Innovations in Educational Systems and Digital Transformations in Education

A special issue of Systems (ISSN 2079-8954). This special issue belongs to the section "Systems Practice in Social Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 63338

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Guest Editor
Graduate School of Design, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
Interests: design in education; design of green technology; industrial design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the fragility of the educational system. It is crucial to strengthen digital transformation in education so as to avoid a repeat of the same experience. From the perspective of technology-enhanced learning, the digital transformation of the education system has gone through four phases: a desktop software-based offline system, a web-based virtual system, a cloud-based digital ecosystem, and intelligent technology-enabled systems. Basically, they are all examples of cyber-physical systems (CPS) that integrate computing, networking, and physical environments. The use of digital education technologies is of great significance to expand educational activities beyond the classroom and into online spaces, eventually permeating the entire educational system and expanding into external sociocultural systems. Digital transformation in education can be applied in a variety of areas, ranging from e-learning and smart education to social education, student assessments, customized learning experiences, and online exams, etc. It is crucial to identify the appropriate point—i.e., in which department or industry—to implement the digital transformation effectively. In addition, there is a concern that the education system may be digitally transformed in a way that is compatible with future digital technologies and, thus, may not be effectively utilized in future. Such incompatibility implies that the existing educational system must be modified, customized, or replaced, which requires additional time and resources. The prospect of enormous change is looming over the education industry, making it difficult to choose a path forward or to build a solid digital education strategy. This Special Issue will cover a wide range of topics of digitalization and technological transformation as well as discussions on cognitive behavior and educational assessment from early childhood education to primary, secondary, tertiary, vocational, and further education. In this Special Issue, researchers are invited to submit research papers or research reviews from a variety of multidisciplinary perspectives (pedagogy, sociology, management, information science, cultural studies, journalism, psychology, anthropology, etc.) on this important and complex topic. Some specific areas on interest include:

  • Evaluation of virtual reality education;
  • The application of multimedia in education;
  • Human–computer interaction (HCI);
  • Classroom application scenarios of augmented reality;
  • Teaching assistance system of media equipment;
  • Developments and evaluation of educational software systems;
  • Reviews and iteration of online education systems;
  • The impact of data on teaching systems;
  • Quantitative behavioral coding;
  • The impact of the media on teachers.

Prof. Dr. Jui-Che Tu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • educational system
  • digital transformation
  • virtual technology
  • digital education
  • internet
  • media convergence
  • technology acceptance

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2821 KiB  
Article
The Development and Teaching of the Postgraduate Course “Engineering System Modeling and Simulation” in Combination with Essentials Taken from Research Projects
by Xiaobiao Shan, Jian Cao and Tao Xie
Systems 2023, 11(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11050225 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
This teaching research paper presents a novel idea that combines fundamental scientific problems in practical engineering with the construction of the “Engineering System Modeling and Simulation” course. A large amount of mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, 3D entity modeling, finite element simulation, and analysis [...] Read more.
This teaching research paper presents a novel idea that combines fundamental scientific problems in practical engineering with the construction of the “Engineering System Modeling and Simulation” course. A large amount of mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, 3D entity modeling, finite element simulation, and analysis used to obtain the research results of our scientific research projects is fed back and integrated into the teaching content of the Engineering System Modeling and Simulation course. The content system of this course is based on the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) aerospace engineering course and embodies the values and characteristics of HIT. It is constructed to meet the requirements of the “Ten Special Actions to Accelerate the Training of High-level Talented Person” focused on by the Ministry of Education and the Academic Degree Committee of the State Council. The research results and implementation of the current work are expected to produce pedagogical benefits for the training of postgraduate students in mechanical engineering and promote the understanding and mastery of basic and professional knowledge. At the same time, this course can also enhance students’ research ability, engineering ability, thinking ability, and innovative consciousness. Full article
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19 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Exploratory Students’ Behavior towards Massive Open Online Courses: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
by Ahmad Almufarreh and Muhammad Arshad
Systems 2023, 11(5), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11050223 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Since the evolution of massive online open courses (MOOCs) as an Ed-Tech solution to various educational problems, learners have registered themselves for various MOOCs offered by various universities and MOOC platforms. However, it has been observed that many learners who register need to [...] Read more.
Since the evolution of massive online open courses (MOOCs) as an Ed-Tech solution to various educational problems, learners have registered themselves for various MOOCs offered by various universities and MOOC platforms. However, it has been observed that many learners who register need to complete the course and progress further. Thus, the present research aims to study the learners’ lack of continuance of MOOCs. The research is based upon a quantitative research design in which a conceptual model is developed and tested empirically by employing a survey questionnaire as a tool for data collection. The data was collected from 377 respondents who were university students from Saudi Arabia studying at Jazan University, and partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used as a tool for data analysis. The results of PLS-SEM show that learner continuance behavior depends on three elements: perceived career success, perceived training opportunity, and satisfaction with MOOCs. The results further show that content vividness, interactivity, and intellectual curiosity are antecedents of satisfaction with MOOCs. The present research has argued that user gratification will yield continuance with technology products. It argues that rational aspects such as career success and acquisition of tangible skills can also yield continuance with technology products and services. Full article
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56 pages, 4480 KiB  
Article
Can Nonliterates Interact as Easily as Literates with a Virtual Reality System? A Usability Evaluation of VR Interaction Modalities
by Muhammad Ibtisam Gul, Iftikhar Ahmed Khan, Sajid Shah and Mohammed El-Affendi
Systems 2023, 11(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11020101 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
The aim of the study is twofold: to assess the usability of a virtuality (VR) interaction designed for nonliterate users in accordance with ISO-Standard 9241-11 and to compare the feasibility of two interaction modalities (motion controllers and real hands) considering the impact of [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is twofold: to assess the usability of a virtuality (VR) interaction designed for nonliterate users in accordance with ISO-Standard 9241-11 and to compare the feasibility of two interaction modalities (motion controllers and real hands) considering the impact of VR sickness. To accomplish these goals, two levels were designed for a VR prototype application. The system usability scale (SUS) was used for self-reported satisfaction, while effectiveness and efficiency were measured based on observations and logged data. These measures were then analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, and the ones with high factor loading were selected. For this purpose, two studies were conducted. The first study investigated the effects of three independent variables on the interaction performance of a VR system, i.e., “User Type,” “Interaction Modality,” and “Use of New Technology.” The SUS results suggest that all the participants were satisfied with the application. The results of one-way ANOVA tests showed that there were no significant differences in the use of the VR application among the three selected user types. However, some measures, such as task completion time in level one, showed significant differences between user types, suggesting that nonliterate users had difficulty with the grab-and-move interaction. The results of the multivariate analysis using statistically significant variables from both ANOVA tests were also reported to verify the effect of modern technology on interactivity. The second study evaluated the interaction performance of nonliterate adults in a VR application using two independent variables: “Interaction Modality” and “Years of Technological Experience.” The results of the study showed a high level of satisfaction with the VR application, with an average satisfaction score of 90.75. The one sample T-tests indicated that the nonliterate users had difficulty using their hands as the interaction modality. The study also revealed that nonliterates may struggle with the poses and gestures required for hand interaction. The results suggest that until advancements in hand-tracking technology are made, controllers may be easier for nonliterate adults to use compared to using their hands. The results underline the importance of designing VR applications that are usable and accessible for nonliterate adults and can be used as guidelines for creating VR learning experiences for nonliterate adults. Full article
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13 pages, 2324 KiB  
Article
Prototyping an Online Virtual Simulation Course Platform for College Students to Learn Creative Thinking
by Xiaojian Wu, Wei Liu, Jingpeng Jia, Xuemin Zhang, Larry Leifer and Siyuan Hu
Systems 2023, 11(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11020089 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
With the rapid development of science and technology, the ability to creative thinking has become an essential criterion for measuring talents. Current creative thinking courses for college students are affected by COVID-19 and are challenging to conduct. This study aimed to explore practical [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of science and technology, the ability to creative thinking has become an essential criterion for measuring talents. Current creative thinking courses for college students are affected by COVID-19 and are challenging to conduct. This study aimed to explore practical ways to teach creative thinking knowledge online and explored design opportunities for working on this teaching activity online. Through qualitative interviews, we found that the factors that influenced the design of the online virtual simulation course platform were focused on five dimensions: information presentation, platform characteristics, course assessment, instruction design, and presentation format. Through the analysis of user requirements, we obtained six corresponding design guidelines. Based on the knowledge system of design thinking, we set up eight modules in the course platform and developed a prototype including 100 user interfaces. We invited three experts and 30 users to conduct cognitive walk-through sessions and made design iterations based on the feedback. After user evaluation, dimensions of attractiveness, efficiency, dependability, and novelty reached excellent rating and were recognized by users. Full article
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11 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of an Adaptive Learning System on Course Scores
by Lyndon Lim, Seo Hong Lim and Wei Ying Rebekah Lim
Systems 2023, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11010031 - 5 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Adaptive learning systems have gained popularity within higher education, given the affordances that claim to enhance student learning outcomes by providing personalised learning trajectories that allow students to interact with course content at their own pace. Nonetheless, studies investigating the impact of such [...] Read more.
Adaptive learning systems have gained popularity within higher education, given the affordances that claim to enhance student learning outcomes by providing personalised learning trajectories that allow students to interact with course content at their own pace. Nonetheless, studies investigating the impact of such systems on learning outcomes such as course scores have been mixed, in part due to the research approaches applied, as found by the review undertaken in this study. Yet, for purposes of accountability, it remains critical to investigate the efficacy of adaptive learning systems, at least for its relation to course scores when assessment stakes are involved. This study reports the efficacy of an in-house adaptive learning system used within an institution in terms of its impact on course scores, based upon propensity score analysis, a quasi-experimental approach considered as a feasible alternative to randomised controlled trials. Results of this study reported a difference in course scores, suggesting merit in using the in-house adaptive learning system, though the difference did not present statistically significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Directions for future research are also discussed. Full article
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10 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
Foreign Language Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention in Print Text vs. Digital Media Environments
by Marcel Pikhart, Blanka Klimova and Fanny Bohnenberger Ruschel
Systems 2023, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11010030 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
In the context of very current trends in digital language education generally supported by governments and educational institutions, it seems necessary to evaluate the efficiency of these tools from various points of psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, mostly when it comes to learning a [...] Read more.
In the context of very current trends in digital language education generally supported by governments and educational institutions, it seems necessary to evaluate the efficiency of these tools from various points of psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, mostly when it comes to learning a foreign/second language (L2). Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate vocabulary retention in L2 when using print text in contrast with digital media. The research was conducted among 122 participants who were university students and were divided into two groups to learn 60 new phrasal verbs; one group of them using a standard print text, the other using the same text displayed and annotated on their digital devices. There were two memory tests after four weeks of studying the four sets of phrasal verbs, i.e., 15 verbs a week, and another test after another month to evaluate students’ memory retention of the given vocabulary in time. The results clearly show a slight but clear discrepancy in these two groups in favor of the group using the print text in both tests performed. The findings of this study suggest that students can retain L2 vocabulary better in conditions where they have access to printed vocabulary and if they can make notes, highlight or write their translation in their native language. However, these findings should be verified from other perspectives as well to obtain more reliable data. Full article
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31 pages, 15874 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of AR Board Game on Computational Thinking and Programming Skills for Elementary School Students
by Shih-Yun Huang, Wernhuar Tarng and Kuo-Liang Ou
Systems 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11010025 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3940
Abstract
This study integrated the augmented reality (AR) technology into the “Coding Ocean” board game to provide players with real-time simulation of ship paths and learning scaffolds. Combined with Scratch block-based programming, an interactive learning environment is developed to assist elementary school students in [...] Read more.
This study integrated the augmented reality (AR) technology into the “Coding Ocean” board game to provide players with real-time simulation of ship paths and learning scaffolds. Combined with Scratch block-based programming, an interactive learning environment is developed to assist elementary school students in learning coding skills from the unplugged board game to enhance their computational thinking concepts. The AR board game is focused on the programming concepts of sequential, and/or and loop. Through the process of treasure hunting, the basic concepts of computational thinking can be developed, i.e., abstraction, problem decomposition, pattern recognition and algorithmic thinking. In order to investigate the learning effectiveness of the AR board game on computational thinking and programming skills, a number of 51 third graders from an elementary school were recruited as research samples. The experimental group (n = 26) used the AR board game and the control group (n = 25) used the traditional board game for game-based learning. The experimental results indicate: (1) the learning effectiveness of computational thinking for the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group; (2) the learning achievement of the block-based programming skills for the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group; (3) the cognitive load of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The AR technology can combine the unplugged board games with plugged learning modules to assist students in game-based learning, which is useful for enhancing computational thinking abilities while reducing the cognitive load. Full article
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22 pages, 4778 KiB  
Article
A Cultural-Centered Model Based on User Experience and Learning Preferences of Online Teaching Platforms for Chinese National University Students: Taking Teaching Platforms of WeCom, VooV Meeting, and DingTalk as Examples
by Min Wang and Zhewen Zhao
Systems 2022, 10(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10060216 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2479
Abstract
This study aims to explore online teaching from the perspective of the cultural-centered model (CCM) of user experience (UX) design and learning preferences (LP) for by investigating in Chinese national universities. A mixed-method approach was used based on the results of a questionnaire [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore online teaching from the perspective of the cultural-centered model (CCM) of user experience (UX) design and learning preferences (LP) for by investigating in Chinese national universities. A mixed-method approach was used based on the results of a questionnaire survey; results showed that questions mostly reported by students mainly concerned the need for test preparation, such as playback and optimized interactive functions. The need for playback feedback also indicates that teachers are reluctant to turn on the playback function when teaching online, and there are certain pressures and concerns. In terms of interface functions and user interface (UI) design, more students tend to prefer simple and easy-to-operate designs, while neutral colors are the main color choices. In general, under the test-oriented education model, the above phenomenon reflects that the students at national universities in China do not have a significant demand for communication and discussion in online courses, which is related to the overall characteristics of being shy to express their opinions and more concerned and anxious about the pressure of course examinations. For the above phenomenon, the paper discusses the possibility of a teaching platform and proposes four main platform interactions under the curriculum to better improve the UX of online teaching and meet the needs of students. Finally, this study presents that cultural differences and educational background significantly impact online learning preferences. The UX and UI of the teaching platform system should be based on generality, and more attention should be paid to the cultural characteristics and realistic needs of user groups. Full article
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26 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
How Should I Teach from This Month Onward? A State-Space Model That Helps Drive Whole Classes to Achieve End-of-Year National Standardized Test Learning Targets
by Obed Ulloa and Roberto Araya
Systems 2022, 10(5), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10050167 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Every month, teachers face the dilemma of what exercises their students should practice, and what their consequences are regarding long-term learning. Since teachers prefer to pose their own exercises, this generates a large number of questions, each one attempted by a small number [...] Read more.
Every month, teachers face the dilemma of what exercises their students should practice, and what their consequences are regarding long-term learning. Since teachers prefer to pose their own exercises, this generates a large number of questions, each one attempted by a small number of students. Thus, we could not use models based on big data, such as deep learning. Instead, we developed a simple-to-understand state-space model that predicts end-of-year national test scores. We used 2386 online fourth-grade mathematics questions designed by teachers, each attempted by some of the 500 students in 24 low socioeconomic schools. We found that the state-space model predictions improved month by month and that in most months, it outperformed linear regression models. Moreover, the state-space estimator provides for each month a direct mechanism to simulate different practice strategies and compute their impact on the end-of-year standardized national test. We built iso-impact curves based on two critical variables: the number of questions solved correctly in the first attempt and the total number of exercises attempted. This allows the teacher to visualize the trade-off between asking students to perform exercises more carefully or perform more exercises. To the best of our knowledge, this model is the first of its kind in education. It is a novel tool that supports teachers drive whole classes to achieve long-term learning targets. Full article
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14 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Study of ClassPoint Tool Application in Enhancing EFL Students’ Online Learning Satisfaction
by Abbas Hussein Abdelrady and Huma Akram
Systems 2022, 10(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10050154 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5358
Abstract
Keeping in view the basic necessity of the time, integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning practices has become an integral part of higher education. In relation to English as a foreign language (EFL) learning, several forms of interactive platform have been [...] Read more.
Keeping in view the basic necessity of the time, integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning practices has become an integral part of higher education. In relation to English as a foreign language (EFL) learning, several forms of interactive platform have been applied to enhance students’ engagement, interest and learning satisfaction. Likewise, this quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the role of ClassPoint tool integrated activities in strengthening e-learning satisfaction of undergraduate female EFL learners in Saudi Arabia. The intervention, i.e., the ClassPoint tool-integrated instruction for the experimental group, lasted for around a month, whereas the students from the controlled group received non-ClassPoint integrated instructions. Subsequently, the data from both groups was analyzed statistically via a t-test. Based on the analysis, the use of ClassPoint tool activities showed a significant increase in the e-learning satisfaction enrichment of EFL learners compared to the non-ClassPoint traditional instruction. Therefore, the study suggests using the ClassPoint tool at all educational levels in all modes of learning to keep learners stay engaged, motivated, and satisfied with their learning. Full article
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25 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Creating a System of IOE-PDPTA to Bridge Tourists and Poster Designers: An Application of IOE in Personalized Poster Design
by Tsen-Yao Chang and Yi-Chung Chen
Systems 2022, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10040125 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Current applications of the Internet of Everything (IOE) tend to ignore the components of people, processes, and data. In the current study, we propose applying the IOE to design, the core of which comprises people, processes, and data. Evidence of the positive effects [...] Read more.
Current applications of the Internet of Everything (IOE) tend to ignore the components of people, processes, and data. In the current study, we propose applying the IOE to design, the core of which comprises people, processes, and data. Evidence of the positive effects of the IOE on design indirectly confirms the value of these three components. The selected case study was poster designs advertising personalized travel. We reported the process of how the system was created, followed by an actual simulation with the personalized poster design for the tourism promotion for the city of Tainan, Taiwan. This study created an IOE framework and applied relevant algorithms to collect data to target design issues. Data were collected, converted, and cleaned through multiple physical objects, internet resources, and output keywords, which were then provided to three designers with various backgrounds and styles. Posters were designed based on the keywords identified. As the targeted audience, 124 respondents were recruited to participate in a survey on the finished posters. Analysis of this feedback demonstrated the validity of the proposed framework. Full article
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15 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
Key Factors Influencing Elderly Persons’ Willingness to Rent Assistive Devices via a Product Service System
by Hsing-Tzu Chang, Jui-Che Tu, Yen-Pei Liu and Tsai-Feng Kao
Systems 2022, 10(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10040113 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
This study examined elderly persons’ attitudes toward renting assistive devices through a product service system and the key factors influencing this decision. First, potentially influencing factors were extrapolated from the existing literature, expert interviews, and questionnaires. Next, a logistic regression model was used [...] Read more.
This study examined elderly persons’ attitudes toward renting assistive devices through a product service system and the key factors influencing this decision. First, potentially influencing factors were extrapolated from the existing literature, expert interviews, and questionnaires. Next, a logistic regression model was used to examine the factors impacting elderly persons’ willingness to rent assistive devices. The results showed that the practicability dimension of “key features of rented assistive device” significantly influences elderly persons’ willingness to rent assistive devices. The findings offer key policy implications and insights for industries formulating assistive device rental strategies for the elderly population. Full article
24 pages, 2504 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Virtual Reality on Attention Training for Elementary School Students
by Wernhuar Tarng, I-Chun Pan and Kuo-Liang Ou
Systems 2022, 10(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10040104 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4787
Abstract
This study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) on attention training for elementary school students. A pre-test and post-test design of the quasi-experimental method was adopted and 66 third and fourth graders from an elementary school in Hsinchu, Taiwan [...] Read more.
This study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) on attention training for elementary school students. A pre-test and post-test design of the quasi-experimental method was adopted and 66 third and fourth graders from an elementary school in Hsinchu, Taiwan were used as experimental subjects, divided into a control group and experimental group. The former used the computerized Attention Process Training (APT) system and the latter used the proposed VR system for attention training, both for two weeks. The attention scale for elementary school children was used to evaluate the participant’s attention before and after training, including the dimensions of focused attention, sustained attention, selective attention, alternating attention, and divided attention. A questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the learning anxiety and cognitive load during the training process. The experimental results indicated: (1) The overall attention was significantly improved after the training process for both groups, and the VR system was more effective than the computerized APT in improving children’s attention. (2) The questionnaire results showed that the experimental group had lower learning anxiety and cognitive load than the control group. According to the experimental results, VR training is more effective in improving the attention of participants while reducing their learning anxiety and cognitive load. Therefore, it is a useful tool for attention training in elementary schools. Full article
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18 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
How to Promote Online Education through Educational Software—An Analytical Study of Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling with Chinese Users as an Example
by Zheng Wang, Qianling Jiang and Zichao Li
Systems 2022, 10(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10040100 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Online learning has emerged as a fresh method to successfully prevent teacher and student gatherings as well as the propagation of viruses in the context of the ongoing influence of the COVID-19. A problem deserving of consideration is how to increase users’ desire [...] Read more.
Online learning has emerged as a fresh method to successfully prevent teacher and student gatherings as well as the propagation of viruses in the context of the ongoing influence of the COVID-19. A problem deserving of consideration is how to increase users’ desire to participate in online learning through online class APPs, identify the variables that affect users’ use of them, and create a useful assessment scale. In this study, user ratings from 68 students who had used an online class APP were collected using the combination of qualitative and quantitative research, and 200 online questionnaires were sent out to complement the interview findings, based on which 328 assessment questionnaires were gathered and 23 valid items were obtained. The influencing elements that had an impact on users’ online learning experiences were identified using factor analysis, and the relationships among the components were investigated using structural equation modeling. Perceived benefits are the main influencing factors, subjective norms and functional quality are the direct factors influencing users’ perceived benefits, and self-efficacy is influenced by subjective norms while promoting the perception of functional quality. The factors influencing users’ use of online class APPs are ultimately identified as perceived benefits, functional quality and self-efficacy. In order to facilitate users’ online learning, user psychological traits, social ties and software functions should be integrated into a cohesive system while designing online class APPs. Full article
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28 pages, 2546 KiB  
Article
A Model for Knowledge Management Systems in the UbuntuNet Alliance Member Institutions
by Samuel T. Yigzaw, Ilkka Jormanainen and Markku Tukiainen
Systems 2022, 10(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10030079 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
In the current knowledge-driven global economy, higher education and research institutions are taking a leading role as the hubs for knowledge creation and sharing. In contribution to the needed coordination of the efforts, this paper presents a guiding model thorough assessment of the [...] Read more.
In the current knowledge-driven global economy, higher education and research institutions are taking a leading role as the hubs for knowledge creation and sharing. In contribution to the needed coordination of the efforts, this paper presents a guiding model thorough assessment of the prevailing status of knowledge resources sharing and collaboration in the regional alliance for education and research networks in the eastern and southern African countries—UbuntuNet Alliance. This research carried out a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with CEOs of three active national research and education networks (NRENs), representing both the government-run and private consortium-based settings. The study adopted a socio-technical perspective in assessing the technological engagements and the knowledge resources utilization within and among the NRENs in the region. The findings show that the NRENs share a similar set of challenges as well as missions and objectives; they aspire to provide technology-enhanced knowledge-sharing platforms within and across their domains. Finally, it presents UbuntuKMS Model—a comprehensive technology-enhanced knowledge management systems model that intends to provide guidance for the NRENs to orient their efforts accordingly. The research revealed that contextual considerations in developing system solutions are vital as the developing economies experience unique realities on the ground. Full article
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18 pages, 983 KiB  
Systematic Review
Exploring the Potential of Digital Game-Based Vocabulary Learning: A Systematic Review
by Gregor Vnucko and Blanka Klimova
Systems 2023, 11(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11020057 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6705
Abstract
Constant technological development creates the need for continual optimization of the educational process to achieve educational objectives with the highest possible efficiency. Surveys have shown that digital games are very popular among all age groups, including when they are used in foreign language [...] Read more.
Constant technological development creates the need for continual optimization of the educational process to achieve educational objectives with the highest possible efficiency. Surveys have shown that digital games are very popular among all age groups, including when they are used in foreign language education, such as in Digital Game-Based Vocabulary Learning (DGBVL). Therefore, the purpose of this review study is to summarize the existing knowledge on DGBVL and to provide new, cutting-edge information based on available literature accessible within three databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria and conducting the search, 13 articles were identified for a deeper analysis. The main findings reveal that DGBVL can create a positive learning environment. In this kind of environment, students experience predominantly positive emotions which may in turn enhance their vocabulary retention. The review suggests that DGBVL is useful in vocabulary learning and may even surpass conventional teaching methods in an English classroom. The findings of this review can serve as a basis for further research, which could ultimately lead to the implementation of DGBVL in the process of English instruction, not only as a supplementary method, but possibly as a full alternative to conventional English lessons. Full article
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15 pages, 345 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review on the Use of Emerging Technologies in Teaching English as an Applied Language at the University Level
by Blanka Klimova, Marcel Pikhart, Petra Polakova, Miloslava Cerna, Sule Yildirim Yayilgan and Sarang Shaikh
Systems 2023, 11(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11010042 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5902
Abstract
At present, emerging technologies, such as machine learning, deep learning, or various forms of artificial intelligence are penetrating different fields of education, including foreign language education (FLE). Moreover, the current young generation was born into the technological environment, and they perceive technologies as [...] Read more.
At present, emerging technologies, such as machine learning, deep learning, or various forms of artificial intelligence are penetrating different fields of education, including foreign language education (FLE). Moreover, the current young generation was born into the technological environment, and they perceive technologies as being an indispensable part of their everyday life. However, they mainly use technologies in their informal learning, but there is not much research into emerging technologies in FLE, namely in teaching and learning English as an applied language. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to identify, bring together, compare and analyze all of the technologies that are currently efficiently employed in foreign language teaching and learning, and based on the findings of the detected experimental studies, we provide specific pedagogical implications on how to use these technologies in the acquisition of English as an applied language at the university level. The methodology followed the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The results of the detected experimental studies revealed that there was a serious lack of the latest technologies, such as chatbots or virtual reality (VR) devices, that are being empirically employed in a foreign language (FL) education. Moreover, mobile apps are merely focused on the development of FL vocabulary. The findings also indicate that although the FL teachers might theoretically know about these latest technological devices, such as neural machine translation, they do not know how to practically implement them in their teaching process. Therefore, this research suggests that teachers must be trained and pedagogically guided on how to purposefully implement them in their FL classes to support traditional instruction in order to identify what skills or language structures could be developed through their use. In addition, it is also claimed that more experimental studies are needed to clearly the evidence and its usefulness in teaching a foreign language as an applied language. Full article
20 pages, 1072 KiB  
Systematic Review
Vocabulary Acquisition through Viewing Captioned and Subtitled Video: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis
by Barry Lee Reynolds, Yanwen Cui, Chian-Wen Kao and Nathan Thomas
Systems 2022, 10(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10050133 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6364
Abstract
As access to video-viewing technology has increased, so has researchers’ interest in understanding how the viewing of captioned and subtitled videos can lead to effective vocabulary learning outcomes. Previously, there has been one meta-analysis on the effects of this type of video-viewing on [...] Read more.
As access to video-viewing technology has increased, so has researchers’ interest in understanding how the viewing of captioned and subtitled videos can lead to effective vocabulary learning outcomes. Previously, there has been one meta-analysis on the effects of this type of video-viewing on vocabulary acquisition. However, the variables investigated and types of vocabulary knowledge analyzed were limited. To address these issues, we conducted a mixed review that combined a scoping review and meta-analysis. We identified 139 studies in major databases, of which 34 aligned with our inclusion criteria. Results from the scoping review found that researchers have assessed productive knowledge more than receptive knowledge, and knowledge of form and meaning more than knowledge of use. Participants were given TV series to view more than any other media type. Results from the meta-analysis found that viewing any type of captioned or subtitled videos had a positive effect on vocabulary acquisition. Among all the captioned and subtitled video types, viewing videos with intralingual captions had the largest effect on vocabulary learning outcomes. Furthermore, the viewing of animations had the largest effect on vocabulary learning outcomes compared with all the other types of video viewing investigated. No statistically significant difference between intentional or incidental learning conditions was found, indicating that both conditions are suitable for developing vocabulary learning through video viewing. Additional findings and implications for teaching and research are discussed. Full article
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