Decision making

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Combined Application of Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide to Degrade Diesel Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater
Water 2021, 13(23), 3404; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233404 - 02 Dec 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Environmental pollution has been a major concern in recent times, and soil and groundwater pollution are areas which have received particular focus. This has led to the development of various remediation techniques such as excavation, soil vapor extraction, bioremediation, chemical oxidation, and so [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution has been a major concern in recent times, and soil and groundwater pollution are areas which have received particular focus. This has led to the development of various remediation techniques such as excavation, soil vapor extraction, bioremediation, chemical oxidation, and so on. Among all remediation techniques, chemical oxidation has been proven to be the most effective and feasible technique around the world. In this study, various combinations of ozone and hydrogen peroxide were used to treat diesel-contaminated soil and groundwater in an experimental setup. Experimental soil and groundwater were prepared with properties similar to the contaminated soil. An ozone generator and a pump injection system were deployed for combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Five different experiment batches were prepared based on the hydrogen peroxide concentration and its ratio to the soil. The diesel concentration in the water dropped from 300 mg/L to 7 mg/L in the first hour of treatment, which dropped below the detection limit (0.01 mg/L) thereafter. Similarly, 63.9% degradation was achieved with the combined sparging of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in the soil. Ozone combined with 7% hydrogen peroxide was the most promising combination for removing the contaminants. In addition, this research explored the hydroxyl radical conversion rate of ozone and the perozone, the difference in order of magnitude is greater than one which shows that the perozone has better oxidation capacity than ozone only. The findings of this study show that combining ozone with hydrogen peroxide is a competent and feasible onsite remediation method for diesel contaminants in soil and groundwater. Thus, this method can be applied in local gas stations, accidental spillage sites, and small-scale refineries for onsite treatment in a cost-effective and technically sound way within a short time span. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Integrated Multi-Attribute Preference Analysis in Fisheries and Solar Power Symbiosis Areas: A Case Study in Cigu, Taiwan
Water 2021, 13(22), 3265; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223265 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
To achieve the 2025 Non-Nuclear Homeland goal and carbon emission mitigation target, the Taiwan government has been developing actively green and renewable energy with low carbon emissions. This study assessed the FSPS development project in the Cigu region of Tainan City to provide [...] Read more.
To achieve the 2025 Non-Nuclear Homeland goal and carbon emission mitigation target, the Taiwan government has been developing actively green and renewable energy with low carbon emissions. This study assessed the FSPS development project in the Cigu region of Tainan City to provide a thorough analysis toward making tradeoffs among ecosystem conservation, aquaculture, fisheries, and green power generation development. This study employs the choice experiment method and designs different attributes and levels to discuss the preferences of stakeholders in the policy development choices for ecosystem conservation and FSPS. The hope is that it can balance economic development and ecological conservation. The findings demonstrate that the tourists’ marginal willingness to pay is low. The respondents then give importance to improving biodiversity. Finally, they prefer minimal changes to the status quo with the FSPS policy implementation. These findings can serve as a reference for decision making for regional sustainable development, aquaculture and fishery upgradation, and green power generation and exploitation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Efficient No-Shutdown Pipe-Fixing Freezing Design for Water Management System in Hospitals during COVID-19: A Case Study
Water 2021, 13(19), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192725 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Ensuring the uninterrupted flow of the complex piped water distribution networks to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan’s hospitals has become a priority. The process involved in the no-shutdown pipe fixing freezing method depends on the water supply system design and the conditions [...] Read more.
Ensuring the uninterrupted flow of the complex piped water distribution networks to combat the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan’s hospitals has become a priority. The process involved in the no-shutdown pipe fixing freezing method depends on the water supply system design and the conditions of the environment. Before carrying out repair works onsite, two experiments were undertaken to estimate the liquid nitrogen supply rate and make sure of its adequacy in relation to the fixing system’s heat transfer performance. Using an iron exhaust pipe and galvanized steel inlet pipe with jacket for a 50-mm-diameter water pipe, temperature variations and timelapse were recorded and analyzed. The results showed that the frost length on the water pipe surface at either side of the jacket was 1.2–1.8 times of the pipe diameter. The ice length (~45 cm) was longer than the jacket (~34 cm), and the water pressure at the jacket inlet side was 1 kg/cm2 greater than at the exit. Injecting the right amount of liquid nitrogen into the inlet and at a proper speed between 0.7 and 0.8 kg/min will ensure a safe and smooth completion of the ice plug formation process. The design and processes have been used successfully in hospital water supply system fixing works. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity Using Principal Component Analysis: An Empirical Study in Huai’an, Jiangsu, China
Water 2021, 13(18), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182587 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
With the rapid development of urbanization, problems such as the tight supply and demand of water resources and the pollution of the water environment have become increasingly prominent, and the pressure on the carrying capacity of water resources has gradually increased. In order [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of urbanization, problems such as the tight supply and demand of water resources and the pollution of the water environment have become increasingly prominent, and the pressure on the carrying capacity of water resources has gradually increased. In order to better promote the sustainable development of cities, it is extremely important to coordinate the relationship between water resources and economic society. This study analyzed the current research status of water resources carrying capacity from two aspects, i.e., research perspective and research methodology, established an innovative evaluation system, and used the principal component analysis to analyze the water resources carrying capacity in Huai’an City, an important city in China’s Huaihe River Ecological Economic Zone. Based on the results, it is found that the water resources carrying capacity of Huai’an City has been declining year by year from 2013 to 2019. Based on the evaluation results, suggestions and measures to improve the water resources carrying capacity of the empirical city are proposed to provide an important decision basis for the coordinated development of urban economy, society, and water resources. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydrological Similarity-Based Parameter Regionalization under Different Climate and Underlying Surfaces in Ungauged Basins
Water 2021, 13(18), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182508 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Hydrological similarity-based parameter regionalization is the dominant method used for runoff prediction in ungauged basin. However, the application of this approach depends on assessing hydrological similarity between basins. This study used data for runoff, climate, and the underlying surface of the Hulan River [...] Read more.
Hydrological similarity-based parameter regionalization is the dominant method used for runoff prediction in ungauged basin. However, the application of this approach depends on assessing hydrological similarity between basins. This study used data for runoff, climate, and the underlying surface of the Hulan River Basin and Poyang Lake Basin to construct a novel physical hydrological similarity index (HSI). The index was used to compare the efficiency of transfer of the parameters of commonly used regionalization methods and to finally apply parameters to ungauged basins. The results showed that: (1) Precipitation is the main climatic factor regulating magnitude of runoff in the Poyang Lake Basin. Spring runoff in Hulan River Basin was regulated by precipitation and temperature. (2) The GR4J and CemaNeigeGR4J models achieved reasonable simulations of runoff of Poyang Lake Basin and Hulan River Basin. Although CemaNeigeGR4J considers snowmelt, the model simulations of spring runoff in the Hulan River Basin were not accurate. (3) There was a significant correlation between climate, the underlying surface, and hydrological model parameters. There were fewer significant correlations between environmental factors and between environmental factors and hydrological model parameters in the Hulan River Basin compared to those in the Poyang Lake Basin, possibly due to less sub-basins in the Hulan River Basin. (4) The HSI based on a combination of principal component analysis and the entropy method efficiently identified the most similar gauged basin for an ungauged basin. A significant positive correlation existed between the HSI and parameter transfer efficiency. The relationship between the HSI and transfer efficiency could be represented by logistic regression and linear regression in the Poyang Lake Basin and Hulan River Basin, respectively. The HSI was better able to quantify the hydrological similarity between basins in terms of climate and underlying surface and can provide a scientific reference for the transfer of hydrological model parameters in an ungauged basin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Feasibility of Remediation Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, and Cadmium-Contaminated Groundwater by Calcium Sulfide
Water 2021, 13(16), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162266 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Metal contamination in groundwater often occurs in various industrial processes. Studies have confirmed that polysulfide could reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, achieving the effect of in situ stabilization. For other metal contamination in groundwater, whether polysulfide also had a stabilizing ability to [...] Read more.
Metal contamination in groundwater often occurs in various industrial processes. Studies have confirmed that polysulfide could reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, achieving the effect of in situ stabilization. For other metal contamination in groundwater, whether polysulfide also had a stabilizing ability to achieve in situ remediation. This research focused on metals in addition to chromium that often contaminated groundwater, including lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium, to explore the feasibility of using calcium polysulfide (CaSx) as an in situ stabilization technology for these metals’ contamination of groundwater. Results showed that CaSx had a great removal efficiency for metals lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium. However, for nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium, when CaSx was added excessively, complexes would be formed, causing the result of re-dissolution, in turn reducing the removal efficiency. As it is difficult to accurately control the dosage of agents for in situ groundwater remediation, the concentration of re-dissolved nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium may not be able to meet the groundwater control standards. CaSx had high lead removal efficiency and for a concentration of 100 mg/L, the dose of calcium polysulfide was more than the amount of 1/1200 (volume ratio of CaSx to groundwater). In addition, the removal rate was almost 100% and it would not cause re-dissolution due to excessive CaSx dosing. CaSx can be used as an in situ stabilization technique for lead-contaminated groundwater. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Green Cities in the Drainage Area of China’s Beijing–Hangzhou Canal
Water 2021, 13(16), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162145 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
The phrase ‘green cities’ refers to an idealised and modernised urban development model that features harmonious development among the environment, ecology, society, culture, and the inhabitants of a city. Harmonious humanistic relations and green pathways have become predominant models in modern urban development. [...] Read more.
The phrase ‘green cities’ refers to an idealised and modernised urban development model that features harmonious development among the environment, ecology, society, culture, and the inhabitants of a city. Harmonious humanistic relations and green pathways have become predominant models in modern urban development. Green city construction has drawn considerable attention. However, the construction and development of green cities involves numerous problems. The various needs of different populations must be coordinated to foster the green development of a city. In this study, the analytic hierarchy process was used to classify factors related to green city construction into different levels. The scope of the empirical verification was eight cities alongshore the drainage area of the Jiangsu section of the Beijing–Hangzhou Canal. Data from 2009, 2014, and 2019 were selected for analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using these data, and standards were established to serve as a reference for city administrators in the process of decision-making regarding green city construction. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Earth Observations Based Assessment of Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Surface Water Quality of Buddha Nala, Punjab, India
Water 2021, 13(10), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101363 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) halted almost all the industrial scale anthropogenic activities across the globe, resulting in improvements in water and air quality of megacities. Here, using Sentinel-2A data, we quantified impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the water quality parameters in one [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) halted almost all the industrial scale anthropogenic activities across the globe, resulting in improvements in water and air quality of megacities. Here, using Sentinel-2A data, we quantified impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the water quality parameters in one of the largest perennial creeks i.e., the Buddha Nala located in District Ludhiana in India. This creek has long been considered as a dumping ground for industrial wastes and has resulted in surface and ground water pollution in the entire lower Indus Basin. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI), Nitrogen Content Index (NI), Normalized Difference Turbidity Index (NDTI), and Total Suspended Matter (TSM) were compared prior (2019) and during (2020) lockdown in the creek. There was a significant enhancement in NDVI, NDWI, NDCI, and NI values, and reduction in NDTI and TSM values during the lockdown period. When compared with prior year (2019), the values of indices suggested an improvement in water quality and an indicative change in aquatic ecology in the creek. The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the improvement in water quality of Buddha Nala was more evident in the upstream and downstream sections than the middle section. This is intriguing since the middle section of the creek was continually impacted by domestic household effluents. The earth observation inspired methodology employed and findings are testament to the discriminatory power to employ remote sensing data and to develop protocols to monitor water quality in regions where routine surveillance of water remains cost prohibitive. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Spatiotemporal Effects and Driving Factors of Water Pollutants Discharge in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region
Water 2021, 13(9), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091174 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The problem of water pollution is a social issue in China requiring immediate and urgent solutions. In the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, the contradiction between preserving the ecological environment and facilitating sustainable economic development is particularly acute. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of water [...] Read more.
The problem of water pollution is a social issue in China requiring immediate and urgent solutions. In the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, the contradiction between preserving the ecological environment and facilitating sustainable economic development is particularly acute. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of water pollutants and their factors of influence using statistics on the discharge of two water pollutants, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen), in 154 counties in both 2012 and 2016 as research units in the region. The study employed Exploratory Spatial-Time Data Analysis (ESTDA), Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE), and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models, as well as ArcGIS and GeoDa software, obtaining the following conclusions: (1) From 2012 to 2016, pollutant discharge dropped significantly, with COD and NH3-N emissions decreasing 65.9% and 47.2%, respectively; the pollutant emissions possessed the spatial feature of gradual gradient descent from the central districts to the periphery. (2) The water pollutants discharge displayed significant and positive spatial correlations. The spatiotemporal cohesion of the spatiotemporal evolution of the pollutants was higher than their spatiotemporal fluidity, representing strong spatial locking. (3) The level of economic development, the level of urbanization, and the intensity of agricultural production input significantly and positively drove pollutant discharge; the environmental regulations had a significant effect on reducing the emission of pollutants. In particular, the effect for NH3-N emissions reduction was stronger; the driving effect of the industrial structure and the distance decay was not significant. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Research on Sustainable Development Evaluation of Reservoir Water Source Area in Island Area
Water 2021, 13(8), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081130 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
This study takes Taiwan’s Sun Moon Lake Reservoir as the research object to discuss the sustainable development decision-making of the reservoir water source area in the island area. The grounded theory was adopted to construct the framework; 835 questionnaires were analyzed by statistical [...] Read more.
This study takes Taiwan’s Sun Moon Lake Reservoir as the research object to discuss the sustainable development decision-making of the reservoir water source area in the island area. The grounded theory was adopted to construct the framework; 835 questionnaires were analyzed by statistical test; 10 interviewees’ feelings were collected through interviews and discussions, and multiple verification methods were used for exploration. Conclusion: The study found that the current development of the reservoir water source area of the outlying islands has brought much garbage; affecting the quality of the natural environment; lake; and water source; caused the disappearance of distinctive culture and architecture. The poor interaction between businesses and communities has led to an overlap in the types of industries, consumer goods, attractions and a lack of transportation and medical facilities, affecting people’s desire to travel. The government’s future decisions include: Increasing the variety of consumer goods; improving medical and transportation facilities; preserving unique culture and architecture; linking foreign-invested enterprises with community interactivity; enhancing local people’s interaction; and compensating for the deficiencies in human resources for industrial development are the key points for future improvement of the reservoir water source area of the outlying islands. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Social Dimensions of Projected Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services in the Coastal-Rural Area of Nemunas River Reaches and Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania)
Water 2021, 13(8), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081114 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 894
Abstract
The capacity of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services (hereinafter referred to as ES) depends on the state of their structure, processes, and functions, which is determined by interactions with other systems. These interactions are complex and take place in different climatic areas, and [...] Read more.
The capacity of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services (hereinafter referred to as ES) depends on the state of their structure, processes, and functions, which is determined by interactions with other systems. These interactions are complex and take place in different climatic areas, and have different impacts on ecosystems and the use of ES. As the most sensitive part of the Lithuanian shore zone to climate change is the seaside zone or the coastal zone, which includes the Curonian Lagoon and the sea coast, the said area was therefore chosen for research. The case study examined those ES that were specific to the study area, without attempting to account for absolutely all ES. With an emphasis on the representation of different perspectives (in the process of assessing and preserving the potential of ES), the empirical study involved representatives of different (public and private) sectors. The public sector was represented by elders and eldership employees, the private sector by farmers and businesspeople. Respondents were selected purposefully to reflect the entire existing totality of the existing area. The evaluation of the obtained theoretical and practical results of the research identified the potential of the existing area ecosystem services and perspectives for the implementation of services by assessing their use according to respondents’ opinions, regional climate change, and national scale in EU environmental policy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Perceived Behavioral Control as a Mediator between Attitudes and Intentions toward Marine Responsible Environmental Behavior
Water 2021, 13(5), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050580 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
The marine environment has plunged into crisis with the growth of human activities. The enhancement of responsible environmental behavior (REB) requires policy and education to cultivate social awareness and actions to sustain marine resources. Several studies revealed that the intention serves as an [...] Read more.
The marine environment has plunged into crisis with the growth of human activities. The enhancement of responsible environmental behavior (REB) requires policy and education to cultivate social awareness and actions to sustain marine resources. Several studies revealed that the intention serves as an effective predictor of actual behaviors. Furthermore, researchers generally acknowledge that attitudes and perceived behavioral control are potential factors toward behavior intention. However, some research has found that a positive attitude toward the environment does not translate into responsible environmental behavior. Additionally, the model of behavior in the marine context, especially the relationships between attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and the intention of responsible environmental behavior, are still not clear. Students’ attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions toward responsible marine environmental behavior (M-REB) were evaluated via questionnaires. The data from a total of 79 undergraduate students were analyzed. The results suggest that perceived behavioral control is the mediator between attitudes and intentions toward M-REB. This finding reveals the potential benefits of reconsidering the importance of perceived behavioral control in promoting M-REB and provides empirical evidence for future policy-makers in society and education. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Empirical Study on the Ecological Economy of the Huai River in China
Water 2020, 12(8), 2162; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082162 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The Huai River is an important flood control and discharge river in the middle and east of China, and the development of ecological economy with regional advantages is significant for the protection and improvement of the resources and environment of the basin. On [...] Read more.
The Huai River is an important flood control and discharge river in the middle and east of China, and the development of ecological economy with regional advantages is significant for the protection and improvement of the resources and environment of the basin. On the basis of defining the connotation of an ecological economic system, this study constructed an index system, and it applied the methods of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) to study the ecological economy of the Huai River. This study concluded that (1) the efficiency in most areas was efficient, but inefficient in a few areas; (2) the causes of inefficiency were unreasonable production scale and unqualified production technology, which led to redundant input of resources, insufficient output of days with good air quality, and excessive output of particulate matter with less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5); and (3) the efficiency was different in different regions, so it was necessary to respectively formulate and implement strategies for protection and development of resources and environment. The research results can be used as an important reference for formulating ecological economic policies around the world. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop