Special Issue "Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 9096

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: IOT devices; photovoltaic devices; STEM education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of the Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle Laboratory, Professeur de Psychologie Cognitive – Université, Paris 8, France
Interests: internet of objects; data mining; brain–computer interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a modern technological society, electronic engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Engineers and designers must work together with a variety of other professionals in their quest to find system solutions to complex problems. Rapid advances in science and technology have broadened the horizons of engineering whilst simultaneously creating a multitude of challenges in every aspect of modern life. Current research is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting a combination of concepts and methods that often span several areas of mechanics, mathematics, electrical engineering, control engineering, and other scientific disciplines. 

In addition, manufacturing is the economic lifeline of a country and has been regarded as a labor-intensive industry. Therefore, to cut production costs, devices for the internet of things (IoT) are widely developed. The IoT is composed of the most integrated end devices and facilities, such as intelligent sensors for internal control, industrial systems, mobile terminal systems, floor control systems, and intelligent home facilities. Smart devices and external control information are utilized with the hope of attracting companies that manufacture high-value-added aerospace, automotive, IT mold, textile, optoelectronic, watch, medical, defense-related, automation, energy, and semiconductor-related parts and components to drive the country’s economy. The main goal of this Special Issue, “Electronic Devices in Intelligent IoT Applications”, is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to the following topics:

  • Electrical circuits and devices in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Microelectronics and computer technology in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Electrical engineering communications in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Microwave and electronic system engineering in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Microelectronics and optoelectronics in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Signal processing in intelligent IoT applications;
  • System and control engineering in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Computer science and engineering in intelligent IoT applications;
  • Cognitive technologies and interaction design;
  • Communication and information processing in intelligent IoT applications.

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Charles Tijus
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • intelligent IoT applications
  • electrical circuits and devices
  • electrical engineering
  • communications
  • microelectronics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Article
Hybrid Converter with Multiple Sources for Lithium Battery Charger Applications
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040616 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 612
Abstract
This paper proposes a hybrid converter with multiple sources for lithium battery charger applications. Since the output voltage of a lithium battery charger is very low, its charger needs a higher step-down voltage for a utility line source or a step-down voltage for [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a hybrid converter with multiple sources for lithium battery charger applications. Since the output voltage of a lithium battery charger is very low, its charger needs a higher step-down voltage for a utility line source or a step-down voltage for PV arrays. In order to implement the battery charger with utility line and PV arrays sources to simultaneously supply power to battery, a flyback converter is selected for utility line sources, and a buck converter is adopted for PV arrays source. Due to leakage inductor of transformer in flyback converter, an active clamp circuit is introduced into flyback converter to recover the energy stored in leakage inductor. In addition, flyback and buck converters can adopt switch integration techniques to simplify circuit structure. With this approach, the proposed hybrid converter has less components, is lighter weight and has smaller size and higher conversion efficiency. Finally, a prototype of the proposed hybrid converter with output voltage of 5 V~8.4 V and output maximum current of 12 A has been implement to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for the lithium battery charger applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
A Low-Cost Smart Digital Mixer System Based on Speech Recognition
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040604 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
When a band is performing at a public occasion, certain sound effects are expected to be added to enliven the atmosphere. To achieve this effect, microphones and instruments are all connected to an audio mixer, then the expected audio output will be played [...] Read more.
When a band is performing at a public occasion, certain sound effects are expected to be added to enliven the atmosphere. To achieve this effect, microphones and instruments are all connected to an audio mixer, then the expected audio output will be played through the speakers. However, sound engineers always spend plenty of time tuning the mixer until the satisfied results are obtained. This paper presents a smart digital mixer system that integrates touch control, speech control, and commonly used functions on an Android mobile platform to improve the mobility of audio mixer while tuning. The proposed system adopts a digital signal processor (DSP) as the core of the hardware architecture. The application provides a UI interface on an Android mobile phone in order to achieve the functions of speech recognition and touch control. The control commands will be transmitted to DSP via Bluetooth 5.0, self-defined Bluetooth packet format (SBPF), and data transfer controller (DTC). The main contribution of this work is to propose multiple functions of a mixer system with a convenient and interactive user interface. The experimental results show the average accuracy of all respondents reached 92.3%. Moreover, the proposed system has the advantage of having a low-cost hardware circuit design, and provides high flexibility of setting for the audio mixer system according to the user’s preference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Cascaded-like High-Step-Down Converter with Single Switch and Leakage Energy Recycling in Single-Stage Structure
Electronics 2022, 11(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11030352 - 24 Jan 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
A cascaded-like high-step-down converter (CHSDC) is proposed in this article, which can steeply convert a high voltage to a much lower level without the utilizing of extreme turns ratio or duty ratio. The proposed converter integrates two buck-boost converters and one forward converter [...] Read more.
A cascaded-like high-step-down converter (CHSDC) is proposed in this article, which can steeply convert a high voltage to a much lower level without the utilizing of extreme turns ratio or duty ratio. The proposed converter integrates two buck-boost converters and one forward converter to form a single-stage architecture containing only a single low-side driving switch, which, as a result, can lower the cost and reduce the complexity of the associated control driver. Even in a single-stage single-switch structure, the ability to step down input voltage is as effective as the cascade of two buck-boosts and one forward converter. Meanwhile, the proposed converter can avoid the low efficiency caused by a cascaded structure. Without an additional clamp circuit, the leakage energy stored in the transformer of the CHSDC can be still recycled so as to raise the efficiency of the converter and suppress voltage spikes at the power switch. Converter operation principle and key parameter design are discussed. Moreover, a 200 W prototype is built and then tested to validate the proposed converter and verify the theoretical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Wearable Technology and Visual Reality Application for Healthcare Systems
Electronics 2022, 11(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11020178 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This study developed a virtual reality interactive game with smart wireless wearable technology for healthcare of elderly users. The proposed wearable system uses its intelligent and wireless features to collect electromyography signals and upload them to a cloud database for further analysis. The [...] Read more.
This study developed a virtual reality interactive game with smart wireless wearable technology for healthcare of elderly users. The proposed wearable system uses its intelligent and wireless features to collect electromyography signals and upload them to a cloud database for further analysis. The electromyography signals are then analyzed for the users’ muscle fatigue, health, strength, and other physiological conditions. The average slope maximum So and Chan (ASM S & C) algorithm is integrated in the proposed system to effectively detect the quantity of electromyography peaks, and the accuracy is as high as 95%. The proposed system can promote the health conditions of elderly users, and motivate them to acquire new knowledge of science and technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
An Efficient Two-Stage Receiver Base on AOR Iterative Algorithm and Chebyshev Acceleration for Uplink Multiuser Massive-MIMO OFDM Systems
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010092 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
The massive multiple-input multiple-output systems (M-MIMO) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) are considered to be some of the most promising key techniques in the emerging 5G and advanced wireless communication systems nowadays. Not only are the benefits of applying M-MIMO and OFDM for [...] Read more.
The massive multiple-input multiple-output systems (M-MIMO) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) are considered to be some of the most promising key techniques in the emerging 5G and advanced wireless communication systems nowadays. Not only are the benefits of applying M-MIMO and OFDM for broadband communication well known, but using them for the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) requires a large amount of wireless transmission, which is a developing topic. However, its high complexity becomes a problem when there are numerous antennas. In this paper, we provide an effective two-stage multiuser detector (MUD) with the assistance of the accelerated over-relaxation (AOR) iterative algorithm and Chebyshev acceleration for the uplink of M-MIMO OFDM systems to achieve a better balance between bit error rate (BER) performance and computational complexity. The first stage of the receiver consists of an accelerated over-relaxation (AOR)-based estimator and is intended to yield a rough initial estimate of the relaxation factor ω, the acceleration parameter γ, and transmitted symbols. In the second stage, the Chebyshev acceleration method is used for detection, and a more precise signal is produced through efficient iterative estimation. Additionally, we call this proposed scheme Chebyshev-accelerated over-relaxation (CAOR) detection. Conducted simulations show that the developed receiver, with a modest computational load, can provide superior performance compared with previous works, especially in the MU M-MIMO uplink environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Optimization of Different Deployments and Resolution of Antenna Arrays in SWIPT
Electronics 2022, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010019 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 699
Abstract
In this paper, three different deployment antenna arrays with circular, triangular and rectangular shapes were used to optimize the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system for the Internet of Things (IoT). Ray-tracing was employed to channel the model for a real [...] Read more.
In this paper, three different deployment antenna arrays with circular, triangular and rectangular shapes were used to optimize the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system for the Internet of Things (IoT). Ray-tracing was employed to channel the model for a real environment. Self-adaptive dynamic differential evolution (SADDE) was used to optimize the harvesting power ratio with bit error rate constrained by the two different resolutions of feed length (high resolution and low resolution). Numerical results show that those three antenna arrays can achieve the goal for information quality in both resolutions. The harvesting power ratio for the circular array is the best and the harvesting power ratio for the rectangular array is the worst. The harvesting power ratio for the low-resolution case is 25% lower than the high-resolution case. However, the circular antenna array is the best deployment in those three different arrays for both high and low resolutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Cloud Server and Internet of Things Assisted System for Stress Monitoring
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243133 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Currently, the Internet of Things (IoT) has gained attention for its capability for real-time monitoring. The advancement in sensor and wireless communication technology has led to the widespread adoption of IoT technology in distinct applications. The cloud server, in conjunction with the IoT, [...] Read more.
Currently, the Internet of Things (IoT) has gained attention for its capability for real-time monitoring. The advancement in sensor and wireless communication technology has led to the widespread adoption of IoT technology in distinct applications. The cloud server, in conjunction with the IoT, enables the visualization and analysis of real-time sensor data. The literature concludes that there is a lack of remote stress-monitoring devices available to assist doctors in observing the real-time stress status of patients in the hospital and in rehabilitation centers. To overcome this problem, we have proposed the use of the IoT and cloud-enabled stress devices to detect stress in a real-time environment. The IoT-enabled stress device establishes piconet communication with the master node to allow visualization of the sensory data on the cloud server. The threshold value (volt) for real-time stress detection by the stress device is identified by experimental analysis using MATLAB based on the results obtained from the performance of three different physical-stress generating tasks. In addition, the stress device is interfaced with the cloud server, and the sensor data are recorded on the cloud server. The sensor data logged into the cloud server can be utilized for future analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Fabrication of Implantable Capsule-Type Channel Sounders for the High-Accuracy Measurement of the Signal Loss of Out-Body to In-Body Channels
Electronics 2021, 10(23), 2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10232895 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This paper proposes a channel sounder to measure the channel properties of an implantable device that transmits data from inside to outside the human body. The proposed channel sounder measures the receiving power of a signal transmitted from outside the human body. The [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a channel sounder to measure the channel properties of an implantable device that transmits data from inside to outside the human body. The proposed channel sounder measures the receiving power of a signal transmitted from outside the human body. The channel sounder is equipped with a Bluetooth module that enables the wireless transmission of the receiving power outside the human body. Wireless transmission enables the channel measurement by isolating the transmitter and receiver inside the channel sounder. Using the proposed channel sounder, the channel properties can be measured without any interference between the transmitter and the receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Design and Implementation of Intelligent Automated Production-Line Control System
Electronics 2021, 10(20), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10202502 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Owing to the different consumption habits of people, the market has rapidly changed, and customized demands have increased in recent years. This issue has led to the need for manufacturing industry to improve their production-process automation system control to become faster and more [...] Read more.
Owing to the different consumption habits of people, the market has rapidly changed, and customized demands have increased in recent years. This issue has led to the need for manufacturing industry to improve their production-process automation system control to become faster and more flexible. An intelligent automated production-line control system (IAPLCS) is proposed in this study, in which a graphic control system (GCS) is designed to integrate equipment communications in automated production. This system runs complex packaged programs for function blocks, which enable users to easily build function blocks in GCS. Users can plan the control flow of the system to control the machine operation. Not only is a web interface set in the IAPLCS, which makes it easier for users to operate and monitor, but also Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors can be added for data collection and analysis based on the characteristics of the production line and equipment. Finally, the proposed control system was implemented in an actual production line to verify its feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Lower-Limb Electromyography Signal Analysis for the Bottom Group of Muscles Fitness Norm before and after Intensive Exercise
Electronics 2021, 10(20), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10202458 - 10 Oct 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Muscular fitness is not only the ability of the body to adapt to work and the environment but also the operational ability of physical behavior. We speculated whether research could be conducted on the theory of muscular fitness and its qualitative/quantitative relationship based [...] Read more.
Muscular fitness is not only the ability of the body to adapt to work and the environment but also the operational ability of physical behavior. We speculated whether research could be conducted on the theory of muscular fitness and its qualitative/quantitative relationship based on muscular fitness and exercise physiology from the perspective of muscular endurance and muscular exploration. This study used standing long jumps as a standard metric for physical fitness to identify the bottom 20% groups. The experiment involved eight freshmen from the bottom 20% groups, and the pre-tests of the participants’ electromyography (EMG) signals under different exercise intensities were measured and after performing a set of intensive exercises for post-tests. The signal’ characteristics measured in time and frequency domains were analyzed to find the correlation between them and the participants’ muscular fitness. Weighted squats were chosen as the strength movements, which were separated into an exercise experiment and a force plate experiment. Both experiments included three different exercise intensities: 8 repetition maximum (RM), 18RM, and 28RM. The EMG signals were captured and analyzed in both time and the frequency domains. Finally, paired sample tests were performed to determine the difference of features under different exercise intensities. The comparison of readings before and after intensive exercises shows that, for the exercised experiment, a significant difference in the mean absolute (MAV), the variance of EMG (VAR), the root mean square value (RMS), and the average amplitude of change (AAC) was observed under 8RM. Under 18RM, MAV, VAR, and AAC showed a significant difference. In the force plate experiment, RMS, AAC, mean frequency (MNF), and median frequency (MDF) showed a statistically significant difference under the intensity of 18RM. As for intensity under 28RM, MAV, VAR, RMS, and AAC also showed significant difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Dimming Techniques Focusing on the Improvement in Luminous Efficiency for High-Brightness LEDs
Electronics 2021, 10(17), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10172163 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
The pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming mode features good dimming linearity and has been widely used for driving high-brightness light-emitting diodes (HBLEDs), in which the brightness change is reached by modulating the duty cycle of the dimming signal to regulate the average current [...] Read more.
The pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming mode features good dimming linearity and has been widely used for driving high-brightness light-emitting diodes (HBLEDs), in which the brightness change is reached by modulating the duty cycle of the dimming signal to regulate the average current flowing through LEDs. However, the current-illuminance characteristic curve of most LEDs is nonlinear in nature. Namely, under the same lighting power fed, the conventional PWM dimming cannot make the LED exert its best luminous efficiency (LE) specified in datasheets. This paper focuses on the study of further improving LED luminous efficacy via dimming manipulation. Thereby, two multilevel current dimming techniques with varied dimming signal voltage and varied current sensing resistance are presented. With limited dimming capability, the proposed dimming strategies can efficiently raise the luminous flux ratio without increasing the power consumption. A prototype constructed for a 115 W HBLED driver is developed and the devised dimming schemes are realized by a digital signal controller (DSC). Experimental results exhibited with illuminance-power curves and CIE1931 and CIE1976 chromaticity diagrams are given to validate the theoretical derivation and effectiveness. Compared with conventional PWM dimming, under the same illuminance, the driver average output power is respectively reduced by 17.08% and 13.17%; the improvement in average illuminance under the same output power is 13.66% and 11.17%, respectively. In addition, the entire average LE boost has respectively increased by 21.36% and 16.37%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
An Adaptive Heart Rate Monitoring Algorithm for Wearable Healthcare Devices
Electronics 2021, 10(17), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10172092 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 713
Abstract
This paper focuses on developing an adaptive heart rate monitoring algorithm for wrist-based rehabilitation systems. Due to the characteristics of the wrist, the heartbeat measurements are unstable. To improve the preprocessing efficiency and perform measurement calibration, a novel joint algorithm incorporating automatic multiscale-based [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on developing an adaptive heart rate monitoring algorithm for wrist-based rehabilitation systems. Due to the characteristics of the wrist, the heartbeat measurements are unstable. To improve the preprocessing efficiency and perform measurement calibration, a novel joint algorithm incorporating automatic multiscale-based peak detection and fuzzy logic control (AMPD-Fuzzy) is proposed. The monitoring approach consists of two phases: (1) Preprocessing and (2) Detection and Calibration. Phase 1 explores the parameter settings, threshold, and decision rules. Phase 2 applies fuzzy logic control and the Laplacian model to provide signal reshaping. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively achieve heart rate monitoring for wearable healthcare devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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Article
Slip Estimation and Compensation Control of Omnidirectional Wheeled Automated Guided Vehicle
Electronics 2021, 10(7), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10070840 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
To achieve Industry 4.0 solutions for the networking of mechatronic components in production plants, the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology is the optimal way for goods transportation in the cyber-physical system (CPS). As a result, automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are networked [...] Read more.
To achieve Industry 4.0 solutions for the networking of mechatronic components in production plants, the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology is the optimal way for goods transportation in the cyber-physical system (CPS). As a result, automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are networked to all other participants in the production system to accept and execute transport jobs. Accurately tracking the planned paths of AGVs is therefore essential. The omnidirectional mobile vehicle has shown its excellent characteristics in crowded environments and narrow aisle spaces. However, the slip problem of the omnidirectional mobile vehicle is more serious than that of the general wheeled mobile vehicle. This paper proposes a slip estimation and compensation control method for an omnidirectional Mecanum-wheeled automated guided vehicle (OMWAGV) and implements a control system. Based on the slip estimation and compensation control of the general wheeled mobile platform, a Microchip dsPIC30F6010A microcontroller-based system uses an MPU-9250 multi-axis accelerometer sensor to derive the longitudinal speed, transverse speed, and steering angle of the omnidirectional wheel platform. These data are then compared with those from the motor encoders. A linear regression with a recursive least squares (RLS) method is utilized to estimate real-time slip ratio variations of four driving wheels and conduct the corresponding compensation and control. As a result, the driving speeds of the four omnidirectional wheels are dynamically adjusted so that the OMWAGV can accurately follow the predetermined motion trajectory. The experimental results of diagonally moving and cross-walking motions without and with slip estimation and compensation control showed that, without calculating the errors occurred during travel, the distances between the original starting position to the stopping position are dramatically reduced from 1.52 m to 0.03 m and from 1.56 m to 0.03 m, respectively. The higher tracking accuracy of the proposed method verifies its effectiveness and validness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Devices on Intelligent IoT Applications)
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