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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 28 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Identification of High-Risk Areas for the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Central Luzon, Philippines
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030107 (registering DOI) - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a major problem in the poultry industry. It is highly contagious and is associated with a high mortality rate. The Philippines experienced an outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in 2017. As there is always a risk [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a major problem in the poultry industry. It is highly contagious and is associated with a high mortality rate. The Philippines experienced an outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in 2017. As there is always a risk of re-emergence, efforts to manage disease outbreaks should be optimal. Linked to this is the need for an effective surveillance procedure to capture disease outbreaks at their early stage. Risk-based surveillance is the most effective and economical approach to outbreak management. This study evaluated the potential of commercial poultry farms in Central Luzon to transmit HPAI by calculating their respective reproductive ratios (R0). The reproductive number for each farm is based on the spatial kernel and the infectious period. A risk map has been created based on the calculated R0. There were 882 (76.63%) farms with R0 < 1. Farms with R0 ≥ 1 were all located in Pampanga Province. These farms were concentrated in the towns of San Luis (n = 12) and Candaba (n = 257). This study demonstrates the utility of mapping farm-level R0 estimates for informing HPAI risk management activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection Model for Post-Weaning Diarrhea by Controlling for Bacterial Adhesion, Pig Breed and MUC4 Genotype
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030106 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Viewed by 103
Abstract
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs and causes significant damage to the swine industry worldwide. In recent years, there has been increased regulation against the use of antibacterial agents in swine due to their health [...] Read more.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs and causes significant damage to the swine industry worldwide. In recent years, there has been increased regulation against the use of antibacterial agents in swine due to their health risks. Utilizing experimental models that consistently recapitulate PWD is important for the development of non-antibacterial agents against PWD in pigs. In this study, we established a highly reproducible PWD infection model by examining differences in adhesion of ETEC to the intestinal tissue as well as the association between MUC4 polymorphisms and sensitivity to PWD. Post-weaning diarrhea differences between pig breeds were also examined. The adhesion to enterocytes varied from 104.0 to 106.4 CFU/mL even among the F4 ETEC strains. Experimental infection revealed that PWD can be induced in all MUC4 genotypes after infection with 1010 CFU/pig of highly adherent ETEC, although there were variable sensitivities between the genotypes. Lowly adherent ETEC did not cause PWD as efficiently as did highly adherent ETEC. The incidence of PWD was confirmed for all pigs with the ETEC-susceptible MUC4 genotypes in all of the breeds. These results indicate that high-precision and reproducible experimental infection is possible regardless of pig breeds by controlling factors on the pig-end (MUC4 genotype) and the bacterial-end (adhesion ability). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Open AccessCase Report
African Swine Fever in Two Large Commercial Pig Farms in LATVIA—Estimation of the High Risk Period and Virus Spread within the Farm
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030105 (registering DOI) - 07 Aug 2020
Viewed by 116
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) was first detected in Latvia in wild boar at the Eastern border in June 2014. Since then ASF has continued to spread in wild boar populations covering almost whole territory of the country. Sporadic outbreaks occurred at the same [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) was first detected in Latvia in wild boar at the Eastern border in June 2014. Since then ASF has continued to spread in wild boar populations covering almost whole territory of the country. Sporadic outbreaks occurred at the same time in domestic pig holdings located in wild boar infected areas. Here we present the results of the epidemiological investigation in two large commercial farms. Several parameters were analyzed to determine the high risk period (HRP) and to investigate the ASF virus spread within the farm. Clinical data, mortality rates and laboratory results proved to be good indicators for estimating the HRP. The measures for early disease detection, particularly the enhanced passive surveillance that is targeting dead and sick pigs, were analyzed and discussed. Enhanced passive surveillance proved to be a key element to detect ASF at an early stage. The study also showed that ASF virus might spread slowly within a large farm depending mainly on direct contacts between pigs and the level of internal biosecurity. Findings suggest improvements in outbreak prevention, control measures and may contribute to a better understanding of ASF spreading patterns within large pig herds. Culling of all pigs in large commercial farms could be reconsidered under certain conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever (ASF))
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Longitudinal Left Ventricle Deformation by 2-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Obtained from Different Views in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030104 - 06 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel, angle-independent imaging technique useful to assess myocardial function by strain and strain rate analysis in human and veterinary medicine. Commonly, the left apical four-chamber (LAP4Ch) view is used to assess left ventricular (LV) longitudinal deformation [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel, angle-independent imaging technique useful to assess myocardial function by strain and strain rate analysis in human and veterinary medicine. Commonly, the left apical four-chamber (LAP4Ch) view is used to assess left ventricular (LV) longitudinal deformation in dogs and cats. However, the right parasternal four-chamber (RP4Ch) view is often more easily obtained than the LAP4Ch view in cats. No studies exist comparing longitudinal strain and strain rate values using STE from different echocardiographic views in cats. Therefore, we examined the agreement between RP4Ch and LAP4Ch for assessment of LV longitudinal strain and strain rate in cats. We acquired 2D echocardiographic cineloops from RP4Ch and LAP4Ch views and analyzed LV longitudinal strain and strain rate in 50 cats (31 healthy cats and 19 cats with different disease states) using XstrainTM software. Peak systolic strain and strain rate values of endocardial and epicardial border were used for the analysis. The two echocardiographic views were compared using limits-of-agreement analyses and intra-observer measurement variability was assessed. We could obtain longitudinal strain and strain rate from the RP4Ch view in all cats. Strain, but not strain rate, had good intra-observer measurement variability (<10% vs. <20%). However, only endocardial strain values obtained with the two views agreed sufficiently to be used interchangeably (95% limits of agreement: −3.28, 2.58). Epicardial strain/strain rate and endocardial strain rate values did not agree sufficiently to be used interchangeably (95% limits of agreement: −11.58, 9.19; −2.28, 1.74; −1.41, 1.36, respectively). Our study suggests that RP4Ch view was feasible for assessment of the LV longitudinal deformation analysis by STE in cats, but only endocardial longitudinal strain values obtained from the two different views were interchangeable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Zoonotic Pathogens of Dromedary Camels in Kenya: A Systematised Review
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030103 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Kenya is home to Africa’s third largest population of dromedary camels, and production at commercial and local levels are increasingly important. In pastoral and nomadic communities in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), camels play a vital role in food security, while commercial [...] Read more.
Kenya is home to Africa’s third largest population of dromedary camels, and production at commercial and local levels are increasingly important. In pastoral and nomadic communities in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), camels play a vital role in food security, while commercial milk production and formalized export markets are rapidly emerging as camel populations expand into non-traditional areas. Until recently, little focus was placed on camels as hosts of zoonotic disease, but the emergence of Middle Eastern respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, and the discovery of exposure to the virus in Kenyan camels, highlighted the need for further understanding of this area. This systematised review utilised a robust search strategy to assess the occurrence of camel-associated zoonoses in Kenya and to evaluate the quality of the published literature. Seventy-four studies were identified, covering sixteen pathogens, with an increasing number of good quality studies in recent years. Despite this, the area remains under-researched and there is a lack of robust, high-quality research. Trypanosome spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Brucella spp. appeared most frequently in the literature. Pathogens with the highest reported prevalence were MERS-CoV (0–100%), Echinococcus granulosa (7–60%) and Rift Valley fever virus (7–57%). Exposure to Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus showed higher levels in camel or camel-associated vectors than other livestock species, although brucellosis was the only disease for which there was robust evidence linking camel and human exposure. Zoonotic agents with less severe human health outcomes, such as Dermatophilosus congolensis and contagious ecthyma, were also represented in the literature. This review provides an important summary of the scope and quality of current knowledge. It demonstrates that further research, and improved adherence to robust study design and reporting are essential if the zoonotic risk from camels in Kenya, and elsewhere, is to be better understood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological and Immunohistochemical Description of a Splenic Haemangioma in a Captive European Wolf (Canis lupus lupus) and a Review of the Current Literature
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030102 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Neoplastic diseases are rarely described in wild carnivores; only a few reports have been published on this topic. Here, we describe the histological and immunohistochemical features of a haemangioma in the spleen of a grey wolf (Canis lupus lupus) and we [...] Read more.
Neoplastic diseases are rarely described in wild carnivores; only a few reports have been published on this topic. Here, we describe the histological and immunohistochemical features of a haemangioma in the spleen of a grey wolf (Canis lupus lupus) and we compare the results with the dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Additionally, we list the different publications found in the literature with neoplastic lesions in wolves. Our results show similar immunohistochemical features to dogs, in which neoplastic cells express Vimentin, von Willebrand factor, alpha smooth muscle actin antibody, vascular endothelial growth factor C and low vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3. Toluidine blue special stain shows moderated increased numbers of mast cells infiltrating the tumor, a feature observed in benign vascular tumors in domestic dogs, but not in the malignant counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first article describing the gross, histological and immunohistochemical features of a splenic haemangioma in a wolf. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical, Electrodiagnostic Findings and Quality of Life of Dogs and Cats with Brachial Plexus Injury
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030101 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) represents a common consequence of road traffic accidents in humans and small animals. In humans, neuropathic pain is a common symptom after BPI. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical signs, the electrodiagnostic findings, the outcome [...] Read more.
Brachial plexus injury (BPI) represents a common consequence of road traffic accidents in humans and small animals. In humans, neuropathic pain is a common symptom after BPI. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical signs, the electrodiagnostic findings, the outcome and the quality of life (QoL) of a cohort of dogs and cats with BPI. Clinical records of 40 dogs and 26 cats with BPI were retrospectively reviewed. Specific attention was put on the evaluation of electrodiagnostic findings (35/40 dogs; 14/26 cats) and telephonic interview results (26/40 dogs; 18/26 cats). The most common neurological condition was the inability to bear weight and sensory deficits on the affected limb. Radial and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs) were absent respectively in 47% (radial) and 62% (ulnar) of dogs and 57% (radial) and 57% (ulnar) of cats. The absence of radial (p = 0.003) and ulnar (p = 0.007) MNCSs in dogs and ulnar MNCSs in cats (p = 0.02) was significantly associated to the amputation of the affected limb. The owners described signs of pain/discomfort in 73% of dogs and 56% of cats. This is the first report suggesting that neuropathic pain/discomfort should be adequately considered in order to improve the QoL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2 Is Required for Definite Hematopoietic Stem Cell Production in the Mouse Embryo
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030100 - 25 Jul 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The five-membered SET and MYND domain-containing lysine methyltransferase (SMYD) family plays pivotal roles in development and differentiation. Initially characterized within the cardiovascular system, one such member, SMYD2, has been implicated in transcriptional and apoptotic regulation of hematopoiesis. Deletion of Smyd2 in adult mouse [...] Read more.
The five-membered SET and MYND domain-containing lysine methyltransferase (SMYD) family plays pivotal roles in development and differentiation. Initially characterized within the cardiovascular system, one such member, SMYD2, has been implicated in transcriptional and apoptotic regulation of hematopoiesis. Deletion of Smyd2 in adult mouse Hemaopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) using an interferon-inducible mx1-Cre-mediated conditional knockout (CKO) led to HSC reduction via both apoptosis and transcriptional deficiencies. Since HSC are specified from hemogenic endothelial (HE) cells in the dorsal aorta (DA), we sought to determine whether the flaw in HSC originated embryologically from this site. Toward this end, we performed deletion with vav-Cre mice, which is active in all hematopoietic and endothelial tissues from E10.5 embryonic life onward. Unexpectedly, we observed no defects in the embryo, other than apoptotic loss of definite HSC, whereas adult hematopoietic populations downstream were unaffected. These results further establish the importance of SMYD2 in antiapoptotic gene control of gene expression from the embryo to the adult. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Factors of Embryological Development and Tumorigenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Epidemiology and National Surveillance System for Foot and Mouth Disease in Cattle in Thailand during 2008–2019
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030099 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a prominent transboundary disease that threatens livestock production and can disrupt the trade in animals and animal products at both regional and international levels. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the distribution of FMD [...] Read more.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a prominent transboundary disease that threatens livestock production and can disrupt the trade in animals and animal products at both regional and international levels. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze the distribution of FMD in Thailand during the period of 2008 to 2019, (2) to outline a national surveillance approach, and (3) to identify the existing knowledge gap that is associated with this disease in relation to cattle production. We analyzed FMD outbreak data in order to determine the existing spatial and temporal trends and reviewed relevant publications and official documents that helped us outline a national surveillance program. There were 1209 FMD outbreaks in cattle farms during the study period. FMD outbreaks occurred every year throughout the study period in several regions. Notably, FMD serotype O and A were considered the predominant types. The FMD National Strategic Plan (2008–2015) and the national FMD control program (2016–2023) have been implemented in order to control this disease. The surveillance approach employed by livestock authorities included both active and passive surveillance techniques. The vaccination program was applied to herds of cattle 2–3 times per year. Additionally, numerous control measures have been implemented across the country. We have identified the need for a study on the assessment of an applicable surveillance program, the evaluation of an appropriate vaccination strategy and an assessment of the effectiveness of a measured control policy. In conclusion, this study provided much needed knowledge on the epidemiology of FMD outbreaks across Thailand from 2008 to 2019. Additionally, we identified the need for future studies to address the existing knowledge gaps. The findings from this study may also be useful for livestock authorities and stakeholders to establish an enhanced control strategy and to implement an effective surveillance system that would control and eradicate FMD throughout the country. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sulfur and Urea Fortification of Fresh Cassava Root in Fermented Total Mixed Ration on the Improvement Milk Quality of Tropical Lactating Cows
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030098 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to determine the influence of sulfur and urea combined with fresh cassava root in fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) on digestibility, fermentation in the rumen, blood metabolite, milk yield, and milk quality in tropical lactating dairy [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research was to determine the influence of sulfur and urea combined with fresh cassava root in fermented total mixed ration (FTMR) on digestibility, fermentation in the rumen, blood metabolite, milk yield, and milk quality in tropical lactating dairy cows. Four mid-lactation Thai Holstein–Friesian crossbred cows were studied. Pre-experiment milk yield was 12.7 ± 0.30 kg/day, and the body weight was 495 ± 40.0 kg. Animals were evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive diets followed by: factor A, which was a dose of sulfur inclusion at 1.0% and 2.0%, and factor B, which was level of urea inclusion at 1.25% and 2.5% DM in FTMR. The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations reduced 99.3% to 99.4% compared with fresh cassava root when FTMR was supplemented with 1.0% and 2.0% sulfur, respectively. Intake of crude protein was increased based on urea level addition (p < 0.05). Blood thiocyanate concentration was increased by 21.6% when sulfur was supplemented at 2.0% compared to 1.0% (p < 0.05). There was no difference in protozoal concentration, whereas bacterial populations at 4 h after feeding were significantly greater by 6.1% with the FTMR supplemented with 2.0% sulfur and 2.5% urea (p < 0.01). Allantoin concentrations, excretion, absorption, and microbial crude protein showed significant interactions between sulfur levels and urea levels in cows fed diets supplemented with 2.0% sulfur and 2.5% urea (p < 0.05). The molar ratios of the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile were affected by dietary FTMR (p < 0.01). Furthermore, propionic acid increased by 4.6% when diets were supplemented by 2.5% sulfur (p < 0.01). Milk fat and total solids increased when feed was supplemented with 2.0% sulfur and 2.5% urea (p < 0.05). The diets supplemented with 2.0% sulfur levels resulted in greater concentrations of milk thiocyanate (p < 0.05). The somatic cell count was significantly reduced throughout the experiment with increasing sulfur supplementation (p < 0.05). Animals fed diets supplemented with 2.0% sulfur exhibited a decreased somatic cell count by 18.3% compared with those fed diets supplemented with 1.0% sulfur. Thus, inclusion of 2.0% sulfur with 2.5% urea in FTMR containing fresh cassava root improved digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial crude protein synthesis, and milk qualities in dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise but Not Supplemental Dietary Tryptophan Influences Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate in Sled Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030097 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Tryptophan (Trp), an indispensable amino acid for dogs, is the precursor of serotonin, a neurotransmitter with a variety of effects throughout the body, including the ability to modulate cardiac and pulmonary activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week incremental [...] Read more.
Tryptophan (Trp), an indispensable amino acid for dogs, is the precursor of serotonin, a neurotransmitter with a variety of effects throughout the body, including the ability to modulate cardiac and pulmonary activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week incremental exercise regimen and supplemental dietary Trp on heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) in client-owned sled dogs. Sixteen Siberian huskies were randomly allocated to either treatment or control diet groups. Both groups were fed a control diet (Trp to large neutral amino acid ratio of 0.047:1); however, treatment dogs received a Trp supplement to achieve a Trp to large neutral amino acid ratio of 0.075:1. Every three weeks, external telemetry equipment was used to non-invasively measure and record HR and RR at a resting, working, and post-exercise state in a controlled exercise challenge. A mixed model was used to test differences between diet, activity parameter, and week. Dietary Trp supplementation had no effect on HR or RR. Independent of diet, resting, working, post-exercise HR, and time to recover post-exercise HR decreased from week −1 to week 11 (p < 0.05). Resting HR had the greatest reduction from week −1 to week 11 (21%, p < 0.05). Working RR did not change with exercise (p > 0.10), but rRR and postRR decreased from week −1 to week 11 (p < 0.05). These data suggest that the exercise regimen the dogs were subjected to may have positively impacted the dogs’ capacity to sustain aerobic exercise, whereas Trp supplementation had no effect on HR or RR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Honey Bee Virus Transmission via Hive Products
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030096 - 21 Jul 2020
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Abstract
The global trade of honey bee hive products has raised concern about pathogen transmission. However, the efficacy of hive products as virus vehicles is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the transmission capacity of hive products for Deformed wing virus genotype A (DWV-A) in [...] Read more.
The global trade of honey bee hive products has raised concern about pathogen transmission. However, the efficacy of hive products as virus vehicles is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the transmission capacity of hive products for Deformed wing virus genotype A (DWV-A) in a fully-crossed hoarding cage experiment and estimated the transmission risk by screening commercial products. Western honey bee workers were provided with honey, pollen and wax either contaminated with high (~2 × 109), medium (~1.7 × 108), low (~8 × 106) or zero (control) DWV-A genome copies. For 10 days, mortality was monitored. Then, virus titers were quantified in bee heads and 38 commercial products using RT-qPCR. For honey and pollen, a positive association between DWV-A concentration and mortality was observed. High concentrations always resulted in infections, medium ones in 47% of cases and low ones in 20% of cases. No significant difference was observed between the tested products. In commercial honey and pollen, 7.7 × 102–1.8 × 105 and 1.4 × 103–1.3 × 104 DWV-A copies per gram were found, respectively. The results show that DWV-A transmission via hive products is feasible. The risk of introducing novel viruses and/or strains should be considered in trade regulations by including virus analyses for health certificates of hive products Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Profile of Steers Subjected to Normal Feeding, Fasting, and Re-Feeding Conditions
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030095 - 21 Jul 2020
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Abstract
The effects of feeding, fasting, and re-feeding on the metabolic profile of growing cattle were studied. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 12 crossbred steers weighing approximately 300 kg during the following periods: 11 h of normal feeding (postprandial period), 48 consecutive [...] Read more.
The effects of feeding, fasting, and re-feeding on the metabolic profile of growing cattle were studied. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 12 crossbred steers weighing approximately 300 kg during the following periods: 11 h of normal feeding (postprandial period), 48 consecutive hours of fasting, followed by 48 h of re-feeding. Compared with the postprandial period, fasting caused the following modifications: moderate hypoglycemia accompanied by remarkable lipolysis detected by the increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs); absence of hepatic lipidosis, as there were no changes in aspartate aminotransferase activity or serum cholesterol levels; mild ketogenesis, confirmed by the slight increase of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB); increased amino acid burn for energy production, verified by the increase in serum urea contents. There were strong positive correlations between the plasma levels of FFAs and βHB (r = 0.68; p < 0.001), fasting duration and FFA concentration (r = 0.92; p < 0.00001), and fasting duration and serum urea (r = 0.52; p < 0.001); there was a negative correlation between fasting duration and blood glucose (r = −0.52; p < 0.0001). During this same period, mild hypovolemia characterized by an increase in intravascular volume deficit was observed. The metabolic condition observed during fasting was completely reversed during re-feeding, except for the temporarily higher proteolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Postoperative Analgesic Effects of Laserpuncture and Meloxicam in Bitches Submitted to Ovariohysterectomy
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030094 - 21 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Background: This prospective, randomised and blind study investigated the efficacy of laserpuncture for postoperative pain management in dogs. Method: Sixteen bitches were sedated with acepromazine and randomly treated before ovariohysterectomy with meloxicam 0.2 mg·kg−1 intramuscular or laserpuncture (wavelength 904 mm, frequency 124 [...] Read more.
Background: This prospective, randomised and blind study investigated the efficacy of laserpuncture for postoperative pain management in dogs. Method: Sixteen bitches were sedated with acepromazine and randomly treated before ovariohysterectomy with meloxicam 0.2 mg·kg−1 intramuscular or laserpuncture (wavelength 904 mm, frequency 124 Hz, potency 10 Joules, 100 s in each acupoint). Anaesthesia was performed with propofol, isoflurane/O2, and fentanyl. The Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (GCMPS) and Dynamic Interactive Visual Analog Scale (DIVAS) were used to evaluate postoperative pain before and for 24 h after surgery. Morphine was administrated as rescue analgesia when pain scores were ≥3.33 (GCMPS). Differences between treatments, time points, and amount of rescue analgesia between groups were investigated by the Mann–Whitney test and the area under the curve (AUC) for GCMPS, Friedman, and Chi-squared tests, respectively (p < 0.05). Results: Dogs treated with laserpuncture presented lower GCMPS AUC for 24 h and lower GCMPS scores at 2 and 4 h postoperatively (p = 0.04). Three dogs treated with meloxicam required postoperatively rescue analgesia against none treated with laserpuncture. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, laserpuncture mitigated postoperative pain in dogs following ovariohysterectomy, and the technique is a promising adjunct to perioperative pain management in dogs undergoing soft tissue surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessCommunication
Seroprevalence of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dogs Bred in Japan
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030093 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
In this study, the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dogs bred in Japan was evaluated. Ninety-two non-clinical samples were obtained from three institutes and fifty-seven clinical samples were obtained from a veterinary hospital in Japan. [...] Read more.
In this study, the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dogs bred in Japan was evaluated. Ninety-two non-clinical samples were obtained from three institutes and fifty-seven clinical samples were obtained from a veterinary hospital in Japan. Serum titers of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 isotype antibodies against MAP were measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IgG antibodies against MAP in non-clinical serum obtained from three institutes was observed to be 2.4%, 20% and 9.0%. Similarly, the IgG1 antibodies titers against MAP were observed to be 7%, 20% and 0%. Lastly, the IgG2 antibodies against MAP were observed to be 7%, 20% and 4.4%. No significance differences in these titers were observed among the three institutes. The IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies in serum obtained from a veterinary hospital were observed to be 55.3%, 42% and 42%, respectively. Significant differences were found between the non-clinical and clinical samples. The titers in the clinical samples showed a high degree of variance, whereas low variance was found in the non-clinical samples. The IgG antibody levels were thought to be induced following exposure to MAP-contaminated feed. The difference in titers between the clinical and non-clinical samples is likely to be related to the amount of MAP antigen contamination in dog foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Gut Microbiome of Healthy and Arthritic Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030092 - 14 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Several studies have underlined the interplay among host-microbiome and pathophysiological conditions of animals. Research has also focused specifically on whether and how changes in the gut microbiome have provoked the occurrence of pathological phenomena affecting cartilage and joints in humans and in laboratory [...] Read more.
Several studies have underlined the interplay among host-microbiome and pathophysiological conditions of animals. Research has also focused specifically on whether and how changes in the gut microbiome have provoked the occurrence of pathological phenomena affecting cartilage and joints in humans and in laboratory animals. Here, we tried to evaluate the relationship between the gut microbiome and the hip and elbow arthritis in owned dogs. The study included 14 dogs suffering from chronic arthritis (AD) and 13 healthy dogs (HD). After the first visit and during the period of the study, the dogs, under the supervision of the owner, were fed a semi-moist complete diet supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids. Feces and blood samples were collected in the clinic at the first visit (T0) and after days (T45). The plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was higher, and the serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were lower (p < 0.05) in the AD group in comparison to the HD group. Data of the fecal microbiome showed that the relative abundances of the genus Megamonas were higher in AD (p < 0.001), while the relative abundance of the families Paraprevotellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae was significantly lower in comparison to HD. The results of the study identified several bacterial groups that differed significantly in the fecal microbiome between healthy and diseased dogs. If the observed differences in fecal bacterial composition predispose dogs to hip and elbow arthritis or if these differences reflect a correlation with these conditions deserves further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Sedation by Intramuscular Administration of Medetomidine on Canine Abdominal Vascular System and Hepatic Parenchyma Imaging Using Enhancement Dynamic Computed Tomography
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030091 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This prospective crossover study compared the effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine for sedation on parameters of the abdominal vascular system, measured by enhancement computed tomography (CT), to those of propofol-induced sevoflurane maintenance anesthesia, as a control, in five clinically healthy adult male [...] Read more.
This prospective crossover study compared the effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine for sedation on parameters of the abdominal vascular system, measured by enhancement computed tomography (CT), to those of propofol-induced sevoflurane maintenance anesthesia, as a control, in five clinically healthy adult male beagle dogs (11.4–12.8 kg). Each animal underwent both protocols at a 1-week interval. The enhancement (HU) and time to peak enhancement on CT were measured for the aorta (AO), caudal vena cava (CVC), portal vein (PV), and hepatic parenchyma (HP). The contrast effects in the AO, PV, and HP were significantly delayed under medetomidine sedation compared to the control anesthesia protocol. Particularly, the contrast effect in the PV and HP was significantly delayed under sedation, appearing approximately 1 min after contrast medium injection. This delay likely reflects the peripheral vasoconstrictive effect of medetomidine. We noted a generally early high contrast enhancement of the CVC under medetomidine sedation, likely contributed by the induced bradycardia. Therefore, findings obtained on contrast enhancement CT under medetomidine sedation may be different from those obtained under propofol-induced sevoflurane maintenance anesthesia. These differences are important to consider when using the findings to inform diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Presence of Rabies Virus-Neutralizing Antibody in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa), a Non-Target Bait Vaccine Animal in Korea
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030090 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Oral vaccination with bait is an effective method to prevent rabies in wildlife, but non-target wild animals may also ingest the bait vaccine. In Korea, the target animal of the rabies bait vaccine is the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Bait vaccines [...] Read more.
Oral vaccination with bait is an effective method to prevent rabies in wildlife, but non-target wild animals may also ingest the bait vaccine. In Korea, the target animal of the rabies bait vaccine is the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Bait vaccines have been distributed in Korea for 20 years; although wild raccoon dogs have been tested for antibodies, rabies antibodies have never been investigated in non-target wild animals. Therefore, this study investigated rabies antibody formation in wild boars (Sus scrofa), which is likely the main competitor for the bait vaccine in Korea. In bait areas, 20 of 109 wild boars (18.3%) were seropositive, and 39 of 470 wild boars (8.3%) in non-bait areas were also seropositive. These results provide insights regarding bait uptake or vaccination in non-target wild boars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
A National Survey of Companion Animal Owners’ Self-Reported Methods of Coping Following Euthanasia
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030089 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
(1) Background: The human–animal bond is often regarded as a special relationship in which owners benefit from unconditional love and perceived understanding from their companion animal. Thus, end-of-life decisions such as euthanasia may inflict significant emotional impact upon the companion animal owner and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The human–animal bond is often regarded as a special relationship in which owners benefit from unconditional love and perceived understanding from their companion animal. Thus, end-of-life decisions such as euthanasia may inflict significant emotional impact upon the companion animal owner and result in a complicated grief response. The purpose of this study was to examine the methods American companion animal owners utilize to cope with loss following companion animal euthanasia. (2) Methods: A total of 340 companion animal owners with experience euthanizing a companion animal completed an online survey asking how they found comfort after the loss of their companion animal. (3) Results: A total of 74.7% noted that they mourned privately, 58.2% sought social support, 32.1% adopted a new companion animal, 12.4% relied on faith or prayer and 0.9% participated in a support group. (4) Conclusions: Grief associated with companion animal loss is important. As a majority of clients that euthanized their companion animal mourn privately, the veterinary community must work towards identifying and providing appropriate, accessible social resources for bereaved companion animal owners to utilize, if desired. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Genome-Wide Oligonucleotide Microarray Platform for Detection of DNA Copy Number Aberrations in Feline Cancers
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030088 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The utility of the domestic cat as a model system for biomedical studies was constrained for many years by the absence of a comprehensive feline reference genome sequence assembly. While such a resource now exists, the cat continues to lag behind the domestic [...] Read more.
The utility of the domestic cat as a model system for biomedical studies was constrained for many years by the absence of a comprehensive feline reference genome sequence assembly. While such a resource now exists, the cat continues to lag behind the domestic dog in terms of integration into the ‘One Health’ era of molecular medicine. Stimulated by the advances being made within the evolving field of comparative cancer genomics, we developed a microarray platform that allows rapid and sensitive detection of DNA copy number aberrations in feline tumors using comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The microarray comprises 110,456 unique oligonucleotide probes anchored at mean intervals of 22.6 kb throughout the feline reference genome sequence assembly, providing ~350-fold higher resolution than was previously possible using this technique. We demonstrate the utility of this resource through genomic profiling of a feline injection-site sarcoma case, revealing a highly disrupted profile of DNA copy number imbalance involving several key cancer-associated genes including KIT, TP53, PTEN, FAS and RB1. These findings were supported by targeted fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis, which identified major alterations in chromosome structure, including complex intrachromosomal reorganization events typical of those seen in aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas of other species. We then characterized a second mass that was identified at a nearby site in the same patient almost 12 months later. This mass demonstrated a remarkably conserved genomic profile consistent with a recurrence of the original tumor; however the detection of subtle differences reflected evolution of the tumor over time. These findings exemplify the diverse potential of this microarray platform to incorporate domestic cat cancers into comparative and translational research efforts in molecular oncology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cellular Response of Neutrophils to Bismuth Subnitrate and Micronized Keratin Products In Vitro
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030087 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bismuth subnitrate and micronized keratin on bovine neutrophils in vitro. We hypothesized that recruitment and activation of neutrophils into the teat canal and sinus are the mechanisms of action of bismuth subnitrate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bismuth subnitrate and micronized keratin on bovine neutrophils in vitro. We hypothesized that recruitment and activation of neutrophils into the teat canal and sinus are the mechanisms of action of bismuth subnitrate and keratin-based teat sealant formulations. To test this, a chemotaxis assay (Experiment 1) and a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay (Experiment 2) were conducted in vitro. Blood was sampled from 12 mid-lactation dairy cows of variable ages. Neutrophils were extracted and diluted to obtain cell suspensions of approximately 106 cells/mL. In Experiment 1, test substances were placed in a 96-well plate, separated from the cell suspension by a 3 µm pore membrane and incubated for 3 h to allow neutrophils to migrate through the membrane. In Experiment 2, neutrophils were exposed to the test products and the amount of MPO released was measured by optical density. Results showed that neutrophils were not activated by bismuth or keratin products (p < 0.05) in all of the tests performed. These results suggest that the mechanisms of action of bismuth subnitrate and keratin-based teat sealants do not rely on neutrophil recruitment and activation in the teat canal and sinus after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Silicone Wristbands as Passive Samplers in Honey Bee Hives
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030086 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The recent decline of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) has prompted a surge in research into their chemical environment, including chemicals produced by bees, as well as chemicals produced by plants and derived from human activity that bees also interact with. [...] Read more.
The recent decline of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) has prompted a surge in research into their chemical environment, including chemicals produced by bees, as well as chemicals produced by plants and derived from human activity that bees also interact with. This study sought to develop a novel approach to passively sampling honey bee hives using silicone wristbands. Wristbands placed in hives for 24 h captured various compounds, including long-chain hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sugars, and sterols with wide ranging octanol–water partition coefficients (Kow) that varied by up to 19 orders of magnitude. Most of the compounds identified from the wristbands are known to be produced by bees or plants. This study indicates that silicone wristbands provide a simple, affordable, and passive method for sampling the chemical environment of honey bees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Disease and Age-Related Behavioural Changes in Cats: Past and Present
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030085 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
(1) Background: age-related changes in behaviour and health may be thought of as “normal” ageing; however, they can reflect under-diagnosed, potentially treatable, conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of age-related behavioural changes and disease in two UK cat populations at separate time-points. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: age-related changes in behaviour and health may be thought of as “normal” ageing; however, they can reflect under-diagnosed, potentially treatable, conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of age-related behavioural changes and disease in two UK cat populations at separate time-points. (2) Methods: owners of cats aged ≥11 years completed questionnaires in 1995 (cohort 1: n = 1236), and from 2010–2015 (cohort 2: n = 883). (3) Results: the most important behavioural changes in these cats were increased affection towards their owners (reported by 51.9% in 1995; 35.8% in 2010–2015), increased vocalisation (63.5%; 58.9%, respectively), particularly at night (32%; 43.6%), and house-soiling (29.3%; 55.8%). Most (79.4%; 81%) of the cats had visited a veterinary surgeon since becoming 11 years old. The main reasons, aside from vaccinations, were dental disease, renal disease and lower urinary tract disorders in 1995, and dental disease, renal disease and hyperthyroidism in 2010–2015. All major diagnoses were reported significantly more frequently in 2010–2015 than in 1995; behavioural changes were variably associated with these diseases. (4) Conclusion: elderly cats display age-related behavioural changes and develop diseases that may be under-diagnosed. Veterinarians need to ask owners about these behavioural changes, as they may signify manageable conditions rather than reflect “normal” ageing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Urachal Anomalies in Cats and Dogs: Retrospective Study of 98 Cases (2009–2019)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030084 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
This retrospective study investigated the prevalence of different urachal anomalies (UA) in cats (n = 60) and dogs (n = 38) and their association with clinical symptoms and urinalysis alterations. Among UA, the vesicourachal diverticulum was the most prevalent UA diagnosed [...] Read more.
This retrospective study investigated the prevalence of different urachal anomalies (UA) in cats (n = 60) and dogs (n = 38) and their association with clinical symptoms and urinalysis alterations. Among UA, the vesicourachal diverticulum was the most prevalent UA diagnosed in both cats (96.7%) and dogs (89.5%): the intramural vesicourachal diverticulum was diagnosed in 76.7% of cats and 71.1% of dogs, followed by extramural vesicourachal diverticulum (20.0% and 18.4% respectively). In both cats and dogs, bladder wall diffuse or regional thickening was the most prevalent alteration. The most common alterations of the urinary bladder content were urolithiasis sediment in cats (33.3%) and in dogs (31.6%). Dogs with UA were more often asymptomatic (p = 0.01). No difference was found in cats. Stranguria, hematuria, and urethral obstruction were the most frequently reported clinical signs, while hematuria and leukocyturia were the most prevalent abnormalities at urinalysis. In conclusion, our study confirmed UA as uncommon, and often incidental findings, with a high prevalence of animals without clinical signs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetries of Forelimb Digits of Young Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030083 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Based on the anatomical premise that, in bovines, the medial (inner) hoof is larger than the lateral (outer) one in the forelimb, we hypothesized that this implies a phalangeal form difference. To test this hypothesis, asymmetries of the forelimb acropodia (phalangeal series) were [...] Read more.
Based on the anatomical premise that, in bovines, the medial (inner) hoof is larger than the lateral (outer) one in the forelimb, we hypothesized that this implies a phalangeal form difference. To test this hypothesis, asymmetries of the forelimb acropodia (phalangeal series) were studied on calves belonging to the Brown Pyrenean breed, a meat breed managed under extensive conditions in NE Spain. Dorso-palmar radiographs were obtained for each acropodium in a sample of 17 paired left and right forelimbs. Size and shape were analysed by means of geometric morphometrics on medial and lateral acropodial series (III and IV series respectively) for each left and right limb. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Medial and lateral acropodial series appeared similar in size, but their shape expressed an especially high directional asymmetry, with distal phalanges (pedal bones) being abaxially (outwards) oriented. Such morphological observations may be an important reconsideration of “normal” radiographic acropodial symmetry evaluation. This can be explained not only by an unevenly distributed ground reaction force between acropodial series, but also between right and left limbs, making medial and lateral hoof surfaces differently prone to overloading and, accordingly, to injuries to the limb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Surveillance for Borrelia spp. in Upland Game Birds in Pennsylvania, USA
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030082 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The Borrelia genus contains two major clades, the Lyme borreliosis group, which includes the causative agents of Lyme disease/borreliosis (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and other related B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies), and the relapsing fever borreliosis group (B. hermsii, B. turicatae [...] Read more.
The Borrelia genus contains two major clades, the Lyme borreliosis group, which includes the causative agents of Lyme disease/borreliosis (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and other related B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies), and the relapsing fever borreliosis group (B. hermsii, B. turicatae, and B. parkeri). Other unclassified reptile- and echidna-associated Borrelia spp. (i.e., B. turcica and ‘Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi’, respectively) do not belong in either of these two groups. In North America, Borrelia spp. from both of the major clades are important pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Lyme disease is of particular interest because the incidence in the northeastern United States continues to increase in both dogs and humans. Birds have a potentially important role in the ecology of Borrelia species because they are hosts for numerous tick vectors and competent hosts for various Borrelia spp. Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of Borrelia spp. in four free-living species of upland game birds in Pennsylvania, USA including wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and American woodcock (Scolopax minor). We tested 205 tissue samples (bone marrow and/or spleen samples) from 169 individuals for Borrelia using a flagellin gene (flab) nested PCR, which amplifies all Borrelia species. We detected Borrelia DNA in 12% (24/205) of samples, the highest prevalence was in wild turkeys (16%; 5/31), followed by ruffed grouse (13%; 16/126) and American woodcock (3%; 1/35). All pheasants (n = 13) were negative. We sequenced amplicons from all positive game birds and all were B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Our results support previous work indicating that certain species of upland game birds are commonly infected with Borrelia species, but unlike previous studies, we did not find any relapsing fever borreliae. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Study of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Antibody Kinetics in Dairy Cattle Using Sera and Milk throughout the Lactation Period
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030081 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle populations around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate MAP antibody kinetics in serum and milk samples throughout the lactation period in dairy cattle. The [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle populations around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate MAP antibody kinetics in serum and milk samples throughout the lactation period in dairy cattle. The samples were collected simultaneously from eight MAP-positive and two healthy MAP-negative (control group) cows. The MAP antibody was detected by using serum and milk ELISA. The serum and milk MAP antibody titers fluctuated between the positive and negative cut-off values in this study. Specifically, cattle with low MAP antibody titer (<100) showed fluctuation between the cut-off values. Variable changes of MAP antibody titer were also observed after parturition. Between the serum and milk MAP antibody titers, there was a positive correlation (R2 = 0.5358) observed throughout the assessment period. The milk MAP ELISA test had low diagnostic performance in cows with low MAP titer due to its weak correlation (R2 = 0.0198). Finally, this study suggest that the periodic MAP ELISA test is recommended for the application of Johne’s eradication program due to the fluctuating nature of MAP antibody kinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of the Level of Protection Against Colibacillosis Conferred by Several Autogenous and/or Commercial Vaccination Programs in Conventional Pullets upon Experimental Challenge
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030080 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 366
Abstract
The prevention of avian colibacillosis has historically been investigated through vaccination, with variable outcomes. Commercial live (attenuated) and inactivated vaccines are reported to have limited efficacy in the context of heterologous challenge. Autogenous vaccination, using field isolates, is widely used, but scarcely documented. [...] Read more.
The prevention of avian colibacillosis has historically been investigated through vaccination, with variable outcomes. Commercial live (attenuated) and inactivated vaccines are reported to have limited efficacy in the context of heterologous challenge. Autogenous vaccination, using field isolates, is widely used, but scarcely documented. Different vaccination programs, including a live commercial vaccine and/or an inactivated autogenous vaccine, were compared for three different avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain (serotypes O78, O18 and O111) challenges. On the pullet farm, four groups of conventional pullets received different vaccination protocols. Group A was kept unvaccinated (control group). Group B was vaccinated three times with a live commercial O78 E. coli vaccine (at one day old, 59 and 110 days of age). Group C was immunized twice (at 79 and 110 days) with a three-valence autogenous vaccine (O78, O18 and O111). Group D was vaccinated first with the commercial vaccine (at one day old and 59 days), then with the autogenous vaccine (110 days). Birds were transferred to the experimental facility at 121 days of age and were challenged 10 days later. In each group, 20 birds were challenged with one of the three APEC strains (O78, O18, O111); in total, 80 birds were challenged by the same strains (20 per group). The recorded outcomes were: mortality rate, macroscopic lesion score in target organs and the bacterial recovery of the challenge strain from bone marrow and pooled organs. When challenged with O78 or O111 strains, birds from groups C and D proved to be significantly better protected, in terms of lesion scoring and bacteriological isolation, than those of groups A and B. With the O18 challenge, only birds of group D presented a statistically significant reduction of their lesion score. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the efficacy of an immunization program in poultry that combines commercial and autogenous vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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