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Article

Longitudinal Volumetric Assessment of Ventricular Enlargement in Pet Dogs Trained for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies

1
Department and Clinic of Surgery and Ophthalmology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1078 Budapest, Hungary
2
Department of Ethology, Institute of Biology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
3
MTA-ELTE (Hungarian Academy of Sciences–Eötvös Loránd University) ‘Lendūlet Neuroethology of Communication Research Group, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
4
Psychobiology Research Group, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
5
MTA-ELTE Comparative Ethology Research Group, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work reported in this paper.
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030127
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
Background: Recent studies suggest that clinically sound ventriculomegaly in dogs could be a preliminary form of the clinically significant hydrocephalus. We evaluated changes of ventricular volumes in awake functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) trained dogs with indirectly assessed cognitive abilities over time (thus avoiding the use of anaesthetics, which can alter the pressure). Our research question was whether ventricular enlargement developing over time would have any detrimental effect on staying still while being scanned; which can be extrapolated to the ability to pay attention and to exert inhibition. Methods: Seven healthy dogs, 2–8 years old at the baseline scan and 4 years older at rescan, participated in a rigorous and gradual training for staying motionless (<2 mm) in the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner without any sedation during 6 minute-long structural MR sequences. On T1 structural images, volumetric analyses of the lateral ventricles were completed by software guided semi-automated tissue-type segmentations performed with FMRIB Software Library (FSL, Analysis Group, Oxford, UK). Results and conclusion: We report significant enlargement for both ventricles (left: 47.46 %, right: 46.07 %) over time while dogs retained high levels of attention and inhibition. The results suggest that even considerable ventricular enlargement arising during normal aging does not necessarily reflect observable pathological changes in behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: awake canine neuroimaging; ventriculomegaly; hydrocephalus; attention; brain; MRI awake canine neuroimaging; ventriculomegaly; hydrocephalus; attention; brain; MRI
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gunde, E.; Czeibert, K.; Gábor, A.; Szabó, D.; Kis, A.; Arany-Tóth, A.; Andics, A.; Gácsi, M.; Kubinyi, E. Longitudinal Volumetric Assessment of Ventricular Enlargement in Pet Dogs Trained for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies. Vet. Sci. 2020, 7, 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030127

AMA Style

Gunde E, Czeibert K, Gábor A, Szabó D, Kis A, Arany-Tóth A, Andics A, Gácsi M, Kubinyi E. Longitudinal Volumetric Assessment of Ventricular Enlargement in Pet Dogs Trained for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies. Veterinary Sciences. 2020; 7(3):127. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gunde, Eva, Kálmán Czeibert, Anna Gábor, Dóra Szabó, Anna Kis, Attila Arany-Tóth, Attila Andics, Márta Gácsi, and Enikő Kubinyi. 2020. "Longitudinal Volumetric Assessment of Ventricular Enlargement in Pet Dogs Trained for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Studies" Veterinary Sciences 7, no. 3: 127. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030127

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