Special Issue "Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Tel. +886 6 2757575 ext 62391; Fax: +886 6 2761854
Interests: optical and electronic devices; semi-conductive materials; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Teen-­Hang Meen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: STEM education; ICT in education; E-Learning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Stephen D. Prior
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Aeronautics, Astronautics and Computational Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7QF, UK
Interests: microsystem design; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

2018 IEEE International Conference on Applied System Innovation (IEEE ICASI 2018) will be held in Chiba, Tokyo Japan on April 13~17, 2018, and will provide a unified communication platform for material topics. The special issue “Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2018” of Energies provides related scientific research, technology development and policy and management studies. It publishes reviews and regular research papers. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced.

This special issue selects excellent papers from IEEE ICASI 2018. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, to this special issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Energy Fundamentals
  • Primary Energy Sources
  • Secondary Energy Sources and Energy Carriers
  • Energy Exploration
  • Intermediate and Final Energy Use
  • Energy Conversion Systems
  • Energy Policy
  • Exergy
  • Energetics
  • Energy Research and Development

Prof. Dr. Shoou­Jinn Chang
Prof. Teen­Hang Meen
Dr. Stephen D. Prior
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy Fundamentals
  • Primary Energy Sources
  • Secondary Energy Sources and Energy Carriers
  • Energy Exploration
  • Intermediate and Final Energy Use
  • Energy Conversion Systems

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Improvements in Bidirectional Power-Flow Balancing and Electric Power Quality of a Microgrid with Unbalanced Distributed Generators and Loads by Using Shunt Compensators
Energies 2018, 11(12), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123305 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Improper connections of unbalanced distributed generators (DGs) and loads in a three-phase microgrid cause unbalanced and bidirectional power flow problems. The unbalanced DGs and loads may also aggravate the electric power quality (EPQ), such as voltage regulation, power factor, and unbalanced current and [...] Read more.
Improper connections of unbalanced distributed generators (DGs) and loads in a three-phase microgrid cause unbalanced and bidirectional power flow problems. The unbalanced DGs and loads may also aggravate the electric power quality (EPQ), such as voltage regulation, power factor, and unbalanced current and voltage. This increases the difficulty of operation in a microgrid. In this study, a three-phase, delta-connected, shunt-type universal compensator was employed for achieving the bidirectional power-flow balancing and improving the EPQ of a three-phase, distribution-level microgrid with unbalanced DGs and loads. A feedforward compensation scheme was derived for the compensator by using the symmetrical components method. In practical applications, the universal compensator can be implemented as static var compensators (SVCs), static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs), or an additional function of active filters. With the on-line compensation of the proposed compensator, the bidirectional power-flow balancing and EPQ improvement in the microgrid were achieved. A demonstration system was proposed to present the effectiveness of the compensator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel Using Calcium Methoxide as Catalyst under Homogenizer System Conditions
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102622 - 01 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Although many types of heterogeneous catalysts have been applied to the transesterification reaction, some of them are unsuitable for industrial applications due to their high price and the extra preparation required to synthesize them. Calcium methoxide is a low cost, strong base with [...] Read more.
Although many types of heterogeneous catalysts have been applied to the transesterification reaction, some of them are unsuitable for industrial applications due to their high price and the extra preparation required to synthesize them. Calcium methoxide is a low cost, strong base with high catalytic activity and is thus commonly used in the biofuels synthesis process during the transesterification reaction. The objective of this study was to determine the optimized conversion in the transesterification reaction of waste cooking oil (WCO) for biodiesel production by using a homogenizer with a calcium methoxide catalyst. It was shown that the optimal reaction conditions are a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, 4 wt % Ca(OCH3)2, a reaction temperature of 65 °C, a rotation speed of 7000 rpm, and a reaction time of 90 min. The conversion rate under these conditions reached 90.2%. Ca(OCH3)2 thus has potential as a catalyst for industrial use. In addition, with a homogenizer system, the reaction time for synthesizing calcium methoxide catalyst can be reduced by half compared to that for conventional water-bath heating. In addition, the large amount of waste water required in the oil-water separation step can be reduced by using calcium methoxide instead of a homogeneous catalyst, significantly reducing manufacturing costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Biodiesel Conversions from Blends of High- and Low-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oils Using Sodium Methoxide as a Catalyst Based on a High Speed Homogenizer
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092298 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel. However, the high price of the biodiesel produced from pure vegetable oil contributes to making it uncompetitive in the market. If we can make low cost oils such as waste cooking oil and high-acid-value oil [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel. However, the high price of the biodiesel produced from pure vegetable oil contributes to making it uncompetitive in the market. If we can make low cost oils such as waste cooking oil and high-acid-value oil available as resources, the cost of biodiesel production will be reduced significantly. However, these low cost oils cannot be used to produce biodiesel directly because they usually contain a large amount of free fatty acids. They have to undergo a preparatory procedure to lower the acid value to a specific value. The purpose of this study was to lower the amount of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils by blending high- and low-value oils at different ratios and to reduce the transesterification reaction time using a high speed homogenizer, which has the potential to easily enlarge the capacity scale. We used a high-acid-value oil to low-acid-value oil volume ratio of 4:6 as a control. A high conversion rate (97.1%) was achieved under the optimal reaction conditions: methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 9:1; amount of catalyst (CH3ONa) used, 0.75 wt %; reaction temperature, 65 °C; rotation speed, 8000 rpm; and reaction time, 8 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
A Modified Firefly Algorithm with Rapid Response Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092284 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A rapid response optimization technique for photovoltaic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is proposed in this study. To improve the solar MPPT tracking speed for rapidly-changing environmental conditions and to prevent the conventional firefly algorithm (FA) from becoming [...] Read more.
A rapid response optimization technique for photovoltaic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is proposed in this study. To improve the solar MPPT tracking speed for rapidly-changing environmental conditions and to prevent the conventional firefly algorithm (FA) from becoming trapped at the local peaks and oscillations during the search process, a novel fusion algorithm, named the modified firefly algorithm (MFA), is proposed. The MFA integrates and modifies the processes of two algorithms, namely the firefly algorithm with neighborhood attraction (NaFA) and simplified firefly algorithm (SFA). A modified attraction process for the NaFA is used in the first iteration to avoid trapping at local maximum power points (LMPPs). In addition, in order to improve the convergence speed, the attractiveness factor of the attraction process is designed to be related to the power and position difference of the fireflies. Furthermore, the number of fireflies is designed to decrease in proportion with the iterations in the modified SFA process. Results from both the simulations and evaluations verify that the proposed algorithm offers rapid response with high accuracy and efficiency when encountering PSCs. In addition, the MFA can avoid becoming trapped at LMPPs and ease the oscillations during the search process. Consequently, the proposed method could be considered to be one of the most promising substitutes for existing approaches. In addition, the proposed method is adaptable to different types of solar panels and different system formats with specifically designed parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy-Efficient Clusters for Object Tracking Networks
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082015 - 02 Aug 2018
Abstract
Smart cities have hundreds of thousands of devices for tracking data on crime, the environment, and traffic (such as data collected at crossroads and on streets). This results in higher energy usage, as they are recording information persistently and simultaneously. Moreover, a single [...] Read more.
Smart cities have hundreds of thousands of devices for tracking data on crime, the environment, and traffic (such as data collected at crossroads and on streets). This results in higher energy usage, as they are recording information persistently and simultaneously. Moreover, a single object tracking device, on a corner at an intersection for example has a limited scope of view, so more object tracking devices are added to broaden the view. As an increasing number of object tracking devices are constructed on streets, their efficient energy consumption becomes a significant issue. This work is concerned with decreasing the energy required to power these systems, and proposes energy-efficient clusters (EECs) of object tracking systems to achieve energy savings. First, we analyze a current object tracking system to establish an equivalent model. Second, we arrange the object tracking system in a cluster structure, which facilitates the evaluation of energy costs. Third, the energy consumption is assessed as either dynamic or static, which is a more accurate system for determining energy consumption. Fourth, we analyze all possible scenarios of the object’s location and the resulting energy consumption, and derive a number of formulas for the fast computation of energy consumption. Finally, the simulation results are reported. These results show the proposed EEC is an effective way to save energy, compared with the energy consumption benchmarks of current technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Analysis of Lightning and Surge Protection Devices for Power Energy Structures
Energies 2018, 11(8), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11081999 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper studies the risk data and protection measurements of lightning based on the IEC62305 standard. In addition, Visual Basic (VB) is used to build a lightning risk calculation program with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The data structure, including environment data, line [...] Read more.
This paper studies the risk data and protection measurements of lightning based on the IEC62305 standard. In addition, Visual Basic (VB) is used to build a lightning risk calculation program with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The data structure, including environment data, line data, zone data, economic data, and protection measures is designed to simulate risk of loss of human life (R1) and risk of loss of economic value (R4). To achieve the most economical protection structure design, additional protection measurements and annual savings are considered. In the practical application, the main purpose is to discuss effective protection distances of surge protective devices (SPDs) for low-voltage power distribution. This paper takes advantage of Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) to simulate the voltage of equipment with different types of loads and length of the cable. After using the protection measures, the value of risk of human life reduces form 21.299 × 10−5 to 0.439 × 10−5 and the value of risk of economic value reduces from 2696.754 × 10−5 to 98.062 × 10−5. The results mean that the protection measures let the values of the risk below the tolerance. By considering the annual cost saving. Assume the cost of protection measures, the interest rate, the depreciation rate, and the maintenance rate are 150,000 $, 4%, 5%, and 1%, respectively. The annual cost before using protective measures, the annual cost after using protective measures, the annual cost of protective measures, and the annual cost saving are $925,000, $33,635, $15,000 and $876,365, respectively. Consequently, it is feasible that the simulation result can provide users with great suggestions to choose the best installation location and achieve the most effective protection design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Non-Distorted Optimization Spectrum Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071841 - 13 Jul 2018
Abstract
The discrete Fourier transform is extensively applied in spectrum analysis. However, the sampled signal is random, and the discrete Fourier transform has its own specific limitations. Thus, errors will inevitably occur in time–frequency transformation work. The most common are the leakage effects of [...] Read more.
The discrete Fourier transform is extensively applied in spectrum analysis. However, the sampled signal is random, and the discrete Fourier transform has its own specific limitations. Thus, errors will inevitably occur in time–frequency transformation work. The most common are the leakage effects of the spectrum that are caused from the scale of the spectrum not being able to match the characteristics of the signal. The optimal spectrum is proposed to overcome this defect by adjusting the frequency scale to fit signal characteristics. This includes three stages whereby frequency scale can match signal characteristics. Firstly, the signal parameters must be found. Secondly, the frequency scale can be determined from these signal parameters. Finally, the optimal spectrum can be realized using the adjustable spectrum with the new frequency scale. After processing the optimal spectrum, the leakage effects of the signal will be decreased to a minimum. This method preserves signal characteristics in the optimization process, which reaches the ideal of non-distortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dual-Voltage-Vector Model-Free Predictive Current Controller for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drive Systems
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071743 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
For current control in power conversion and motor drive systems, there exist three classic methods in the literature and they are the hysteresis current control (HCC), the sine pulse-width modulation (SPWM), and the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). HCC is easy to [...] Read more.
For current control in power conversion and motor drive systems, there exist three classic methods in the literature and they are the hysteresis current control (HCC), the sine pulse-width modulation (SPWM), and the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). HCC is easy to implement, but has relatively large current harmonic distortion as the disadvantage. On the other hand, the SPWM and SVPWM use modulation technique, commonly together with at least one proportional-integral (PI) regulator to reduce load current ripples, and hence demanding more computation time. This paper aims to improve the performance of a recently proposed new current control method—the single-voltage-vector model predictive current control (SVV-MPCC), for synchronous reluctance motor (SynRMs) drives. To that end, a dual-voltage-vector model-free predictive current control (DVV-MFPCC) for SynRMs is proposed. Unlike the SVV-MPCC that applies only a single voltage vector per sampling period, the proposed DVV-MFPCC is capable of providing two successive segmentary current predictions in the next sampling period through all possible combinations from any two candidate switching states increasing the number of applicable switching modes from seven to nineteen and reducing the prediction error effectively. Moreover, the new control does not utilize any parameters of the SynRM nor its mathematical model. The performance is effectively enhanced compared to that of SVV-MPCC. The working principle of the DVV-MFPCC will be detailed in this paper. Finally, the SVV-MPCC, the single-voltage-vector model-free predictive current control (SVV-MFPCC), the dual-voltage-vector model predictive current control (DVV-MPCC), and the DVV-MFPCC are realized to control the stator currents of SynRM through a 32-bit microcontroller TMS320F28377S. Experimental results are provided to validate the new method and verify that the DVV-MFPCC performs better than do the SVV-MPCC, the SVV-MFPCC, and the DVV-MPCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of the Permanent- Magnet Synchronous Generator Drive in Wind Generation Systems
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071634 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The design and implementation of the permanent-magnet synchronous generator drive in wind generation systems is presented in this paper. The permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) can converse the alternating current (AC) power of the wind turbine to direct current (DC) power. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The design and implementation of the permanent-magnet synchronous generator drive in wind generation systems is presented in this paper. The permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) can converse the alternating current (AC) power of the wind turbine to direct current (DC) power. In this paper, the dynamic model of a PMSG is first introduced. The current controller is designed based on T-S fuzzy models of the PMSG. The stability of the proposed PMSG drive system is analyzed and proved. The proposed T-S fuzzy current control possesses a disturbance suppression ability. Compared with the traditional fuzzy logic system, its stability can be proved and verified. Finally, the control performance of the PMSG drive is verified by experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Interleaved High Step-Up DC-DC Converter Based on Voltage Multiplier Cell and Voltage-Stacking Techniques for Renewable Energy Applications
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071632 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
A novel interleaved high step-up DC-DC converter based on voltage multiplier cell and voltage-stacking techniques is proposed for the power conversion in renewable energy power systems. The circuit configuration incorporates an input-parallel output-series boost converter with coupled inductors, clamp circuits and a voltage [...] Read more.
A novel interleaved high step-up DC-DC converter based on voltage multiplier cell and voltage-stacking techniques is proposed for the power conversion in renewable energy power systems. The circuit configuration incorporates an input-parallel output-series boost converter with coupled inductors, clamp circuits and a voltage multiplier cell stacking on the output side to extend the voltage gain. The converter achieves high voltage conversion ratio without working at extreme large duty ratio. The voltage stresses on the power switches are significantly lower than the output voltage. As a result, the low-voltage-rated metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) can be employed to reduce the conduction losses and higher conversion efficiency can be expected. The interleaved operation reduces the input current ripple. The leakage inductances of the coupled inductors act on mitigating the diode reverse recovery problem. The operating principle, steady-state analysis and design guidelines of the proposed converter are presented in detail. Finally, a 1-kW prototype with 28-V input and 380-V output voltages was implemented and tested. The experimental results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of the Battery Energy Storage System in DC Micro-Grid Systems
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061566 - 14 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The design and implementation of the battery energy storage system in DC micro-grid systems is demonstrated in this paper. The battery energy storage system (BESS) is an important part of a DC micro-grid because renewable energy generation sources are fluctuating. The BESS can [...] Read more.
The design and implementation of the battery energy storage system in DC micro-grid systems is demonstrated in this paper. The battery energy storage system (BESS) is an important part of a DC micro-grid because renewable energy generation sources are fluctuating. The BESS can provide energy while the renewable energy is absent in the DC micro-grid. The circuit topology of the proposed BESS will be introduced. The design of the voltage controller and the current controller for the battery charger/discharger are also illustrated. Finally, experimental results are provided to validate the performance of the BESS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Distributed Photovoltaic System in Grid-Connected and Standalone Applications by Different MPPT Algorithms
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061484 - 07 Jun 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Due to the shortage of fossil fuel and the environmental pollution problem, solar energy applications have drawn a lot of attention worldwide. This paper reports the use of the latest patented distributed photovoltaic (PV) power system design, including the two possible maximum power [...] Read more.
Due to the shortage of fossil fuel and the environmental pollution problem, solar energy applications have drawn a lot of attention worldwide. This paper reports the use of the latest patented distributed photovoltaic (PV) power system design, including the two possible maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, a power optimizer, and a PV power controller, in grid-connected and standalone applications. A distributed PV system with four amorphous silicon thin-film solar panels is used to evaluate both the quadratic maximization (QM) and the Steepest descent (SD) MPPT algorithms. The system’s design is different for the QM or the SD MPPT algorithm being used. The test result for the grid-connected silicon-based PV panels will also be reported. Considering the settling time for the power optimizer to be 20 ms, the test result shows that the tracking time for the QM method is close to 200 ms, which is faster when compared with the SD method whose tracking time is 500 ms. Besides this, the use of the QM method provides a more stable power output since the tracking is restricted by a local power optimizer rather than the global tracking the SD method uses. For a standalone PV application, a solar-powered boat design with 18 PV panels using a cascaded MPPT controller is introduced, and it provides flexibility in system design and the effective use of photovoltaic energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Solar Radiation Estimation Algorithm and Field Verification in Taiwan
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061374 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The power generation potential of a solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation system is closely related to the on-site solar radiation, and sunshine conditions are an important reference index for evaluating the installation of a solar PV system. Meanwhile, the long-term operation and maintenance [...] Read more.
The power generation potential of a solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation system is closely related to the on-site solar radiation, and sunshine conditions are an important reference index for evaluating the installation of a solar PV system. Meanwhile, the long-term operation and maintenance of a PV system needs solar radiation information as a reference for system performance evaluation. Obtaining solar radiation information through the installation of irradiation monitoring stations is often very costly, and the cost of sustaining the reliability of the monitoring system, Internet stability and subsequent operation and maintenance can often be alarming. Therefore, the establishment of a solar radiation estimation model can reduce the installation of monitoring stations and decrease the cost of obtaining solar radiation information. In this study, we use an inverse distance weighting algorithm to establish the solar radiation estimation model. The model was built by obtaining information from 20 solar radiation monitoring stations in central and southern Taiwan, and field verification was implemented at Yuan Chang Township town hall and the Tainan Liujia campus. Furthermore, a full comparison between Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and the Kriging method is also given in this paper. The estimation results demonstrate the performance of the IDW method. In the experiment, the performance of the IDW method is better than the Ordinary Kriging (OK) method. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values of the solar radiation estimation model by IDW at the two field verifications were 4.30% and 3.71%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
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