Special Issue "Intelligent Electronic Devices"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Artificial Intelligence".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Cleveland State University, Ohio, 44011, USA
Interests: human computer interaction; rehabilitation; computer vision; distributed systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a modern technological society, electronic engineering and design innovations are both academic and practical engineering fields that involve systematic technological materialization through scientific principles and engineering designs. Engineers and designers must work together with a variety of other professionals in their quest to find systems solutions to complex problems. Fast advances in science and technology have broadened the horizons of engineering whilst simultaneously creating a multitude of challenging problems in every aspect of modern life. Current research is interdisciplinary in nature, reflecting a combination of concepts and methods that often span several areas of mechanics, mathematics, electrical engineering, control engineering, and other scientific disciplines. 

In addition, our organized conference “The 2nd IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019” (IEEE ICKII 2019) will be held in Seoul, South Korea on 12–15 July 2019. The authors of the papers that will be presented at IEEE ICKII 2019 about the topics are invited to submit their extended versions to this Special Issue after the conference. Submitted papers should be extended to the size of regular research or review articles, with at least a 50% extension of new results.

Technological innovation by electronic engineering includes electrical circuits and devices, computer science and engineering, communications and information processing, and electrical engineering communications. The main goal of this Special Issue “Intelligent Electronic Devices” is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to the following topics:

  • Electrical circuits and devices;
  • Microelectronics and computer technology;
  • Computer science and engineering;
  • Communications and information processing;
  • Electrical engineering communications;
  • Signal processing;
  • Measurements technology;
  • Microwave and electronic system engineering;
  • Microelectronics and optoelectronics;
  • Systems and control engineering;

Prof. Dr. Teen-Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electrical circuits and devices
  • Computer science and engineering
  • Communications and information processing
  • Electrical engineering communications

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Intelligent Electronic Devices
Electronics 2020, 9(4), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9040645 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
The second IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019 (IEEE ICKII 2019) was held in Seoul, South Korea, 12–15 July 2019. This special issue “Intelligent Electronic Devices” selects 13 excellent papers form 260 papers presented in IEEE ICKII 2019 conference about [...] Read more.
The second IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019 (IEEE ICKII 2019) was held in Seoul, South Korea, 12–15 July 2019. This special issue “Intelligent Electronic Devices” selects 13 excellent papers form 260 papers presented in IEEE ICKII 2019 conference about the topics of Intelligent Electronic Devices. The main goals of this special issue are to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible, and to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to the topics of electronics. Full article
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Design and Implementation of a Sensorless Power Tool Based on a Microcontroller
Electronics 2020, 9(6), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060921 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
Power tools are basic working tools used for production and manufacturing in the machinery and mechanical industries. The motor drive plays an important role in power tool applications. The performance of the motor drive will then directly or indirectly affect the quality and [...] Read more.
Power tools are basic working tools used for production and manufacturing in the machinery and mechanical industries. The motor drive plays an important role in power tool applications. The performance of the motor drive will then directly or indirectly affect the quality and precision of the processing metal components. Most of the traditional motor drive control of a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor employs the Hall-effect position sensors to detect the rotor position. However, the installing sensors are prone to degrading the performance due to variations in temperature and the harsh environment. This disadvantage can be overcome with sensorless solutions. Among these sensorless solutions, the zero-crossing point detection of the back electromotive force (BEMF) is popular. Nevertheless, for the 180-degree conduction mode, it is impossible to directly detect the BEMF because of the three terminals of the motor which are conducted at any time for an electrical cycle. Therefore, a novel sensorless circuit approach based on the terminal line to line voltage is proposed in this paper. Moreover, an improved circuit scheme with a Schmitt trigger for sensing the BEMF is also proposed and implemented to obtain the precisely resembling Hall-effect signals. Finally, a prototype of a sensorless BLDC motor drive with a 180-degree conduction mode speed control for power tools is designed and implemented in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed circuit works properly and validates the feasibility and fidelity of the motor drive system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Layout Strengthening the ESD Performance for High-Voltage N-Channel Lateral Diffused MOSFETs
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050718 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
An electrostatic discharge (ESD) event can negatively affect the reliability of integrated circuits. Therefore, improving on ESD immunity in high-voltage (HV) n-channel (n) lateral diffused metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (HV nLDMOS) components through drain-side layout engineering was studied. This involved adjusting the operating voltage, [...] Read more.
An electrostatic discharge (ESD) event can negatively affect the reliability of integrated circuits. Therefore, improving on ESD immunity in high-voltage (HV) n-channel (n) lateral diffused metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (HV nLDMOS) components through drain-side layout engineering was studied. This involved adjusting the operating voltage, improving the non-uniform turned-on phenomenon, and examining the effects of embedded-device structures on ESD. All proposed architectures for improving ESD immunity in this work were measured and evaluated using a transmission-line pulse system. The corresponding trigger voltage (Vt1), holding voltage (Vh) and secondary breakdown current (It2) results of the tested devices were obtained. This paper first addresses the drift-region length modulation to design different operating voltages, which decreased as the drift region length and shallow trench isolation (STI) length shrunk. When an HV nLDMOS device decreased to the shortest drift region length, the Vt1 and Vh values were closest to 21.85, and 9.27 V, respectively. The It2 value of a low-voltage operated device could be increased to a maximum value of 3.25 A. For the channel width modulation, increasing the layout finger number of an HV LDMOS device did not really help the ESD immunity that because it may suffer the problem of non-uniform turned-on phenomenon. Therefore, adjusting the optimized channel width was the best one method of improvement. Furthermore, to improve the low ESD reliability problem of nLDMOS devices, two structures were used to improve the ESD capability. The first was a drain side—embedded silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). Here, the SCR PNP-arranged type in the drain side had the best ESD capability because the SCR path was short and had been prior to triggering; however, it also has a latch-up risk and low Vh characteristic. By removing the entire heavily doped drain-side N+ region, the equivalent series resistance in the drain region was increased, so that the It2 performance could be increased from 2.29 A to 3.98 A in the structure of a fully embedded drain-side Schottky diode. This component still has sufficiently high Vh behaviour. Therefore, embedding a full Schottky-diode into an HV nLDMOS in the drain side was the best method and was efficient for improving the ESD/Latch-up abilities of the device. The figure of merit (FOM) of ESD, Latch-up, and cell area considerations improved to approximately 80.86%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Learning Effective Skeletal Representations on RGB Video for Fine-Grained Human Action Quality Assessment
Electronics 2020, 9(4), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9040568 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an integrated action classification and regression learning framework for the fine-grained human action quality assessment of RGB videos. On the basis of 2D skeleton data obtained per frame of RGB video sequences, we present an effective representation of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose an integrated action classification and regression learning framework for the fine-grained human action quality assessment of RGB videos. On the basis of 2D skeleton data obtained per frame of RGB video sequences, we present an effective representation of joint trajectories to train action classifiers and a class-specific regression model for a fine-grained assessment of the quality of human actions. To manage the challenge of view changes due to camera motion, we develop a self-similarity feature descriptor extracted from joint trajectories and a joint displacement sequence to represent dynamic patterns of the movement and posture of the human body. To weigh the impact of joints for different action categories, a class-specific regression model is developed to obtain effective fine-grained assessment functions. In the testing stage, with the supervision of the action classifier’s output, the regression model of a specific action category is selected to assess the quality of skeleton motion extracted from the action video. We take advantage of the discrimination of the action classifier and the viewpoint invariance of the self-similarity feature to boost the performance of the learning-based quality assessment method in a realistic scene. We evaluate our proposed method using diving and figure skating videos of the publicly available MIT Olympic Scoring dataset, and gymnastic vaulting videos of the recent benchmark University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Olympic Scoring dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieved an improved performance, which is measured by the mean rank correlation coefficient between the predicted regression scores and the ground truths. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Tabu Search and 2-opt Path Programming for Mission Route Planning of Multiple Robots under Range Limitations
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030534 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The application of an unmanned vehicle system allows for accelerating the performance of various tasks. Due to limited capacities, such as battery power, it is almost impossible for a single unmanned vehicle to complete a large-scale mission area. An unmanned vehicle swarm has [...] Read more.
The application of an unmanned vehicle system allows for accelerating the performance of various tasks. Due to limited capacities, such as battery power, it is almost impossible for a single unmanned vehicle to complete a large-scale mission area. An unmanned vehicle swarm has the potential to distribute tasks and coordinate the operations of many robots/drones with very little operator intervention. Therefore, multiple unmanned vehicles are required to execute a set of well-planned mission routes, in order to minimize time and energy consumption. A two-phase heuristic algorithm was used to pursue this goal. In the first phase, a tabu search and the 2-opt node exchange method were used to generate a single optimal path for all target nodes; the solution was then split into multiple clusters according to vehicle numbers as an initial solution for each. In the second phase, a tabu algorithm combined with a 2-opt path exchange was used to further improve the in-route and cross-route solutions for each route. This diversification strategy allowed for approaching the global optimal solution, rather than a regional one with less CPU time. After these algorithms were coded, a group of three robot cars was used to validate this hybrid path programming algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Anti-Radiation Noise Interference of High Definition Multimedia Interface Circuit Layout of a Laptop
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030426 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, several aspects were studied, including the effect of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise interference strategy with High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) 1.4, the analysis of a test on a printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and a comparison of the near [...] Read more.
In this paper, several aspects were studied, including the effect of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise interference strategy with High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) 1.4, the analysis of a test on a printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and a comparison of the near field intensity radiation distribution between an EMI with a modified HDMI layout and an original layout. In this study, the near field detection instrument of APREL EM-ISight was employed to analyze the distribution of the strength of an electromagnetic noise field. After the practical validation, we found that the PCB layout complies with the standards after the modifications. Meanwhile, the PCB layout satisfies the requirements of most laptop HDMI-related products for EMI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stereo Vision-Based Object Recognition and Manipulation by Regions with Convolutional Neural Network
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020210 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper develops a hybrid algorithm of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and regions with convolutional neural network (R-CNN) for stereo vision-based object recognition and manipulation. The stereo camera at an eye-to-hand configuration firstly captures the image of the target object. Then, [...] Read more.
This paper develops a hybrid algorithm of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and regions with convolutional neural network (R-CNN) for stereo vision-based object recognition and manipulation. The stereo camera at an eye-to-hand configuration firstly captures the image of the target object. Then, the shape, features, and centroid of the object are estimated. Similar pixels are segmented by the image segmentation method, and similar regions are merged through selective search. The eye-to-hand calibration is based on ANFIS to reduce computing burden. A six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) robot arm with a gripper will conduct experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Electromagnetic Lock Actuated by a Mobile Phone Equipped with a Self-Made Laser Pointer
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121524 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to create an acousto-optic control lock device to convert electrical signals with a specific sound command using an acousto-optic conversion module, thereby improving the reliability and safety of opening or closing remote controlled door locks, such [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to create an acousto-optic control lock device to convert electrical signals with a specific sound command using an acousto-optic conversion module, thereby improving the reliability and safety of opening or closing remote controlled door locks, such as car central locks or rolling doors. We used music playing through a smart phone speaker to create a special laser pointer to connect with the smart phone‘s auxiliary input. The laser pointer (wavelength of 630–650 nm and maximum output of 5 mw) lights up when the smart phone’s music starts playing at a music frequency matching the light frequency. When the solar panel receives light, it converts the frequency of the light signal into an electrical frequency signal. The current is amplified using the power amplifier and then the amplified current flows to the sound recognition module. The sound recognition module performs audio comparison on the set sound signal, and once the comparison is correct, the output voltage activates the electromagnetic switch on the door to open or close it. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrostatic-Discharge-Immunity Impacts in 300 V nLDMOS by Comprehensive Drift-Region Engineering
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121469 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events are the main factors impacting the reliability of Integrated circuits (ICs); therefore, the ESD immunity level of these ICs is an important index. This paper focuses on comprehensive drift-region engineering for ultra-high-voltage (UHV) circular n-channel lateral diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor [...] Read more.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events are the main factors impacting the reliability of Integrated circuits (ICs); therefore, the ESD immunity level of these ICs is an important index. This paper focuses on comprehensive drift-region engineering for ultra-high-voltage (UHV) circular n-channel lateral diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (nLDMOS) devices used to investigate impacts on ESD ability. Under the condition of fixed layout area, there are four kinds of modulation in the drift region. First, by floating a polysilicon stripe above the drift region, the breakdown voltage and secondary breakdown current of this modulation can be increased. Second, adjusting the width of the field-oxide layer in the drift region when the width of the field-oxide layer is 5.8 μm will result in the minimum breakdown voltage (105 V) but the best secondary breakdown current (6.84 A). Third, by adjusting the discrete unit cell and its spacing, the corresponding improved trigger voltage, holding voltage, and secondary breakdown current can be obtained. According to the experimental results, the holding voltage of all devices under test (DUTs) is greater than that of the reference group, so the discrete HV N-Well (HVNW) layer can effectively improve its latch-up immunity. Finally, by embedding different P-Well lengths, the findings suggest that when the embedded P-Well length is 9 μm, it will have the highest ESD ability and latch-up immunity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generative Noise Reduction in Dental Cone-Beam CT by a Selective Anatomy Analytic Iteration Reconstruction Algorithm
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121381 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a powerful tool in clinical treatment planning, especially in a digital dentistry platform. Currently, the “as low as diagnostically acceptable” (ALADA) principle and diagnostic ability are a trade-off in most of the 3D integrated applications, especially in [...] Read more.
Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a powerful tool in clinical treatment planning, especially in a digital dentistry platform. Currently, the “as low as diagnostically acceptable” (ALADA) principle and diagnostic ability are a trade-off in most of the 3D integrated applications, especially in the low radio-opaque densified tissue structure. The CBCT benefits in comprehensive diagnosis and its treatment prognosis for post-operation predictability are clinically known in modern dentistry. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called the selective anatomy analytic iteration reconstruction (SA2IR) algorithm for the sparse-projection set. The algorithm was simulated on a phantom structure analogous to a patient’s head for geometric similarity. The proposed algorithm is projection-based. Interpolated set enrichment and trio-subset enhancement were used to reduce the generative noise and maintain the scan’s clinical diagnostic ability. The results show that proposed method was highly applicable in medico-dental imaging diagnostics fusion for the computer-aided treatment planning, because it had significant generative noise reduction and lowered computational cost when compared to the other common contemporary algorithms for sparse projection, which generate a low-dosed CBCT reconstruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dual-Input Isolated DC-DC Converter with Ultra-High Step-Up Ability Based on Sheppard Taylor Circuit
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101125 - 07 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A dual-input high step-up isolated converter (DHSIC) is proposed in this paper, which incorporates Sheppard Taylor circuit into power stage design so as to step up voltage gain. In addition, the main circuit adopts boosting capacitors and switched capacitors, based on which the [...] Read more.
A dual-input high step-up isolated converter (DHSIC) is proposed in this paper, which incorporates Sheppard Taylor circuit into power stage design so as to step up voltage gain. In addition, the main circuit adopts boosting capacitors and switched capacitors, based on which the converter voltage gain can further be improved significantly. Since the proposed converter possesses an inherently ultra-high step-up feature, it is capable of processing low input voltages. The DHSIC also has the important features of leakage energy recycling, switch voltage clamping, and continuous input-current obtaining. These characteristics advantage converter efficiency and benefit the DHSIC for high power applications. The structure of the proposed converter is concise. That is, it can lower cost and simplifies control approach. The operation principle and theoretical derivation of the proposed converter are discussed thoroughly in this paper. Simulations and hardware implementation are carried out to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis and to validate feasibility of the converter as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Secondary Freeform Lens Device Design with Stearic Acid for A Low-Glare Mosquito-Trapping System with Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060624 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dengue fever is a public health issue of global concern. Taiwan is located in the subtropical region featuring humid and warm weather, which is conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and flies. Together with global warming and the increasing frequency of international exchanges, [...] Read more.
Dengue fever is a public health issue of global concern. Taiwan is located in the subtropical region featuring humid and warm weather, which is conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes and flies. Together with global warming and the increasing frequency of international exchanges, in addition to the outbreak of pandemics and dengue fever, the number of people infected has increased rapidly. This study is dedicated to the development of a new mosquito-trapping system. Research has shown that specific wavelengths, colors, and temperatures are highly attractive to both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In this study, we create equipment which effectively improves the trapping capabilities of mosquitoes in a wider field. The design of the special Secondary Freeform Lens Device (SFLD) is used to expand the range for trapping mosquitoes and create illumination uniformity; it also directs light downward for the protection of users’ eyes. In addition, we use the correct amount of stearic acid as a mosquito attractant to allow a better control effect against mosquitoes during the day. In summary, when the UV LED mosquito trapping system is combined with a quadratic free-form lens, the experimental results show that the system can extend the capture range to 100 π m2 in which the number of captured mosquitoes is increased by about 350%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Using Different Ions in the Hydrothermal Method to Enhance the Photoluminescence Properties of Synthesized ZnO-Based Nanowires
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040446 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
ZnO films with a thickness of ~200 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. Then Zn(NO3)2-6H2O and C6H12N4 containing different concentrations of Eu(NO3)2-6H [...] Read more.
ZnO films with a thickness of ~200 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. Then Zn(NO3)2-6H2O and C6H12N4 containing different concentrations of Eu(NO3)2-6H2O or In(NO3)2-6H2O were used as precursors, and a hydrothermal process was used to synthesize pure ZnO as well as Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires at different synthesis temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze the crystallization properties of the pure ZnO and the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires, and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze their surface morphologies. The important novelty in our approach is that the ZnO-based nanowires with different concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions could be easily synthesized using a hydrothermal process. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions on the physical and optical properties of ZnO-based nanowires was well investigated. FESEM observations found that the undoped ZnO nanowires could be grown at 100 °C. The third novelty is that we could synthesize the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires at temperatures lower than 100 °C. The temperatures required to grow the Eu-doped and In-doped ZnO nanowires decreased with increasing concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions. XRD patterns showed that with the addition of Eu3+ (In3+), the diffraction intensity of the (002) peak slightly increased with the concentration of Eu3+ (In3+) ions and reached a maximum at 3 (0.4) at%. We show that the concentrations of Eu3+ and In3+ ions have considerable effects on the synthesis temperatures and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped and In3+-doped ZnO nanowires. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Circuit with Controllable Negative Differential Resistance and its Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040409 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Electronic devices and circuits with negative differential resistance (NDR) are widely used in oscillators, memory devices, frequency multipliers, mixers, etc. Such devices and circuits usually have an N-, S-, or Λ-type current-voltage characteristics. In the known NDR devices and circuits, it [...] Read more.
Electronic devices and circuits with negative differential resistance (NDR) are widely used in oscillators, memory devices, frequency multipliers, mixers, etc. Such devices and circuits usually have an N-, S-, or Λ-type current-voltage characteristics. In the known NDR devices and circuits, it is practically impossible to increase the negative resistance without changing the type or the dimensions of transistors. Moreover, some of them have three terminals assuming two power supplies. In this paper, a new NDR circuit that comprises a combination of a field effect transistor (FET) and a simple bipolar junction transistor (BJT) current mirror (CM) with multiple outputs is proposed. A distinctive feature of the proposed circuit is the ability to change the magnitude of the NDR by increasing the number of outputs in the CM. Mathematical expressions are derived to calculate the threshold currents and voltages of the N-type current-voltage characteristics for various types of FET. The calculated current and voltage thresholds are compared with the simulation results. The possible applications of the proposed NDR circuit for designing single-frequency oscillators and voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are considered. The designed NDR VCO has a very low level of phase noise and has one of the best values of a standard figure of merit (FOM) among recently published VCOs. The effectiveness of the proposed oscillators is confirmed by the simulation results and the implemented prototype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Cost Test Pattern Generation in Scan-Based BIST Schemes
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030314 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper proposes a low-cost test pattern generator for scan-based built-in self-test (BIST) schemes. Our method generates broadcast-based multiple single input change (BMSIC) vectors to fill more scan chains. The proposed algorithm, BMSIC-TPG, is based on our previous work multiple single-input change (MSIC)-TPG. [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a low-cost test pattern generator for scan-based built-in self-test (BIST) schemes. Our method generates broadcast-based multiple single input change (BMSIC) vectors to fill more scan chains. The proposed algorithm, BMSIC-TPG, is based on our previous work multiple single-input change (MSIC)-TPG. The broadcast circuit expends MSIC vectors, so that the hardware overhead of the test pattern generation circuit is reduced. Simulation results with ISCAS’89 benchmarks and a comparison with the MSIC-TPG circuit show that the proposed BMSIC-TPG reduces the circuit hardware overhead about 50% with ensuring of low power consumption and high fault coverage. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Overview: Types of Lower Limb Exoskeletons
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111283 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Researchers have given attention to lower limb exoskeletons in recent years. Lower limb exoskeletons have been designed, prototype tested through experiments, and even produced. In general, lower limb exoskeletons have two different objectives: (1) rehabilitation and (2) assisting human work activities. Referring to [...] Read more.
Researchers have given attention to lower limb exoskeletons in recent years. Lower limb exoskeletons have been designed, prototype tested through experiments, and even produced. In general, lower limb exoskeletons have two different objectives: (1) rehabilitation and (2) assisting human work activities. Referring to these objectives, researchers have iteratively improved lower limb exoskeleton designs, especially in the location of actuators. Some of these devices use actuators, particularly on hips, ankles or knees of the users. Additionally, other devices employ a combination of actuators on multiple joints. In order to provide information about which actuator location is more suitable; a review study on the design of actuator locations is presented in this paper. The location of actuators is an important factor because it is related to the analysis of the design and the control system. This factor affects the entire lower limb exoskeleton’s performance and functionality. In addition, the disadvantages of several types of lower limb exoskeletons in terms of actuator locations and the challenges of the lower limb exoskeleton in the future are also presented in this paper. Full article
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