Analysis of Sustainable Water Resources and Integrated Watershed Management

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 12499

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Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin City 632, Taiwan
Interests: IoT devices; photovoltaic devices; STEM education
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Human and Artificial Cognition Lab, University of Paris 8, Saint-Denis, France
Interests: problem solving; decision making; mental models of dynamic natural and man-made systems
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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Jiaying University, Meizhou, Guangdong 514015, China
Interests: sustainable development; water, river, and lake monitoring in surrounding urban-rural areas
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is the most precious and important resource in the world. Due to increased consumption and economic activities, the world’s water resources are currently under heavy pressure. Moreover, the industry needs a great amount of water to function. Water stress can affect suppliers, communities and the local biodiversity. For this reason, the integrated management of water resources requires the establishment of governance guidelines to ensure the compatibility between different consumption and non-consumption water uses, the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems and economic and social well-being. This scientific approach implies that watershed management strategies must include and implement a wide range of knowledge of ecosystem components, which mainly include technologies in the domains of circular economy, hydrological engineering, climatology, geomorphology, water and water quality and decision analysis. The integrated management of water resources should take into account all hydrology and water science. In addition, water should be distributed and diverted to meet a range of water needs for agriculture, urban development, industry, hydropower and ecology. On account of the limited availability of water resources, it is impossible to meet the total water needs of a hydrological basin. Accordingly, water priorities should be determined for satisfying social and ecological needs. Currently, water management is one of the world's greatest challenges due to competition for limited resources, specifically the regional disparities in water supplies and affluence, the increasing global demand for water, depletion of aquifers, and water resource pressure induced by pollution and climate change. Appropriate policies and governance for integrated and sustainable water management are critical for watersheds, which require new ideas, innovations and international cooperation.

The main goal of this Special Issue is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant water topics. We invite investigators to contribute their original research articles to this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Circular economy;
  • Modelling and analysis;
  • Multiple water resources of urban-rural eco-economic;
  • River basin planning;
  • Rivers and lakes;
  • Sustainable development;
  • Urban and rural planning;
  • Water conservation;
  • Water ecological security pattern;
  • Water pollution;
  • Water quality analysis;
  • Water resource endowment;
  • Water resources mapping and GIS;
  • Water reuse;
  • Water supply and distribution systems;
  • Water, river, and lake monitoring in surrounding urban-rural areas.

Prof. Dr. Teen-­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Prof. Dr. Wei-Ling Hsu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • decision making
  • geographic information system
  • integrated watershed management
  • river basin planning
  • rivers and lakes
  • sustainable development
  • urban and rural planning
  • water quality analysis
  • water resources
  • water reuse
  • water supply

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 7557 KiB  
Article
Temporal Dynamics of the Hydropower Water Reservoirs of the Tocantins–Araguaia Basin, Brazil, Based on Remote Sensing and Hydrometeorological Station Datasets
by Larissa Vieira Valadão, Iara Resende da Fonseca, Rejane Ennes Cicerelli, Tati de Almeida, Jeremie Garnier and Edson Eyji Sano
Water 2023, 15(9), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091684 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The Tocantins–Araguaia Basin covers an extensive area of Brazilian territory and has a water reservoir system installed in a cascade that is very important for water storage and hydropower production. There is concern about the use of this resource because of the current [...] Read more.
The Tocantins–Araguaia Basin covers an extensive area of Brazilian territory and has a water reservoir system installed in a cascade that is very important for water storage and hydropower production. There is concern about the use of this resource because of the current tendency of surface water reduction in the reservoir systems. Sustainable management can help to guarantee the water supply and the hydropower supply. However, accurate data on the monitoring parameters are required. This study aims to analyze which factors most influence the changes in the areas of water reservoirs and, subsequently, the changes in the water availability. Trends, correlations, and principal component analyses (PCAs) were used to assess the association between the areas of water reservoirs and the liquid evaporation, discharge, precipitation, and land use and land cover (LULC) in the basin. We observed that the precipitation did not decrease significantly. On the other hand, changes in the LULC and the areas of reservoirs were highly correlated with each other. The PCA also showed a strong association between meteorological factors and the areas of reservoirs. In conclusion, this study showed that reductions in the areas of water reservoirs are mostly related to deforestation and reduced reservoir discharge rather than climate change. This paper provides a straightforward approach to monitoring reservoir changes based on the tendencies of some parameters that are strongly correlated with reservoir changes. Full article
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10 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Gene Diversity and Candidate Gene Family for Adaption to Environment Depth in Leucosiid Crabs Comparing the Transcriptome Assembly
by Yi-Jia Shih, Yin-Ming Yang, Si-Te Luo and Jia-Ying Liu
Water 2023, 15(6), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061246 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The study of gene diversity in interspecies contributes to our understanding of the environmental adaptation, evolutionary history, origin, and stability of biodiversity. Crabs are the main component of the macrobenthos community; therefore, how crabs adapt to different environments can be a guide to [...] Read more.
The study of gene diversity in interspecies contributes to our understanding of the environmental adaptation, evolutionary history, origin, and stability of biodiversity. Crabs are the main component of the macrobenthos community; therefore, how crabs adapt to different environments can be a guide to understand how to maintain community diversity. Previous studies on environmental adaptation have focused on differences in morphology, organ structure, and function, but there is a lack of research that explores this topic from the perspective of gene diversity in benthonic crabs. In this study, the leucosiid crab was selected for transcriptome assembly and was analyzed as this superfamily is one of the main clades in brachyuran crabs. Their transcriptome data were used to understand the gene diversity, phylogeny, and divergence time estimations. Subsequently, candidate gene families for depth adaptation were found in eight species that live in habitats with different depths. The results indicated that the number of total unigene sequences was between 65,617 (Philyra malefactrix) and 98,279 (Arcania heptacantha) in eight species. The total length of the genes was counted to be between 48,006,211 and 95,471,088 bp. The age of the superfamily Leucosioidea is over 150 Ma, dating back to at least the Jurassic geological period. The divergence of the family Leucosiidae would have occurred in the middle Cretaceous (around 100 Ma). After dividing into groups of three depth types, which carried the gene families, it was found that the three groups shared the solute carrier family, whereas bile acid secretion, organic solute transporter subunit alpha-like, and solute carrier organic anion transporter families only existed in the shallow group. This result shown that the gene function of ion concentration regulation might one of the candidate gene families related to the environmental adaptation of the leucosiid crab. Hence, these gene families will be analyzed in future studies to understand the mechanism of depth adaptation regulation in crabs. Full article
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22 pages, 3469 KiB  
Article
Assessment and Influencing Factors of Water Supply Capacity and Water Resource Utilization Efficiency in Southwest China
by Rui Bao, Jiahui Wu, Tao Li and Hongbing Deng
Water 2023, 15(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010144 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
China has been facing serious water scarcity, and improving the supply and utilization of water resources from the perspective of resource endowment, economic development and water infrastructure is of great significance toward sustainable water development. In this work, two index systems for evaluating [...] Read more.
China has been facing serious water scarcity, and improving the supply and utilization of water resources from the perspective of resource endowment, economic development and water infrastructure is of great significance toward sustainable water development. In this work, two index systems for evaluating the water supply capacity (WSC) and the water infrastructure construction level (WICL) were constructed; the water resource utilization efficiency (WRUE) was measured by applying a super slack-based measure model; the ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression models were used to explore the heterogeneity of spatial relationships. The results showed that both WSC (0.15~0.67) and WRUE (0.25~1.18) had spatial heterogeneity. WSC was positively correlated with water resource accessibility and GDP per capita (R2 = 0.406, p < 0.01), which represented water resource endowment and economic development, respectively. WRUE was positively correlated with GDP per capita but was negatively correlated with accessibility (R2 = 0.654, p < 0.01). The relationship of WICL with accessibility and GDP per capita varied over the study’s area. We found that the WSC in the southeast, WRUE in the north and WICL in the south were mainly associated with water resource endowments. The WSC in the north, WRUE in the southwest and WICL in the north were mainly associated with the economic development level. Noteworthily, strengthening the construction of water conservancy is one of the effective ways to improve water supply. Suggestions on improving WSC and WRUE were provided based on different accessibility and economic conditions, to promote the sustainable development of water resources. Full article
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17 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Changes in the Supply and Demand of Ecosystem Services in China’s Huai River Basin and Their Influencing Factors
by Zhicheng Zhuang, Cheng Li, Wei-Ling Hsu, Sihao Gu, Xinshan Hou and Chunmei Zhang
Water 2022, 14(16), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162559 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
An imbalance between the supply and demand of ecosystem services can cause ecological problems. By determining the spatiotemporal changes in the supply and demand and the factors underlying these changes, the ecosystem service supply in river basins can be increased to match the [...] Read more.
An imbalance between the supply and demand of ecosystem services can cause ecological problems. By determining the spatiotemporal changes in the supply and demand and the factors underlying these changes, the ecosystem service supply in river basins can be increased to match the demand; this information has great significance for the sustainable development of the basin. By focusing on the cities in China’s Huai River Basin, the data on ecosystem service supply and demand from 2010 to 2020 were measured using supply–demand matrices, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the supply–demand balance were analyzed using the supply–demand index and Moran’s I statistics. Next, geographical detectors and multiscale geographically weighted regression models were used to examine the factors influencing the spatiotemporal changes in ecosystem service supply and demand and their spatial effects. The results indicated the following: (1) From 2010 to 2020, ecosystem service supply in the Huai River Basin decreased by 2.51 × 108, whereas the ecosystem service demand increased by 4.43 × 108; in general, the demand exceeded the supply, and 69.74% cities were in a state of deficit. (2) The Moran’s I index of the ecosystem service supply and demand was greater than 0.4, which means that there was a strong spatial clustering, and the characteristics of high–high clusters gradually weakened and those of low–low clusters enhanced in the northern and eastern cities. (3) The q values of the ecological-use land area, construction-use land area, rain, and temperature were greater than 0.3, indicating a significant effect on the supply and demand. These findings can provide a targeted reference and basis for the ecological management of the Huai River Basin. Full article
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18 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Revealing the Coral Species Diversity in Xiamen Bay: Spatial Distribution of Genus Astrogorgia (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea, Plexauridae) and Newly Recorded Species
by Jia-Ying Liu, Yun-Pei Wang, Jing Yang, Yi-Jia Shih and Ta-Jen Chu
Water 2022, 14(15), 2417; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152417 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Coral reefs provide a habitat for many marine organisms and support the safety, coastal protection, well-being, and food and economic security of hundreds of millions of people. The focus on coral species diversity cannot be overemphasized. One of them, Astrogorgia, contains many marine [...] Read more.
Coral reefs provide a habitat for many marine organisms and support the safety, coastal protection, well-being, and food and economic security of hundreds of millions of people. The focus on coral species diversity cannot be overemphasized. One of them, Astrogorgia, contains many marine natural active substances, and has important scientific research value and application prospects. Most of the current research on the active substances of the genus Astrogorgia is based on unidentified species, and in-depth taxonomic studies are urgently needed. A total of 1185 samples were collected from 2014 to 2021 in the waters of Xiamen Bay. Herein, the morphological identification, electronic microscopy, and gene fragment sequencing methods were used for the taxonomic study. There are three species of Astrogorgia identified, including Astrogorgia lafoa, A. arborea, and A. dumbea. Among them, A. lafoa and A. arborea are newly recorded species in the waters of China. A. lafoa is distributed in Qingyu Island, A. arborea is distributed in Wuyu Island, and A. dumbea is widely distributed in Baiha Reef, Qingyu Island, Wuyu Island, and Xiaobai Island. In this paper, the geographical distribution and the habits of 18 species of Astrogorgia are summarized, and the evolution of family and genus classification of Astrogorgia is discussed. The results enrich the geographical distribution information and coral species diversity records of Astrogorgia in China. Full article
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11 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Possibility for Water Quality Biocontrol: Observation of Microcystin Transfer in the “Cyanobacteria–Cladohorn–Fish” Food Chain
by Qin-Ming Xie, Yan-Wei Zhang and Ta-Jen Chu
Water 2022, 14(12), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121928 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Microcystins appear to be considered one of the most dangerous cyanobacterial toxins in the world. The accumulation and change of microcystins MC-LR and MC-RR in the “cyanobacteria–cladocera–fish” food chain were studied. Microcystis aeruginosa was fed to Moina macrocopa at three densities, 5.0 × [...] Read more.
Microcystins appear to be considered one of the most dangerous cyanobacterial toxins in the world. The accumulation and change of microcystins MC-LR and MC-RR in the “cyanobacteria–cladocera–fish” food chain were studied. Microcystis aeruginosa was fed to Moina macrocopa at three densities, 5.0 × 103, 5.0 × 105, and 5.0 × 106 cells/mL, and then passed to Cyprinus flammans. The total amount of MCs in the cyanobacteria cell extract increased with increasing density. The content of MCs in M. macrocopa increased with the feeding density of M. aeruginosa. In the final stage of experiments, MC-RR was the only MC that could be transmitted by M. macrocopa and persisted in red carp. In this study, changes in the concentrations of MC-LR and MC-RR in the liver of red carp seem to indicate some kind of transformation or degradation mechanism. It shows the possibility of MCs concentration-controlled biodefense in eutrophic waters. Full article
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