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Open AccessArticle

Identification of High-Risk Areas for the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Central Luzon, Philippines

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College of Veterinary Science and Medicine, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz 3120, Philippines
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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College of Veterinary Medicine, Pampanga State Agricultural University, Pampanga 2011, Philippines
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School of Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines, Los Banos 4030, Philippines
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Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Centre for Asia Pacific (VPHCAP), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Royal Veterinary College, London AL9 7TA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030107
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 2 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 8 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a major problem in the poultry industry. It is highly contagious and is associated with a high mortality rate. The Philippines experienced an outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in 2017. As there is always a risk of re-emergence, efforts to manage disease outbreaks should be optimal. Linked to this is the need for an effective surveillance procedure to capture disease outbreaks at their early stage. Risk-based surveillance is the most effective and economical approach to outbreak management. This study evaluated the potential of commercial poultry farms in Central Luzon to transmit HPAI by calculating their respective reproductive ratios (R0). The reproductive number for each farm is based on the spatial kernel and the infectious period. A risk map has been created based on the calculated R0. There were 882 (76.63%) farms with R0 < 1. Farms with R0 ≥ 1 were all located in Pampanga Province. These farms were concentrated in the towns of San Luis (n = 12) and Candaba (n = 257). This study demonstrates the utility of mapping farm-level R0 estimates for informing HPAI risk management activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk maps; transmission kernel; active surveillance; highly pathogenic avian influenza; Philippines risk maps; transmission kernel; active surveillance; highly pathogenic avian influenza; Philippines
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Salvador, R.; Tanquilut, N.; Na Lampang, K.; Chaisowwong, W.; Pfeiffer, D.; Punyapornwithaya, V. Identification of High-Risk Areas for the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Central Luzon, Philippines. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 107.

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