Special Issue "Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Teen­-Hang Meen
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Cleveland State University, Ohio, 44011, USA
Interests: human computer interaction; rehabilitation; computer vision; distributed systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang

Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2nd IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Innovation and Invention 2019 (IEEE ICKII 2019) will be held in Seoul, South Korea on 12–15 July 2019, and it will provide a unified communication platform for researchers in the topics of information technology, innovation design, communication science and engineering, industrial design, creative design, applied mathematics, computer science, electrical and electronic engineering, mechanical and automation engineering, green technology and architecture engineering, material science, and other related fields. This Special Issue on “Selected papers from IEEE ICKII 2019” is expected to select excellent papers presented in IEEE ICKII 2019 on topics in energies. This Special Issue will provide related scientific research, technology development, and policy and management studies. It will publish reviews and regular research papers. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles as well as review articles to this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Energy fundamentals;
  • Primary energy sources;
  • Secondary energy sources and energy carriers;
  • Energy exploration;
  • Intermediate and final energy use;
  • Energy conversion systems;
  • Energy policy;
  • Exergy;
  • Energetics;
  • Energy research and development.

Prof. Teen ­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Wenbing Zhao
Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fu Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy fundamentals
  • primary energy sources
  • secondary energy sources and energy carriers
  • energy exploration
  • intermediate and final energy use
  • energy conversion systems

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019
Energies 2020, 13(8), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13081916 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
This Special Issue on “Selected papers from IEEE ICKII 2019” selected 13 excellent papers from 260 papers presented in IEEE ICKII 2019 on topics in energies. The fields include: energy fundamentals, energy sources and energy carriers, energy exploration, intermediate and final energy use, [...] Read more.
This Special Issue on “Selected papers from IEEE ICKII 2019” selected 13 excellent papers from 260 papers presented in IEEE ICKII 2019 on topics in energies. The fields include: energy fundamentals, energy sources and energy carriers, energy exploration, intermediate and final energy use, energy conversion systems, and energy research and development. The main goal of this Special Isue is to discover new scientific knowledge relevant to the topic of energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Optimization and Application for Hydraulic Electric Hybrid Vehicle
Energies 2020, 13(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020322 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Targeting the application of medium and heavy vehicles, a hydraulic electric hybrid vehicle (HEHV) was designed, and its energy management control strategy is discussed in this paper. Matlab/Simulink was applied to establish the pure electric vehicle and HEHV models, and backward simulation was [...] Read more.
Targeting the application of medium and heavy vehicles, a hydraulic electric hybrid vehicle (HEHV) was designed, and its energy management control strategy is discussed in this paper. Matlab/Simulink was applied to establish the pure electric vehicle and HEHV models, and backward simulation was adopted for the simulation, to get the variation of torque and battery state of charge (SOC) through New York City Cycle of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA NYCC). Based on the simulation, the energy management strategy was designed. In this research, the rule-based control strategy was implemented as the energy distribution management strategy first, and then the genetic algorithm was utilized to conduct global optimization strategy analysis. The results from the genetic algorithm were employed to modify the rule-based control strategy to improve the electricity economic performance of the vehicle. The simulation results show that the electricity economic performance of the designed hydraulic hybrid vehicle was improved by 36.51% compared to that of a pure electric vehicle. The performance of energy consumption after genetic algorithm optimization was improved by 43.65%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Step Up/Down Power-Factor-Correction Converter with Modified Dual Loop Control
Energies 2020, 13(1), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010199 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A step up/down AC/DC converter with modified dual loop control is proposed. The step up/down AC/DC converter features the bridgeless characteristic which can reduce bridge-diode conduction losses. Based on the step up/down AC/DC converter, a modified dual loop control scheme is proposed to [...] Read more.
A step up/down AC/DC converter with modified dual loop control is proposed. The step up/down AC/DC converter features the bridgeless characteristic which can reduce bridge-diode conduction losses. Based on the step up/down AC/DC converter, a modified dual loop control scheme is proposed to achieve input current shaping and output voltage regulation. Fewer components are needed compared with the traditional bridge and bridgeless step up/down AC/DC converters. In addition, the intermediate capacitor voltage stress can be reduced. Furthermore, the top and bottom switches still have zero-voltage turn-on function during the negative and positive half-line cycle, respectively. Hence, the thermal stresses can also be reduced and balanced. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the validity of the proposed step up/down AC/DC converter and its control scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Optimal Control of Fuel Consumption for a Heavy-Duty Motorcycle with Three Power Sources Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation
Energies 2020, 13(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010022 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study presents a simulation platform for a hybrid electric motorcycle with an engine, a driving motor, and an integrated starter generator (ISG) as three power sources. This platform also consists of the driving cycle, driver, lithium-ion battery, continuously variable transmission (CVT), motorcycle [...] Read more.
This study presents a simulation platform for a hybrid electric motorcycle with an engine, a driving motor, and an integrated starter generator (ISG) as three power sources. This platform also consists of the driving cycle, driver, lithium-ion battery, continuously variable transmission (CVT), motorcycle dynamics, and energy management system models. Two Arduino DUE microcontrollers integrated with the required circuit to process analog-to-digital signal conversion for input and output are utilized to carry out a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. A driving cycle called worldwide motorcycle test cycle (WMTC) is used for evaluating the performance characteristics and response relationship among subsystems. Control strategies called rule-based control (RBC) and equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) are simulated and compared with the purely engine-driven operation. The results show that the improvement percentages for equivalent fuel consumption and energy consumption for RBC and ECMS using the pure software simulation were 17.74%/18.50% and 42.77%/44.22% respectively, while those with HIL were 18.16%/18.82% and 42.73%/44.10%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Configuration with Capacity Analysis of a Hybrid Renewable Energy and Storage System for an Island Application
Energies 2020, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010008 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The Philippines consists of 7100 islands, many of which still use fossil fuel diesel generators as the main source of electricity. This supply can be complemented by the use of renewable energy sources. This study uses a Philippine offshore island to optimize the [...] Read more.
The Philippines consists of 7100 islands, many of which still use fossil fuel diesel generators as the main source of electricity. This supply can be complemented by the use of renewable energy sources. This study uses a Philippine offshore island to optimize the capacity configuration of a hybrid energy system (HES). A thorough investigation was performed to understand the operating status of existing diesel generator sets, load power consumption, and collect the statistics of meteorological data and economic data. Using the Hybrid Optimization Models for Energy Resources (HOMER) software we simulate and analyze the techno-economics of different power supply systems containing stand-alone diesel systems, photovoltaic (PV)-diesel HES, wind-diesel HES, PV-wind-diesel HES, PV-diesel-storage HES, wind-diesel-storage HES, PV-wind-diesel-storage HES. In addition to the lowest cost of energy (COE), capital cost, fuel saving and occupied area, the study also uses entropy weight and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to evaluate the optimal capacity configuration. The proposed method can also be applied to design hybrid renewable energy systems for other off-grid areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrated Analysis of Influence of Multiple Factors on Transmission Efficiency of Loader Drive Axle
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234540 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, a loader drive axle digital model was built using 3D commercial software. On the basis of this model, the transmission efficiency of the main reducing gear, the differential planetary mechanism, and the wheel planetary reducing gear of the loader drive [...] Read more.
In this study, a loader drive axle digital model was built using 3D commercial software. On the basis of this model, the transmission efficiency of the main reducing gear, the differential planetary mechanism, and the wheel planetary reducing gear of the loader drive axle were studied. The functional relationship of the transmission efficiency of the loader drive axle was obtained, including multiple factors: the mesh friction coefficient, the mesh power loss coefficient, the normal pressure angle, the helix angle, the offset amount, the speed ratio, the gear ratio, and the characteristic parameters. This revealed the influence law of the loader drive axle by the mesh friction coefficient, mesh power loss coefficient, and speed ratio. The research results showed that the transmission efficiency of the loader drive axle increased with the speed ratio, decreased when the mesh friction coefficient and the mesh power loss coefficient increased, and that there was a greater influence difference on the transmission efficiency of the loader drive axle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Management and Distribution Strategies for Dynamic Power in a Ship’s Micro-Grid System Based on Photovoltaic Cell, Diesel Generator, and Lithium Battery
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4505; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234505 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Combining new energy technology with electric propulsion technology is an effective way to decrease the pollution of water resources caused by cruise ships. This study examines the stable parallel operation of a ship’s micro-grid system through a dynamic power management strategy involving a [...] Read more.
Combining new energy technology with electric propulsion technology is an effective way to decrease the pollution of water resources caused by cruise ships. This study examines the stable parallel operation of a ship’s micro-grid system through a dynamic power management strategy involving a step change in load. With cruise ships in mind, we construct a micro-grid system consisting of photovoltaics (PV), a diesel generator (DG), and a lithium battery and establish a corresponding simulation model. We then analyze the system’s operating characteristics under different working conditions and present the mechanisms that influence the power quality of the ship’s micro-grid system. Based on an analysis of the power distribution requirements under different working conditions, we design a power allocation strategy for the micro-grid system. We then propose an optimization allocation strategy for dynamic power based on fuzzy control and a load current feed-forward method, and finally, we simulate the whole system. Through this study we prove that the proposed power management strategy not only verifies the feasibility and correctness of the ship’s micro-grid structure and control strategy, but also greatly improves the reliability and stability of the ship’s operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Energy Flux Vector on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Porous Wavy-Wall Square Cavity with Partially-Heated Surface
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4456; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234456 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The study utilizes the energy-flux-vector method to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a wavy-wall porous square cavity with a partially-heated bottom surface. The effects of the modified Darcy number, modified Rayleigh number, modified Prandtl number, and length of the [...] Read more.
The study utilizes the energy-flux-vector method to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a wavy-wall porous square cavity with a partially-heated bottom surface. The effects of the modified Darcy number, modified Rayleigh number, modified Prandtl number, and length of the partially-heated bottom surface on the energy-flux-vector distribution and mean Nusselt number are examined. The results show that when a low modified Darcy number with any value of modified Rayleigh number is given, the recirculation regions are not formed in the energy-flux-vector distribution within the porous cavity. Therefore, a low mean Nusselt number is presented. The recirculation regions do still not form, and thus the mean Nusselt number has a low value when a low modified Darcy number with a high modified Rayleigh number is given. However, when the values of the modified Darcy number and modified Rayleigh number are high, the energy flux vectors generate recirculation regions, and thus a high mean Nusselt number is obtained. In addition, in a convection-dominated region, the mean Nusselt number increases with an increasing modified Prandtl number. Furthermore, as the length of the partially-heated bottom surface lengthens, a higher mean Nusselt number is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Solid Desiccant Cooling Systems by Integrating Solar Water Collectors in Taiwan
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3470; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183470 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
A hybrid solid desiccant cooling system (SDCS), which combines a solid desiccant system and a vapor compression system, is considered to be an excellent alternative for commercial and residential air conditioning systems. In this study, a solar-assisted hybrid SDCS system was developed in [...] Read more.
A hybrid solid desiccant cooling system (SDCS), which combines a solid desiccant system and a vapor compression system, is considered to be an excellent alternative for commercial and residential air conditioning systems. In this study, a solar-assisted hybrid SDCS system was developed in which solar-heated water is used as an additional heat source for the regeneration process, in addition to recovering heat from the condenser of an integrated heat pump. A solar thermal collector sub-system is used to generate solar regeneration water. Experiments were conducted in the typically hot and humid weather of Taichung, Taiwan, from the spring to fall seasons. The experimental results show that the overall performance of the system in terms of power consumption can be enhanced by approximately 10% by integrating a solar-heated water heat exchanger in comparison to the hybrid SDCS system. The results show that the system performs better when the outdoor humidity ratio is large. In addition, regarding the effect of ambient temperature on the coefficient of performance (COP) of the systems, a critical value of outdoor temperature exists. The COP of the systems gradually rises with the increase in ambient temperature. However, when the ambient temperature is greater than the critical value, the COP gradually decreases with the increase in ambient temperature. The critical outdoor temperature of the hybrid SDCS is from 26 °C to 27 °C, and the critical temperature of the solar-assisted hybrid SDCS is from 27 °C to 30 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Condition Monitor System for Rotation Machine by CNN with Recurrence Plot
Energies 2019, 12(17), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173221 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Induction motors face various stresses under operating conditions leading to some failure modes. Hence, health monitoring for motors becomes essential. In this paper, we introduce an effective framework for fault diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors. The proposed framework mainly consists of two parts. [...] Read more.
Induction motors face various stresses under operating conditions leading to some failure modes. Hence, health monitoring for motors becomes essential. In this paper, we introduce an effective framework for fault diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors. The proposed framework mainly consists of two parts. The first part explains the preprocessing method, in which the time-series data signals are converted into two-dimensional (2D) images. The preprocessing method generates recurrence plots (RP), which represent the transformation of time-series data such as 3-phase current signals into 2D texture images. The second part of the paper explains how the proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) extracts the robust features to diagnose the induction motor’s fault conditions by classifying the images. The generated RP images are considered as input for the proposed CNN in the texture image recognition task. The proposed framework is tested on the dataset collected from different 3-phase induction motors working with different failure modes. The experimental results of the proposed framework show its competitive performance over traditional methodologies and other machine learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Logistics System with Privacy and Lightweight Verification
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163061 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Presently, E-commerce has developed rapidly as a result of many services and applications integrating e-commerce technologies offered online. Buyers can buy goods online and sellers can then deliver the goods to them. Logistics therefore plays an important role in online e-commerce applications, with [...] Read more.
Presently, E-commerce has developed rapidly as a result of many services and applications integrating e-commerce technologies offered online. Buyers can buy goods online and sellers can then deliver the goods to them. Logistics therefore plays an important role in online e-commerce applications, with a focus on rapid delivery, the integrity of goods, and the privacy of personal information. Previous studies have proposed secure mechanisms for the transfer of electronic cash and digital content, in which only the sender and the receiver know the secret information hidden in the signature. However, they did not consider requirements such as the anonymous and lightweight verification in the logistics architecture. Therefore, this study designs a secure logistics system, with anonymous and lightweight verification, in order to meet the following requirements: Mutual authentication, non-repudiation, anonymity, integrity and a low overhead for the logistics environment. A buyer could check the goods and know if the parcel has been exchanged by a malicious person. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only presents a solution to meet the logistics system’s requirements, but also to reduce both computational and communication costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Control of the Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator Using Interval Type-2 T-S Fuzzy Systems
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152953 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The current control of the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) using an interval type-2 (IT2) Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems is designed and implemented. PMSG is an energy conversion unit widely used in wind energy generation systems and energy storage systems. Its performance is determined [...] Read more.
The current control of the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) using an interval type-2 (IT2) Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems is designed and implemented. PMSG is an energy conversion unit widely used in wind energy generation systems and energy storage systems. Its performance is determined by the current control approach. IT2 T-S fuzzy systems are implemented to deal with the nonlinearity of a PMSG system in this paper. First, the IT2 T-S fuzzy model of a PMSG is obtained. Second, the IT2 T-S fuzzy controller is designed based on the concept of parallel distributed compensation (PDC). Next, the stability analysis can be conducted through the Lyapunov theorem. Accordingly, the stability conditions of the closed-loop system are expressed in Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) form. The AC power from a PMSG is converted to DC power via a three-phase six-switch full bridge converter. The six-switch full bridge converter is controlled by the proposed IT2 T-S fuzzy controller. The analog-to-digital (ADC) conversion, rotor position calculation and duty ratio determination are digitally accomplished by the microcontroller. Finally, simulation and experimental results verify the performance of the proposed current control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Optimal Energy Dispatch of Cogeneration Systems in a Liberty Market
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152868 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel approach toward solving the optimal energy dispatch of cogeneration systems under a liberty market in consideration of power transfer, cost of exhausted carbon, and the operation condition restrictions required to attain maximal profit. This paper investigates the cogeneration [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel approach toward solving the optimal energy dispatch of cogeneration systems under a liberty market in consideration of power transfer, cost of exhausted carbon, and the operation condition restrictions required to attain maximal profit. This paper investigates the cogeneration systems of industrial users and collects fuel consumption data and data concerning the steam output of boilers. On the basis of the relation between the fuel enthalpy and steam output, the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) is used to derive boiler and turbine Input/Output (I/O) operation models to provide fuel cost functions. The CO2 emission of pollutants generated by various types of units is also calculated. The objective function is formulated as a maximal profit model that includes profit from steam sold, profit from electricity sold, fuel costs, costs of exhausting carbon, wheeling costs, and water costs. By considering Time-of-Use (TOU) and carbon trading prices, the profits of a cogeneration system in different scenarios are evaluated. By integrating the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), an Enhanced ACO (EACO) is proposed to come up with the most efficient model. The EACO uses a crossover and mutation mechanism to alleviate the local optimal solution problem, and to seek a system that offers an overall global solution using competition and selection procedures. Results show that these mechanisms provide a good direction for the energy trading operations of a cogeneration system. This approach also provides a better guide for operation dispatch to use in determining the benefits accounting for both cost and the environment in a liberty market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells with Different p-Type a-SiOx Window Layer
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132541 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, p-type amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) films are deposited using a radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Effects of the CO2 gas flow rate on film properties and crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cell performance are investigated. [...] Read more.
In this study, p-type amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) films are deposited using a radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Effects of the CO2 gas flow rate on film properties and crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cell performance are investigated. The experimental results show that the band gap of the a-SiOx film can reach 2.1 eV at CO2 flow rate of 10 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), but the conductivity of the film deteriorates. In the device simulation, the transparent conducting oxide and contact resistance are not taken into account. The electrodes are assumed to be perfectly conductive and transparent. The simulation result shows that there is a tradeoff between the increase in the band gap and the reduction in conductivity at increasing CO2 flow rate, and the balance occurs at the flow rate of six sccm, corresponding to a band gap of 1.95 eV, an oxygen content of 34%, and a conductivity of 3.3 S/cm. The best simulated conversion efficiency is 25.58%, with an open-circuit voltage of 741 mV, a short-circuit current density of 42.3 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.816%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICKII 2019)
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