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Prognostic Factors and Life Expectancy in Canine Leishmaniosis

Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, R. da Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
Agrarian School of the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa-Estrada de Nelas Ranhados, 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, Praça do Município 11, 7300-110 Portalegre, Portugal
VALORIZA—Research Centre for Endogenous Resource Valorization, Campus Politécnico, 10, 7300-555 Portalegre, Portugal
Clilegre-Clínica Veterinária de Portalegre, Rua Martinho Azevedo Coutinho nº 13A e 16A, 7300-817 Portalegre, Portugal
Vetviana-Consultório Veterinário, Rua Padre Luís António da Cruz 67, 7090-284 Viana do Alentejo, Évora, Portugal
Centro Veterinário da Vidigueira, Largo Frei António das Chagas 25A, 7960-220 Vidigueira, Beja, Portugal
VetAlter-Clínica Veterinária, Avenida Padre José Agostinho Rodrigues nº 13, 7440 Alter do Chão, Portalegre, Portugal
Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 128;
Received: 16 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a chronic and potentially fatal disease. The prognosis of CanL depends on the severity of the clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities presented by the dog at the time of diagnosis. This study aims to estimate the survival time of dogs with CanL, determining the prognostic value of different clinical and clinicopathological parameters. Medical records of 99 dogs diagnosed with CanL in five veterinary centers of the Alentejo region (Portugal) were examined retrospectively. The majority of dogs presented hyperproteinemia, moderate normocytic normochromic anemia, normal blood urea and creatinine levels and were classified as stage 1 according to the International Interest Society (IRIS) guidelines at the time of diagnosis. The severity of anemia, presence of concomitant infectious diseases at the time of diagnosis and the anti-Leishmania therapy were correlated with the survival time. The influence of renal dysfunction was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and survival analysis. Survival analysis demonstrated that patients classified as IRIS 1 at the time of diagnosis survived more than four years, in contrast with dogs classified as IRIS 2 that survived around two and half years and dogs classified as IRIS 3–4 that survived around one month. IRIS stage deteriorated during the course of CanL in one third of the dogs and was the principal cause of death or euthanasia in a high proportion of animals. In some cases, dogs did not receive anti-Leishmania treatment or abandoned the veterinary follow-ups, which may have considerable repercussions for animal wellbeing and public health. This study reinforces the value of blood urea and creatinine levels as prognostic factors in CanL. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine leishmaniosis; prognostic factors; survival time; IRIS staging; therapy selection and management canine leishmaniosis; prognostic factors; survival time; IRIS staging; therapy selection and management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, M.A.; Santos, R.; Oliveira, R.; Costa, L.; Prata, A.; Gonçalves, V.; Roquette, M.; Vala, H.; Santos-Gomes, G. Prognostic Factors and Life Expectancy in Canine Leishmaniosis. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 128.

AMA Style

Pereira MA, Santos R, Oliveira R, Costa L, Prata A, Gonçalves V, Roquette M, Vala H, Santos-Gomes G. Prognostic Factors and Life Expectancy in Canine Leishmaniosis. Veterinary Sciences. 2020; 7(3):128.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pereira, Maria A., Rute Santos, Ricardo Oliveira, Lina Costa, Ana Prata, Vânia Gonçalves, Madalena Roquette, Helena Vala, and Gabriela Santos-Gomes. 2020. "Prognostic Factors and Life Expectancy in Canine Leishmaniosis" Veterinary Sciences 7, no. 3: 128.

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